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The ultimate nation : Tengangai Army
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thores tengangai 5/24/2011
Rules of the game
Fairplay in football Basics of Football Field of Play The Ball Number of Players Equipment Referee Assistant referees Duration fo the match Start and restart of play Scoring Offside Fouls and misconduct Punishment for offences Free kicks Penalty kick Throw-in Goal kick Corner kick Further Reading
Prior to the FA’s foundation, each club adhered to their own regulations, and match rules were often only decided on the day. The meeting in 1863 saw the drawing up of a universal code which provided the foundations on which future amendments could be made. The current ‘laws of the game’ are monitored by the domestic Football Associations and FIFA. The following is an interpreted list of those laws, minus much of the detail which is applicable only to prospective referees and to ensure a particular game conforms exactly to official FIFA standards. If you want to educate yourself on the minutiae, check the FIFA official website.
Fairplay in football Alongside the laws of the game, FIFA advocates a Fair Play programme. Based around a number of rules, typically involving abstract ideas, they are intended to inform footballers and spectators on proper behaviour on and off the field: Play fair on the field. Play to win but accept defeat properly. Observe the Laws of the Game. Respect everyone involved in the game.
Astroturf) surface. A ‘goal’ is scored by depositing the ball into the opponent’s area. Basics of football At its core. Denounce any who discredits the integrity of football. The Laws of the Game Field of play Football can be played on a natural or artificial (e. drugs. Honour those who defend football’s reputation. each one defended by one of the teams. football is a game with two teams of eleven players. Use football to make a better world. racism. violence and other harmful vices. Notably. Help others to do exactly the same. Reject any corruption.g. played over the course of 90 minutes. . the shape of the field must be rectangular. Promote football’s interests. However. The term ‘goal’ refers to two areas either side of the pitch. This period is split into two 45-minute halves. The objective of the game is to score more ‘goals’ than the opposition. with the dimensions of 90-120 metres long by 45-90 metres wide. the guidelines for international matches are stricter (100-110 metres x 64-75 metres).
situated on the touchline. with the two lines joining vertically Penalty Area: Starts 16.32 metre area between the posts. Can also choose to allow play to proceed in case of a foul. Goals: 7.44 metres high. Referee The referee adjudicates the match in collaboration with two linesmen (properly referred to as ‘referee’s assistants’) and a fourth official. The eleven players are supplemented by the option to bring on a maximum of three substitutes from a pre-decided list of three to seven players (the number of substitutes permitted is slightly higher for international friendly matches). awarding free kicks and penalties and generally dealing with anything requiring a ruling. with the two lines joining vertically. . The ball Naturally spherical.5 metres out.5 metres out. The substitute then comes on as a replacement for one of the 11 current players. In order to bring on a substitute. Number of players One of the eleven is classified as the goalkeeper and permitted to handle the ball in his team’s penalty area. The posts cannot exceed 5 inches in width.5 metres from each goalpost and extends 16. shinguards with socks and studded boots or trainers depending on the surface. and 2. with a quarter-circle on the field (1 metre in radius). the referee must first be informed and then there has to be a break in the play (for example. The goalkeeper is also permitted gloves and a different coloured jersey for identification purposes. Flagpost: Placed at each corner. providing there is an ‘advantage’ to be gained by the team against which the foul has been committed. The referee’s tasks include acting as a timekeeper (although with advice on the amount of ‘injury time’ to be added on to the 45 minutes each half to compensate for injuries and other stoppages).5 metres from each goalpost and extends 5. a free-kick or a throw-in). if necessary. with a circumference of 27-28 inches. shorts. Equipment Basic equipment is the team jersey. Goal Area: Starts 5.
Duration of the match The match officially lasts 90 minutes. This extra period is 30 minutes. corner kicks and goalkicks along with offside decisions (although naturally the referee has the final say). the team with the most successful penalties is declared the winner. If extra-time does not find a winner. The actual kickoff takes place on the centre spot in the centre circle. where each team will take one penalty until one of the two sides has scored move than the other after the side amount of spot kicks. In the knock-out stages of competitions. Can also draw the referee’s attention and advise on or alert him/her to any on-field activity. Scoring A team can only score if the whole ball crosses the goal line between the goalposts. where five players from each team are selected and alternate shots on goal from the penalty spot against the opposition goalkeeper. The ‘away goals’ rule means that. The player who kicks off cannot touch it again until another player has made contact. At the kick-off. if . then a penalty shootout takes place. which they keep at all times. extra-time is used if there is no winner after 90 minutes. To signify their decision or grab the referee’s attention. they wave a brightly coloured small flag. and for both halves of extra-time. In that instance. Should they choose to kick-off then the other captain will be allowed elect which end to attack in the first half. Should the winner decide to choose which end to attack then the loser can choose whether to kick-off in the first or second half. If they are still tied then they will move on to sudden-death penalties. Start and restart of play A coin toss takes place just before the game starts. The kick-off is also used after a goal has been scored. the winner of which will get the choice of choosing which end to attack or whether to kick-off.Assistant referees Follow play from their respective touch lines and help to decide on throw-ins. split into two 15 minute halves. the task befalling the team who has conceded. split into two 45-minute halves with a half-time interval of no longer than 15 minutes. which can influence all manner of decisions. except in a competition where the ‘away goals’ rule applies. players from each side must all be in their half of the field. The winner is the team who scores more goals.
The official rule states ‘active’ as meaning “interfering with play… or an opponent… or gaining an advantage by being in that position”. This can be obvious. throw-in. However. and committing an offside offence. To be in an offside position is to be closer to the opponent’s goal than the last opposition outfield player (therefore excluding the goalkeeper) and the ball. the goal counts extra (therefore. you can be in an offside position and not commit an offside offence. a 1-1 scoreline would mean the away team wins). This is made somewhat harder by the fact there are two elements to offsides in football. Offside The perennial problem for newcomers to football is understanding the offside rule. what one referee or linesman considers to be active can be very different to another individual’s interpretation. However. for example. for example if you touch the ball in an offside position. indirect free kick or corner kick is taken. . but it can be extremely nebulous. and you cannot be penalised for being in an offside position when a goal kick. to commit an offside offence is to have the ball played forward towards you while in that position. The rule is further complicated by the fact the referee or his assistant must adjudge you to be ‘active’ in the play before giving an offside decision against you.a team scores a goal away from their home stadium. As such. and the offside rule is generally a major debating point. You cannot be offside in your own-half of the pitch. being in an offside position. There are other factors to consider which can exempt you from the offside rule. as you will find as you watch more and more games.
An indirect free kick is awarded for any foul which is dangerous or impedes an opponent. the referee can choose to take extra action against a particular individual: Yellow Card . a professional foul (denying a goalscoring opportunity) and insulting language and/or gestures. There are two types of free kick awarded. A nominated member of the team awarded the penalty is allowed a strike at goal from the penalty spot (see the image in the ‘field of play’ section). speak to the player about his conduct or take matters further. the kick is retaken. a goal kick to the opposition is given. spitting. violent conduct. who immediately picks it up rather than taking a touch with his feet. If two of these cards are shown to the same player. meaning any shot must come from the second player to touch the ball after the kick is taken. deliberate hand-ball to prevent a goal.Allows the team to take a direct shot at the opponent’s goal. Punishment for offences If the single infraction is deemed serious enough or the culprit persistently offends during a match. A straight red card (no previous ‘caution’) can be shown for extreme offences such as serious foul play.Fouls and misconduct A foul can take place anywhere on the pitch.Showing a red card to a player means he/she is expelled from the match. This is given if one team’s player passes the ball to the keeper. depending on the nature of the offence: Direct free kick . the opposition must be at least 10 yards away from the ball until it is delivered.A ‘caution’ given to a player. The referee can choose simply to award the foul. If a direct strike is successfully made on goal. which result in a penalty kick). Penalty kick A penalty kick is awarded for offences taking place in the penalty and goal area. An indirect free kick can be awarded in the case of a passback offence. Free kicks Whenever a free kick is taken. Awarded as a result of fouls with evidence intent to harm or reckless/excessive force (e. and a free kick is awarded where that foul takes place (excepting fouls in the penalty area. The goalkeeper must remain on his line until the ball has been kicked.g. The free kick is subsequently taken wherever the goalkeeper picked the ball up. If this rule is not adhered to. shirt-pulling and a deliberate hand-ball). Indirect free kick . with only the goalkeeper to beat. a sliding tackle which takes the player first. a fairly uncommon foul in the game. it means a… Red Card . and all .A direct strike on goal is not permitted.
It cannot go direct to the goalkeeper’s hands (if on the same team) and you cannot score directly from a throw-in. the formation is a vital way for them to enforce their vision on the players. Otherwise it is deemed to be a ‘foul throw’ and a throw-in is given to the opposition. The ball is kicked from anywhere in the goal area outfield. after last touching one of their players. Throw-in A throw-in is awarded when the whole ball crosses the touch line (conceded by the team who last touched the ball). he cannot strike the ball again without another player touching the ball.other players must be outside the area behind the penalty spot. . Corner kick Awarded once the whole ball crosses the goal line of the opposition. but must cross the penalty area line. Goal kick Awarded once the whole ball crosses the goal line if it last touched an opposition player. Football Formations As managers are unable to get on the field themselves. Taken from the corner of whichever side the ball exited the field. As such. the weakness of 4-4-2 is the gaps between the central defenders. in the prescribed quarter-circle space. Opponents must be 10 yards from the corner arc and the kicker cannot touch the ball a second time without contact from someone else beforehand (or the opponent receives an indirect free kick). It is delivered off the field of play with both hands and from behind and over the deliverer’s head. After he has taken the kick. a huge burden is placed on the central midfield to augment defense and attack. 4-4-2 (Four Four Two) Formation The most common and adaptable formation in modern football. so understanding what the most commonly used formations signify is key to understanding football. The type of formation selected by the manager reflects the sort of football you can expect them to play. midfielders and the strikers.
The essential qualities of the 4-5-1 are a three-man central midfield and a lone striker. the 4-5-1 is fundamentally defensive. and a strict holding midfielder in Gilberto Silva. Patrick Vieira. powerful combination with their own tough-tackling box-to-box midfielder. typically a target man. but can be tweaked to provide more of an offensive threat. Arsenal emphasised a tall. a technically strong passing side will come unstuck and provide opportunities for counter-attacking football. By packing the midfield. The former utilised David Beckham and Gary Neville’s ability to deliver crosses from deep positions (as well as Beckham’s abilities from set-pieces). . However. Whereas Manchester United’s first-choice midfield of Paul Scholes and Roy Keane married a powerful but diminutive mixture of a goal-scoring attacking midfielder and a box-to-box tough-tackler. 4-5-1 (Four Five One) Formation A formation which has grown in popularity in recent times. while the latter relied heavily on the goalscoring contributions both of right-winger Freddie Ljungberg and left-winger Robert Pires. the two sides’ contrasting attitudes in central midfield reflects the subtle variations in the 4-4-2. the wings play a vital role in spurring on attacks and supporting the strikers. This was evident in the approach of Manchester United and Arsenal during the late 1990s and early 2000s. the 4-5-1 is heavily dependent on the wingers supporting the lone striker. When on the attack.4-4-2 Formation Precisely because of this all-round contribution.
Alongside the Frenchman. Mourinho founded his sides on strong defensive line-ups and an excellent holding midfielder. At Chelsea. Both as manager of FC Porto and Chelsea. The side was extremely successful.4-5-1 Formation Perhaps the best illustration of 4-5-1 in full flow is Jose Mourinho’s system. Frank Lampard provided the bulk of goals from central midfield. building on Mourinho’s previous achievement at Porto in winning the 2004 Champions League trophy. However. while the attack relied on a hard-working front man and a goal-scorer in midfield. 4-3-3 (Four Three Three) Formation In some ways. . the 4-3-3 encourages the wingers to act as true forwards and the formation generally emphasises attack more than defense. ably supported by Joe Cole and Arjen Robben on the wings and Didier Drogba’s efforts up front. picking up back-toback Premiership titles in 2005 and 2006. his defensive stalwarts were the captain and central defender John Terry and the holding midfielder Claude Makélélé. the 4-3-3 is covered in the description of the 4-5-1. whereas the 4-5-1 starts with the wingers supporting the central midfielders.
The ‘Diamond Formation’ (4-3-1-2 . Rijkaard adopted a 4-3-3. 5-3-2 (Five Three Two) Formation . Samuel Eto’o and Lionel Messi. Faced with the problem of how to accommodate Ronaldinho. the full-backs become wingbacks and start slightly higher up the pitch. The Argentinian national side in the 2006 World Cup held an extremely fluid diamond formation which gave Juan Roman Riquelme space to instigate attacks. picking up back-to-back La Liga titles in 2005 and 2006 and the Champions League trophy in 2006. To cover for the lack of width in the side. In recent times though. who move in-field slightly to shore up the gaps in the centre. with an attacking midfielder and a holding midfielder employed and flanked by two wingers. as well as a host of central midfielders. the holding midfielder Edmilson and either Andrés Iniesta or Thiago Motta as an all-rounder.Four Three One Two) The diamond in the formation refers to the midfield.4-3-3 Formation This theory was put into action by Frank Rijkaard as manager of Barcelona. 4-3-1-2 Formation The diamond formation is typically associated with the World Cup-winning English national team in 1966. christened the ‘wingless wonders’. The triangle up front of the aforementioned players was supported by a creative and defensive midfield backbone of the playmaker Xavi. the employment of the diamond usually revolves around a single player. The side was hugely successful. while AC Milan under Carlo Ancelotti in 2004 used the diamond to assist the Brazilian playmaker Kaká.
though rarely seen today. and this tenet is still enshrined in possession football. teams attempt to hold onto the ball for as long as possible. 5-3-2 Formation However. The following team styles represent some of the methods used to control the game and instigate attacks: Possession football For years. the 1990s West German national side. the golden rule for coaches everywhere was ‘pass and move’. There is logic behind this seemingly banal style though. Quite simply. Football Tactics Basic attacking team tactics The objective of the game is to score goals. but certain variables such as the scoreline can influence a particular team’s desperation to ruffle the net. you encourage the opponent to chase all over the pitch. the most famous modern practitioners of this system. There is also a notable gap between midfield and attack. the 5-3-2 is a purely defensive-minded line-up. Moreover. On their way to the World Cup in 1990. The three central defenders provide extra resoluteness.In theory. . and the wing-play is the sole responsibility of the fullbacks. the opponent’s frustration will hopefully draw out certain players from their starting positions. the 5-3-2 is something of a tactical enigma. by keeping possession. making spaces for killer through-balls which would otherwise be impossible. By keeping hold of the ball. As a result. were no slouches in front of goal. at all times choosing the easiest possible pass (hence the many times you see defenders passing the ball along the defensive line). while the three in midfield are all located around the centre circle. with the midfielder Lothar Matthäus notching 4 on his own. impacting their stamina and further allowing you to control the pace of the match. they scored an exceptional 15 goals.
However. while extremely risky and reliant on solid defending. can render impressive results and is often utilised by teams who are defending a lead or field a 4-5-1 formation (meaning the lone striker can get isolated in front of 4 defenders if both sides are set up properly). scoring a goal is a tricky task at the best of times. exploiting small gaps in the opposition’s defensive or utilising the flanks. you have more space to deliver a through-ball for your strikers. Rather than spend time on the ball picking the pass. the hope is that the strikers will either latch onto the hopeful pass or exploit any mistakes by the . the goal is to take the ball off the opponent while they have players committed to the attack and thus out of position. who will be lurking around the halfway line and will have fewer players to negotiate. By pinging the ball up the field from defense or midfield. the long-ball is employed as an opportunistic method of attack. Long-ball/Direct football Long Ball Often used to deride ‘boring’ teams.Counter-attacking football Counter-Attacking Football With 11 players to get past. Once you have the ball in your own half. the beauty of counterattacking football is to use the other team’s desperation to score to your own advantage. the long-ball style of play is genuine route one football. but keeping a man or two further up the pitch. By withdrawing into your own half. This tactic.
defenders. the wings have always been a key part of attacking football. any team employing it needs to have a strong target man. or whip in a cross from deep for the strikers to attack. By spreading the ball wide. Using the set-plays Set-Plays . This was effectively employed by Portugal on their way to the final of the 2004 European Championships. Wide-play and alternating wingers Wide-Play Since the days of Stanley Matthews and Jimmy ‘Jinky’ Johnstone. switching wings can provide a breakthrough for the team. A further development in wing-play has been to alternate wingers on the left and right flanks. you allow a different angle of attack and offer a number of opportunities for the winger. cut inside and drive forward at an angle. Because the long-ball is dealt with in the air most of the time. If a winger is losing the battle with his fullback. take on the fullback and drag central defenders out of position. with Luis Figo and Cristiano Ronaldo frequently exchanging wing positions.
every defender and midfielder is given a particular zone on the pitch to cover when the opposition has the ball. skilful players. This is particularly important during set pieces. it can exploit the offside rule and prevent all long-balls and through-balls succeeding. . such sides will use the break in play provided by set pieces to pack the box and attack the ball when it is delivered. In the absence of quick. Basic defensive team tactics The chief distinction in defensive tactics is between individual and team responsibility. Generally speaking. However. the opposition will be facing two lines of four players covering the entirety of one half of the pitch. it can be fraught with danger if any individual fails to cover his area of the pitch. throw-ins and corner-kicks. reflected in the rise and fluctuating popularity of zonal defense and man-to-man marking. The defensive line is particularly important as. To cover for a team’s (or player’s) lack of pace or technique. with proper communication and synchronised movement.A common method for technically deficient sides. Ideally. Zonal defence Zonal Marking Zonal defense is basically self-explanatory. zonal defense is fundamentally simple but allows sides to deal with all types of attackers on the opponent’s team. but does rely heavily on every player fulfilling their duties and keeping their concentration. using the set-plays means exploiting all types of free kicks.
Here is a list of pages that might help you in your quest to become fitter and to know the ins and outs. If a slower defender is matched up with a pacey striker. Note: Not Cola-Cola which I used to use when playing . is extremely simple at its core. Whereas the defenders and midfielders are responsible for zones in zonal defense. man-to-man marking requires incredible discipline on the part of the marker.Lucozade Sport was a lot better! . man-to-man marking means certain individuals are responsible for guarding a particular opponent.As we all know getting fit is good in every day life but being fit enough to play sport is a different matter.Man-to-Man marking Man-to-Man Marking The term is often associated with continental (and particularly Italian) football and. Fitness •Fitness Regime . •We have a page which gives an overview to a Footballers Diet and we also have a page dedicated to the science being the Football Diet. Both pages are there to help you give the right foods into your body as well as what liquids are best. the results could be grim to say the least! Football Fitness Keeping fit and healthy is an important part of football as is learning the rules of the game. To get fit enough for the game then you have to put in the hours on the training pitch. However. Man-to-man marking is particularly effective alongside a sweeper who has a free role. and good decision making on the part of the manager. Here are a few tips that'll help get you going. once again. enabling him/her to support anyone having problems with his opponent and reducing the potency of through-balls and balls played over the top of the defence for forward players to run onto.
’ where players leap from 5ft platforms and try to spring up again as soon as they hit the floor. Fitness Regime A good fitness regime is crucial for building up the power. This is important as it helps transition the body from an exercise to a non-exercise state. Speed Plyometric exercises are used to improve the footballer’s ability to change rapidly between activity that contracts the muscles concentrically (muscles are shortened) and eccentrically (muscles are lengthened to maintain stability). specific leg. speed and strength required for the combination of sprinting. when concentric contraction takes place. . upper body and abdominal exercises. such as running and rowing. and stopping when eccentric contraction is effected. •Cool Down – After a game you'll see a lot of players come back out on to the field around twenty minutes after the full-time whistle. press-ups and sit-ups are crucial for building up all round muscular endurance. sprinting from lying down and the ‘depth jump. running and jumping that is used in football. The aim of using the exercises is to decrease the time it takes between running. such as squats. An effective fitness regime should include exercises that work on the following areas. Muscular Endurance As well as conventional cardiovascular exercises.•Warm-up – Before you get to the kick off you'll need to have a good and thorough warm-up. They do this to cool down the body. Getting those muscles prepared for the exertion that you are about to put them through is vital to be at your very best and to help avoid injuries. By doing this it helps avoid muscle stiffness and injury. They include exercises such as hopping on one leg.
good stretching is crucial before and after training to keep the muscles elastic and to avoid injury. gentle stride pattern. Coordination In order to pass the ball effectively. the player needs to have good eye-brain-body coordination. Technique Before starting any sport your muscles are cold and subsequently prone to being overstretched in any drastic bodily movement. After that. Later on in the warm-up this stride pattern can be varied. indeed. a goalkeeper. Ladder drills are an effective way of improving motor skills where players aim to run within the ‘rungs’ of a rope ladder without stepping on the rope.Strength Training In order to build up power and strength in the leg and arm muscles. Stretches may therefore be quite different for a forward compared with a defender or. maintaining a normal. quads. weight training is a crucial part of any fitness regime. Such movements are repeated continuously in any game of football. or a quick 360º turn to evade an opposition player The aim of a warm-up is to gradually warm the muscles. an overstretched leg in a tackle. the objective is to statically stretch the muscles in preparation for the type of movements that you will do during the game. Its worth is reflected in the series of drills devised by the best coaches over the years to get the team ready. Football Warm Up The warm up is vital before any game of football. abductor pulls and hamstring curls each build up different leg muscles and bicep curls. avoiding any drastic movement of the limbs. Leg presses. A warm-up must be initiated by a gentle jog. Common to most football warm-ups are . probably in an area of 15-20 yards. tricep dips and shoulder presses increase arm strength. Stretching As with all sports. or indeed any training session. in order to avoid injuring oneself. This is increased by working on the bodies motor skills to enable the body reacts almost instantly to a situation on the pitch. Football is a game that regularly places considerable strain on the joints and muscles and therefore it is extremely important to complete a thorough warm-up regime.
that is very vulnerable to injury.some light running at varying speed levels should prove adequate. all of which require individual attention. However. Calf walk To flex and strengthen the lower leg and achilles area. Lunge walk This exercise is used to loosen up the hips and involves moving the legs in a long and exaggerated stride pattern in time with the arms. Sideways running The aim of sideways running is to stretch out the hip and inner thigh area. As you take each step. Such striding warm-up exercises can be followed by static stretching to isolate individual muscles such as the hamstring or calf. Backwards running Running gently backwards helps to prepare and strengthen the quads and calf muscles for rigorous working during the game. older players must warm-up and stretch as thoroughly as possible to avoid those pesky injuries that keep you on the sidelines. The torso must be maintained straight and erect.the following running exercises that begin to stretch and to prepare the joints for the changes in pace that are frequent in any game of football: High Knees To stretch the hips and stabilise the strength of the muscles and tendons around the ankle joints that are particularly vulnerable to injury in football. . extend the ankle. that are frequently over-strained in football. This exercise requires the lifting of the knees in turn as you run until the thigh is in a parallel position to the pitch. Very young players will probably not require such a rigorous stretching workout .
parts of the cool down can be completed inside the gym. therefore avoiding injury. Secondly. Sometimes players neglect doing a cool down session owing to the cold conditions experienced in the British winter. However. footballers are increasingly called upon to play two or even three games a week and a proper cool down is therefore essential. the cool down exercise has become increasingly pivotal in the match and training regimes of professional football clubs. Slowly reducing exercise intensity in this way helps to lower the heart rate gradually. immediately following a football match is the ideal time to work on improving joint and muscle flexibility. avoiding a sudden cessation of strenuous activity that can actually force the heart to work harder initially. or perhaps in the dressing room. it works to gradually decrease the body temperature. In the modern game. .After a game player should take part in a cool down session to help the muscles. heart rate and blood pressure and also. releases hormones that counter the effects of adrenaline. finishing in a brisk walk. in recent years. For more on similar issues check out our guide to having a healthy diet and how to keep up a fitness regime. Indeed. that can make you feel restless after strenuous exercise. it assists the removal of waste products that accumulate in the muscles during rigorous exercise. such as lactic acid. Firstly. with muscle stretching exercises incorporated at intervals. Procedure 5-10 minutes of cool down is generally considered adequate and essentially involves gradually decreasing the intensity of exercise. A gradual decline in heart rate reduces stress on the organ. In general terms. but it is still often overlooked by many footballers. a cool down consists of a hard paced run with gradual reductions to reach jogging level. The overarching result of an efficient cool down is improved recovery time of the footballer or athlete. that's no excuse . like a warm-up. is essential following any game of football or training session. stiffness and muscle tiredness the following day. The muscles are warm and can be more easily manipulated using stretching exercises. The aim of a cool down is to allow the body to gradually make the transition from a full exercise mode to a non-exercise state. The benefits of an effective cool down session are numerous. Football Cool-Down A thorough cool down. Moreover.
and the top clubs all make use of ‘sports psychologists’ to help the star players perform. However. .Facing your opponent with the ball. a number of which are identified with footballing greats star skills The Cruyff Turn 1. A decisive moment in coaching was the rise of the Coerver Method in the 1970s. Coerver claimed that by analysing tapes of great players in action. you could break down their technique and trademark skills and use this knowledge to teach young players. while kicking arms and legs loose. the Dutch former manager of Feyenoord. position your body to feign a cross or shot. As well as traditional stretching exercises. while the term ‘talent’ is still bandied about. named after Wiel Coerver. Indeed. and certain moves are still referred to as ‘Coerver moves’. The depth and complexity of football coaching is such that any guide will fall short. such is the importance of coaching at both amateur and professional level. Today. Training was only a necessary supplement to what was already imbued within a particular individual. rather. you should feel the benefits the following morning (or. such as the hamstring and lower back muscles. not feel the side-effects of the previous morning!). such as alternate toe touches with your legs apart and lying on your back and cycling legs in the air. Improving Your Football Skills Discuss this! Conventional wisdom in the old days stated that God-given talent was the be all and end all for a successful career in football. you can even utilise hypnosis to supposedly improve your ability on the field. The fundamentals of this method are enshrined in coaching today. developments in coaching have allowed youngsters to emulate the greats with increasing ease. The cool down session should be finished with 2 minutes of jogging at a slow pace. it is also advisable to do around 5 minutes of calisthenic type exercises.Following the run. After all that. here are a few notable manoeuvres to get you started. especially those that are frequently strained in football. various muscle groups must be stretched.
turn to shield the ball as you reach an opponent face-to-face.With your back to the player. 2.Turn and be on your way while the opponent is left flat-footed.While dribbling with the ball close to your body. This is best achieved with your back to the opponent.Feign to go one way by dropping one shoulder as if moving in that direction.2. put your foot on the ball and delicately bring it around with you. The Zidane Roulette/Maradona’s 360º Spin Move 1.Then quickly go the other way and wrong-foot your marker.Leave the opponent trailing as you turn around his body. 3. 3. in the same movement. Stepover .Then drag the ball with your foot behind your standing leg. 2. The Shoulder Feint 1.
Then instantly flick it horizontally down the wing and. The Matthews move is today a fundamental weapon in any winger’s arsenal: 1. who was pivotal in establishing wing play as a vital part of attacking.Popularised initially by Pelé. 2. The Nutmeg The nutmeg is the ultimate insult to an opponent and a great. use your speed to waltz past him. . easy trick for beginners to learn: 1. allow him to set himself to cover your attack.When facing a defender.When facing your opponent.Then push the ball in the opposite direction and skip past your marker. 2. The Matthews Move Named after one of the most influential wingers in football. push the ball slightly forward to his standing foot. Stanley Matthews. as he’s wrong-footed. but without actually touching the ball at any point.Feign to move on way by flicking your foot fully over the ball in that direction. this move is extremely popular in modern football and expertly utilised by individuals like Cristiano Ronaldo and Ronaldinho: 1.
drag the ball back with your foot. but with more emphasis on the basics. but especially good on skills and techniques (hosting a number of excellent videos).Similar to ExpertFootball.Instructional videos on football basics and advanced skills and techniques. 2.Sections on coaching. .Master Sport Soccer Skills & Techniques . The Puskás Move/The V-Move Associated with the famous Hungarian forward Ferenc Puskás. The trick requires incredible speed and flexibility. the move today is popularly associated with his countryman Ronaldinho. so don’t expect to pick it up quickly! 1. Websites on football training. fitness and in-game tactics. The Elastico/Flip-Flap Actually invented in the 1970s by the Brazilian Rivelino.Facing an opponent. 2. skills and exercises 1.ExpertFootball Soccer Techniques & Skills . cushion the ball with the inside of your ball.In mid-air. flick the ball up to one side.BBC Sport: Football Skills . pass the ball through them and skip around his body.In the same movement. flick it forward at a 45º degree angle (works particularly well if your opponent dives in for a tackle). the v-move is perfect for improving your dribbling and close control.2.Then take advantage of the gap between his legs.While in possession of the ball. as well as a great way for evading tackles: 1. 2. 3. taking it the other way past your marker.
always keep your eye on the ball. This move is very easy to practice on your own or with a friend. Diego Maradona and Peter Crouch are famous for their lethal attacking headers. Further Skills For more skills check out our detailed look at a many varirty of skills elsewhere on the site: Attacking headers make for some of the most spectacular goals in football. is to get above the ball. though. try to redirect its downwards path towards a low target. you’ll need to keep your head and body taut but not rigid. An attacking header involves getting above the ball and using power from your neck and back to change its course and stop it going over the bar. Not only this.along with Des Lynam’s commentary If you want to avoid injuring yourself. It’s important to be confident: you’re much more likely to make an accurate judgement and gain control of the ball if you make a decisive move. You can watch the goal .4. And remember: as always. or bounce it against a wall. Jump high and make a decisive move. or against a defender who might also be making a play for a defensive header. like Poom’s. and when you header it. . The most important thing of all.Soccer Training Info . This is the only way you’ll be able to send the ball down into the net. but it was Sunderland goalkeeper Mart Poom who made the headlines when he scored off an attacking header in last season’s match against his old club Derby County. Throw the ball up into the air. fast-moving shot into the bottom corner of the net. Legends from George Best to Wayne Rooney have known how to take advantage of defensive weakness by redirecting a high. or get a friend to throw it for you. it also means you are less likely to injure yourself by hitting your head or nose with the ball.Good on advanced skills and contains plenty of videos of famous players in action.
to standing still for a free kick. An opposition player seeing this will assume he can predict where the player is going.•Backheel •Bending a Ball •Block Tackle •Body Swerve The Body-Swerve The Body-Swerve falls into the category of ‘Close Control’ skills .skills which are used when in direct control of the ball. The Body Swerve is a skill that . bringing the ball round with his right side. However. the body swerve is designed to upset their assumption. wherever on the field a player stands. However. Hopefully this leaves the opposing player flummoxed and the body swerve has claimed another victim. It is best thought of as an advanced kind of turn. It can even be used without the ball to try and wrong-foot a controlling opponent. as the would-be tackler comes in. the controlling player inclines his shoulder as if to pivot on it. He uses his weight to give the appearance of going in one direction whilst intending to go in another.involves a player’s whole body. he suddenly changes direction. .as the name suggests . Leaning on the left foot. to shooting. This particular skill ought to be absolutely basic. from defending the goalmouth. The best thing about the body swerve is that it is infinitely adaptable and can be used in almost any situation. Many a goalmouth encounter between striker and defender has hinged on the success of the body swerve. using the weight on his left foot to thrust off and suddenly tear away on the opposite angle. Body Swerve When a player means to turn left he will naturally put his weight on the left foot.
co-ordination and good anticipation.i. the player can keep the ball’s trajectory low and accurate. with both feet off the ground in order to make contact with the ball. a . as it allows the attacking player to get in front of the defender. respectively. such as Alan Shearer and Fabrizio Ravanelli. where the defender is often blocking the mouth of the goal. By looking in the direction in which the ball needs to go. If the ball is low or dropping. Favoured by attacking players.•Chest Control •Chip •Close Control •Defensive Header •Direct Free Kicks •Diving Header The Diving Header The diving header is a technique which uses the head to direct the ball. before the defender . The diving header requires bravery. Rather less reference to the fluid movement and flight of the player as he or she executes the header. but cannot be kicked. players famed for their diving headers. display an almost suicidal fearlessness when diving in amongst flying boots to poach a goal in the six-yard box. In fact. a diving header is a good option. It is a very useful technique to use at the near post. the diving header requires the footballer to dive towards the ball. This is perhaps the most difficult element of the technique to master! Diving Header The advantage of a diving header is that it allows a player to get to the ball first . and ensuring that their head is over the ball.e. but involves the player’s whole body. the terms are peixinho ("little fish") and palomita ("little dove").and to get on the end of crosses which would otherwise be unreachable. Lovers of latino football will be interested to learn the Portuguese and Spanish words for the technique. prosaic than diving header.
and it does get better. A large part of dribbling technique comes in shielding the ball from opposition players. •Dummying •Flick-on •Foot Control •Glancing Header The Glancing Header The glancing header is an important addition to any footballer’s arsenal of techniques. It is best practised by starting slowly and building up speed. The only answer to this is practice . A glancing header can be useful anywhere on the field. Beginner dribblers often find themselves kicking the ball farther when they want to speed up. Good dribbling is a fundamental discipline of football and a successful dribbler is always an asset to his team. exposing themselves to tackles.•Dribbling Dribbling Dribbling means travelling with the ball. and keep an eye firmly on the rest of the field. Dribbling is most often used in offensive situations. as long as he does so. including using the chest. He must fend off tackles. plan his movements. The key to dribbling quickly is not to use more power but to make contact more frequently by moving the feet faster. . knees and head as well as the feet. and works by slightly deflecting the ball. he has control of the game. Dribbling The basic dribble in football involves propelling the ball in front of oneself with a series of small kicks. He uses his agility to set up passes and buy time for his teammates to position themselves for attack. Because it requires the use of both feet. many beginners find themselves held back by their ‘weak’ foot. It is the name used to refer to a whole set of ball-control skills. altering its trajectory only a little. One player keeps control of the ball and.
•Head Control •Indirect Free Kicks •Juggling a Ball Juggling the Ball Not unlike the juggling you see at the circus. It can be difficult to use a glancing header effectively if the ball is curling. To execute the technique effectively. juggling can drastically improve your ball control skills. but when it is mastered.particularly where a player wants to disguise his or her intentions. Juggling the Football . patience. balance and above all concentration.usually they are used when a cross already has sufficient power but requires redirection towards the target. the player must strike the ball with the centre of the forehead. but as a discipline. or in wet conditions. turning the head just before contact is made. If an attacking player is close to the keeper in front of the goal. a header can be used to direct the ball into the net without giving away the player’s intentions. It takes practise. Glancing Header Glancing headers do not require a great deal of force . as well as give you more confidence in all situations on the ball. it can elevate your game to the higher realms. Trying to deflect the ball off the side of the head or allowing the head to tilt to one side will usually result in a failed header! The angle of deflection is controlled by the degree to which the player turns his or her head. juggling the ball is a skill that is equally dazzling and just as tricky to master. Juggling is unlikely to feature in actual match-play all that often. or when they are unable to face the direction in which they want to head the ball.
both thighs. The video is a street-juggling clip that shows the comparison between football juggling and circus juggling. chest. but can also be used to beat a player. or even back. head. •Kicking Technique •Lofted Kick •One-Two The One-Two The one-two is a classic manoeuvre that sees two players exchanging the ball as they advance across hostile territory. to make them see how skillful you can be and also how relaxed you are with the game. Juggling can often be used as a threat to the opposing team. The One-Two . both shoulders (not arms). The ball is gently tapped into the air and then back down again. The one-two is known less familiarly as the ‘wall pass’. This can be. ie the player could choose to control an oncoming ball by juggling with it before releasing it again. One player acts as little more than a ‘wall’ off which the ball bounces back to his teammate. The South Americans are the most famous users of juggling and they use it in their game more than other nations. all the time keeping it under your own control and off the ground. onto either the same or another one of the listed body parts. both knees.Juggling simply involves keeping the ball off the ground using different parts of your body. over and among bewildered defenders before driving the ball into the back of the net. It is one the most exciting sights in football to see two masters of the art ‘one-two’ the ball between. both feet. and it is this name that gives the best clue to its principles. or they could have the ball on the ground and choose to bring it off the ground and start juggling as a way of beating their opponent or getting the ball into the air. The possibility to juggle can come to a player either via another player or from their own doing.
scissoring the legs as the body reaches a horizontal position. A forward in a good scoring position but with his or her back to the goal. generally lands on their back or bottom! A bad landing. Overhead Kick Overhead kicks are generally only used around the goal . his colleague B must make ready to receive the pass at the same time as watching where A has gone. might opt for an overhead kick if the ball is bouncing at head height. The ball therefore travels in the opposite direction to the way the player is facing.either by a defender needing to clear the ball quickly. it is the most rapid and threatening way of penetrating the opposition’s defence. this method of making contact with the ball is nothing other than spectacular. athleticism and timing. could have serious consequences. It is impossible to execute a one-two without good sympathy between teammates. spine or elbows. meanwhile. The player must launch him or herself into the air. Both feet must be airborne for this kicking technique. . it is extraordinarily effective and can propel the ball deep into the scoring half with plenty of support from friendly players. The footballer. •Overhead Kick Overhead Kick Also known as a bicycle kick or a scissors kick.Once the ball has been sent on its way by player A. so that one leg reaches high into the air to make contact with the ball at head height. As he receives the ball he must quickly return it to the space A is going for. especially a knock to the head. Used well. or by an attacking player with little room for manoeuvre. as they must have an almost telepathic knowledge of each other’s plans.. One of the best things about the one-two is that it enables the team to move up together.as long as the player can pull it off. Executing an overhead kick requires skill. Short of a single forward taking the ball up himself..
The tackle is very effective and a key skill for defenders to acquire. the sliding tackle happens at ground level. approach from an angle and be decisive . a poorly executed sliding tackle usually leads to a spot-kick. Defenders have been known to cynically '"scythe" down an attacking player. by sliding the body feet-forward to take the ball from the player in possession. An unsuccessful sliding tackle could leave the defender behind and give the attacker a clear run on goal. Another disadvantage is that the defender does not stay on his or her feet. a mis-timed tackle may cause a player to make contact with their opponent.timing is crucial. using a sliding tackle to target the opponent’s legs rather the ball. conceding a free kick. •Side Volley •Sliding Tackle The Sliding Tackle The sliding tackle (also known as the slide tackle) is a means of dispossessing an opponent. It was voted goal of the year by Fox Sports. The overhead kick was also a signature move of Pelé. Unlike other tackles. Brazil’s footballing maestro. Mexico. Inside the penalty area. The player must watch the ball carefully. However.Panama’s Luis Carlos Tejada Hansell scored a picture-perfect overhead kick against the Central American neighbour. •Thigh Control •Volleying Volleying . Sliding Tackle For these reasons a sliding tackle can be risky. which effectively puts them out of the game for a few seconds. in the 2006 World Cup qualifiers.
Volleying Not having time to think is one problem for the volleyist. Without these in place the ball will behave unpredictably. the player is well-anchored to absorb the shock of the ball’s impact. He can use the momentum the ball already has to create a very powerful strike. being key to picking up crosses and delivering them into the goal. For these reasons.Volleying is the art of striking the ball while it is still in mid-air. The strike must be decisive and clean. a player attempting to volley needs to be even more focused on timing and accuracy that in ordinary play. and he follows through. Another is that a ball spinning through the air will behave very differently to one that has come rolling along the ground. It is one of the hardest skills to master.as shown in the video. A professional player will be able to anticipate where and when the ball will arrive near him and quickly position himself to connect with it. Technically. volleys are a vital skill for players at the front of the field. A particularly spectacular volley is the the scissor kick . volleys are notoriously difficult to aim. volleys can be used to seize control from the opposition. Along with headers. An intercepted pass can be turned to great advantage by a well-placed volley. There is no opportunity to calm the ball’s movement down. As well as keeping up the pace of play. . Because everything happens much faster in the air. the key elements of volleying are that the strike is decisive. but if it’s not on target he will probably lose control and the mistake could cost him and his team dearly. and little chance to judge the amount of strength required to put it where you want.