# A Chopper-fed DC motor Drive

EN0718: Computer aided methods for Engineers
Dr. Sean Danaher Dr. Milutin Jovanovic

Thilina Tippalagama 07029341

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MSc Electrical Power Engineering 13th November 2008
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1. Summary
One way to control a machine is to use a PI controller. This assignment shows a generic PI controller being used to drive DC machine rated at 5HP. The project discusses the functionality of the controller and its tuning method, also analyses the motors transients under various operating conditions such as sudden torque increase, decrease and speed increase, decrease. The pre-tuned values in the PI controller should be optimal for the best performance. So under these conditions it can be measured whether the performance is acceptable or not. The PI controller uses a simple technique, which to derive the error in the system and use a corrective action to eliminate the error. PI stands for proportional-Integral, which means the input error signal is proportionally multiplied and integrally summed to create the corrective action. The motor gives as outputs, the speed and the armature current, these are monitored and using reference signals the controller manipulate armature current to reach set point. The results shown in the report mainly discuss the speed changes but where relevant the armature current is shown also for clarifying purposes. The discussion ends with improvements that can be carried out to make the model more realistic. Also explains the adverse behaviour of a PI control system and how to avoid such.

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2. This project uses MATLAB for the simulation and analysis. 1998). The PI controller in the created model has to be tuned. it is a highly developed mathematical modelling system that enables anyone to analyse any situations ranging from a simple bouncing ball to a complex electrical circuit. The results obtained will conclude which parameters can be employed in PI controller under the specific conditions and will give results on what to expect under the specified circumstances. 3 . The requirements in the control circuit are constant speed high response to load change with minimal time and control of armature current to inhibit high inrush currents to avoid damage. The highly developed software capable of modelling real life scenarios can give accurate results without having to spend a lot of capital for experiments. Being an Engineer it is crucial that he can manage many software packages and also keen in quickly grasping new software packages while working. DC motors are widely accepted in the industry due to their speed controlling capabilities (Alerich & Herman. Introduction Using computers to analyse current problems and find solutions has become a day to day task for Engineers. once tuned the model is simulated under different speed conditions and load conditions to compare its performance. The topic “A Chopper-fed DC motor drive” looks into the theory behind a simple but a versatile DC motor drive which benefits from a PI controller unit.

steady state drive and deceleration are discussed. The objective is to demonstrate a PID controller based DC chopper unit in MATLAB. At the end of the report a basic DC motor control method is elaborated and its operating characteristics are demonstrated. Find correct tuning parameters and simulate the system under different transient conditions until satisfactory results are obtained. which includes constant load and load dependent on speed of the motor. objectives & deliverables Aim of the assignment is for the student to familiarise engineering oriented commercially available software packages and apply thought knowledge and solve problems using the software. the effects of acceleration. Also a PID controllers suitability for this application type. For the demonstrated plots. Aims. 4 .3.

3. Discussions and conclusions 7. Real load considerations 5. Content 5. Introduction 3. Content 1. Appendices 2 3 4 5 6 6 9 10 20 21 22 23 24 5 . Tuning the PI controller 5. A Chopper-fed DC motor Drive 5. Aims.2.1. Performance analysis 5. objectives & deliverables 4. Summary 2. Control theory and Simulink Modelling 5.5.4.4. Further improvement ideas 6. Bibliography 8.

The PID controllers are widely used in the industry. simple yet powerful. DC controller used for this simulation uses a PI controller since the noisy inputs such as speed will cause stabilization errors. Drive unit and motor unit. The proportional piece in the controller determines the amount of reaction for the resulted error.5. For Simulink modelling the circuit has been divided in to three sections. The motor model used is a preset model available in MATLAB. The model relies on the armature speed to generate an error based on the reference speed. A. According to the requirement the controller may be PI or PID. A buck converter based topology is used to drive the motor circuit. Together they will output a control signal which acts to eliminate if not minimise the error (Buxbaum. Control unit. They are robust in design. Integral piece gives the sum of errors to eliminate a steady state error and the differential piece gives the reaction based on the rate of change of input. A chopper-fed DC motor drive 5. Fig. which has 5HP at 1750RPM. 1990). The name stands for Proportional-Integral-Differential controller. This resulted error signal is compared with armature current to decide to switch off the supply or not using an IGBT. Based on the steady state equivalent circuits a DC machine can be represented this way..1. 1 6 . with a field of 300V and 240V armature voltage. Control theory and Simulink modelling. this will ensure a smooth current flow through the armature circuit regardless of the chopping of input power.

armature circuit and torque/speed. The block has output for the rotation speed.The Simulink block representing the DC machine is a separately excited machine with inputs for field circuit. The Counter ElectroMotive Force (CEMF) is proportional to speed.2595 rad/s 7 .7)𝑤 = 𝐿𝑎𝑓 × 𝐼𝑓 × 𝐼𝑎 × 𝜔 𝐹𝑖𝑒𝑙𝑑 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑒 300𝑉 [4] 𝑇𝑒 𝜔 = 𝐶𝐸𝑀𝐹 × 𝐼𝑎 and 𝑃 = 𝐶𝐸𝑀𝐹 × 𝐼𝑎 𝑒 Number of horsepower = 5hp Armature-field mutual inductance = 0. [2] The electromagnetic torque developed by the machine is proportional to armature current.9483 H Field current = 𝑓𝑖𝑒𝑙𝑑 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 = 281. (ℎ𝑝 × 745. armature current and electromagnetic torque. Out of the mentioned equations only 𝑃 = 𝐶𝐸𝑀𝐹 × 𝐼𝑎 can be used for calculations since 𝑒 the technique employed to control the DC motor is not linear (Chopping). pp 89-92). the constant is voltage constant. Using the above equations and 𝑃 = 𝜔 𝑇. The equations for the machine are as follows (Krause. two separate equations can be found [3] The first equation shows torque and speed is proportional to current and the second can be used to find the rated current for the given motor. 𝐶𝐸𝑀𝐹 = 𝐾𝑣 𝜔 𝐾𝑣 = 𝐿𝑎𝑓 𝐼𝑓 𝑇𝑒 = 𝐾𝑣 𝐼𝑎 [1] Being a separately excited machine the voltage constant is a product of armature-field mutual inductance and field current. 1995. the constant is named as voltage constant.3Ω = 1.0664 A Rated speed = 1750RPM = 183.

The relay employs hysteresis to allow a certain tolerance between reference current and armature current. Motor speed is given into the PI controller which produces a reference signal for armature current. A diode is attached to enable freewheeling of current and the inductor lowers the rise rate and fall rate of current.118A. the field voltage of 240V is connected through a IGBT (for high speed switching). For this application these values will be considered as the maximum ratings and the controller will not crossover them. The model developed in Simulink is as follows. ignoring the losses.By using the values for the above expression the rated armature current can be found as 20. Fig. The torque at the rated speed will be 20. Once the model has been setup the PI controller needs to tuned properly for optimum results. 8 .35 Nm. The model will be started under steady state to avoid reverse rotation due to initially applied constant torque. the relay compares these signals and switches on/off the circuit so that armature current will follow the reference signal. 2 The separately excited machine is given a field voltage on 300V.

The resulting Kp and Ki values were 80 and 950 respectively. data book was checked and it was found that it allowed proportional amplification up to x103 and integral amplification up to x105 For the assignment trial and error method was used. The Ki value multiplies the sum of errors for the duration of its operation. So the target values were to minimise over shoot. The overshoot did not eliminate even though the switch cut-off current completely. Also higher gain values produce a significant amount of noise. This can be assumed the effect of inertia the motor is inheriting with. higher values produce overshoot but greater response. minimum settling time and low noise. During a change in the load or speed the machine settled in to new set point within 500ms. Since the error signal produced can go way beyond ratings of a machine saturation limits has been imposed. In the model extremely high values for Kp and Ki can be used since there is no means of physical limitations. Other methods such as software tools are used since it eliminates the need of experienced personnel. this is not favourable. 3 There are few methods to tune a PI controller. 9 . Keeping the Kp value at zero the Ki was increased until a acceptable high oscillation was encountered. Stanford Research Systems SIM960. Then Kp value was increased until a acceptable overshoot with a minimal stabilization time was reached. It was noted more the values are increased the higher stabilisation time reached but it is obvious in practical situations these values may yield instability. The Kp value is responsible for the gain in the reaction for the resulting error.2. Tuning the PI controller Fig.5. the foremost being trial and error. To clarify the limits in amplification an industrial PID controller.

it shows a marginal overshoot with a small settling time for higher speeds.Fig. The next graph shows the armature current for this speed setting (0 rad/s). 4 The machine response is quick and acceptable. The interesting case observed is for the speed setting of 0 rad/s. the machine is in a complete stop. The torque applied is equally proportional to the torque generated thus the machine is in a braked situation. Fig. 5 11 . this shows the PI settings are acceptable for this condition.

Except for the unloaded condition. 10Nm. no overshoot was observed for other load conditions. meaning the system cannot operate for torque loads ≥20Nm.8A and the armature current oscillating ±0. This oscillation region is the hysteresis setup in the relay. The zoomed region shows for the reference current of 9. The acceleration decreases with increasing torque and at 20Nm the machine does not accelerate there for the speed was 0 rad/s. In the next graph the machine is started to a set speed under different loading conditions. 15Nm and 20Nm The set speed is 120 rad/s. Fig. 0Nm.This shows that the machine is absorbing ~9.8A to hold its shaft from spinning. The loading conditions are as follows. 5Nm. 12 . The PI controller is at its upper limit of 20A (machine rating).5A from that value. 6 The highest acceleration time is shown for 0Nm as expected.

Step up of speed is shown in the Fig. but the response is very quick and desirable. it will be stepped by 10 rad/s. 8 shows the armature current for 4th series in Fig. 7 (10Nm torque at 75 rad/s. step up of speed to 150 rad/s at 1.Change of speed for different loads. for them the torque load applied is fixed at 10Nm and the starting speed 75 rad/s.3s from the initiation of the simulation. 7 The results are similar to the earlier graphs. below its maximum limit. the limitation imposed to acceleration is the limitation on current. 55 rad/s and 75 rad/s at 1. 13 .3s). step up and step down. A noticeable feature in the armature current is that for a given torque the amount of current consumed is almost constant regardless of its steady state speed. 7 Fig. 25 rad/s. Two graphs will be produced for this analysis. Fig. and this can be more accurate if the losses are neglected.

Fig. only decreasing instead of increasing. The used values are same as before. 8 The Fig. 9 14 .Fig. 9 shows stepping down of speed.

the loads are changed by 2Nm.3s when the machine is at 120 rad/s and already pulling 10Nm torque load. 12 16 . This particular graph shows increasing of torque load. 6Nm and 9Nm.Fig. stepping at 1. 4Nm. 11 Change of load torque for a given speed The next two graphs show the system being subjected to load variations. Fig.

the applied torque accelerates motor until they reach equilibrium. The applied torque is 5Nm. Where the reference speed is negative.The response from the controller is so immediate the motor was not subjected to a noticeable speed drop. The crude system employed cannot run the motor in both directions. 14. So the reference speed must be smaller than this equilibrium. consider a situation for a negative speed. where the motors maximum current limit needs to be violated if needed continue at same speed. This is shown in Fig. The equilibrium speed for these conditions depends on the applied torque. So the only possibility is a load driven condition. 13 Further extending the analysis. Fig. Except for the 9Nm torque increase. Fig. 15Nm and 19Nm 17 . 13 shows the change of current in the armature even though the speed response in negligible for a torque increase of 6Nm. 10Nm.

Fig.3s. at 1. This overshoot is large compared to the positive speeds. 14 From this consider 2nd series. initially. 16 shows a zoomed graph at 1. 15 shows the results and Fig. 18 . 16 shows this clearly. And during the increase in torque the speed change is noticeable. It will not be decreased because the resulting equilibrium speeds are lesser than reference speed. Keeping the reference speed as -20 rad/s and a torque of 10Nm. The respective values are 5Nm and 10Nm increase.Fig.3s the torque is increased. There is a small overshoot before motor stabilise. Fig. the minimum negative speed attained by the motor is -25 rad/s.

Fig. 15 Fig. 16 19 .

18 20 . Fig. 17 shows the modified circuit for this simulation. Fig. 17 Fig. For these applications torque is proportional to the square of speed. 18 shows the maximum speeds the machine achieved for different k values. Real load considerations This section looks at a load that is dependent on speed. typical applications are fan or pumps.5. 𝑇 = 𝑘 𝜔2 𝑇 ∝ 𝜔2 The maximum value that can be used for k must be determined for a specific condition (speed). Fig.4.

the response curve is given in Fig. On the load side the load can be made more similar to a real life load. For values for k. if the reference speed is set to 120 rad/s. 21 . Further improvement ideas The model used for the simulation is in its crude form can be greatly improved. So the resulting torque from the above equation must be less than saturation limit.0005. The topology of the control signal can be changed to Pulse-Width-modulation. 19 5.The reason for the motor to reach equilibrium point (200 rad/s) before the reference point is because the current saturates at 20A and in order to achieve the set speed greater current must be applied. friction etc. Improvements include bi-directional speed control. with inertia. from previous simulations it is known roughly at about 20Nm the machine is unable to even continue at constant speed. Also this could be investigated to eliminate the need of external inductor. This will yield the true potential of the system operation capabilities.5. which requires a H-bridge drive and it also raises the possibility of forced braking of the motor (sudden stop). 19 Fig. this will allow for a digital controller to be employed and greater control. around 0.

Important feature of a PI controller is its saturation limits on Integral portion. Without the saturation the integral value (in a large error) becomes dominant and controller error signal deviates from its intended purpose. providing good rapid response. so a particular set of tuned parameters are only optimal for that specific values. especially showing no speed drops for additional torque loading. and they are widely used in the industry. PID controllers are a generic closed loop control system. The argument was. the speed can be kept constant independent of other parameters (without violating maximum ratings). a hard saturation occurs. This is termed in the industry as integral wind up. rigid but powerful and flexible. 2007). 22 . With a properly tuned PI controller attached to a specific process such as the DC motor. in the system the integral is limited with saturation (Vandoren. The system. The gain values are different for any given condition. High gain values ensure quick response and low settling time but this is not practical since these lead to oscillations in the system. was tuned using trial & error method. The only lacking feature was the inability to brake. The tuned system coped extremely well for tested load and speed conditions. the speed controllability is a key factor in them. demonstrated here. The system managed both positive and negative speeds. Discussions and conclusions DC motors are very versatile.6. the model can be used for accurate assessment of performance that’s found in real life scenarios. if the tuning is optimal for the starting then it will be smooth for any change in its operating conditions. With further improvements. also limiting factors can be mechanical strain being implied on the machine. Though new control methods emerge PID controllers will still thrive in the control industry because they are simple.

Dubey. (1995) Analysis of electric machinery. Available at: http://www. Delhi: Narosa Krause & Paul. S. New York: Delmar Boylestad. (1977) D. Mycheal. Vandoren. N. (1989) DC/AC : The basics. A. A.C. London: McGraw-Hill. (1994) Fundamentals of electrical drives. (2007) Three faces of PID. Control Engineer. W. Bibliography Alerich. Buxbaum. R. (1998) Electric motor control. & Herman.com/ (Accessed. V. K. 6th edn. New York: SpringerVerlag. L. machines.7. New York: IEEE press. 2nd edn. London: Merrill. 12/11/2008). (1990) Design of control systems for DC drives.conrtoleng. C. 23 . G.

SIM960 analogue PID controller data sheet 24 . Appendices SAS.8.