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http://www.mathpath.net/squares.htm

français

**Squares of numbers without a Calculator
**

It is often useful to know the squares of numbers without a calculator. For example, you have to paint the ceiling of a room of 12'-6"x12'-6". How much paint would you buy if a quart covers 8 square metres? You would reason as follows: a quart covers 8 square metres = 80 sq.ft. 12.5x12.5=156.25, therefore you'll need 2 quarts of paint to cover 160 sq.ft. In general, it is quite possible that an average person would be able to give the squares of integers up to 100 without a calculator. Some of the numbers are easily memorized, and the others can be obtained by certain 'tricks'. This article to provide some tools to memorize or calculate the square of some numbers.

Numbers 1-25 Memorisation Method

Remove the last digit (five), multiply the resulting number (n) by the next number (n+1), and tag on a 25 at the end of the product. numbers ending in Example: 45*45 a five 4*5=20 15,25,35,45,... tag on a 25 to make 2025. Calculate 45*45=2025 Calculate the difference (d) from 50. Subtract 100*d from 2500. Add d*d to the result. Example: To calculate 47*47: d=3 Calculate 47*47=2500-300+9=2209 Subtract 50 from the number to give d. Add 100*d to 2500. Add d*d to the result. Example: To calculate 53*53: d=3 Calculate 53*53=2500+300+9=2809 Subtract the number (n) from 100 to give d. Calculate (n-d)*100+d*d Example:

25-50

50-75

75-100

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11/21/2007 12:10 PM

Squares of numbers without a Calculator

http://www.mathpath.net/squares.htm

To calculate 96*96: d=4 Calculate 96*96=(92-4)*100+4*4=9200+16=9216 Subtract 100 from the number (n) to give d. Calculate (n+d)*100+d*d Example: To calculate 108*108: d=8 Calculate 108*108=(108+8)*100+8*8=116*100+64=11664

100-125

**Easy, isn't it? Now you'd be glad to practise you new learned skills!
**

Number to be squared: Your Answer:

Hint Check Answer Reset 38

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Multiplication of complementary numbers

http://www.mathpath.net/multcomp.php

français

**Product of two complementary numbers
**

What are they?

Before we begin the discussion on how to calculate the product, we will first define what we mean by complementary numbers. Complementary numbers are two numbers that add up to a power of 10. For example, 2 and 8 are complementary, because they add up to 10. Also 22 and 78 are complementary, because they add up to 100, and so on.

**numbers that add up to 10
**

Almost everyone would be expected to calculate 2*8 (or 2x8) through the memorisation of the multiplication table. A less well known fact is that 2x8 equals the difference of the square of 5 (average of two and eight) and the square of 3 (=8-5=5-2), i.e. 2*8=5*5-3*3=16.

**numbers that add up to 100, 1000, 10000 etc.
**

To calculate the product of 42*58, we make use of the relationship described in the previous paragraph: 42*58=(50-8)*(50+8)=50*50-8*8=2500-64=2436 In other words, to multiply two numbers N1 and N2, we just have to square the average number N, (=5, 50, 500...) and subtract from it the square of the difference (N-N1). N1*N2=N*N-(N2-N)*(N-N1). Examples: 45*55 = 50*50 - 5*5 = 2500 - 25 = 2475 4899*5101 = 5000*5000 - 101*101 = 25,000,000-10201 = 24,989,799

1 of 2 11/21/2007 12:11 PM

Multiplication of complementary numbers

http://www.mathpath.net/multcomp.php

This is a calculation that can be done without a calculator, and with a little practice, without pen and paper! Easy, isn't it? Now you'd be glad to practise you newly acquired skills!

Number of digits: Product of:

Hint 1 3

*

7

=

Reset

Check Answer

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Multiplication of partially complementary numbers

http://www.mathpath.net/multpcomp.php

français

**Product of two partially complementary numbers
**

What are partially complementary numbers?

We have seen that complementary numbers add up to a power of 10. Partially complementary numbers have their first digits common (the root), and their last digits (suffix) add up to a power of 10. For example, 43 and 57 are complementary, because 43 and 57 add up to 100, a power of 10. On the other hand, 343 and 357 are partially complementary, the root is 3 and the suffices are 43 and 57.

**Suffices that add up to 10
**

To calculate the product, you would have to calculate product of the root and the next number, and append the product of the suffices. To multiply 53 by 57, we identify that the root is 5 and the suffices are 3 and 7. The product of the root and the next number is therefore 5*(5+1)=30. Appending the product of 3 and 7 (=21) to 30 gives 3021. Thus 53*57 = 3021. Note that this is almost the same procedure as the calculation of squares of numbers ending in 5. Instead of appending 25, we append the product of the suffices.

**Suffices that add up to 100, 1000, 10000 etc.
**

The same steps will be followed. Multiply the root by the next number. Append the product of the suffices. For example, for 1545*1555, the root is 15, suffices are 45 and 55. Thus the product of the root and the next number is 15*(15+1)=240. To this, we append the product of the suffices, 45*55=2475. The suffices here are two digits long, and their product must therefore occupy four digits. Thus 1545*1555=2402475. Easy, isn't it? Now you'd be glad to practise you newly acquired skills!

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11/21/2007 12:11 PM

Multiplication of partially complementary numbers

http://www.mathpath.net/multpcomp.php

**Root digits: Product of:
**

Hint

1

suffix digits:

77

1 73

*

=

Reset

Check Answer

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11/21/2007 12:11 PM

Lightning Division by Aitken's method

http://www.mathpath.net/Aitken_div.php

français

**Lightning division by Aitken's method
**

Can you divide 642 by 299 to 20 decimal places without a calculator?

This article introduces a mental division method that gives very precise results at ligntning speed. The divisor is limited to numbers finishing with a '9', such as 69, 299, etc.

**Alexander Craig Aitken
**

He was born as the eldest of seven children on April 1st 1895 in Otago, New Zealand. In 1920, he graduated in Otago in French, Latin, and mathematics. The same year he married Mary, a botany teacher in Otago. Eventually they migrated to Edinburgh, Scotland where he became a professor at the University of Edinburgh in 1925. He was very fond of mathematics, and specifically mental calculations. He is one of the few performers that shared his speed math secrets with others. What you read in the following paragraphs is one of them. Division is a rather tedious operation, and mental calculation techniques are sparse. The technique Aitken used applies to two- or three digit divisors ending with a 9, and assuming the 'performer' can divide mentally with a one digit divisor (1-9) or a two-digit divisor (12, 30, etc). The idea behind his method is to round up the divisor to the next number ending with a zero, and do the simpler division mentally. In order to compensate for the rounding up of the divisor, the quotient must be appended to the original number and the division continues indefinitely, but quickly and accurately. Let us try the division 45/29. Step 1: round up the divisor to 30, and perform the division to 2 digits (same number as the divisor) to give 1.5. Step 2: Divide 1.5 by 30, or .15 by 3 to give .05, append to the quotient to give 1.55 Continue adding the quotient and dividing the added digit by 30. 45/30=1.5 46.5/30=1.55 (15/3=5, remainder 0) 46.55/30=1.551 (5/3=1, remainder 2, to be carried over to make 21) 46.551/30=1.5517 (21/3=7, remainder 0) 46.5517/30=1.55172 (7/3=2, remainder 1)

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11/21/2007 12:11 PM

Lightning Division by Aitken's method

http://www.mathpath.net/Aitken_div.php

One can continue the division just by looking at the quotient and continue the division by 30 (or mentally, 3). The answer is 45/29=1.55172413793103448275 to 20 decimal places. You could verify your own calculations using the arbitrary precision arithmetic page at this site.

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11/21/2007 12:11 PM

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