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4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 Introduction Working Cycle & p-v Diagram Indicated Power and Work Conditions for Minimum Work Mechanical Efficiency Isothermal Efficiency Clearance Volume Volumetric Efficiency Multistage Compressor

1

4.1

INTRODUCTION

Compressors uses mechanical work to take an amount of fluid and deliver it at a required pressure An efficient compressor increases pressure with minimum work The amount of fluid is limited by the volume of the compressor cylinder which is fixed The reciprocating compressor operates in a cyclic manner The properties of the working fluid at inlet and outlet are average values

2

**Basic Components of a Reciprocating Compressor
**

A compressor consist of: crank case encloses the compression volume crank shaft rotates the crank piston moves through the cylinder during each cycle crank and connecting rod connects the crank with the piston spring loaded induction and delivery valves cylinder where piston travels The crank shaft is usually driven by an electric motor

Outlet Delivery valve Piston

Inlet Induction valve

Connecting rod Crank

Crank case

Schematic Layout

3

1. Air intake, 2. Compressor pump, 3.Outlet, 4. Drive belt, 5. Motor, 6. Control switch, 7. Relief valve,

8. Pressure gauge, 9. Manifold, 10. Regulator, 11. Supply line, 12. Air tank, 13. Water drain,

4

4.2

**WORKING CYCLE & THE p-V DIAGRAM
**

Delivery valve

(d – a): Induction (intake) Induction valve opens Air is induced into the cylinder Volume and mass increases Pressure and temperature is constant during this process (a – b): Compression Inlet valve closes Piston compresses air Pressure rises until P2 at (b) Temperature also increases (b – c): Delivery Delivery valve opens High pressure air is delivered Pressure and temperature is constant during this process Compression process is reversible n= C polytropic and follows the law pV

Induction valve

v2

p p2 c b

v1

p1 d 0 e f

a v

5

4.3

WORK & INDICATED POWER

The work done on air for one cycle is the area in the graph (area abcd) Considering a polytropic process which follows the gas law PVn = constant p Work for polytropic process is given by:

Win

p2v 2 − p1v1 = 1− n

P2 c

b

where n = polytropic index of a gas

P1 d 0 e f

a V

6

**Work input per cycle
**

W in cycle

= = area abcd

p P2 c b

V − p1 a ) V V + p 2 b − p1 a n −1 p V − p1v a + (n − 1) p 2v b − (n − 1) p1v a = 2 b n −1

=

= area abef + area bc0e − area ad0f

(p 2V b

P1 d 0 e f

a V

n n −1

(p 2V b

V − p1 a )

**Since p1V a = mRT 1
**

Win =

and

p 2V b = mRT 2

Indicated Power

So, work input per cycle

cycle

=

n n −1

(mRT 2 − mRT 1 )

n n −1

mR ( 2 − T 1 ) T

m R ( 2 − T1 ) T n −1 & where m = N × m and N = R.p.m IP =

n

•

7

EXAMPLE 4.1

A single stage reciprocating compressor operates by inducing 1m3/min of air at 1.013 bar and 15oC and delivers it at 7bar. Assume the compression process being polytropic and the polytropic index is 1.35. Calculate: i. Mass of air delivered per minute ii. Indicated power

SOLUTION

i. Mass of air delivered per minute can be determine using

& & = pV so m

& pV& = mRT

RT

& m=

(1.013 × 100) × 1 0.287 × (15 + 273)

= 1.23

kg

min

8

**ii. Indicated power can be determine using formula IP = • Find T2 first using formula T 2 = ⎛ P2 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ T 1 ⎜ P1 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠
**

T 2 = 288 ⎜

⎛ 7 ⎞ ⎟ ⎝ 1.013 ⎠

1.35 −1 1.35

n n −1

m R ( 2 − T1 ) T

•

n −1 n

= 475 .4K 1.35 1.23 × × 0.287 (475 .4 − 288 ) 1.35 − 1 60

•

Indicated power; IP =

**Indicated Power = 4.25kW
**

P (bar) 7 2

1.013 0

1 V

9

4.4

**CONDITIONS FOR MINIMUM WORK
**

We know that the work done is equal to the area under the graph The smaller the area the lesser the work and the better the compressor For reciprocating compressors, the pressure ratio is fixed, so the height of p-v diagram is fixed The volume of cylinder is also fixed so the line d-a is fixed Therefore the area representing work depends the index n. For n = 1, pV = constant (Isothermal) For n = γ, pVγ = constant (isentropic) So, the process can be polytropic, isothermal or isentropic

10

pV =constant (isothermal) pVγ =constant (isentropic) pVn =constant (polytropic) From here it can be seen that the isothermal process is the best because it requires minimum work So it is best that the gas temperature is constant throughout the compression cycle

p P2 c b1 b b2

pV = C pVn = C pVγ = C

P1 d 0 e v2

a f v1

V

11

ISOTHERMAL WORK

Work = area ab1ef + area b1c0e - area ad0f

**p1 V V + p1 b − p1 a p2 for isothermal process p1 a = p 2V b V p p W in V V = p 2 b ln 1 = p 1 a ln 1 p2 p2 From pV = mRT p W in = mRT ln 1 p2 V = p 2 b1 ln
**

1 1

p P2 c b1

pV = C

where T is the constant temperatur e

P1 d 0 e f

a

Isothermal power

& = mRT ln

p1 p2

V

12

4.6

ISOTHERMAL EFFICIENCY

Isothermal efficiency indicates isothermal work compared to the indicated work.

**Isothermal Efficiency ,ηisoth =
**

EXAMPLE 4.2

Isothermal Work Indicated Work

A single stage reciprocating compressor induce 1.23kg/min of air at pressure 1.023 bar and temperature 23oC and delivers it at 8.5 bar. If its polytropic index is 1.3, determine: i. Indicated power ii. Isothermal power iii. Isothermal efficiency

13

SOLUTION

We know:

, P1 = 1.023bar @ 102 .3kPa min T 1 = 23o C @ 296K and P2 = 8.5bar @ 850kPa & m = 1.23

kg

i.

**Indicated power can be determine using IP = • Find T2 first using formula T 2 = ⎛ P2 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ T 1 ⎜ P1 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠
**

T 2 = 293 ⎜

⎛ 850 ⎞ ⎟ 102 .3 ⎠ ⎝

1 .3 − 1 1 .3

n n −1

m R ( 2 − T1 ) T

•

n −1 n

= 477 .6K 1 .3 1.23 × × 0.287 (477 .6 − 293 ) 1 .3 − 1 60

•

Indicated power; IP =

Indicated Power = 4.7kW

14

**⎛p ⎞ & ii. Isothermal power can be determine using Wisothermal = m RT ln⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎜p ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠
**

•

1.23 ⎛ 850 ⎞ & Wisothermal = × 0.287 × 296 × ln⎜ ⎟ = 3.68kW 60 ⎝ 102 .3 ⎠

**iii. Isothermal efficiency can be determine using ηisoth =
**

ηisoth =

& W isothermal IP = 3.68 = 0.78 @ 78 % 4 .7

isothermal power indicated power

15

4.5

MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY, ηm

Because there are moving mechanical parts in the compressor, it is likely that losses will occur due to friction Therefore power required to drive the compressor is actually more higher than the indicated power So there is need to measure the mechanical efficiency of the cycle Mechanical efficiency of the compressor is given by:

η = m required power

indicated power

Power system [Power required]

>

Compressor [Indicated power]

16

•

**If Indicated power IP = 4.5 kW and mechanical efficiency, ηm is 0.8 the shaft power would be:
**

Shaft power = 4.5kW = 5.625kW 0.8

17

4.7

CLEARANCE VOLUME (VC)

In actual compressors, piston does not reach the top of wall of the cylinder. Instead it reaches maximum stroke at a certain distance from the wall. The remaining volume of the cylinder where piston does not travel through is call the clearance volume VC. The volume where the piston does travel through is called the swept volume, VS. Purpose – to give freedom for working parts and space for valve operations

18

Process After delivery at (c) (volume is VC, pressure is p2 and temperature is T2). So, there are some gas left in the cylinder When piston moves downward, this gas expands according to PVn = C until p1 at (d). Then induction begins (d – a) Then gas is compressed according to PVn = C Finally there is the delivery (b – c)

P p2 e c b PVn = C PVn = C

p1

f

d

a v

VC

VS

VC = Clearance volume VS = Swept volume

19

Effect of VC

Because of the expansion of gas remaining in the VC, induced volume is reduced from swept volume VS to (Va – Vd) which is the effective volume

V = Va − Vd or & & & V = Va − Vd

P p2 e c b PVn = C PVn = C

p1

f

d

a v

**Mass or air per unit time
**

& & & & m a = m b and m c = m d

VC VS

**Mass delivered per unit time = mass induced per unit time
**

& & & & & m = mb − mc = ma − md

20

**INDICATED WORK & INDICATED POWER FOR COMPRESSOR WITH CLEARANCE VOLUME
**

Work done per cycle W

cycle

= area abcd = area abef - area cefd =

& Indicated power W

n

n −1 n −1 n & & = (ma − md )R (T 2 − T1 ) n −1

& T ma R ( 2 − T 1 ) −

n

& T md R ( 2 − T 1 )

P p2 e c b PVn = C PVn = C

**& & & because ma − md = m (mass induced per unit time ) & W
**

n −1 ⎤ ⎡ ⎛ p2 ⎞ n n & n & mR ( 2 − T 1 ) = T mRT 1 ⎢⎜ ⎟ − 1⎥ = ⎥ ⎢⎜ p 1 ⎟ n −1 n −1 ⎝ ⎠ ⎥ ⎢ ⎦ ⎣

**⎛ kg ⎞ & where m = N × m ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ min ⎠ ⎛ kg ⎞ & or m = N × (ma − md ) ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ min ⎠
**

p1 f d a v

VC

VS

21

We see here that the work done per cycle and indicated power per unit mass is the same whether with or without clearance

22

**Double-acting Compressors
**

A single-acting compressor completes one compression cycle with one revolution of the crank A double-acting compressor completes two compression cycles with one revolution of the crank So the mass induce per revolution is twice than a single acting where

& m = 2 × [N × m ] ⎜

⎛ kg ⎞ ⎛ kg ⎞ & ⎟ or m = 2 × [N × (ma − md )] ⎜ ⎟ min ⎠ min ⎠ ⎝ ⎝

Delivery

Delivery

Induction

Induction

23

EXAMPLE 4.3

A single stage, double-acting compressor is required to deliver 8m3/min of air measured at pressure of 1.013 bar and 15oC. Delivery pressure is 6 bar and crank speed is 300rpm. The clearance volume is 5% of swept volume and the compression index is 1.3. Calculate i. Swept volume, VS ii. Delivery temperature, T2 iii. Indicated power

24

SOLUTION

We know: T 1 = 15o C @ 288K and P1 = 1.013bar ; P2 = 6bar and N = 300rpm Since it is double acting, per minute, it will have 300 x 2 = 600 cycle that induces 8 m3. It means for one cycle it will induce;

8 V a −V d = = 0.0133m 3 600

P 6 c b PV1.3 = C PV1.3 = C

i.

Swept volume can be determine using the 1.013 information of the induced air volume per cycle • From the diagram

V s = V a −Vc V s = V a − 0.05V s V a = 1.05V s

(1) VC

d

a v

VS

25

P

•

**From polytropic equation P1V d = P2Vc
**

⎛P ⎞ ⎛ 6 ⎞ 1.3 V d = V c ⎜ 2 ⎟ = (0.05V s )⎜ ⎟ ⎜P ⎟ ⎝ 1.013 ⎠ ⎝ 1⎠

n

1 1

n

n

c

b PV1.3 = C PV1.3 = C

V d = 0.196V s

(2)

•

3 Insert (1) and (2) in equation V a −V d = 0.0133 m

(1.05 − 0.196 ) s V

= 0.0133 m

3

d

a v

V s = 0.0156 m 3 or 15.6 litre

VC

VS

n −1 n

**ii. Delivery temperature, T2 can be determine using
**

⎛ 6 ⎞ T 2 = 288 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1.013 ⎠

1 .3 − 1 1 .3

T 2 ⎛ P2 ⎞ =⎜ ⎟ T 1 ⎜ P1 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

= 434 .6K or 161.6 o C

26

**iii. Indicated power can be determine using IP = • First, find mass induce per cycle
**

m =

n n −1

m R ( 2 − T1 ) T

•

P1 ( a −V d ) (1.013 × 100 ) × 0.0133 V = 0.0163 kg = RT 1 0.287 × 288

•

& Since it is double acting, m = 2 × N × m = 2 × 300 × 0.0163 = 9.78

kg

min

3 & using the value of V& = 8 m NOTE: we can straight away obtain m min & (1.013 × 100 ) × 8 kg & PV = 9 .8 m = 1 = min RT 1 0.287 × 288

IP =

n n −1

m R ( 2 − T1 ) = T

•

1 .3 9.78 × × 0.287 × (434 .2 − 288 ) 1 .3 − 1 60

IP = 29 .64kW

27

4.5

VOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCY, ηv

Volumetric efficiency is another definition to measure the performance of a compressor. The are two ways how to define volumetric efficiency: 1st definition: The ratio of the actual induced mass (mactual) in the cylinder with ideal induced mass at free air condition (mideal). Free air condition is basically the ambient condition

mactual = P1 ( a −Vd ) V RT 1

and

mideal =

PoV s RT o

Where

Po is the ambient pressure To is the ambient temperature

28

P

**So by first definition,
**

P1 ( a −Vd ) V P ( −Vd ) RT 0 V RT 1 ηv = = 1 a × P0V s RT 1 P0V s RT 0

p2

e

c

b PVn = C PVn = C

ηv

(V −Vd ) × P1 × T 0 = a

Vs P0 T1

p1

f

d

a v

**If assume P1 = Po and T 1 = T o , ηv
**

ηv =

(V −Vd ) = a

Vs

VC

VS

V s + Vc −V d V s Vc V d = + − Vs Vs Vs Vs ⎞ V ⎛ V ⎞ V ⎛V ηv = 1 + c ⎜1 − d ⎟ = 1 − c ⎜ d − 1 ⎟ ⎟ V s ⎜ Vc ⎟ V s ⎜V c ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠

(1)

29

n n Since P1Vd = P2Vc

⎛Vd ⎜ ⎜V ⎝ c

⎞ P ⎟ = 2 and therefore ⎟ P1 ⎠

n

Vd ⎛ P2 ⎞ n =⎜ ⎟ Vc ⎜ P1 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

1

**Insert the above equation to equation (1) and we get
**

1 ⎛ ⎞ ⎟ Vc ⎜ ⎛ P2 ⎞ n ηv = 1 − ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ − 1 ⎟ V s ⎜ ⎜ P1 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

NOTE: The above equation is only true when Po=P1 and To=T1

30

VOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCY, ηv

2nd definition: The ratio of the actual volume (Vactual) in the cylinder that is measured at free air condition with swept volume (Vs)

ηv = Vactual (at free air condition)

Vs

P1 ( a −Vd ) V RT 1 Po ( actual ) V RT o

**We know that actual mass induced is
**

mactual =

**If we measure actual mass induced at free air condition, it will be
**

mactual =

31

**Combining the two mathematical definition, we get
**

Po ( actual ) P1 ( a −Vd ) V V = RT o RT 1

Vactual = ( a −Vd ) × V

P1 T 0 × P0 T 1

Vs

(1)

**Insert equation (1) into ηv = Vactual (at free air condition)
**

ηv =

(Va −Vd ) × P1 × T 0

Vs P0 T1

Note that the equation above is the same the one in the first definition.

32

**FREE AIR DELIVERY (FAD)
**

The actual volume of air induced or delivered that is measured at free air temperature & pressure is called free air delivery (FAD). P T Looking back at, FAD is Vactual = FAD = ( a −Vd ) × 1 × 0 V P0 T 1

Where Po is the ambient pressure To is the ambient temperature

**For a single acting compressor, if N rpm, FAD can be defined as
**

V& V actual = FAD = ( a −V d ) × P1 T 0 × ×N P0 T 1

**For a double acting compressor,
**

V& V actual = FAD = ( a −V d ) × P1 T 0 × × 2N P0 T 1

33

EXAMPLE 4.4

A single stage, single-acting compressor delivers 3m3/min of air measured at pressure of 1.014bar and 23oC. During induction, pressure and temperature or air is 0.98 bar and 43oC respectively. Delivery pressure is 6.5 bar and crank speed is 358 rpm. The clearance volume is 5% of swept volume and the compression index is 1.3. Calculate i. Indicated power ii. Volumetric efficiency

34

SOLUTION

P 6.5 c b PV1.3 = C PV1.3 = C

We know: T 0 = 23o C @ 296K and P0 = 1.014 bar @ 101.4kPa T 1 = 43o C @ 316K and P1 = 0.98bar @ 98kPa 3 FAD = 3 m , N = 358 rpm and P2 = 6.5bar @ 650 kPa

min

i.

**Indicated power can be determine using n • IP = m R ( 2 − T1 ) T n −1 We know:
**

m =

•

0.98

d

a v

VC

VS

**Po × FAD = 101 .4 × 3 = 3.58 kg 0.287 × 296 min RT o T 2 ⎛ P2 ⎞ =⎜ ⎟ T 1 ⎜ P1 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠
**

n −1 n

**T2 can be determine using
**

⎛ 6 .5 ⎞ T 2 = 316 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 0.98 ⎠

1 .3 − 1 1 .3

= 489K

35

IP =

n n −1

m R ( 2 − T1 ) = T

•

1 .3 3.58 × × 0.287 (489 − 316 ) = 12 .84kW 1 .3 − 1 60

ii.

**@ FAD V& Volumetric efficiency can be determine using ηv = actual & Vs
**

P1 V&a −V& d We know: m = RT 1

•

(

)

& and m = 3.58

kg

min

, FAD = 3 m

3

min

3 & & −V& = m × R ×T 1 = 3.58 × 0.287 × 316 = 3.31 m Va d min P1 98

**Since N = 358 rpm, Va −Vd = From the diagram
**

V s = V a −Vc V s = V a − 0.05V c V a = 1.05V s

3.31 358

= 0.00925m 3

P c b

(1) d VC VS a v

36

•

**From polytropic equation P1V d n = P2V c n
**

⎛P ⎞ Vd = Vc ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎜P ⎟ ⎝ 1⎠

1

P P2 c b

n

⎛ 6 .5 ⎞ = (0.05V s )⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 0.98 ⎠

1 1 .3

V d = 0.214V s

(2) P1 d VC VS a v

•

3 Insert (1) and (2) in equation V a −V d = 0.00925 m

(1.05 − 0.214 ) s V

= 0.00925 m 3

V s = 0.011m 3 or 11 litre

**Since N = 358 rpm, V&s = 0.011 × 358 = 3.938 m min
**

3

ηv =

**V& actual @ FAD
**

& Vs

=

3 = 0.76 @ 76% 3.938

37

4.6

•

**MULTI-STAGING COMPRESSOR
**

When delivery pressure is increased to a higher value, several weaknesses were found:

1. 2. 3. Induce volume will become lesser Increase in delivery temperature Decrease of volumetric efficiency (FAD becomes lesser were else no change in Vs)

P p4 c” b”

p3

c’

b’

p2

c

b

p1

d

d’ d”

a V

•

To overcome those matter, multi-staging compressor is introduced

VC

VS

38

Coolant in P1,Ta Pi,Tb

Coolant out Pi,Ta P2,Tf

Intercooler

LP Compressor HP Compressor

It consist of more than one compressor where the air passes through an intercooler before entering the next compressor. The size of the next compressor is smaller to compromise Vs. In the intercooler, heat is transferred to the surrounding and temperature will decreased. It will be brought back to its inlet temperature (before induction process). It is assumed that all compressors will have the same polytropic index.

39

p

a-b b-e

: :

PVn=C compression Q from air to surrounding Temperature drops from Tb to Te. Ideally Te=Ta

P2

g

f

HP CPMPRESSOR

e-f :

PVn=C compression

Pi

c

h e

b

**Advantages: a. Slight increase in temperature b. Increase in volumetric efficiency c. Saving in work ( shaded area)
**

Vc P1

LP CPMPRESSOR

d

a

Vs

V

***NOTES: a. Since no mass is allow to escape during its travel, mLP = mHP b. If pressure ratio and the ratio of Vc/Vs is the same, volumetric efficiency for both compressor is the same.

40

EXAMPLE 4.5

In a single acting, two-stage reciprocating air compressor, 4.5 kg/min of air is compressed from 1.013 bar and 15oC surrounding conditions through a pressure ratio of 9 to 1. Both stages have the same pressure ratio, and the law of compression and expansion in both stages is PV1.3=C. The clearence volume of both stages are 5% of their respective swept volumes and it runs at 300 rpm. If intercooling is complete, calculate: i. Indicated power ii. Volumetric efficiency iii. Cylinder swept volumes required.

41

SOLUTION

We know: kg & m = 4.5 , N = 300rpm,T 1 = 288K and n = 1.3

P2 P P = 9 , 2 = i and T 1 = T e P1 Pi P1

min

p(bar) P2 g f

HP COMPRESSOR

Pi

c

h

e

b

LP COMPRESSOR

i.

**Indicated power can be determine using
**

IP = IP(HP ) + IP(LP ) P2 P2 Pi ⎛ Pi ⎞ = × =⎜ ⎟ =9 P1 Pi P1 ⎜ P1 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Pi = 9 =3 P1

IP(LP ) = n n −1

& × m × R ( i − T1 ) T

2

1.013 d a

Vc

Vs

V

42

⎛P ⎞ Ti =⎜ i ⎟ T 1 ⎜ P1 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

n −1 n

p(bar) P2 g f

T i = 288 (3)

IP(LP ) =

IP(LP ) =

1.3 −1 1 .3

= 371K

c

HP COMPRESSOR

n n −1

& × m × R ( i − T1 ) T

Pi

h

e

b

1 .3 ⎛ 4 .5 ⎞ ×⎜ ⎟ × 0.287 (371 − 288 ) = 7.74kW 1.3 − 1 ⎝ 60 ⎠

LP COMPRESSOR

IP(HP ) =

n n −1

n −1 n

& × m × R ( 2 − T e ) and T e = T 1 T

1.013

d

a

T 2 ⎛ P2 ⎞ =⎜ ⎟ T e ⎜ Pi ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

Vc

Vs

V

T i = 288 (3)

IP(HP ) = n

1.3 −1 1 .3

= 371K

1 .3 ⎛ 4 .5 ⎞ ×⎜ ⎟ × 0.287 (371 − 288 ) = 7.74kW 1.3 − 1 ⎝ 60 ⎠

n −1

& × m × R ( 2 −Te ) = T

IP = IP(HP ) + IP(LP ) = 7.74 × 2 = 15.48kW

43

ii.

Since pressure ratio for and the ratio of Vc:Vs is the same for both stages,

p(bar) P2 g f

ηv (LP ) = ηv (HP )

We know that air is induced at free air condition, so P1 = Po and T 1 = T o

Pi c

HP COMPRESSOR

h

e

b

ηv

(V −Vd ) × P1 × T 0 = a

Vs P0 T1

(V −Vd ) = a

Vs

1.013

LP COMPRESSOR

We know

& 4 .5 m m = = = 0.015kg cycle N 300

d

a

Vc

Vs

V

(Va −Vd ) = m × R ×T1

P1

=

0.015 × 0.287 × 288 = 0.01224 m 3 1.013 × 100

44

**From the diagram
**

V s = V a −Vc V s = V a − 0.05V c V a = 1.05V s

n

p(bar) P2 g f

HP COMPRESSOR

(1)

n

Pi c h e b

**From polytropic equation P1V d = PiVc
**

1 ⎛ Pi ⎞ 1 .3 V d = V c ⎜ ⎟ = (0.05V s )(3) ⎜P ⎟ ⎝ 1⎠ 1

n

LP COMPRESSOR

V d = 0.1164V s

1.013

(2)

Vc

d

a

Vs

V

3 Insert (1) and (2) in equation V a −V d = 0.01224 m

(1.05 − 0.1164 ) s V

= 0.01224 m 3

V s (LP ) = 0.013m 3 or 13 litres

ηv =

(Va −Vd )

Vs

=

**0.01224 = 0.94 or 94% 0.013
**

45

ii.

We already calculated Vs for LP compressor. Since volumetric efficiency for both stages is the same

p(bar) P2 g f

HP COMPRESSOR

ηv =

(Ve

Vs

−V h )

= 0.94

Pi

c

h

e

b

We know m (LP ) = m (HP ) and Pi = 3 × P1 = 3.039bar Te = T1

LP COMPRESSOR

(Ve

−V h ) =

**m × R ×T e = 0.015 × 0.287 × 288 3.039 × 100 Pi
**

3

1.013

d

a

= 0.00408 m

Vc

Vs

V

Vs =

(Ve

ηv

−V h )

=

0.00408 = 0.00434 m 3 or 4.34litres 0.94

***NOTES: Easier steps are shown in McConkey page 399-400

46

**IDEAL INTERMEDIATE PRESSURE
**

The value chosen for the intermediate pressure pi influences the work to be done on the air and its distribution between the stages. Minimum power happen when dW

⎧ n & ⎪⎛ P ⎞ & W = mRT 1 ⎨⎜ i ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ n −1 ⎪⎝ P1 ⎠ ⎩ We know T e = T 1

n −1 n

&

⎫ ⎧ n & ⎪ ⎪⎛ P ⎞ − 1⎬ + mRT e ⎨⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎪ n −1 ⎪⎝ Pi ⎠ ⎭ ⎩

dPi

=0

n −1 n

p(bar)

⎫ ⎪ − 1⎬ ⎪ ⎭

P2

g

f

HP COMPRESSOR

Pi

c

h

e

b

n −1 n −1 ⎧ ⎫ ⎛ P2 ⎞ n n & ⎪⎛ Pi ⎞ n ⎪ & W = mRT 1 ⎨⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ − 2⎬ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜P ⎟ n −1 ⎝ i ⎠ ⎪⎝ P1 ⎠ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭

LP COMPRESSOR

1.013

d

a

Vc

Vs

V

& n −1 dW ⎛ 2(nn−1 ) ⎞ n − ⎜P = (P1P2 ) ⎟=0 i dPi ⎝ ⎠

47

(P1P2 )

n −1 n

P1P2 = Pi

( )

2

⎛ 2 (nn−1 ) ⎞ = ⎜ Pi ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

or

Pi P2 = P1 Pi

(pressure ratio is the same for each stage)

**The total minimum work can be written as
**

n −1 n −1 ⎧ ⎫ ⎛ P2 ⎞ n n & ⎪⎛ Pi ⎞ n ⎪ & W = mRT 1 ⎨⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ − 2⎬ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜P ⎟ n −1 ⎝ i ⎠ ⎪⎝ P1 ⎠ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ n −1 ⎧ ⎫ n & ⎪⎛ P2 ⎞ 2n ⎪ & W = 2× mRT 1 ⎨⎜ ⎟ − 1⎬ ⎜ ⎟ n −1 ⎪⎝ P1 ⎠ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭

**So for compressor with Z stages, total minimum work is
**

n −1 ⎧ ⎫ n & ⎪⎛ P2 ⎞ Zn ⎪ & W =Z × mRT 1 ⎨⎜ ⎟ − 1⎬ ⎜ ⎟ n −1 ⎪⎝ P1 ⎠ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭

48

EXAMPLE 4.6

A three stage, single acting compressor running in an atmosphere at 1.013 bar and 15oC has an FAD of 2.83 m3/min. The induced pressure and temperature is 0.98 bar and 32oC respectively. The delivery pressure is 70 bar. Assuming complete intercooling, n =1.3 and that the machine is design for minimum work, calculate the indicated power required.

SOLUTION

& m =

(1.013 × 100 ) × 2.83 = 3.47 kg P0 × FAD = min 0.287 × (15 + 273 ) RT 0

n −1 1.3 −1 ⎧ ⎫ ⎧ ⎫ n & ⎪⎛ P2 ⎞ Zn ⎪ 1.3 ⎛ 3.47 ⎞ ⎪⎛ 70 ⎞ 3(1.3 ) ⎪ & =Z × mRT 1 ⎨⎜ ⎟ − 1⎬ = 3 × W − 1⎬ ⎜ ⎟0.287 × 288 ⎨⎜ ⎟ ⎜P ⎟ n −1 1.3 − 1 ⎝ 60 ⎠ ⎪⎝ 1 ⎠ ⎪ ⎪⎝ 0.98 ⎠ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭

& W = 24.2kW

49

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