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EIA is extended to activities and Projects like mining, industries, hydroelectric plants, thermal power plants, atomic power plants , ports and harbours, rail, roads, highways, bridges, airports and communication project, required EIA if: Project needed the approval of public investment board/planning commission/central water commission/central electricity authority, etc. Project was referred to Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF) by other ministries. Project was to be located in environmentally fragile or sensitive areas. Project was under dispute.

The existing Environmental Control process is a two-tier system involving both central and state authorities. At central level, Environmental Impact Assessment division (EIA) under MoEF, regional offices of MoEF and Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) are three important institutions, whereas SPCBs and state Departments of Environment (DoE) are working at the province level. CPCB has no direct role in environmental clearance process, though it acts as a research organization, which by collecting, analysing and disseminating information pertaining to pollution prevention and abatement, benefits the MoEF, SPCBs and several other stakeholders of environmental clearance process. It is a common practice that technical staff and experts of CPCB are designated in the expert committee constituted by EIA
SPCBs instruct project proponents to submit rapid EIA on one season data, considering the size and type of industry. SPCBs issue NOC to establish for the project requiring Environmental Control from either state or centra lgovernment if the water and air pollution loads are acceptable for the area in which project is to be located. PROCEDURAL FRAMEWORK The whole process of environmental clearance involves many ministries and departments. The process starts when project proponent applies for NOC to respective SPCBs or other local authorities (i.e., Delhi Pollution Control Committee in Delhi). Site clearance is required for some of the activities i.e., mining, prospecting and exploration of major minerals, pithead thermal power plants, multipurpose river valley projects and major ports and harbors. Consents from airport authority and state forest departments are also considered necessary if any airport is

nearby and project involving any forestland respectively. Once the project proponent receives all the approvals, he submits an application to MoEF for environmental clearance. Environmental Impact Assessment also outlines the process of conducting public hearing, from submission of report to State Pollution Control Board (SPCB) to the specification for public hearing notice. The Environmental Control process is also subjected to the stipulated standards in the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974; Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981; Noise Pollution(Regulation and Control)Rules,2000,to provide prescribed limit of the pollutants which a particular activity may release to the environment. The Hazardous Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, 1989 and Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980, are the other major acts that have bearings on Environmental Control practice.