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COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN APPROACH

Essam Al-Bahkali

Department of Mechanical Engineering

King Saud University

ebahkali@ksu.edu.sa

Mohamed ElMadany

Department of Mechanical Engineering

King Saud University

mmadany@ksu.edu.sa

Abstract

Current computer programs do not fulfill the demand

for interactively combined the designers experience

with an automated design process that includes

graphical input, output, sensitivity analysis and

redesign in an optimal sense. Taking advantage of

increased speed and computational efficiency of

modern computers, it is now possible to automate the

design interactive process.

This paper is undertaken as a first step towards

automation of the design process of rotor-bearing

systems. Specifically, the study utilizes the transfer

matrix approach and the Graphic User Interface (GUI)

of MATLAB to develop an interactive code that can be

used to obtain the eigenvalues and the steady state

response of multi-bearing rotor systems. This software

may be used by industry, and rotor-bearing system

designers. In addition, the code has been verified by

experimental data. In order to accomplish this, a test rig

has been assembled, set up and run to collect the

required experimental data. The experimental setup

consists of a fault simulator, a front end together with

PULSE software for data collection, reduction and

analysis, sensors to pick up the required signal, and a

laptop computer.

1. Introduction

Reliability of rotating machinery depends heavily upon

decisions made during the different stages of design.

Units that are designed using the appropriate appli-

cation of sophisticated computer-aided engineering

methods will be less problematic than units designed

without the benefit of such analysis. Even with

performance of mechanical acceptance tests prior to

delivery and installation, the discovery of design-

related problems during these tests may compromise

the planned cost of the unit. Therefore, rotor dynamic

analysis tools have been developed and are continuing

to evolve. Today, very comprehensive analyses may be

performed on the desk top and analysts are continuing

to develop finer and more accurate modeling and

analysis techniques. The analysis tools and procedures

have become a standard fundamental design tool for a

class of turbomachinery that includes centrifugal and

axial compressors, centrifugal pumps, steam turbines,

gas turbines, electric motors, and gears. In addition,

improved measurement capabilities are providing the

opportunity to prove and improve the analytical work.

Critical speeds and vibration caused by mass imbalance

are common problems in rotating machinery.

One of the most fundamental considerations, in the

design of large rotating machinery, is the set of values

of the critical speeds relative to the intended operating

speed range of the machine. Before the availability of

reliable calculation procedures and computational

hardware on which to execute them, there was a strong

tendency to design rigid rotor machines which would

have no critical speeds below the highest speed of

interest in the operating range. This tendency imposed

severe limitations on the maximum size of plant.

With the arrival of multi-element models of rotor-stator

systems and powerful computers, machine designers

are now confidently designing machines to have several

critical speeds below the maximum operating speed.

Imbalance occurs if the principal axis of inertia of the

rotor is not coincident with its geometric axis. The

current trend of rotating equipment toward higher

power density clearly leads to higher operational

speeds, which cause much greater centrifugal

imbalance forces. Therefore, vibration control is

essential in improving machining surface finish;

achieving longer bearing, spindle, and tool life in high-

speed machining; and reducing the number of

unscheduled shutdowns. A great cost savings for high-

speed turbines, compressors, and other turbomachinery

used in petrochemical and power generation industries

can be realized using vibration control technology.

The computer codes in use today vary widely in their

modeling capabilities. Some are limited to the

determination of undamped critical whirl speeds in

axially symmetric single-rotor systems while others can

handle free and forced vibrations, and some instability

mechanisms. Many codes have required main-frame or

mini-computers but recently PC-version of some codes

have become available.

Software developed at University of Virginia is

available to a consortium of supporting industries [1].

Electric utilities associated with the Electric Power

Research Institute have access to FEATURE, a general

purpose rotor dynamic code specifically designed for

power plant equipment [2]. ROTOR-E is lateral

rotordynamics analysis software, [3] which allows the

user to visualize and understand the complex vibrations

of rotating machinery. ARMD (Advanced Rotating

Machinery Dynamics) is finite element based software

for machinery design, analysis, and trouble shooting

2

[4].ARMD for Windows incorporates user interface

features to simplify modeling, analysis, presentation

and interpretation of results.

A widely used structural analysis program has recently

added rotor dynamic capabilities [5]. All of the codes

just mentioned utilize finite element analysis.

A flexible transfer matrix code is commercially

available for main-frame and mini-computers

(CADENSE), [6]. A transfer matrix code for the critical

speed analysis of undamped isotropic systems

(RODYN) [7] may be licensed. ROTECH is lateral

rotordynamic analysis software based on transfer

matrix method, [8]. DYNAMICS R3.1 is a new

generation of software package for turbomachinery

rotordynamics problems, [9]. The software package

was developed in 2000-2001 year for operating systems

Windows 95/98/2000/NT.

Nevertheless, there are opportunities for improvements

of rotor dynamic software at the level of effective pre-

and post processors and efficient algorithms.

This work is undertaken as a first step towards

automation of the design process of rotor- bearing

systems. Specifically, the study utilizes the transfer

matrix approach and the Graphic User Interface (GUI)

of MATLAB to develop an interactive code that will be

used to obtain the eigenvalues (critical speeds) and the

steady state response due to unbalance of multi-bearing

rotor systems. This software may be used by industry,

and rotor-bearing system designers and operators.

2. Transfer Matrix Approach

The transfer matrix approach was first introduced in an

elementary form by Holzer, in the 1920s, for torsional

vibration of rotating shafts. It makes use of the fact that

in a large class of design problems, some structural

member is designed along a line and the behavior at

every point of the system is influenced by the behavior

at the neighboring points only. Typical examples are

beams, shafts, piping systems, etc. Myklestad [10] and

Prohl [11] developed highly successful methods of

computing the bending critical speeds of rotors. Lund

and Orcutt [12] and Lund [13, 14] presented procedures

that use this method for rotor dynamics analysis.

In the transfer matrix method, the state of a section

along the length of each rotor is characterized by linear

and angular displacements and by shear forces and

bending moments. Given the state at one station, the

state of a neighboring station is obtained by multiplying

by a transfer matrix which depends on the dynamic

properties of the intervening rotor segments. Free

vibration modes and unbalance response are obtained

by repeatedly applying transfer matrix to march from

one end of the rotor to the other, thereby obtaining a

small set of equations for the specified boundary state

variables. Unbalance requires essentially one march

across the system to fix the boundary states plus a

second march to fill in the amplitudes of the internal

stations. Free vibration modes require repeated marches

with a sequence of trial eigenvalues guided by a root-

finding procedure to converge to the true eigenvalue.

2.1 General Formulation of the Transfer

Matrix Method for Analysis of Free Vibration

In the application of the transfer matrix approach,

points (nodes) are designated all points where some

change takes place, such as changing sections, point

forces, point moments, supports, springs, dampers, etc.

For multi-supported shafts and beams, it is easy to

account for intermediate supports, treating them as

linear springs with large spring constant k

i

, two orders

of magnitude higher than some representative spring

constant of the shaft, k = 48 EI / L

3

,

at the nearest span

using the maximum cross-section encountered within

the span. Shafts with continuously variable cross-

section can be treated by taking enough nodes along the

member and treating the in-between elements of

constant section.

Consider an n+1 station (mass or point) system, each

station presenting either a gear, a disk, a flywheel, a

support or just a change shaft cross section, Figure 1.

Figure 1: Division of stepped shaft into nodes (points)

and fields

All the masses are taken as lumped with their

gyroscopic inertia neglected. A typical station of a shaft

consists of a massless span (called field) and a point

station (mass), Figure 2. The flexural properties of the

field are described by the field transfer matrix of the

span; the inertia effect of the station is described by the

point transfer matrix of the mass.

Figure 2: Free body diagrams of point and field

Station equation

Continuity:

i

r

i

y y (1)

i

r

i

(2)

Mi

l

Mi

r

Vi

l

ki

mi,Ji

kti

Vi

r

x

y

a-Free-body sketch of point b-Free-body sketch of field

x

y

Mi

r

Vi

r

yi

r

yi+1

l

Mi+1

l

l

Vi+1

l

i

r

i+1

l

3

1

1

2

2 3

n

n-1 n-2

n-1

3

Planar equations of motion:

i i i

r

i

r

i i

y k V V y m + (3)

i ti i

r

i

r

i i

y k M M J + (4)

Assume periodic solution

t M M t M M

t V V t V V

t t y y

i i

r

i

r

i

i i

r

i

r

i

i i i i

cos , cos

cos , cos

cos , cos

(5)

This will give

i i i i i

r

i

V y k y m V + +

2

(6)

i i ti i i

r

i

M y k J M + +

2

(7)

Station Equation

i i

r

i

V

M

y

k m

kt J

V

M

y

1

1

1

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

]

1

+

+

1

1

1

1

]

1

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1

2

2

(8)

State vector

( )

i i i i

T

i

V M y S , , , (9)

Station i equation

i si

r

i

S T S (10)

Field equation

Equilibrium:

i

r

i

r

i

i

L V M M

+

1

(11)

r

i

i

V V

+

1

(12)

Beam-elastic solution

For a cantilever beam:

EI

VL

EI

ML

EI

VL

EI

ML

y

2

,

3 2

2 3 2

+ + (13)

Therefore,

1

3

1

2

1

3 2

+ + +

+ + +

i

i

i

i

i

i r

i i

r

i

i

V

EI

L

M

EI

L

L y y (14)

1

2

1 1

2

+ + +

+ +

i

i

i

i

i r

i

i

V

EI

L

M

EI

L

(15)

Substituting from (11) and (12) into (14) and (15), then

r

i

i

i

i

i r

i

i

i r

i i

r

i

i

V

EI

L

EI

L

M

EI

L

L y y

,

_

+ + +

+

2 3 2

3 3

1

(16)

( )

r

i

i

i

i

i r

i

i

i r

i

i

V

EI

L

EI

L

M

EI

L

2 2

1

2

+ +

+

(17)

Field transfer matrix

r

i

i

l

i

V

M

y

L

hL h

hL hL L

V

M

y

1

1

1

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

]

1

+

1 0 0 0

1 0 0

2 / 1 0

6 / 2 / 1

2

1

(18)

where h

i

= L

i

/EI

i

Field transfer matrix

r

i fi

i

S T S

+

1

(19)

Combining field and station transfer matrix

i i i si fi

i

S T S T T S

+1

(20)

Moving from the left hand side of station 1 to left hand

side of station n +1

1

1 1

1

.... S T T T S

n n

n

+

(21)

The right hand side of station n+1

1

1

1 1 ) 1 (

1

) 1 ( 1

....

TS

S T T T T

S T S

n n n s

n

n s

r

n

+

+

+ +

(22)

or

1

44 43 42 41

34 33 32 31

24 23 22 21

14 13 12 11

1

1

1

1

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

]

1

+

V

M

y

T T T T

T T T T

T T T T

T T T T

V

M

y

r

n

(23)

It is apparent that all inertial forces and moments are

functions of the displacements and slopes and therefore

no constant forces exist in the transfer matrix.

The natural frequencies and the corresponding mode

shapes are obtained after applying the boundary

conditions. Of the four boundary conditions at each

end, two are generally known. For example, consider

the case of a simply supported shaft.

4

mi,Ji

Mi

l

Mi

r

Vi

r

kti

ki

Vi

l

ci

cti

Moi

Foi

x

y

Boundary conditions:

0 , 0

1 1 1 1

+ +

r

n

r

n

M y M y

(24)

Transfer matrix result

1

44 43 42 41

34 33 32 31

24 23 22 21

14 13 12 11

1

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

]

1

+

V T T T T

T T T T

T T T T

T T T T

V

r

n

(25)

1

34 32

14 12

0

0

1

]

1

1

]

1

1

]

1

V T T

T T

(26)

The frequency-equation is

( ) 0

32 14 34 12

34 32

14 12

D T T T T

T T

T T

(27)

The values of which satisfy the above equation are

the shaft natural frequencies. The simpler way to

determine them is to plot the function det[D( )]. The

points of intersection of this function with the -axis

are the natural frequencies.

What we call critical speeds might be sometimes a little

different but for present purposes it will suffice to say

that for low-speed machinery applications they are

practically the same with the shaft natural frequencies.

Computation of the critical speeds with the transfer

matrix method involves the computation of the

determinant d()=det[D( )] for successive values of

the frequency ,

+

, +

2 ,, where is a

small increment. If the values of the determinant in two

successive steps change sign that means that the critical

speed is in this interval. To implement this, at every

step, the product d( ) d( +

) is formed. If this

product is positive, the algorithm proceeds to the next

step. If it is negative, that is there is a change in sign,

the critical speed has been located and the algorithm

proceeds for the next critical speed. The accuracy of the

determination of the value of the critical speed is ,

which can be enhanced with a variety of methods. The

most simple is to search with a smaller step and a linear

interpolation

= + d()/[ d() + d( +

)]

In this work, the coefficients of the characteristic

polynomial for the rotor-bearing system are calculated

using symbolic in MATLAB. The system natural

frequencies (critical speeds) are the roots of this

polynomial. The real part of the root provides the

criteria for establishing system stability. With the

polynomial known, these roots can be found and

divided out in a more straightforward and efficient

manner.

Eigenvector solution

Having obtained , the i

th

natural frequency (critical

speed), return to

( ) ( ) 0

1 14 1 12

+

V T T (28)

( ) ( ) 0

1 34 1 32

+

V T T (29)

Set

1

1

V (30)

Then

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

12 14

12 1 14 1

/

/

T T

T V T

(31)

Initial state vector

( ) 1 , 0 , / , 0

12 14

1

T T S

(32)

March from left to right to calculate remaining state

vectors. Normalize as desired.

2.2 Out-of-Balance Response of Rotors

The major cause of excessive vibration in rotating

machinery is the residual unbalance. The unbalance in

the rotor may arise from material inhomogeneities,

manufacturing processes, keyways, slot etc. In addition,

during the operation, the rotor deteriorates in its

balance condition, due to wear, thermal bending,

process dirt collection etc., and gradually develops

more vibratory response due to this unbalance.

Therefore, it is important to determine the response of a

rotor due to a specified unbalance, to study its dynamic

behavior so as to determine, whether a rebalance is

necessary during the rotor life.

Figure 3: Free-body diagram of point with out-of-

balance force and moment

5

Point matrix

Consider Figure 3.

i

r

i

y y (33)

i

r

i

(34)

2

i i i i ti i ti i

r

i

r

i i

r e m c k M M J + + +

(35)

2

i i i i i i i

r

i

r

i i

e m y c y k V V y m + + + + +

(36)

For the purpose of calculations, we add the identity 1 =

1, to the 4 equations of the state vector. m

i

e

i

is the

unbalance mass, and m

i

e

i

r

i

is the unbalance moment.

Assume periodic solution, the solution equation in

matrix form is given by:

i i

t t

r

i

V

M

y

c i k m

c i k J

V

M

y

1

1

1

1

1

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

]

1

+ +

+ +

1

1

1

1

1

1

]

1

1 1 0 0 0 0

0 1 0 0

0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1 0

0 0 0 0 1

1

2

2

(37)

The state vector

T

i

S (y

i

,

i

, M

i

, V

i

, 1) (38)

The station i equation is given by:

i si

r

i

S T S (39)

Field matrix

The field transfer matrix is given by:

r

i

i

i

V

M

y

L

hL h

hL hL L

V

M

y

1

1

1

1

1

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

]

1

+

1

1 0 0 0 0

0 1 0 0 0

0 1 0 0

0 6 / 1 0

0 6 / 2 / 1

1

2

1

(40)

with h

i

= L

i

/EI

i

and

r

i fi

i

S T S

+

1

(41)

Combining field and point transfer matrix

r

i i

r

i si fi

i

S T S T T S

+

1

(42)

Moving from the left hand side of point 1 to the left

hand side of point n+1, we obtain

1

1 1

1

.... S T T T S

n n

n

+

(43)

For the right hand side of point n+1.

1

1 1 ) 1 ( 1

S T T T T S

n n n s

r

n + +

(44)

or

1

45 44 43 42 41

35 34 33 32 31

25 24 23 22 21

15 14 13 12 11

1

1 1 0 0 0 0 1

1

1

1

1

1

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

]

1

+

V

M

y

T T T T T

T T T T T

T T T T T

T T T T T

V

M

y

r

n

(45)

The above equation can be written as:

y

n+1

= T

11

y

1

+ T

12

1

+ T

13

M

1

+ T

14

V

1

+ T

15

n+1

= T

21

y

1

+ T

22

1

+ T

23

M

1

+ T

24

V

1

+ T

25

M

n+1

= T

31

y

1

+ T

32

1

+ T

33

M

1

+ T

34

V

1

+ T

35

(46)

V

n+1

= T

41

y

1

+ T

42

1

+ T

43

M

1

+ T

44

V

1

+ T

45

1 = 1

This gives four equations with eight unknowns:

y

1

,

1

, M

1

, V

1

, y

n+1

,

n+1

, M

n+1

, V

n+1

However, because of the boundary conditions, four of

these quantities are known.

For example, for a simply-supported shaft it is known

that y

1

= y

n+1

= 0 and M

1

= M

n+1

= 0. Therefore the

above equations have four unknowns:

1

,

n+1

, V

1

, V

n+1

.

After the computation of these unknowns, we can

obtain the state vectors at the nodes, and thus the

deflection of the beam, applied successively, from left

to right.

3. Computer Aided Design Program

3.1 Graphical User Interface

GUI (sometimes pronounced goo-ee) stands for

graphical user interface. The classic definition of user

interface is the hardware and software through which a

human and computer interact.

Over the years this concept has evolved, incorporating

more aspects of the human-computer experience and

applying to varied contexts. The definition has also

changed to reflect technological advances, moving

from a command-line oriented interface to one that

includes graphic features. Over time, graphical

interfaces have grown in popularity, resulting in widely

accepted conventions for the use of the components of

these interfaces.

GUI is made up of graphical objects, such as menus,

buttons, lists, and fields. These objects have meanings;

when the user chooses an object, there is an expectation

that a certain kind of action will take place. Rudiments

of a GUI include such things as windows, pull-down

menus, text components, buttons, scroll bars, and

iconic images. A system's GUI, along with its input

devices, is sometimes referred to as look and feel".

By providing an interface between the user and the

application's underlying code, GUIs enable the user to

operate the application without knowing the commands

that would be required by a command line interface.

6

For this reason, applications that provide GUIs are

easier to learn and use than those that are run from the

command line.

There are many ways of programming to develop the

GUI. Visual Basic (VB) provides a quick graphical

interface design. VB is prototyping tool with which

Windows programs can be easily created, but the

software is very limiting in the processing of matrices

and numerical data. Visual C++ has, also the same

draw back in numerical analysis

MATLAB offers a GUI design tool and useful

functional for controlling data. MATLAB, as software,

is an excellent processing of matrices and numerical

data. User interface in MATLAB has been used

recently as a tool to enter the data and obtain the results

without the need for the user to understand the

mechanism for solving the problem.

3.2 Program Highlight

The program can easily be executed simply by loading

the program into MATLAB directly and typing on the

command word master. By typing master, Figure4

will appear on the screen. Then the user can use the

mouse or the key board to move and select from the

icons on the screen. The various capabilities of the

program are shown in Figure 4. The program which

deals with the Dynamic Analysis of Rotating

Machinery has two major modules:

Bending Vibration lateral vibration of rotating

shafts and non-rotating beams

Torsional Vibration

Figure 4: Main menu

Torsional vibration is out of the scope of this paper.

Bending vibrations of rotating shafts and non-rotating

beams are covered in this paper and the program is set

up to deal with both free and forced vibrations of the

line-member systems. There are two types of dynamic

analysis that can be performed by the program:

Free Vibration- Natural Frequencies (Critical

Speeds) and Mode shapes.

Forced Vibration- Steady-State Response to

Unbalance and to Sinusoidal Excitations.

By selecting to analyze the free vibration of a system,

Figure 5 will take place as an active screen, while

Figure 4 becomes inactive. The user has the option to

go back to the main screen by clicking the Exit icon.

Figure 5: Second active screen

At this stage of GUI, the user has to input the required

data. The data include the followings:

1. Number of fields (stations or sections)

2. Modulus of elasticity of the material of the

shaft (beam)

3. mass of each point or station (m)

4. Moment of inertia of each point or station (J)

5. Linear spring constant at each point (k)

6. Bending spring constant at each point ( kt )

7. Linear damping constant at each point ( c )

8. Bending damping constant at each point (ct

)

Boundary Conditions

A pop-up menu will appear as shown in Figure 6,

where multiple are available to the user choices. The

pop-up menu gives the following set of choices:

1. Free-free

2. Simply supported

3. Fixed-fixed

4. Fixed-free

5. Free-fixed

6. Fixed-simply supported

7. Simply supported-fixed

8. Free-simply supported

9. Simply supported-free

7

Figure 6: Third active screen-pop-up menus

Shaft Cross Section

A pop-up menu gives the types of the shaft cross

section that could be selected, (see Figure 7).

Figure 7: pop-up menu for the types of cross section of

the shaft (beam)

These include the following:

1. Circular

2. General

3. Given second moment of area

Intermediate Support

For multi-supported shafts and beams, it is easy to

account for intermediate supports, treating them as

linear springs with large spring constant k

i

, two orders

of magnitude higher than some representative spring

constant of the shaft (k = 48 EI / L

3

) at the nearest span

using the maximum cross-section encountered within

the span.

Field (Station) Data

If the circular type cross section of the shaft is selected,

a screen will appear as shown in Figure 8.

1. length of the field (station, or section) (L)

2. Diameter of the cross section of that station of

the shaft (D)

Figure8: Fourth active screen for circular cross section

The user at any stage can go back to the previous

menus to check the input data or to change them and

then proceed.

For a general cross section selection, the input data

includes; Figure 9:

1. Length of the field (station or section) (L)

2. Width of the cross section (a)

3. Depth of the cross section (b)

Figure 9: Fifth active screen for general cross section

8

131 131 200 200 200 200

40 mm dia.

3 Disks 13.47 kg each

mm

The program may be executed by pushing the button

Run.

4. Results and Discussions

Consider Kikuchis rotor [15] given in Figure 10. The

shaft is made of steel with modulus of elasticity of

2.0682x10 N/m. The total mass of the rotor including

the shaft is 51.8 kg.

Figure 10: Kikuchis rotor on rigid bearings

We can lump the shaft mass equally at the three disk

locations and apply Dunkerleys formula to obtain the

lower bound for the fundamental frequency, which is

Dunkerley =

40.9 Hz

By using Rayleighs formula, the upper bound is found

to be

Rayleigh

= 43.5 Hz

The natural frequencies and mode shapes can be

obtained from the Matlab computer program (see

Figures 11 through 14).

Figure 11: Input point (station) data for Kikuchis rotor

Figure 12: Input field for Kikuchis rotor

Program output

Natural frequencies (rad/s)

[ -269.27360]

[ 269.27360]

[ -1069.6019]

[ 1069.6019]

[ -2270.9968]

[ 2270.9968]

Natural frequencies (Hz)

[ 42.8780]

[ 170.319]

[ 361.624]

Figure 13: First mode shape

9

Figure 14: Second mode shape

The fundamental frequency obtained from the program

is 42.87 Hz, which lies between 40.9 Hz obtained using

Dunkerley formula (giving lower bound) and 43.5 Hz

obtained from Rayleigh formula (giving upper bound to

the fundamental frequency).

5. Experimental Setup and Results

Figure 15: Experimental setup

In this section, the experimental setup that is used to

obtain the natural frequencies of a shaft carrying two

disks is described. The experimental setup consists of:

A laptop, a machinery fault simulator, a front end

(Pulse), a shaft carrying two disks, and an accelero-

meter; see Figures 15.

5.1 Machinery Fault Simulator

Machinery fault simulator is a tool that can be used to

study the signature of common machinery faults. The

bench-top system has a modular design featuring

operational simplicity and robustness. The simulator

offers a wide range of benefits in developing the

understanding of predictive maintenance and learning

to recognize the signatures of various machine faults.

The simulator can be used for studying balancing,

obtaining the natural frequencies and mode shapes,

resonance and critical speed, etc.

5.2 Front End and PULSE Software platform

Front End and PULSE Software platform is advanced

data acquisition hardware, analysis, and educational

software designed for machinery vibration diagnostics.

This is a unique integrated hardware/software system

developed for machinery fault diagnosis. It includes

multi-channel data acquisition system with high

resolution, high speed, and simultaneous sampling; and

analysis software featuring dynamic signal data

reduction, time domain analysis and frequency domain

analysis.

5.3 Experimental Results

The dimensions of the shaft are shown in Figure 16.

The shaft carries two disks with equal masses of 2.34

kg each. The shaft is supported on two rolling element

bearings (simply supported) and runs at a low speed

(100 rpm). An accelerometer is used to pick up the

signal from one of the bearings. The two natural

frequencies obtained after reduction of the signal in the

frequency domain are 53.5 Hz and 124.5 Hz. The

corresponding output results from the program are

52.07 and 122.99 Hz, respectively, which are closed

enough to the experimental data.

Figure 16: Dimensions of the simply supported shaft

carrying two disks

6. Concluding Remarks

The developed program is transfer matrix based

software for performing damped and undamped critical

speeds, undamped mode shapes, unbalance response

and response to constant forces and moments. The

program consists of two sub-modules: free and forced

vibration modules integrated by program module

messenger. The messenger controls the sub-modules to

provide a complete lateral vibration analysis environ-

ment. The program modeling capabilities include any

type of shaft (beam) cross section, flexible coupling,

foundation flexibility, external damping in the shaft and

foundation, and multi bearing rotor. Analytical results

include:

Natural frequencies and mode shapes, bearing reaction

forces. Unbalance response: synchronous response of

multiple unbalance forces and moments, dynamic

Laptop

Front end

Accelerometer

Shaft with

two disks

Machinery

fault

simulator

1 4

16.4 mm dia.

116.4 mm 136.5 mm 108 mm

2 3

10

forces and moments, vibratory amplitudes, forces and

moments transmitted to bearings and foundation.

The program is a powerful and sophisticated software

tool for rotor dynamics. It provides the engineer with

the tool to analyze a rotor bearing system without the

expense of extensive trials. The engineer can modify

the design and investigate the sensitivity of the

dynamics of the rotor to geometry, unbalance, and low

frequency excitation. This Windows-based software is

very user friendly and easy to use. The operation is

entirely consistent with the industry standard for the

Windows environment.

Acknowledgment

The authors would like to thank the Research Center,

King Saud University for supporting this research work

through the grant number 9/424.

References

1. ROMAC, Rotating Machinery and Controls

Program, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering,

University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22901.

2. Zoric, E.S., Lee,C.C. and Tecza, J.A.,

FEATURE: A finite element analysis tool for

utility rotordynamic evaluation, Proceedings,

ASME Joint Power Generation Conference,

Milwaukee, WS, 1985.

3. ROTOR-E(Lateral Rotordynamics Analysis

Software), Engineering Dynamics Inc., San

Antonio, TX, USA.

4. ARMD (Advanced Rotating Machinery

Dynamics), Rotor Bearing Technology& Software,

1041 West Bridge Street, Phoenixville, PA 19460,

USA.

5. ANSYS, 1989, Swanson Analysis Systems, Inc.,

Johnson Road, P.O. Box 65, Houston, PA 15342.

6. CADENSE, 1983, MIT, 968 Albany-Shaker Road,

Latham, NY 12110.

7. RODYN, 1987, Rodyn Vibration, Inc., 1503

Gordon Ave., Charlottesville, VA 22903.

8. ROTECH Engineering Services, 8 Mark Drive,

Delmont, PA 15626, USA.

9. DYNAMICS R3.1, Software, Alfa Tranzit

Co.,USA.

10. Myklestad, N.O., A new method of calculating

natural modes of uncoupled bending vibrations of

aeroplane wings and other types of beams, J.

Aero. Sci. 11, 2, pp. 153-162, 1944.

11. Prohl, M.A., A General method for calculating

critical speeds of flexible rotors, Trans ASME J.

Appl. Mech., Vol.12, pp. A142-A148, 1945.

12. Lund, J.W., and Orcutt, F.K., Calculations and

experiments on the unbalance response of a

flexible rotor, ASME Transaction, Journal of

Engineering for Industry, Vol. 89, pp. 785-796,

1967.

13. Lund, J.W., Modal response of a flexible rotor in

fluid film bearings, ASME Transaction, Journal of

Engineering for Industry, Vol. 96, pp. 525-553,

1974.

14. Lund, J.W., Stability and damped critical speeds

of a flexible rotor in fluid-film bearings, ASME

Transaction, Journal of Engineering for Industry,

Vol. 96, pp. 509-517, 1974.

15. Kihuchi, K., Analysis of unbalance vibration of

rotating shaft system with many bearings and

disks, Bull. JSME, Vol. 13, No. 61, p.864, 1970.

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