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Embedded System: Definition

An embedded system is some combination of computer hardware and software, with either fixed or programmable capabilities, that is specifically designed for a particular kind of application device.
Industrial machines, automobiles, airplanes, trains, medical equipment, video cameras, phones, PDAs, home appliances, vending machines, and toys are among the many possible hosts of an embedded system.

Embedded Systems were initially used for large, safety-critical and business-critical applications such as rocket & satellite control, energy production control, telephone switches, flight control; They now include a very large proportion of the advanced products designed in the world, spanning transport (avionics, space, automotive, trains), electrical and electronic appliances (cameras, toys, televisions, home appliances / domotics, audio systems, and cellular phones), process control (energy production and distribution, factory automation and optimization), telecommunications (satellites, mobile phones and telecom networks), energy (production, distribution, optimized use), security (e-commerce, smart cards), and health (hospital equipment, mobile monitoring), etc. Over 95% of all electronic chips produced today are for Embedded Systems. The extensive and increasing use of embedded systems and their integration in everyday products marks a significant evolution in information science and technology. We expect that within a short timeframe embedded systems will be a part of nearly all equipment designed or manufactured in Europe, the USA, and Asia. There is now a strategic shift in emphasis for embedded systems designers: from simply achieving feasibility, to achieving optimality. Optimal design of embedded systems means targeting a given market segment at the lowest cost and delivery time possible. Optimality implies seamless integration with the physical and electronic environment while respecting real-world constraints such as hard deadlines, reliability, availability, robustness, power consumption, and cost. In our view, optimality can only be

achieved through the emergence of embedded systems as a discipline in its own right. Embedded systems are of strategic importance in modern economies. They are used in mass-market products and services, where value is created by supplying either functionality or quality. Europe currently has a strong position in sectors where embedded technologies play a central role. It has a lead in civil avionics where fly-bywire technology provides an overwhelming competitive advantage in the cost of operating aircraft. Europe is also well positioned in the space sector, specifically for launch vehicles and satellites. In the automotive industry, European manufacturers and their suppliers enjoy a leading technological advantage for engine control, and emerging technologies such as brake-by-wire and drive-by-wire. Railway signalling in Europe relies on embedded systems, and allows faster, safer, and heavier traffic. Embedded applications will be extensively used to make energy distribution more flexible, especially in view of the coming market liberalization. Embedded technologies are strategic for the European telecommunications sector. Finally, Europe is also well positioned for e-services (e-banking, e-health, e-training), based on the leading edge in smart-card related technologies. Embedded Systems are generally constrained by limited resources:

Processor speed Power consumption Memory

Real-time constraints Network bandwidth Human supervision


Microchip PIC16F877A Microcontroller Features

High-Performance RISC CPU

Lead-free; RoHS-compliant Operating speed: 20 MHz, 200 ns instruction cycle Operating voltage: 4.0-5.5V Industrial temperature range (-40 to +85C) 15 Interrupt Sources 35 single-word instructions All single-cycle instructions except for program branches (two-cycle)

Special Microcontroller Features

Flash Memory: 14.3 Kbytes (8192 words) Data SRAM: 368 bytes Data EEPROM: 256 bytes Self-reprogrammable under software control In-Circuit Serial Programming via two pins (5V) Watchdog Timer with on-chip RC oscillator Programmable code protection Power-saving Sleep mode Selectable oscillator options In-Circuit Debug via two pins

Peripheral Features

33 I/O pins; 5 I/O ports Timer0: 8-bit timer/counter with 8-bit prescaler Timer1: 16-bit timer/counter with prescaler o Can be incremented during Sleep via external crystal/clock Timer2: 8-bit timer/counter with 8-bit period register, prescaler and postscaler Two Capture, Compare, PWM modules o 16-bit Capture input; max resolution 12.5 ns o 16-bit Compare; max resolution 200 ns o 10-bit PWM Synchronous Serial Port with two modes: o SPI Master o I2C Master and Slave USART/SCI with 9-bit address detection Parallel Slave Port (PSP) o 8 bits wide with external RD, WR and CS controls Brown-out detection circuitry for Brown-Out Reset

Analog Features

10-bit, 8-channel A/D Converter Brown-Out Reset Analog Comparator module o 2 analog comparators o Programmable on-chip voltage reference module o Programmable input multiplexing from device inputs and internal VREF o Comparator outputs are externally accessible

Bundle Options
You can also order the Flowcode bundled with the board at a significant discount.

PIC Flowcode Easy Internet Pack PIC Flowcode CAN Bus Pack PIC Assembler Programming Tutorial & Training Board PIC C Programming Tutorial & Training Board

Please contact us for volume discount on orders of more than 50 pieces. Ships from: USA Leadtime: In stock
IDGem tablet family SigID biometric verification software

Electronic Fingerprint Technology

Topaz IDGem biometric input terminals feature state-of-the-art RF or Optical imaging electronic fingerprint sensors for accurate high-resolution fingerprint capture. This technology captures an image of the living subcutaneous skin tissue, which unlike the fingertips surface is free from the damages and defects caused by the environment. The result is a fingerprint capture technique that will work with any users print, even through substances such as lotion, sweat, oil, and dirt that often confuse other capture systems and prevent the fingerprint image from being accurately recorded. IDGem tablets are bundled with Topaz SigID software for the capture, storage, and scoring of electronic fingerprints against a users template for validation. SigID allows fingerprints to be saved as BMP, TIF, and JPG images at a variety of sizes and resolutions or as an ASCII-hex string for storage in a database. It is the accuracy of this RF-inductive capture system and its ability to function despite intermediary substances that result in low False Acceptance and

False Rejection Rates (FAR and FRR). In a system where the technology must make a speedy, automated determination of the authenticity of a fingerprint, FAR and FRR must be at or near zero. This way, authentic fingerprints are not rejected and false prints are not accepted, saving the user time and money. Other systems that detect a fingerprint using the actual skin surface are subject to high FAR and FRR, which is why Topaz signature capture and RF-Imaging fingerprint technology result in the lowest false rates in the industry. Matching or imaging? Topaz IDGem products create detailed high-contrast images of a fingertip's detailed skin characteristics. SigID software captures and stores this image information to create unique user templates. Using pattern-matching algorithms, fingerprint inputs are compared to existing templates and verified for rejected. This method makes cumbersome highresolution fingerprint graphics unnecessary for recognition and matching, allowing greate freedom and ease of operation. Governmental or Commercial Use? It is important to understand this distinction. If you are required to provide signatures by law to a law-enforcement database such as the FBIs advanced Automatic Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS), you should be already submitting these on paper as required by a law. Providing electronic fingerprints to these databases requires AFIS-compatible hardware that is available for prices in the range of $5,000 to $25,000. If you need to report to these agencies, Topaz suggests that you look at or for these high-quality roll and slap professional law-enforcement fingerprint imaging systems. For commercial applications not involving government interaction, the most important factor to consider is the quality of capture technology, reliability, and data storage options. In these environments, capturing a fingerprint as accurately and reliably as possible is more important than generating the highest-quality and resolution image. Topaz IDGem is an excellent choice in these environments because of its accurate and reliable RF-Imaging technology and powerful bundled SigID software. For example, an employer may wish to automate timecard clock-ins and clock-outs for employees to ensure that they are working the requisite number of hours and not billing the company for hours they have not spent at work. At the beginning of a shift, an employee registers their presence at the fingerprint terminal. This input is time-stamped and placed into a database. The same process is repeated when the employee finishes their shift. In this application, having an accurate capture technology that is able to clearly register any print is a necessity; having a super-high quality bitmap is not. In fact, having a high-quality bitmap

capture in this environment may be a liability to the employer due to both the large size of the image file and potential liability for identity theft should the database security be compromised. This is why Topaz SigID software enables users to save fingerprints as small ASCII strings that contain the relevant signature identification information without requiring a large image file to be generated. Should unauthorized persons gain access to the database, the fingerprints of employees are not revealed, but only enough unique summary data as is necessary to make comparisons to their existing fingerprint template. Since the state-of-the-art IDGem sensor records the subcutaneous print data, the record is highly accurate and measured using special sophisticated pattern-matching algorithms for precise recognition.