Anniversary Book Project


Information Technology Web 2.0 Tools for Evaluation
By: Vinod Kanvaria Creative Commons License: CC BY-NC-ND Author contact: Author Biography: Vinod Kumar Kanvaria is currently an Assistant Professor in the Department of Education at the University of Delhi. Activity Summary

The current whitepaper will help learners to correlate educational evaluation with ICT. Providing brief relationship between evaluation and ICT, it talks of conceptual understanding of web 1.0, web 2.0 and web 3.0 tools. Though teachers and teacher educators may be willing to use and apply web 2.0 tools for evaluation purposes too, but the lack of knowledge about tools might be hindering this thought. Hence, a number of web 2.0 tools are explained which can be easily and effectively applied for evaluation purposes. Class or subject area: ICT for Teachers and Teacher-Educators (Pre-service and In-service) Grade level(s): Pre-service and In-service Teacher Education Course Specific learning objectives: • Learner will be able to develop an understanding of learning and evaluation. • Learner will be able to reflect upon relationship between ICT tools and evaluation. • Learner will be able to differentiate among web 1.0, web 2.0 and web 3.0 tools. • Learner will be able to get equipped with the knowledge of some web 2.0 tools for evaluation.

Abstract The concept of evaluation, by the time of its origin, has witnessed several layers of reformation as it reached to its current shape. While earlier, there was a onetime testing concept which had its roots in the standardized and model evaluation, the ingoing era has approached in transforming the concept in a continuous and comprehensive mode. Though this change, too, in the field of school education, arose after the inception of NCF 2005, but its vision can be found in NPE 1986. It dreams of evaluation to be a part of day-to-day interaction. Emphasis is given not only upon qualitative improvement, but upon relevance and validation of tools and procedures, too. It sees evaluation not merely as a testing (an after-the-fact quality check represented by a test score or grade) but a dayto-day continuous data on student performance measured in terms of how much qualitative time has been invested in interacting with materials, peers and teachers which is a learning process measure. Constructivism endeavours to provide a temporal-free, spatial-free, unbiased, fear-free, democratic, equal opportunity environment to the learners. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has made it possible to keep track of the record of each and everyday activity beginning from a single click to creating, sharing, discussing, comprehending, doubting, moderating, structuring and restructuring, editing and re-editing resulting in the text, images, pictures, audios, videos, animations etc. Evaluation of student learning process and performance in a learner-centred environment becomes a typical and sensitive task. ICT is helping in teaching-learning in general and evaluation in particular. Now-a-days, while we are shifting from web 1.0 tools to web 2.0 tools of ICT in order to provide childcentred platforms for learning, it has become essential to have interactive web 2.0 tools for evaluation of learning, too. The current whitewhitepaper deals with some web 2.0 tools which provide much more emphasis upon continuity and comprehensiveness of evaluation measures and procedures. A few of these tools are irubric, protagonize, rubistar, nota, polldaddy, r-campus, e-portfolio, survey monkey, schooltube and mahara. These tools provide a wider platform for inclusion of various means and modes of evaluation for better evaluation and make the evaluation much easier, handy, concrete, precise, relevant, valid, evidential and operational in 24 X 7 mode. Evaluation and learning Evaluation is any systematic procedure for gathering and analysing information in order to make instructional, administrative decisions (Wallace, Larsen & Elksnin,1992) and collecting information that can be used to make inferences about the characteristics of people or objects (Reynolds, Livingston & Willson, 2006). In the context of collection of information about children’s learning and progress, two things are important – first, to collect information from a variety of sources, and secondly, to use different methods or tools and techniques. The purpose of evaluation is to improve teaching-learning process and ultimately to gauge the extent to which the capabilities of learners have been developed (NCERT, 2005). This does not mean that tests and examinations will have to be conducted frequently. Well-designed evaluation and regular reporting provide learners with feedback and encourage them to learn further. They also serve to inform parents about the quality of learning and progress of their wards. This is not a means of encouraging competition among learners. The popular notion that evaluation should identify the needs of remediation is misleading. The term remediation needs to be restricted to learners having problem with literacy / reading or numeracy.

This is not a means of encouraging competition among learners. A good evaluation can become an integral part of the learning process and benefit both the learners themselves and the teachers by giving feedback. It is obvious that teachers use to observe the progress of their children regularly on informal basis. These informal observation no doubt, have immense implications for improving teaching-learning process and thereby children’s learning. There is, however, need for some periodicity in evaluation to help teachers reflect upon the information collected about learners. Thus, evaluation should be on daily basis as well as periodic. A brief about history of evaluation concept Concerned fraternity of educational field know the differences among evaluation, measurement and evaluation. These three concepts can be clearly understood by an example: we measure distance, we assess learning, and we evaluate results in terms of some set of criteria. These three terms are certainly connected, but it is useful to think of them as separate but connected ideas and processes. But, in the current whitewhitepaper we will use the terms evaluation as counterparts and continuum. The current face of the concept of CCE through regular evaluation has not evolved just in a single day in India. It has seen several gradual mentions in various reports, policies and concerns. Let us have a look on these: Kothari Commission (1964-66) pointed out that evaluation is a continuous process and forms an integral part of the total system of education, and is intimately related to educational objectives. Hence, techniques of evaluation should be valid, reliable, objective and practical and should follow varieties of techniques while assessing learners. National Policy on Education (1986) envisages the need for Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE) at all stages of school education that incorporates both scholastic and nonscholastic aspects of education, spread over the total span of instructional time. Programme of Action (1992) also reiterated the concept of CCE and called for preparation of a National Examination Reform Framework to serve as a set of guidelines to the examining bodies which would give the freedom to innovate and adopt the framework to suit the specific situation. National Curriculum Framework (2005) recommends continuous and comprehensive evaluation and suggests flexibility in the evaluation procedures at the school stages; and emphasized the evaluation tasks for the learners. RTE Act (2009) has made the use of CCE mandatory till elementary stage of education. Section 29 (1) states that curriculum and evaluation procedure shall make the child free from fear, trauma and anxiety by adopting CCE; and section 3 (1) highlights that no child shall be required to pass any Board examination till completion of elementary education. Hence, need to have a functional CCE scheme for schools. Hence, now when the CCE concept has reached a high place in the field of education, the day to day evaluation, too, has become essential to enter into the soul of it. A regular evaluation plays a vital and necessary role in this fashion. Not only individual performance is important but collaboration and co-operation are also important factor to be assessed. For this, keeping record of daily continuous

activities of learners is must and ICT is helping a lot in this manner. ICT is helping learners to inculcate the attitude of co-ordination and co-operation among them (Kanvaria, 2009), giving rise to need of transparency and openness in evaluation too. It is endeavouring to make not only learning but the evaluation too open, progressive and learner-centred. One may wonder about the readiness of teachers and students for use of ICT in the field of education. Kanvaria (2011) states, teachers as well as students are changing their attitudes towards ICT in schools and its integration in pedagogy, teaching and learning process. In a study on pre-service teachers for using ICT in schools, Kanvaria (2010) found that pre-service teachers found applying ICT interesting and helpful in learning of school students. ICT and evaluation ICTs can be understood as integration of information technology with communication technology. UNESCO (2002) defines ICTs as, “the combination of informatics technology with other related technologies, especially communication technology”. Informatics (computing design, realization, evaluation, use and maintenance of information processing systems including hardware, software, organizational and human aspects, and the industrial, commercial, governmental and political implications of these. Informatics technology is understood as application of informatics (computing science) in performing different tasks of industrial, commercial, governmental and educational sectors. Integration of informatics technology with communication technology refers to the application of information processing systems for the purpose of better communication and learning. ICTs are effective two–way communication technologies; they are available 24 hours a day; they remove geographical distances; and they shrink the relative costs of communication to a fraction of previous value (Gerster & Zimmermann, 2003). Examples of ICTs that contribute towards one way communication, two way communications and network based learning may be enlisted as Print, Audio communication (telephone), Photography, graphics, pictorials, Audio broadcast, Audio video telecast, Landline communication, Satellite communication, Wireless communication, E-mail, world wide web, Mobile learning. ICT (Kanvaria, 2010) does not only create data in a newer and handy form but also facilitates to observe it as many times as required. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), as every other innovative educational technology, has entered in the field of education with a little bit of ups and downs. And, by the time of writing this document, it has already achieved a remarkable place in almost every aspect of the education, through planning to implementation and evaluation. The prominent ICT tools for these purposes, which are in trend, are web tools. There, majorly, are web 1.0 tools, web 2.0 tools and web 3.0 tools. What are Web 1.0, Web 2.0 and Web 3.0? Web 1.0 In a few words, web 1.0 can be characterised by read only content, static HTML websites and navigation through the web. It was the earlier time, when websites were developed and maintained by the contributing agencies/owner for dissemination of the information. Nobody else was allowed to make any change in the content of web pages. Users could just navigate through the web pages, but were not allowed to make any alterations anywhere. These websites, once created, used to stay as it is for a long time period.

Web 2.0 Web 2.0 can be seen as user generated content, read-write web and blurred dividing line between contributor and consumer. Now a day, the consumer or user of the web is not merely passive reader of the content, but also has a freedom to generate the content on the webpage. One can write text, content, even pages over pages on some of the websites. Hence, the discriminating line between consumer and contributor is getting blurred day by day. One can play the role of consumer as well as contributor. Consumer participates, acts, shares, adds, discusses, agrees, disagrees and so on. Decisions are taken by the users. Web 3.0 Web 3.0 has advancement over the earlier two by characterising semantic web, personalization and behavioural advertising. This is the form of meaning making web. Even the same web page, when opened by different people, it gets opened in a different manner. In web 3.0, system collects data about the uses and trend of surfing by an individual and then personalises web page, on its own, for that particular page. It actually concludes about the behaviour of the user. Most of the decisions are taken and provided by the user. For an instance, while opening the Google homepage, everybody, now, gets the same page opened with the same links like web, orkut, image, gmail etc., while we hardly use all of these links. In web 3.0, if a link is not used for a longer period, web concludes that the link is neither useful nor important for you and decides to make that link disappeared. And hence, next time when the page is opened, those links, which are seldom used, temporarily will not appear on that webpage. Why do we need Web 2.0? Three major constraints in the field of education can be understood as: Temporal constraints: In most of the schools or educational institutions, the time of a class/lecture/ period is about 35 minutes to 55 minutes. And moreover, generally, learner has a chance to meet a particular teacher in that particular limited time slot, as other periods are booked for other individual teachers. So, a learner finds a lack of time to interact with particular teacher. Moreover, generally, if the school time is over or it is a holiday, it is almost impossible to communicate with a teacher. Hence, due to lack of time and such temporal constraints, one feels difficulty in sharing his/her problems with the teacher. The same constraint is a matter of evaluation too. It leads to the question, when to assess? Spatial constraints: In educational institutes, generally, a learner shares academic problems with the teacher within school premises. If a student is not in school/class, he/she finds problem in interacting with the teachers. Even if a teacher allows students to visit him/her at his/her place, it is not easier for all the students to visit teacher’s place, whenever getting an academic problem. Hence, spatial constraints play a crucial role in hindering facilitation of the learners. While entering in the field of evaluation, it gives rise to question, where to assess? Opportunity constraints: Likewise, within a small duration of 35 to 55 minutes, everybody can’t express his/her views. Everybody does not get equal opportunity in the class. Some students are over active and they ‘grab’ most of the time and those who feel shy or are unable to speak in public do not get opportunity to express them in the class. It becomes more vulnerable when it is matter of those,

who have linguistics and pronunciation problem. Hence, everybody does not get equal opportunity for sharing and expressing in the class, causing, generally, learning on the part of the learner. In case of evaluation, the question arises, whom to assess and how to assess? How to meet these constraints? Though these are fundamental constraints, as I see, pertaining to the educational and evaluation practices but, no ample solutions are found to meet these constraints. These become more important while dealing with the classroom situations. Hence, it is a big question, how to meet the challenges arisen by these constraints. Of course, there is no panacea available for these constraints but, an endeavour can be made to search the solutions through ICT. Web 2.0 tools can be one of the solutions for these constraints in educational practices, rather open educational practices. These tools provide a better solution for evaluation. Web 2.0 tools for evaluation For providing a learner-centered platform for evaluation, a few of web 2.0 tools are being discussed here. I-rubric I-rubric is a comprehensive rubric development, evaluation, and sharing tool. Designed from the ground up, i-rubric supports a variety of applications in an easy-to-use package. Best of all, iRubric is free to individual faculty and students. I-rubric School-Edition empowers schools with an easy-to-use system for monitoring student learning outcomes and aligning with standards. Rubrics are supposed to support student self-reflection and self-evaluation as well as communication between an assessor and those being assessed. In this new sense, a rubric is a set of criteria and standards typically linked to learning objectives. It is used to assess or communicate about product, performance, or process tasks. In simple words, an i-rubric is an authentic evaluation tool used to measure students’ work. It is a scoring guide that seeks to evaluate a student’s performance based on the sum of a full range of criteria rather than a single numerical score. Rubrics improve student performance by clearly showing the student how their work will be evaluated and what is expected. Rubrics help students become better judges of the quality of their own work. Rubrics allow evaluation to be more objective and consistent. Rubrics force the teacher to clarify his/ her criteria in specific terms. Rubrics reduce the amount of time teachers spend evaluating student work. Rubrics promote student awareness about the criteria to use in assessing peer performance. Rubrics provide useful feedback to the teacher regarding the effectiveness of the instruction. Rubrics provide students with more informative feedback about their strengths and areas in need of improvement. Rubrics accommodate heterogeneous classes by offering a range of quality levels. Rubrics are easy to use and easy to explain. When students are made aware of the rubrics prior to instruction and evaluation, they know the level of performance expected and they are more motivated to reach those standards. When students are involved in rubric construction, the assignment itself becomes more meaningful to the students. Rubrics can be used for both summative and formative evaluation. Rubrics make the learning target clearer. I-rubric helps teachers as well as learners to create, design and share rubrics. It makes evaluation more transparent and learner-centred.

Protagonize Protagonize began as an attempt to modernize the collaborative creative writing arena and inject a little Web 2.0 love to produce a better, more usable interface. Mix an underlying social network and that’s where we stand today. Protagonize has transitioned gradually from what was originally conceived as a game-like environment to a more widespread collaborative writing community that encourages constructive feedback and critique. Protagonize hoping to attract existing real-life local writing communities and programs as well, and provide them with an online presence for their members on an already writing-oriented site, as opposed to using more generic social networking tools or platforms. This tool has proved to be a boon for assessing especially languages and social sciences. Collaboration and co-operation are thought to be an immense importance in social constructivism. And, Protagonize provides a temporal-free platform for the collaboration and cooperation among learners. Rubistar Rubistar is another free online tool, for teachers that allow them to easily make rubrics for all sorts of evaluations. The teachers can create rubrics for presentations, interview assignments, class debates and many more class activities. It is a free tool to help teachers create quality rubrics. Rubistar is aimed to create a common framework and language for evaluation, to provide students with clear expectations about what will be assessed as well as standards that should be met, to increase the consistency and objectivity of evaluating performances, products and understanding, to give students guidance in evaluating and improving their work. Rubistar can be used to create quick and easy rubrics for projects, essays, etc. Rubrics can be shared with other teachers. Administrators can use these rubrics for teacher evaluation purposes as well. Students can make their own rubrics to set standards and goals for themselves. It is a free tool for teachers. One can easily register. It can be made interactive. It is easy to use. It can be changed according to subject matter. It provides detailed feedback. For subjective assignments, it makes grading more concrete. Students know what is expected of them before they submit their work. Nota Nota is a web 2.0 tool. It is a unique, cutting-edge collaborative web platform which allows users to create, share and collaborate on presentations and virtually any other form of online material. Using nota’s proprietary toolset, users can instantly integrate text, video, maps, clip art, photos from web album or on the local computer, or license-free images from flickr, and material from an everexpanding array of sources. Users can then instantly embed their work in Facebook or blogs, and can share and collaborate with friends. Nota is very useful online collaborative tool for learner. Nota is a creative way to show what student has learned through a research or a lesson plan. The most appealing aspect of nota is the access students have to the web while their project. Copious amount of information can be placed in their collage with the click of a button. For example suppose student has to create pages on system approach to education. He/ she can immediately gather lots of information using this software tool. Not only this, one can also post pictures, graphics, supportive videos etc. using this tool. One may be able to use any or many of the other web tools like flickr, picasa, e-browser, wikipedia, google, live

journal, you tube also to support the assignment. One can easily share his/her work, if one wants. Nota can also be used by the teachers to share and give updated information to the students if no room is available for meeting frequently or discussing many things in a limited time and space. PollDaddy Polldaddy is a web-based program that can be used to develop and deliver online polls, surveys and quizzes. While specifically designed for creating surveys, the site can easily be utilized to create online quizzes for a course. It is a Web 2.0 tool which promotes social, collaborative and sharing approach to learning. Integration of various internet tools effectively is necessary for effective education. Teaching professionals and learners use their favourite tools to create, present, store information in different formats. Tests/ quizzes are taken and graded online and shared online too. Online assignments are generated quickly according to the specifications given by the teacher. Polls provide different opportunities for gauging readers opinions compared to just asking questions in blog posts. Not all readers feel comfortable leaving comments in responses to questions. A poll means readers can express their opinion while maintaining their anonymity. They also provide visitors to their blog the chance to gain a sense of how their readers feel on topics since most online poll tools display the results once a visitor has voted. Teachers can create a survey to collect student’s feedback on the course. It compiles the results instantly, allowing us to focus on making improvements. It saves a lot of time and energy. Polldaddy offers three different plans that include Free, Pro, and Pro 2. Members enrolled in the free feature have access to unlimited polls, with a link to polldaddy that can be found on the poll. Free members get unlimited surveys, but the responses are little bit limited. R-campus R-campus is a comprehensive Education Management System and a collaborative learning environment. At r-campus, one can do all school-related work from building personal and group websites to managing courses, e-portfolios, academic communities, and much more. R-campus is a free tool for teachers and students to manage personal and group websites, courses, e-portfolios, e-learning, rubrics, courseware, clubs, faculty groups, classes, grades, evaluations, etc. Through this platform they can connect with tutors and exchange books with other students. No membership fee or annual fee for teachers, students and academic groups. Conveniently account can be accessed from anywhere 24X7 using any computer with an internet connection. Users can quickly access various tools using a single login. One can keep account and all content with it for as long as the need is there. Nothing to download, or install, so, nobody is stuck with a particular computer and one don’t have to worry about computer’s memory size. All information is protected, including email addresses. It provides users with their own secure contact form to shield contact information. It helps expanding collaboration environment using online community builder. It consists of access-to-many and easy-to-use tools which require no training. Moreover, it saves time by copying or learning from member-contributed materials. It can be seemed as mini learning management system. Due to its multi-functionality, it is being used as one of the best integrated evaluation tool.

E-portfolio E-portfolio is a digitalized collection of artefacts, including demonstrations, resources and accomplishments that represent an individual, group, community, organization or institution. This collection can be comprised of text-based, graphic, or multimedia elements archived on a Website or on other electronic media such as cd-rom or dvd. E-Portfolio can also be defined as personalized, web based collections of work, responses to work, and reflections that are used to demonstrate key skills and accomplishments for a variety of contexts and time periods. When describing the many uses of e-portfolios, e-portfolios have six major functions. They are used to plan educational programs, document knowledge, skills, abilities, and learning, track development within a program, find a job, evaluate a course and monitor and evaluate performance. Student e-portfolios were born out of faculty-assigned, print-based student portfolios dating back to the mid-80s (typically in art-related programs and in disciplines with significant writing components, such as English and communication studies) and gained prominence in higher education during the mid-90s. In the printed mode, as well as in today’s electronic mode, students basically collected their work, selected examples to showcase, and reflected on what they learned. Observing its learner-centeredness, this tool can be used for comprehensive evaluation through a regular periodic evaluation. Survey Monkey Survey monkey provides a platform for surveys by allowing users for creating and upgrading accounts, designing surveys, collecting responses, analysing data, and managing accounts. The data collected is kept private and confidential. User is the owner of the data collected or uploaded into surveys. Whenever evaluation is needed to be performed through questions like MCQ, it is the best tool. School Tube Schooltube provides a space on the Internet for teachers and students to post videos for the classroom. Like many other video-sharing websites, schooltube lets users upload videos they create. Schooltube, however, moderates these videos to ensure they contain only school-appropriate material. The site also allows teachers to set up a channel for class materials that students can access and contribute to, making it a safe place to share schoolwork while helping students use the Internet. In the 21st century, everyone should be afforded the opportunity to see what is happening in their community. Schooltube offers all the schools a chance to do just that with categories to showcase news, contemporary issues, sports and the performing arts. Students can be motivated to create videos while they are learning. For an instance, especially that work which requires more skills to be used and demonstrated may be captured into videos. Suppose process of drawing a circle is needed to be evaluated. Student may be told to create videos through collaboration while they are drawing circles. Or, they may create videos for explaining how actually they have solved a particular problem. And, these videos can be uploaded on Schooltube and used

for better evaluation as an integral part of learning. Mahara Mahara is a fully featured web application to build your electronic portfolio. One can create blogs, upload files, embed third- party resources from the web and collaborate with other users in groups. Its objective can be viewed as enhancing and complementing the overall environment by a learnercentred personal learning environment, providing a good e-portfolio system. It allows users to create folder and subfolder structures, upload multiple files quickly and efficiently, give each file a name and description, manage their file allocation quota, create blog posts, attach files to posts, embed images into postings, configure whether or not comments may be received, create draft postings for later publishing, create and use social networking, create and maintain a list of friends, create digital CV by entering information into a variety of optional fields, share details through a variety of optional profile information fields including preferred name, student ID, postal address and contact phone numbers, Skype, MSN Yahoo and Jabber name, introduction, profile icons images. Mahara is learner- centred rather than institution centred, provides provision for variety of features, provision to access website in six different languages, option for placing feedback, some samples and a video placed for better understanding, provision for demo site which resets after every 24 hours and above all provision for a safe, education- focussed social networking environment. Conclusion IT, ICT and web 2.0 tools have proved their importance and indispensability in teaching-learning process and almost the entire educational system. Keeping in mind their reach in this era of globalisation, educational fraternity too will have to explore more and more ways to use the power of ICT in various fields of education including evaluation. Web 2.0 tools create a temporal-free, spatialfree environment providing maximum opportunity to all its users. Since these tools allow learners and teachers, both, opportunities for designing, creating, sharing, engaging, exploring, exchanging, explaining, elaborating, judging, collaborating texts, pictures, images, audio, videos pertaining to learning and teaching making it more process-focussed rather than product-focussed alongwith providing more validity, authenticity and evidences for learning, hence can be used in best possible way for evaluation in this era of CCE.

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