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Relief Camp Management Manual

Contents
Page 1. Introduction 2. Setting up Relief Camp 3. Shelter- School Building, Community Hall, Makeshift/Tent. 4. General Administration of Relief Camp 5. Guiding Principle of Management of Relief Camp 6. Basic Facilities (a) Light & Generator Set (b) Water (c) Sanction (d) Food- Storage & Distribution (e) Clothing (f) Medical & Psychological Support 7. Special care for Women, Children, Physically Challenged & Elderly People 8. Vermin Control 9. Security 10. Media Management 11. Donation from Public & Voluntary Organizations 12. Documentation & Reporting 13. Closure of the Camp 14. Annexures

Introduction

Whilst Relief camps are option of last resort, they sometimes the only choice for the temporary provisions of protection & assistance to displaced population due to natural disaster. Those who have lost properties, have lived through traumatic events and are suddenly left outside of the safeguards of their communities, Relief Camp offers a safe place where they can receive medical treatment, food, shelter, protection & medical treatment. It is extremely challenging to effectively manage the highly crowded and adhock settlement of camps where numbers of people come and leave daily. In such backdrop a manual containing guidelines and easy to follow steps become more relevant and necessary. These guidelines have been formulated to assist District and Sub-Divisional Civil Administration and also to non state sector and civil society for effective and smooth management of Relief Camps. Guideline has been designed based on field experiences, best practices followed globally and in tune with the legal provisions in National and International laws. Camp management is dynamic and strive for promoting a holistic approach for physical, psychological, cultural, social and emotional well being of camp inhabitants by establishing and maintaining an inclusive overview of many aspects and stakeholders involved in the life of a camp. Guidelines are illustrative and have their own limitations. Decisions may be taken by the Camp Management Authorities as per demand of the situation, within the larger framework of guiding principles incorporated in the manual.

2. Setting up of Relief camp

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On receipt of report from revenue Officials, the DC/SDO(C) will order to setup relief camp in already identified locations as per District/ Sub-divisional plan for Disaster management. In case new location is selected for camp due to unavoidable circumstances, following points should be considered.

(a)

Camp site should preferably be in existing built up accommodation like School building or a Community hall. (b) It should be located at a safe place which are not vulnerable to landslides, flood etc. (C) Site should only be accessible by motor vehicle. (d) Adequate arrangement for roads, parking, drainage, lighting etc should be made. (e) The site should not be prone to endemic diseases like malaria, Japanese Encephalitis etc. (d) Wide publicity should be given about the location of the camp and affected people should be evacuated and brought to the camp. 3. Emergency relief materials which include drinking water, food, bedding(mattresses, sheets, blankets), baby food, mosquito repellents etc should be arranged as early as possible. 4. Control room/ helpdesk should be setup in the relief camp immediately. 5.Proper planning, preparedness and rehearsal would make the arrangement fast & smooth.

3.Shelter
1. The shelter should be such that people have sufficient space for protection from adverse effects of the climate. 2. Ensure sufficient warmth, fresh air, security and privacy for their health and wellbeing. 3. The covered area available per person should be on an average 3.5 to 4.5 square meter. 4. Each family should be provided separate tent 5. In warm & humid climates, proper ventilation & protection from direct sunlight must be ensured. 6. If plastic tents or sheeting are available, provision of an insulating layer or a double skinned roof may be considered. 7. Tents should not be constructed too closely together and reasonable distance should be kept between the camps to provide some form of privacy. 8. Priority should be given to widows and women headed households, disabled and elderly people in tent/room distribution. 9. Temporary shelter should neatly be planned and made. It should not look like cattle sheds than human dwelling. 10. Tents with slanting sides should be avoided as they leave no space for mobility. Tents with ventilation facilities may be provided to the people.

4. General Administration of the Camp

1. A technical person, preferably from electricity or PWD(E) department should be detailed as supervisor to check the proper lighting arrangement in and around the compound and also to supervise the operation and maintenance of generator set. 2. Candle and match box should be provided in every room / tent. 3. Petromax or emergency light should be arranged in sufficient numbers in the camp. 4. Approach to toilet and water source should properly be illuminated. 5. Generator set of required capacity should be installed in the Relief Camp and operator must be detailed for 24 hours. 6. A register should be maintained by the operator in the Format as prescribed in Annexure D 7. Adequate arrangement for illumination inside and outside of camp should be made.

1) supply in the camp. 2) A separate register should be maintained in the camp by the officer responsible for water supply and it should be countersigned daily by the Camp Officer. 3) One Bucket, one Jerican or water container and one mug should be provided to every family to store the water for drinking, cooking etc. 4) Format of the Register for water supply in the camp at Annexure . 5) Ideally one hand pump should be installed against 200 persons. 6) Hand pumps or water tanks should be minimum 20 ft away from the toilets. 10).Daily sample of water from tanks, taps & other water sources should be collected and analysed in the District lab of PHE deptt. Corrective measures should be taken as per result of water analyses. 11).Commercially available water filter should preferably be installed. Makeshift arrangement water purification may be avoided. 12) Separate bathing units must be constructed for male & female.

Sanitations
1) 2) Ideally there should be one toilet for 20 persons. Toilet should be minimum 10 mtrs and maximum 50 mtrs away from shelter/ tent/ room.

3).

For waste disposal, one communal pit of 2mX5mX2m of size for every 500 persons should be dug. Each family should be provided one soap of 100 gram per week. Separate toilets should be constructed for men & women and these toilet blocks should be separately be located at reasonable distance. Sufficient light arrangement should be made in toilets. Approach from camp to toilets should be also properly illuminated. Toilet should be cleaned at least twice in a day.

4). 5).

1) 2) 8) 9)

Sufficient stock of bleaching powder, harpic and other items should be maintained. 10) One officer must separately be detailed to supervise regular cleaning and maintenance of the toilets. 11) Requirement of disinfectants should be assessed regularly & sufficient stock of it for week should be maintained in the camp. 12) A stock register should be maintained by the officer i/c about disinfectant and other cleaning materials and it should daily be verified and countersigned by the Camp Officer. 13) Format of Register for maintenance of cleanliness in and around camp and toilets is prescribed as Annexure .

(d) Food - Storage & Distribution

1) Initially for few days cooked food should be arranged for the camp inhabitants. Utensils and cook may be hired from open market for coding of the fund. 2) Preferably disposable plates and glass may be used to serve the food and water for hygienic reasons. 3) As far as practicable Food Inspector must be detailed to certify the food items before they are served. 4) Reputed and trusted Voluntary Organizations may be allowed to assist in cooking and distribution of meals but the Relief Officer / Camp Officer will remain ultimately responsible for all arrangements. 5) If cooked meal is not served dry food like , rice, salt, pulse etc. may be distributed for one week as per scale given below :a. b. c. d. e. Adult - 400 12 year 250 Pulse - 70 Salt - 20 Mustard Oil - 30 grams rice per head per day. grams rice per head per day. grams per head per day. grams per head per day. ml. per head per day.

6) In case cooked meal is provided to the inhabitants, above mentioned scale may be maintained.

Storage of Food

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a) Designated dry well- ventilated area in the Relief Camp for storage of Food items. b) Storage should be free from rodents and insects. c) Boxes/ bags must not lie directly on floor. Use pallets, boards or heavy branches, or bricks underneath piles. d) Keep products at least 40 cm away from the wall and do not stock them too high. e) Pile the bags/ boxes two by two crosswise to permit ventilation. In this way, they are steadier and easier to count. f) Keep damaged boxes/ bags away from the undamaged ones. g) Maintain updated stock in the register as prescribed in Annexure E

1)

Distribution of Food & Relief As forAid practicable and as per available space as
cooked food may be served in hall or one place for

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convenience of cleaning, hygienic, disposal of waste and smooth arrangement. 2) Person perceived to be with political background should not be engaged for distribution of food and other relief materials. 3) Sufficient counters with strong barricade may be made for distribution of relief articles and dry food like rice, pulse, salt etc.as it is made during general election for distribution of election materials. 4) Display board should be hanged on each of the counter showing Village name or ticket serial numbers of Ticket already distributed to the families during the registration. 5) Separate que may be allowed for women infirm & elderly people to collect relief aid. 6) Proper shade and drinking water facility should be there at food & distribution point to avoid inconvenience &difficulties to the people who stand in a que for long hours. 7) In case dry food & utensils are provided to the inhabitants approx 10 kg firewood per household per day should be provided for cooking. 3) For longer stay in the camp, families may be provided kerosene/ gas stoves. 4) Distributed food must be of appropriate quantity and fit for human consumption. 5) Food must meet nutritional needs and include pulse, cereals, egg & fats sources. 6) Food should be culture specific and as per food habits of the community. People of rural area may not like bread & butter. 12) Packed food like biscuit, tined food, ready to eat meals, noodles etc should be properly checked that they are not expired before distribution. 13) Dry food grains should preferably be issued to adult women in the family to ensure that the same is not sold in market to collect money for alcohol. 14)Relief Aid meant for women like sanitary pads should not be distributed by MALE but invariably be handled by women workers only. Set of 10 pads may be provided to the woman at a time so that she should not come again & again to ask for it.

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(e) Clothing
a. Ensure that the people affected by the disaster should be provided sufficient clothing to protect themselves from the adverse effects of the climate. b. People should have one full set of clothing in roughly the correct size, appropriate to the season and climate. c. Culturally appropriate clothing should be made available. d. Women and girls should be provided necessary sanitary protection. (f) Medical facilities & Psychological Support 1) One Doctor along with team of paramedical staff should be detailed on roster system around the clock in the camp. 2) A proper register should be maintained for roster of the duties of Doctors, Nurses & Paramedical staff as prescribed in Annexure F 3) A separate room or tent should be made available for the medical team. 4) Highest standard of hygiene must be maintained at camp to minimize the chances of people falling sick. 5) As far as possible each and every inhabitant of the camp should be screened for presence of any disease immediately upon his arrival or within 24 hrs of his arrival in relief camp without fail. 6) A rapid health assessment of all the inhabitants in the camp should be done on weekly basis. They may be

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divided in 7 groups and weekly rapid health assessment should be done of one group on a fixed day of a week. 7) Diarrhea, gastroenteritis, conjunctivitis, allergies, camp and malaria, viral fever are common diseases in the camp. Preventive measures must be taken in them timely. 8) If the camp continues for more than a month the regular health services like DOTS, maternal & childcare services including immunization should be stored in the camp. 9) Jt. Director, Health Services should be directed to arranged adequate stock of medicine from district store. 10)Detail inventory & stock register of medicine available within store at camp should be maintained. 11) No prescription will be given to the patient to purchase any charge medicine from outside the camp . All the medicines should invariably be provided free of to the inhabitant. If medicines are not available in the camp these may be purchased from outside by the Medical Officer & expenditure may be reimbursed from relief fund . 12) Some advance fund may be given to the medical team for purchase of medicine from outside if required. The team will maintain proper account and keep all the vouchers, bills etc for record. 13)Barbers may be arranged as per need in camps for better hygiene of the camp population. sufficient store of medicine must be maintain to treat

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14) If there are more than 500 persons in the camp, one ambulance with adviser should be stationed for 24 hrs in the camp. 15)Cases of snake bites are also reported from relief camp. Necessary arrangement should be made in nearest health institution for adequate stock and anti venom injections. 15)The I/C of the Camp will prepare a checklist for environmental health/survey (EHS) as per prescribed format at Annexure G 16)Medical Officer will prepare a initial report on health status of camp population as per prescribed format at Annexure H. 17)Medical Officer will prepare daily report in a prescribed format as Annnexure I and submit to DC/SDO regularly.

Psycho Social Support


1) Everyone who experience the disaster is affected in one way or another physically, emotionally and mentally. Children or among those who are affected

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most. It is in this regard that psychological support is an important part of response in any disaster situation. 2) Psychological support is best obtained from the family thus, even in abnormal conditions, family should be kept together. As a means of psychological support, activities like religious activities, entertainment and recreation etc. should be arranged for the inhabitants of the camp. 3) Professional Psycho-social Therapist should be arranged to provide counseling to the affected person. It should be ensured that follow up sessions are conducted, as a onetime session is not be helpful, but may even create unpleasant experience or memories for vulnerable person.

7. Special arrangement for Women, Children and

disable and elderly persons

1) Women Officers should also may be detailed in management of the camp.

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2) Since women are more vulnerable during disaster, their specific needs must be identified and taken care of. 3) Female gynecologist and obstetrician should be available at hand to take care of maternity and child related health concern. 4) Ensure that children inoculated against childhood disease within the stipulated time period. 5) For safety and security of the women and children vigilance committees should be formed consisting of women. 6) Women Police Officer should be stationed within the camp to record and redress any complaints made by women. 7) Night security should strictly maintained at camp site. 8) Additional security measures should be taken in the camps to prevent abduction of women, girls and children. 9) Widows and women headed household usually are unable to access food & other relief aid therefore special volunteers may be engaged to take care of such families. 10) Self-Help-Groups may be formed among the affected women to give emotional support to each other. 11)Women participation in the management of camps is important to ensure that womens needs are met. 12) Ensure that support including financial compensation is provided on an individual basis rather than based on head of household concept. To avoid the scope of misutilisaiton of the fund made to the male persons depriving the women and children.

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13)Breast milk substitute should be included to the affected families with infants as in disaster situation, under trauma mothers have lactating problems. 14) Sanitary pads should be provided to the women and girls. Some women of rural areas may not be used to commercially manufactured sanitary pads therefore clean white cloths & towels may be arranged for them. 15). Spectacles, hearing aids and walking sticks for people of special needs many be arranged.

8. Vermin control
1) Insects and rodents are the unavoidable pests in the relief camp. They spread diseases, spoil foods and other materials. They cannot be totally eliminated but there are measures to minimize the increase in their population and their effects on the lives of the displaced community in the camp. 2) Fogging may be arranged to prevent mosquitoes and other flying insects. 3) Traps may be placed for rodents 4) Waste segregation should be promoted and collected on daily basis. 5) Enough Dustbins should be provided in the camp. 6) Breeding places of mosquitoes and rodents should be eliminated by keeping the surrounding clean dry & free of stagnant water. 7).Pits should be dug and waste & garbage food should be disposed of there daily.

9. Security
1) Security, peace and order must be maintained in the relief camp.

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2) Relief camp is like a community and as one cooperation among its members is vital for its survival. 3) Involve the youths in the camp for providing better security environment. 4) Police personnel should be detailed on roster basis. 5) Camp may be divided in few parts. Group of youth may be formed for each part of the camp. They will do night duty & keep watch & vigil in the given area. Members of the group may be given passes, identity cards, lathi, tourch etc. 6) Adequate employment of force should be ensured on the boundary and gate of the camp. 7) Police should keep vigin on anti-social elements & criminal in around the camp. 8) Special police officers (SPO) may be appointed in the camp 9) Special police arrangement should be made during distribution of the relief materials. 10) Home guards may be detailed for patrolling & night watch. 11)Store room should properly be guarded by the police. 12)Anti Riot Squad with teargas, lathi, body protection etc. should be kept ready in nearest Police Station.

10. Media Management and Documentation

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1) Camp Officer should prepare a daily report and submit to Deputy Commissioner/SDO(C) by 5.00 PM everyday. 2) Deputy Commissioner/SDO(C) will issue press release to prevent any rumor. He may also issue advisory to the affected people and arrangement made by the district administration in the Relief Camp.. 3) Deputy Commissioner/DSO(C) may frequently meet media persons to brief about arrangement made in relief camp. 4) DIPRO/SDIPRO will visit the camp regularly and take photographs for record. Some of the photographs may be released to the media also, 5) DIPRO may arrange conducted tour of media persons to the camp and explain about the facilities and arrangement made there. 6) DIPRO should be provided basic information by DC/SDO(C) about the management of the camps and he may provide them to media person on daily basis.

11.Donations from Public and Voluntary Organizations


1) DC & SDO (C) are authorized to collect donations in

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cash and kind from public and Voluntary Organizations. 2) A formal receipt must be issued in each case of donation so collected to the donor agency or person. 3) A separate bank account should be maintained in joint signatures of DC/ SDO & FAO/TO. All fund received should be kept in one accounting. Expenditure may be incurred for relief purpose out of the fund collected. 4) A separate cashbook should be maintained and vouchers and bills should properly be kept ready for inspection and audit. 5) A separate register for receipt and distribution of relief articles donated by the public or Voluntary Organizations should be maintained in format as prescribed at Annexure- J 6) Article distributed to inhabitants of the camp out of donated item should be adjusted against gratuitous relief provided from govt. account. 7) No public or voluntary organization should be allowed to distribute any article directly to the camp inhabitants. 8) All such donor will approach Camp Officer who will check the articles, issue receipt, make proper entry in Stock Register and arrange for equitable distribution of the articles in the camp. 9) Any edible items which appears to be unfit for human consumption should not be accepted through donations.

Entertainment, Recreation & IEC Progamme

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1) All the activities in the relief camp will succeed only if inhabitants of the camps are meaningfully involved in the management of the camp. 2) Camp Officer should chalk out an IEC to campaign among the inhabitants. IEC of Campaign should include the following topics a) How to maintain hygienic environment in the camp, how to prevent breeding of flies, mosquitoes, insects, rodents etc. b) Information about arrangement in the camp, scale of the relief items, health facilities, helpdesk etc. c) Rehabilitation schemes and entitlement of affected families. 3) Sahitya sabha, Literary clubs, Organisations may be promoted to arrange books & magazines for camp populations. 4) Camp population may be kept engaged by providing entertainment & recreational facilities to them. 5) NGOs & Ladies club and other agencies may be encouraged to provide toys for children. 6) Temporary Anganwadi centers may be opened in the camp with the help of ICDS project Officers for small children. 7) Temporary schools may be setup in the camp involving volunteers from the camp inhabitants. SSA may provide free textbooks, stationary, Siksha metra etc. 8) Reputed NGOs may also be allowed to run temporary schools in the camp. 9) SIRD & DRDA may be asked to arrange training program for women about tailoring, soft toy making, pickle & papad making etc. 10)SIRD & DRDA may also arrange one week training program for youths on piggery, goatary, poultry, fishery, cane & bamboo items etc.

Annexures
Master Register of Relief camp (Annexure A)

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Part A: Profile of the Camp Population : Name of Village _______________ Name of Mouza _______________ Name of Police Station ________________
Sl. No. (Same as Name of the Head of family with father's / husbands name 2 Age Sex Name of other family Age Sex Total members Adult Minor Total Date of entry in Relief Date of leaving of Remarks

of Tickets) 1

members 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Camp 11

the Camp 12 13

Part B: Details of Relief/ Aid (Annexure B) Details of Relief Items Distributed (Annexure B)
Date 1 Articles 2 Scale for Adult/Minor 3 Quantity given 4 Name of Recipient 5 Signature of Recipient 6 Signature of Distributing Officer 7

Ticket for Receipt of Relief Materials (Annexure C) 7) Sl. No. ______ 8) Name of Ticket holder (Head of Family) ____________ 9) Fathers name _____________________ 10) Address Village /GP/Circle/PS _______________ 11) No. of Adult Male _________ 12) No. of Adult Female __________ 13) No. of boys under 12 years _____________ 14) No. of girls under 12 year _____________ 15) Total Nos of Family members __________
Date Articles Scale for Adult/Minor 3 Quantity Issued 4 No. of Days For Which Article Issued 5 Remark Signature of Distributing Officer 7

Note: Printed, Xeroxed or hand written Ticket may be used. Annexure D Register for Generator Set.
Date Name of Operator Duty hours Time when generator started Time when generator was stopped Signature of the Operator Signature of Supervisor Qty. of POL received Remark

From

To

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Annexure E Stock Register for Food Items Receipt


Date & Time of Receip t Article Quantit y Received from Name of receivi ng Office r Name & Signature of the person who delivered the Items Signatu re of the receivin g Officer Date & Time of Issue Article

Issue
Name of the Issuer Name & Signature of the recipient Quantit y Signature of the Issuer Issue to whom (Name & Design ation)

Annexure F
Date Name of the Doctor Duty Hours Name of the Nurses/Parame dical staff From 5 Duty Remarks To From 6 To 7 8 Signature of the Doctor From 1 2 3 To 4 or duty 9

Annexure G Checklist for environmental health/ Survey (EHS) Relief Camp address : ________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Type : ______ School ______ other buildings _______ makeshift Date opened : _________________________________ Date of EHS : ____________________ RAS no. _______________ Done by : _______________________________________ Designation: ____________________________________ Contact no. _____________________________________ Population : o No. of Evacuees (inhabitants) ____________________________ o No. of Families : _____________________________ o New arrivals : __________ Date of arrival :_________ SHELTER : For schools/Buildings/tents No. of rooms/tents occupied : ____________________ No. of Families per room/tents : __________________ Remarks : ______________________________________ ________________________________________ ___________________________________________ WATER SOURCE : o Level 1 :______ o Level 2:_______ o Level 3 : ______ o No. of faucets /water points: _____

24 Rate of discharge:_______ o No. Tanks for water : __________ Capacity per tank : ______ o Other source of water : Rationing : _______ Frequency :__________ Bottled water : _________ o Water safety : Rapid Testing : _____ Method : ________ _____nth testing Date of test:_________ Results : _____________________________ _______________________________ Bacteriologic :__________ _____nth testing Date of test:_________ Results : _____________________________ _______________________________ Water treatment : Chlorine tablets: __________________ Chlorine solution : _________________ o Remarks : ___________________________ _________________________________ ________________________________ LATRINES : No of water sealed : ___________________ No. of pit/kybos : ______________________ No of portable toilets : __________________ Soap and water : _______________________ Toilet papers ( for portable toilets) ________ Remarks : __________________________________ __________________________________ _______________________________ SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL : Segregation practiced : __________________ No of receptables available : ______ Capacity : _______ No. of dug pit : __________ Cover : Yes/ No Composting : ___________________________ Open burning : _________________________ Collected : ___________ o Frequency : ___________________ Collected by : Remarks:____________________________________ ____________________________________ _____________________________________ WASTE WATER DISPOSAL: Presence of drainage Yes/no Presence of sewer yes.no Other systems present : ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ Remarks :

25 _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ VERMIN and VECTOR Presence of accumulated water ( ground, receptacles ) yes/no Presence of uncollected garbage yes/no Presence of flies, ants, mosquitoes yes/no Remarks : _________________________ Anneuxre - H Health status/ Services ( Baseline/Initial Survey) Date Accomplished: __________________ Relief Camp: ____________________________________________ Type of Emergency/Disaster :____________________________________ No. of Inhabitants : ___________________ Place of origin:______________ No. of families : ________ No. of males : _________ No. of Females: _______ No. of children : _______ Accomplished by : _______________________________________ Designation : ___________________ Contact no. ___________ A. Health Personnel : MHO in charge : _____________________________________________ Other Health personnel : Other Physicians :______________________________________ Nurses : ______________________________________________ ASHA: _______________________________________________ OPD Time in the Camp : ___________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ Clinic days: ________________ Time : _________________________ B. Health Profile : Immunization coverage : o Measles :___________________________________ o DPT________________________________________ o Hepatitis B : ________________________________ o BCG : _____________________________________ No. of TB patients in DOTS program :_________________ No. of individuals with CVD : _________________________ No. of individuals with diabetes : _____________________ No. of pregnant : ___________________________________ No. of women breastfeeding : ________________________ No. of elderly : _____________________________________ No. of person with disability : ________________________

26 Signature of the Doctor I/C of Relief Camp Name of Doctor________________

Annexure I Form for Communicable Disease Surveillance Daily Report Date : ________________ Prepared by : ____________________________ Designation. ____________________________ Relief Camp Location :________________________________________

No. of New Cases with 1)Fever (38 D C) 2)Fever & Cough 3)Diarrhea with blood 4)Fever with diarrhea 5)Vomiting and/or diarrhea 6)Fever and eash 7)Dog bite 9)Burns 10)Trauma 11)Jaundice and diarrhea 12)Deaths 13)others (specify)

Under 5 yrs

Over 5 yrs Total

Cumulative Cases

Remarks : ____________________________________________________ Status of inhabitants today: No. of New arrivals : ___________ No. of consults today : ___________________ Remarks ___________________________________________________ Signature of the Doctor

Name_____________________

Annexure- J
Date Name of donor person/ agency Amount

Register for receiving donation


Details of Donation By cash or cheque If donated through Name of article s Quantity Receipt No. Remark Signature of authorized person

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cheque give cheque No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9