Study and Research on Mutual Fund
A Mutual fund is a trust that pools the savings of a number of investors who share a common financial goal. The money thus collected is invested by the fund manager in different types of securities depending upon the objective of the scheme. These could range from shares to debentures to money market instruments. The income earned through these investments and the capital appreciations realized by the scheme are shared by its unit holders in proportion to the number of units owned by the (pro rata). Thus a Mutual fund is the most suitable investment for the common man as it offers an opportunity to invest in a diversified, professionally managed portfolio at a relatively low cost. Anybody with an inventible surplus of as a few thousand rupees can invest in Mutual Funds. Each Mutual Fund scheme has a defined investment objective and strategy. A mutual fund is the ideal investment vehicle for today's complex and modern financial scenario. Markets for equity shares, bonds and other fixed income instruments, real estate, derivatives and other assets have become mature and information driven. Price changes in these assets are driven by global events occurring in faraway places. A typical individual is unlikely to have the knowledge, skills, inclination and time to keep track of events, understand their implications and act speedily. An individual also finds it difficult to keep track of ownership of his assets, investments, brokerage dues and bank transactions etc. A mutual fund is answer to all these situations. It appoints professionally qualified and experienced staff that manages each of these functions on a full time basis. The large pool of money collected in the fund allows it to hire such staff at a very low cost to each investor. In effect, the mutual fund vehicle exploits economies of scale in all three areas - research, investments and transaction processing. While the concept of individuals coming together to invest money collectively is not new, the mutual fund in its present form is a 20th century phenomenon. In fact, mutual fund gained popularity only after the Second World War. Globally, there are thousands of firms offering tens of thousands of mutual funds with different investment objectives. Today, mutual funds collectively manage almost as much as or more money as compared to banks. A draft offer document is to be prepared at the time of launching the fund. Typically, it pre specifies the investment objectives of the fund, the risk associated, the costs involved in the process and the broad rules for entry into and exit from the fund and other areas of operation. In India, as in most countries, these sponsors need approval from a regulator, SEBI (Securities exchange Board of India) in our case. SEBI looks at track records of the sponsor and its financial strength in granting approval to the fund for commencing operations. A sponsor then hires an asset management company to invest the funds according to the investment objective. It also hires another entity to be the custodian of the assets of the fund and perhaps a third one to handle registry work for the unit holders (subscribers) of the fund. In the Indian context, the sponsors promote the Asset Management Company also, in which it holds a majority stake. In many cases a sponsor can hold a 100% stake in the Asset Management Company (AMC).
1 DBIM, SURAT
Study and Research on Mutual Fund
E.g. Birla Global Finance is the sponsor of the Birla Sun Life Asset Management Company Ltd., which has floated different mutual funds schemes and also acts as an asset manager for the funds collected under the schemes. A mutual fund is a collective investment fund formed with the objective of raising money from a large number of investors and investing it in accordance with a specified objective to provide returns that accrue pro rata to all the investors in proportion to their investment. The units held by an investor represent the stake of the investors in the fund. A professionally qualified and experienced team manages the investments and all other functions. With the large pool of money, a mutual fund is able to exploit economies of scale in the areas of research, investing, shuffling the investments and transaction processing - it is able to hire professionals in these functions at a very low cost per investor. As per SEBI regulations, mutual funds can offer guaranteed returns for a maximum period of one year. In case returns are guaranteed, the name of the guarantor and how the guarantee would be honored is required to be disclosed in the offer document.
2 DBIM, SURAT
Study and Research on Mutual Fund
HISTORY & BACKGROUND
Mutual Fund in India (1964-2000)
The end of millennium marks 36 years of existence of mutual funds in this country. The ride through these 36 years is not been smooth. Investor opinion is still divided. While some are for mutual funds others are against it. UTI commenced its operations from July 1964. The impetus for establishing a formal institution came from the desire to increase the propensity of the middle and lower groups to save and to invest. UTI came into existence during a period marked by great political and economic uncertainty in India. With war on the borders and economic turmoil that depressed the financial market, entrepreneurs were hesitant to enter the capital market. The already existing companies found it difficult to raise fresh capital, as investors did not respond adequately to new issues. Earnest efforts were required to canalize savings of the community into productive uses in order to speed up the process of industrial growth. The then Finance Minister, T.T. Krishnamachari set up the idea of a unit trust that would be "open to any person or institution to purchase the units offered by the trust. However, this institution as we see it, is intended to cater to the needs of individual investors, and even among them as far as possible, to those whose means are small" His ideas took the form of the Unit Trust of India, an intermediary that would help fulfill the twin objectives of mobilizing retail savings and investing those savings in the capital market and passing on the benefits so accrued to the small investors. UTI commenced its operations from July 1964 "with a view to encouraging savings and investment and participation in the income, profits and gains accruing to the Corporation from the acquisition, holding, management and disposal of securities." Different provisions of the UTI Act laid down the structure of management, scope of business, powers and functions of the Trust as well as accounting, disclosures and regulatory requirements for the Trust. One thing is certain - the fund industry is here to stay. The industry was one-entity show till 1986 when the UTI monopoly was broken when SBI and Canbank mutual fund entered the arena. This was followed by the entry of others like BOI, LIC, GIC, etc. sponsored by public sector banks. Starting with an asset base of Rs 0.25bn in 1964 the industry has grown at a compounded average growth rate of 26.34% to its current size of Rs 1130bn. The period 1986-1993 can be termed as the period of public sector mutual funds (PMFs). From one player in 1985 the number increased to 8 in 1993. The party did not last long. When the private sector made its debate in 1993-94, the stock market was booming. The opening up of the asset management business to private sector in 1993 saw international players like Morgan Stanley, Jardine Fleming, JP Morgan, George Soros and Capital International along with the period of 1994-96 was one of the worst in the history of Indian Mutual Funds. 3 DBIM, SURAT
540 bn. However the sole factor that gave lift to the revival of the funds was the Union Budget. SURAT
. but it accelerated from the year 1987 when nonUTI players entered the industry. the Assets Under Management (AUM) was Rs. which would mean to increase asset base. and to get asset base. 67bn. the unit holders.
Second Phase . both quality wise as well as quantity wise.
First Phase . the other related parties. The budget brought about a large number of changes in one stroke. the industry is maturing and the investors and funds are frankly and openly discussing difficulties opportunities and compulsions. the monopoly of the market had seen an ending phase. Each phase is briefly described as under. Before. The quest to attract investors extended beyond just new schemes. The private sector entry to the fund family raised the AUM to Rs. An insight of the Union Budget on mutual funds taxation benefits is provided later.
Four Phases of Mutual Fund in India
The mutual fund industry can be broadly put into four phases according to the development of the sector. At the end of 1988 UTI had Rs. In 1978 UTI was de-linked from the RBI and the Industrial Development Bank of India (IDBI) took over the regulatory and administrative control in place of RBI. No longer were the mutual funds interested in selling the concept of mutual fund. This time around all the participants are involved in the revival of the funds the AMC's. The origin of mutual fund industry in India is with the introduction of the concept of mutual fund by UTI in the year 1963.700 crores of assets under management. No longer were the mutual funds interested in selling the concept of mutual funds they wanted to talk business. It provided center stage to the mutual funds. It
was set up by the Reserve Bank of India and functioned under the Regulatory and administrative control of the Reserve Bank of India. The funds started to regulate themselves and were all out on winning the trust and confidence of the investors under the aegis of the Association of Mutual Funds of India (AMFI) One can say that the industry is moving from infancy to adolescence. SBI
Mutual Fund was the first followed by Canbank Mutual Fund (Dec 87). The first scheme launched by UTI was Unit Scheme 1964. and investor base they had to be fully armed with a whole lot of schemes for every investor.1964-87 Unit Trust of India (UTI) was established on 1963 by an Act of Parliament. made them more attractive and provides acceptability among the investors. it reached the height of 1. 470 bn in March 1993 and till April 2004. both at the hands of the investor as well as the mutual fund.1987-1993 (Entry of Public Sector Funds) Entry of non-UTI mutual funds. So new schemes for new IPO's were inevitable. Punjab National Bank Mutual 4 DBIM. This year signaled the year of resurgence of mutual funds and the regaining of investor confidence in these MF's. Though the growth was slow.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
1999-2000 year of the funds
Mutual funds have been around for a long period of time to be precise for 36 yrs but the year 1999 saw3 immense future potential and developments in this sector. Indian mutual fund industry had seen a dramatic improvements. The Union Budget exempted mutual fund dividend given out by equity-oriented schemes from tax. In the past decade.6.
since February 2003 This phase had bitter experience for UTI. 1993 was the year in which the first Mutual Fund Regulations came into being.76. There were 29 funds as at the end of March 2006.44. It was bifurcated
into two separate entities. Bank of India (Jun 90). The erstwhile Kothari Pioneer (now merged with Franklin Templeton) was the first private sector mutual fund registered in July 1993. a new era started in the Indian mutual fund industry. functioning under an administrator and under the rules framed by Government of India and does not come under the purview of the Mutual Fund Regulations. 2004. It is registered with SEBI and functions under the Mutual Fund Regulations. Sun F&C Mutual Fund and PNB Mutual Fund by Principal Mutual Fund. The industry now functions under the SEBI (Mutual Fund) Regulations 1996.565 cr in January 2000 to Rs.29. With the total Assets Under Management (AUM) increasing from Rs. Indian Bank Mutual Fund (Nov 89). Simultaneously.. The Unit Trust of India with Rs.153108 crores under 421 schemes.
Third Phase . then the Indian mutual fund industry can now boast of that.
Growth in Assets under Management
If size is the measure of dominance. 000 crores of AUM and with the setting up of a UTI Mutual Fund. conforming to the SEBI Mutual Fund Regulations.21. Also. under which all mutual funds. 1.978 cr by May 2005. With the bifurcation of the erstwhile UTI which had in March 2000 more than Rs. 2005 5 DBIM.The number of mutual fund houses went on increasing. giving the Indian investors a wider choice of fund families. The end of 1993 marked Rs.1993-2003 (Entry of Private Sector Funds) With the entry of private sector funds
Fourth Phase . according to the Association of Mutual Funds in India (AMFI).805 crores. which manage assets of Rs.541 crores of assets under management was way ahead of other mutual funds. 1. except UTI were to be registered and governed.004 as assets under management. single scheme (US-64) industry to having 30 players currently offering 460 schemes as on May 31.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
Fund (Aug 89). there were 29 funds. sponsored by SBI.67.2004 Onwards The industry has also witnessed several mergers and acquisitions recently. Fifth Phase V. Growth and Consolidation . One is the Specified Undertaking of the Unit Trust of India with AUM of Rs. The Specified Undertaking of Unit Trust of India. As at the end of January 2003. the mutual fund industry has entered its current phase of consolidation and growth. As at the end of September. and with recent mergers taking place among different private sector funds. It has indeed come a long way from being a single player.01. SURAT
.1. Bank of Baroda Mutual Fund (Oct 92). Franklin Templeton Mutual Fund etc. examples of which are acquisition of schemes of Alliance Mutual Fund by Birla Sun Life. The 1993 SEBI (Mutual Fund) Regulations were substituted by a more comprehensive and revised Mutual Fund Regulations in 1996. 835 crores (as on January 2003). the industry’s growth has been nothing but exceptional. The second is the UTI Mutual Fund Ltd. there were 33 mutual funds with total assets of Rs. LIC in 1989 and GIC in 1990.47. This is a continuing phase of growth of the industry through consolidation and entry of new international and private sector players. BOB and LIC. with many foreign mutual funds setting up funds in India and also the industry has witnessed several mergers and acquisitions. PNB. more international mutual fund players have entered India like Fidelity.
6 DBIM. First and foremost. thanks to increased efforts by SEBI to improve market surveillance and protect investors’ interests. SURAT
. Increased focus on product and distribution innovations on part of the industry players have also helped fuel the growth. have also provided strong impetus to the growth. Another significant factor facilitating this growth has been a conducive regulatory regime. particularly in the last five years. such as making dividends tax-free in the hands of investors and removal of long. a buoyant domestic economy coupled with a booming stock market has been one of the major drivers of growth in recent times.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
What has driven this growth? A slew of factors have contributed to the surge in the industry’s growth.term capital gains tax.
some close-ended funds give an option of selling back the units to the Mutual Fund through periodic repurchase at NAV related prices. The fund is open for subscription only during a specified period. In order to provide an exit route to the investors. SURAT
. Classification of Mutual Fund
UNDERSTANDING OF MUTUAL FUND
Mutual fund schemes may be classified on the basis of its structure and its investments.
By Investment Objective
• Income Funds
7 DBIM. These do not have a fixed maturity.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
• Open-ended Funds An open-end fund is one that is available for subscription all through the year. • Interval Funds Interval funds combine the features of open-ended and close-ended schemes. The key feature of open-end schemes is liquidity. They are open for sale or redemption during pre-determined intervals at NAV related prices. Investors can conveniently buy and sell units at Net Asset Value ("NAV") related prices. • Closed-ended Funds A closed-end fund has a stipulated maturity period which generally ranging from 3 to 15 years. SEBI Regulations stipulate that at least one of the two exit routes is provided to the investor. Investors can invest in the scheme at the time of the initial public issue and thereafter they can buy or sell the units of the scheme on the stock exchanges where they are listed.
certificates of deposit. Such schemes normally invest a majority of their corpus in equities. It has been proven that returns from stocks. These schemes generally invest in safer short-term instruments such as treasury bills. the NAV of these schemes may not normally keep pace. Growth schemes are ideal for investors having a long-term outlook seeking growth over a period of time. • Growth Funds The aim of growth funds is to provide capital appreciation over the medium to long-term.
Money Market Funds The aim of money market funds is to provide easy liquidity. In a rising stock market.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
The aim of income funds is to provide regular and steady income to investors. Such schemes periodically distribute a part of their earning and invest both in equities and fixed income securities in the proportion indicated in their offer documents. These are ideal for investors looking for a combination of income and moderate growth. Such schemes generally invest in fixed income securities such as bonds. Income Funds are ideal for capital stability and regular income. corporate debentures and government securities.
• Balanced Funds The aim of balanced funds is to provide both growth and regular income. SURAT
. Returns on these schemes 8 DBIM. have outperformed most other kind of investments held over the long term. or fall equally when the market falls. commercial paper and inter-bank call money. preservation of capital and moderate income.
1996 and the notifications issued by the Ministry of Finance (Department of Economic Affairs). and face value. provided the capital asset has been sold prior to April 1.Income Funds in India are usually held till maturity.
• Tax saving Schemes Investors (individuals and Hindu Undivided Families (“HUFs”)) are being encouraged to invest in equity markets through Equity Linked Savings Scheme (“ELSS”) by offering them a tax rebate. Investors who are investing in Fixed. Typically entry and exit loads range from 1% to 2%. That is. That is. • Load Funds: A Load Fund is one that charges a commission for entry or exit.
9 DBIM. maturity value.Income Funds in India are also known as debt funds or income funds. The debt securities in which Fixed. government or companies. 2000 and the amount is invested before September 30.Income Funds in India makes investments are also known as commercial papers of deposit or treasury bills if the duration is less than one year and in case the duration is more than one year then the debt securities are known as bonds or debentures. These schemes offer tax rebates to the investors under specific provisions of the Indian Income Tax laws as the Government offers tax incentives for investment in specified avenues.Income Funds in India make investments in debt securities that have been issued either by the banks. Government of India regarding ELSS. each time you buy or sell units in the fund.Income Funds in India have a face value and it is on this that the calculation of interest takes place. 1961. 2000 Fixed. rate of interest. a commission will be payable. Fixed. Units purchased cannot be assigned / transferred/ pledged / redeemed / switched – out until completion of 3 years from the date of allotment of the respective Units. The Scheme is subject to Securities & Exchange Board of India (Mutual Funds) Regulations.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
may fluctuate depending upon the interest rates prevailing in the market. Fixed.Income Funds Fixed. These are ideal for Corporate and individual investors as a means to park their surplus funds for short periods.Income Funds in India are mainly concerned with the time period. Investments made in Equity Linked Savings Schemes (ELSS) and pension Schemes are allowed as deduction u/s 88 of the Income Tax Act. SURAT
. rate of interest payment. No-Load Funds: A no-Load Fund is one that does not charge a commission for entry or exit. The Act also provides opportunities to investors to save capital gains u/s 54EA by investing in Mutual Funds. It could be worth paying the load. The advantage of a no load fund is that the entire corpus is put to work. The issuer of the debt securities has the obligation to pay the interest and principal on the time schedule that has been fixed. if the fund has a good performance history. Fixed. no commission is payable on purchase or sale of units in the fund.
Study and Research on Mutual Fund
Mid-Cap Funds Mid-cap funds are a special type of mutual fund wherein. companies with a market capitalization up to Rs 500 crores are regarded as small and companies with a market capitalization over Rs 500 crores but below Rs 1. value funds is a type of mutual fund wherein the main focus is on the safety of the investment and not on the growth of the investment made on such funds. wherein investments are being made in the non-domestic securities markets across the world. Fund of Funds Amongst the wide variety of mutual funds are available in India. The returns on Value funds are more conservative in nature. Funds of funds are structured in such a way so as to attain a more diversified approach than what the other types of mutual funds offer. like Information Technology. In general. The Sector Funds are structured in this particular manner in order to take advantage of growth of particular type of industry. these stocks of the value funds utilize their earnings to pay off dividends to the investors. Further. A strict vigil on the foreign currencies and world markets is needed while investing in the International mutual funds. International mutual funds can offer its investors with high returns if chosen properly. Furthermore. Pharmaceuticals. Infrastructure. Telecommunication. Further.000 crores are defined as medium sized by the mutual fund industry. One of the significant features of the International mutual funds are that it accrues profit when some markets are rising and others are falling in the international market. Value funds represent stocks of mature companies. The Sector Funds can offer tremendous profit to the investor if the funds are carefully chosen. fund of funds is a type of mutual fund wherein. In the absence of any standardized definition or definite classification of small or medium sized company. they invest in stocks of companies that have lesser appeal to the mainstream investors and the stocks have lost its sheen. Generally. Sector Funds The Sector Funds are those types of mutual funds which accumulate stocks of particular sector. etc. One of the typical characteristics of the value fund is that. SURAT
. each mutual fund classifies small and medium sized companies according to its own policies. The popularity of the International mutual funds has gone up in the recent years since it provides a high level of diversification of the portfolio. they generate income from the dividends and they also offer long term growth from capital appreciation. the Fund of Funds costs higher than any other type 10 DBIM. Further. the corpus accumulated is invested in small or medium sized companies. the most significant feature of fund of funds is that it holds shares of a variety of mutual funds. the International mutual funds also help in capitalizing on some of the world's best opportunities. In other words sector funds invest in a single type of industry. Value Funds Amongst the wide variety of mutual funds are available in India. whose growth has become stagnant. the corpus accumulated is invested in types of other mutual funds. Another important feature of the value funds is that. Midcap funds bear high risk factors and thus offer high returns in case of positive movements of the indexes International Mutual Funds International mutual funds are a very special type of mutual fund.
Specific Funds in India usually make investments in sectors such as power. The most important feature of this fund is that it invests in portfolio of companies operating in a particular geographical area. Further. wherein the investment made in such funds are confined to the securities from a specified geography. The performance of the Index fund thus depends on the performance of that particular index.Specific Funds Sector. Index Funds The Index funds are those types of funds which accumulates stocks of each and every company that make up a particular index. Sector.Specific Funds in India give very high returns but at the same time they are also very risky in comparison to the funds that are diversified. This is due to the fact that the cost of Fund of Funds involves part of the expense fees charged by the component funds. The main advantage of Large Cap Funds in India is that they are considered to be of low return and low risk category. The large cap companies in which Large Cap Funds in India makes investments are usually companies that have a market capitalization that is more than Rs. This is the reason that the investors that have invested in Sector. is a special type of mutual fund. Another advantage of investing in the Index funds is that their values are so high that 11 DBIM. Investments in Index funds are cheaper and are regarded as passive form of investments. Large Cap Funds Large Cap Funds in India are a kind of mutual fund that looks for appreciation of capital by investing mainly in the shares of companies that are big blue chip. The big blue chip companies in which Large Cap Funds in India make their investments have above.Specific Funds in India need to carefully watch the operation of those industries or sectors and then at the correct time make an exit. The main objective of investing in the Regional Mutual Funds is to take leverage of the geographical growth of that particular area. an Exchange traded fund investments are being made either on all the securities or on a sample of the representative securities that are being traded in the said index. 1000 crores. which makes up the portfolio Regional Mutual Funds The Regional Mutual Fund as the name suggests. The Regional Mutual Funds picks up securities that are not confined to geographical criteria. the investments made in the Regional Mutual Fund are dependent on the geographical origin of the fund. petroleum. Exchange Traded Funds Exchange traded funds popularly also known as ETFs.Specific Funds in India give depends totally on the performance of the industries or sectors in which investments have been made. The exchange traded funds employ the process of arbitration during trading.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
of mutual fund. is a type of mutual fund wherein.average potential for growth in earnings. This ensures that the investments of the investors are relatively safe. In other words. Sector. Sector. the corpus is invested in a basket of securities. which is being traded on an exchange. The amount of returns that Sector. in order to keep its trading value in sync with the values of the underlying stocks.Specific Funds in India are those funds that make investments only in those industries or sectors that have been specified in the prospectus of the funds. These funds are created on regions which are supposed to undergo tremendous modernization. and technology. SURAT
& 30th. Investments in index funds are subject to income tax exemptions
B. The most popular type of Index funds is the Standard & Poor's 500. It can be seen that the Banks are not totally free from risk. Mutual Fund can give higher returns then a Bank. even if there is no contractually guarantee as in a Bank. Mutual Fund provides better investment options as well as high liquidity compare to Banks. Of every month Maximum Rs.1 lakhs on deposits Mutual Funds Better Low Moderate More Low but improving Better Transparent Everyday None
From the above table we can say that in overall comparison Mutual Fund is becoming strong option as investment against the Banks. The risks are however lower if the fund manager’s capability is superior.
12 DBIM. (2) Past performance The past performance of fund manager should be checked even though it does not: assure about or indicate the future performance. SURAT
. Risk Investment options Network Liquidity Quality of assets Interest calculation Guarantee Low High Low Less High penetration At a cost Not transparent Minimum balance between 10th. Banks v/s Mutual Funds
Banks Returns Administrative exp.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
most of the other funds fail to supersede the value of the Index funds.
Choosing a Mutual Fund
Investors should note the following points while choosing a mutual fund: (1) Investment objective The schemes offered by mutual funds should be chosen based on investment objectives such as: • Regular income • Pure growth oriented • Balanced fund • Tax savings • Period of scheme • Liquidity/Open-ended schemes/listing. while generally giving lower returns.
Until 1980s. (5) Transparency in fund accounting Choose a mutual fund which assures full transparency of the investments made and discloses NAV periodically to assist the investor in understanding the value of investment. (4) Global linkages The fund manager’s understanding of Indian capital markets and the global linkages is critical to the process of investment decision making. and the area where investments have been/are to be made. diversification.
E. comparing only options that are comparable.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
(3) Equity research Equity research capability and other fund management techniques are important factors in deciding about a fund. as safe as banks. such comparisons ought to be done carefully. Liquidity — whether the schemes offer liquidity by way of their listing on stock exchange. Indian investors had bank deposits as virtually the only investment option. if any. Growth — whether the mutual funds are offering increase in net asset value. Returns — Assured or otherwise Management approach — Risk taking. Later. the investors were introduced to direct investing on the stock markets including direct purchases of capital market securities in the primary markets. etc. Judged the Efficiency of Mutual Fund
The test of efficiency of a good mutual fund shall comprise of evaluation of mutual fund on the basis of it’s: Stability — whether a mutual fund is stable or not so far as its schemes are concerned. SURAT
. portfolio. The only Mutual Fund scheme UTI’s US-64 Scheme was perceived by investors and managed as a fixed return investment. Faced with the risks of direct investing. Only after the crises of 1992 and the introduction of free market pricing of shares.
D. and paying out comparable though slightly higher dividends. (6) Investor service Funds which pay emphasis to investor servicing help in sorting out procedural grievances. Credibility of issuer — Previous track record of issuer should be checked. Comparison of Investment Product
Investors tend to constantly compare one form of investment with another. This form of high-risk investment was not perceived as such because of the under-pricing of primary share issues. and there is consistent growth in dividend and capital appreciation. return maximization. the investors are now turning to indirect investing through Mutual Funds that provide the benefits of professional management and lower risk through diversification. However. bonus. the virtual guarantee of secondary market prices being higher than issue prices ended.
Comparison by Nature of Investment and By Performance
as discussed in the previous section. leading to lack of liquidity for the investors who wish to sell. equity investing is fraught with risk and is not ideal for every individual investor. However. one must compare the options by the nature of investments — their characteristics. In indicated by the credit rating assigned to the bonds. The table below compares the investment options discussed in the previous section under the broad heads viz. First. In the absence of credit rating. the comparison serves as a useful guide toward determining the best option. Banks are usually willing to give loans against fixed deposits at a nominal charge over the interest rate applicable to the deposits.). SURAT
. volatility. From this comparison will emerge certain types of investment which may be considered superior to other types. Next. Bonds are a stable option in terms of fixed returns. liquidity and convenience. Although the table provides a qualitative evaluation of various financial products. The major advantage of bank deposits relative to other product is the liquidity they offer. to determine which option is better. and are recommended for the risk-averse investor. the comparison should also be made in terms of other benefits that the investor ought to look for in any investment. It is recommended only for investors who are willing to invest the time required for research in stock selection (or have access to sound financial advice) and possess the capacity to bear the inherent risk. age. Bonds are also subject to credit risk or risk of default by the borrower. However.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
There are tow kinds of comparisons possible among different investment options. one needs to look at the specifics of each investment option in terms of its current performance and its suitability for the investor in the light of the investor’s specific situation (taxability. However. other potential benefits of any investment also include the safety of the capital. Besides returns.
14 DBIM. From this comparison at a given point of time will emerge the options considered superior to others for a given investor. return. individual stocks can give varied performance. benefits and risks. However. Bank deposits score high on safety. The secondary market in corporate bonds in India is also very thin. It is clear from the above that equity investing in general has good potential in terms of return. as the return of capital is guaranteed to the depositor by the bank. the financial soundness of the bank is important to look at. and the convenience with which the investment can be managed. the risk or the stability of returns. For this reason. particularly now with the liquidity that accompanies their listing on stock exchanges. bonds can lose value when general interest rates go up. 1) Comparison by Nature of Investment Investors certainly look for the best returns on different options. Bonds issued by institutions are an attractive option. etc. one stock being more liquid than another or one stock giving lower return that another. Deposit rates offered by banks vary as per RBI directives and the interest rate scenario in the economy. Company fixed deposits fall short on several counts and recommended only if the issuing company and the deposits on offer are rated highly by credit rating agencies. it is extremely difficult for the investor to decide on the quality of the bonds or debentures. liquidity and convenience. safety. the liquidity of access to the funds when needed.
particularly during the early years of the scheme. Comparisons among different investment options are not valid for all time as the financial markets are now deregulated and dynamic. Similarly. Direct Equity Investment versus Mutual Fund Investing Investors have the option to invest directly in equities through the stock market instead of investing through Mutual Funds. 2) Comparison by Current Performance Besides the inherent advantages of investing through Mutual Funds. the Mutual Funds and other options may give different returns. the individual taxpayer’s situation may change. Each year. For example. This is clearly beyond the capability of most individual investors. the opportunity cost in terns of return is too high for insurance to be compared on even terms with the other options. causing frequent changes in comparative returns form time to time. and by investing even a small amount in a Mutual Fund. Being a government supported investment. Mutual Funds specialize in this area and possess the requisite resources to carry out research and continuous market monitoring. Mutual Funds pool the resources of many investors and thus have the funds necessary to build a diversified portfolio. it is recommended that the specific comparisons of different investment options be made at a given point of time. an investor can. • Another critical element towards successful equity investing is diversification. when the banks increase or reduce the deposit interest rates. Insurance could become a serious investment vehicle once the insurance market in India is opened to private players. again there will be an impact on the comparative status of different options. That is why. through his proportionate share. compared even to bank deposits. In today’s scenario. recent tax amendments have also helped to enhance the attractiveness of Mutual Funds. PPF scores very high on safety. diversification requires substantial investment that may be beyond the means of most individual investors. the lock in period involved in PPF means that the investor loses out in terms of liquidity. Dividends distributed by Mutual Funds are exempt from tax in the hands of the investor. Clearly. a practical evaluation reveals that Mutual Funds are indeed a more recommended option for the individual investor. However.
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. A diversified portfolio serves to minimize risk by ensuring that a downtrend in some securities/sectors is offset by an upswing in the others. If the government changes the PPF interest rate. Its liquidity is also extremely low. Investments in recognized Mutual Funds also qualify for tax rebate under section 88 and as approved investments under Section 54EAJEB. using the then prevalent return data. Its tax-exempt status makes it an attractive mechanism for the small investor to build his saving portfolio. whereby he may pay higher or lower tax on his income. though safety is considered high at present for the government-owned LIC as the only insurer. That will make a difference in his after-tax return on different options.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
PPF combines stability with a respectable return. reap the benefit of diversification. the Mutual Funds performance may look better or worse. • Identifying stocks that have growth potential is difficult process involving detailed research and monitoring of the market. However.
stamp duty. they succeed in keeping transaction costs under control because of the economies of scale they enjoy.end funds) and repurchase options (for open-end funds).Study and Research on Mutual Fund
• Mutual Funds specialize in the business of investment management. • Direct equity investing involves a high level of transaction costs per rupee invested in the form of brokerage. An investor can choose a fund that has investment objectives in line with his objectives. An investor who opts for direct equity investing loses out on these benefits. Other Products Investment option Equity Fl Bonds Debentures Deposits Bank Deposits PPF Life Insurance Investment Objective Capital Appreciation Income Income Income Income Income Risk Cover Risk Tolerance High Low H-M-Low The Same Generally Low Low Low Investment Horizon LongTerm Medium to Long Term The Same Medium Flexible All Terms Long Term Long Term 16 DBIM. while Mutual Funds charge a management fee. The Investor Perspective: Funds Vs. Therefore. They also offer facilities such as check writing and accumulation plans. etc. commissions. This is in contrast to direct equity investing where several stocks are often not traded for long periods. These benefits are not matched by direct equity investing. funds provide the investor with a vehicle to attain his objectives in a planned manner. Funds serve investors not only through their investor services networks. It also ensures that expenses are kept under tight control and market opportunities are fully utilized. SURAT
. Professional management ensures that the best investment avenues are tapped with the aid of comprehensive information and detailed research. • Mutual Funds focus their investment activities based on investment objectives such as income. Mutual Funds score over direct equity investing. Many funds allow investors the flexibility to switch between schemes within a family of funds. • In terms of convenience. but also through associates such as banks and other distributors. • Mutual Funds offer liquidity through listing on stock exchanges (for closed. and therefore employ professional management for carrying out their activities. growth or tax savings.
medium term and long term
The comparison above highlights the flexibility offered by Mutual Funds from the investor’s perspective.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
Gold Real Estate Mutual Funds
Inflation Hedge Inflation Hedge Capital Growth. backed by a dedicated investment research team that analyses the performance and prospects of companies and selects suitable investments to achieve the objectives of the scheme.
17 DBIM. investment horizon and investment objective. Convenient Administration Investing in a Mutual Fund reduces paperwork and helps you avoid many problems such as bad deliveries. The major advantages offered by mutual funds to all investors are: Professional Management Mutual Funds provide the services of experienced and skilled professionals. Income
Low Low H-M-Low
Long Term Long Term. They mobilize savings from the investors and bring them to borrowers in the capital markets. Direct equity investment offers the capital growth potential.Flexible All Short term. Advantages of Mutual Fund Mutual funds serve as a link between the saving public and the capital markets. Diversification Mutual Funds invest in a number of companies across a broad cross-section of industries and sectors. both equity and debt. F. but a high risk and without benefits of diversification and professional management offered by Mutual Fund. income-oriented investor. Mutual Funds save your time and make investing easy and convenient. Mutual Funds have the potential to provide a higher return as they invest in a diversified basket of selected securities. Gold and real Estate are attractive only in high inflation economies. delayed payments and follow up with brokers and companies. Bank Deposits offer similar flexibility in investment horizon and risk level. Other options are largely for the riskaverse. Mutual Funds present the widest choice to the investors. An investor looking for capital growth has to consider Mutual Fund. but only a fixed income. Today mutual funds are fast emerging as the favorite investment vehicle because of the many advantages they have over other forms and avenues of investing. Return Potential Over a medium to long-term. This diversification reduces the risk because seldom do all stocks decline at the same time and in the same proportion. SURAT
. You achieve this diversification through a Mutual Fund with far less money than you can do on your own. An investors can choose from a wide variety of fund to suit his risk tolerance.
A mutual fund because of its large corpus allows even a small investor to take the benefit of its investment strategy. custodial and other fees translate into lower costs for investors. you can systematically invest or withdraw funds according to your needs and convenience. Well Regulated All Mutual Funds are registered with SEBI and they function within the provision of strict regulations designed to protect the interests of investors. the investor gets the money back promptly at net asset value related prices from the Mutual Fund.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
Low Cost Mutual Finds are a relatively less expensive way to invest compared to directly investing in the capital markets because the benefits of scale in brokerage. Transparency You get regular information on the value of your investment in addition to disclosure on the specific investments made by your scheme.
18 DBIM. Flexibility Through features such as regular investment plans. the proportion invested in each class of assets and the fund manager's investment strategy and outlook. In closed-end schemes. The operations of Mutual Funds are regularly monitored by SEBI. the units can be sold on a stock exchange at the prevailing market price or the investor can avail of the facility of direct repurchase at NAV related prices by the Mutual Fund. regular withdrawal plans and dividend reinvestment plans. Liquidity In open-end schemes. SURAT
. Choice of schemes Mutual Funds offer a family of schemes to suit your varying needs over a lifetime. Affordability Investors individually may lack sufficient funds to invest in high-grade stock.
H. (6) The increase in the number of mutual funds under various schemes has increased competition. Also. They do not have employees of their own. (7) While UTI publishes details of accounts about their investments. diversification does not protect the unit holders totally from an overall decline in the market. it is too early to evaluate their operation. (5) The mutual funds in India are formed as trusts. The Diversification Penalty While diversification reduces the risk of loss from holding a single security. Also there is no specific law to supervise the mutual finds in India. As a result the funds lose their stabilizing factor in the markets. Apart from a few assured returns schemes. Not only this. mutual funds are still not publishing the profit and loss accounts and balance sheets after their operation. the banks are supervised by Reserve Bank of India and the central government. the trustees play the role of fund managers. However. it also limits the larger gains if a single security increases dramatically in value. As there is no distinction made between sponsors. Thus. the investment in a mutual fund could fall in value.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
G. (3) Unrestrained fund raising by schemes without adequate supply of scripts creates severe imbalance in the market. Following are some of the shortcomings in operation of mutual funds: (1) The mutual funds are all externally managed. (2) Many of the investors are not willing to invest in mutual funds unless there is a promise of a minimum return. evaluation is very important as this reveals the real character of the systems. 19 DBIM. SURAT
. (8) The mutual funds have eroded the financial clout of the institutions in the stock market for which cross transaction between mutual funds and financial institutions not only allow speculators to manipulate price but also provide cash leading to the distortion in the balanced growth of the market. (4) Many small companies did very well but mutual funds cannot reap their benefits because they are not allowed to invest in smaller companies. one should not lose sight of the fact that in the formal years of any institution. The insurance company mutual funds are regulated under the central government regulations. as the fund is nothing bur a portfolio of different securities. trustee and fund managers. Drawbacks of Investing In Mutual Funds Potential loss Unlike a bank deposit. Shortcomings in Operation of Mutual Funds The mutual funds have been operating for the last twelve years in India. the fund does not guarantee any minimum percentage of return. mutual fund is allowed to hold only a fixed maximum percentage of shares in a particular industry. There are multiple regulations while UTI is governed by its own regulations.
small entrepreneurs. (18) There is a lack of access to call money market.ended schemes arises could not be mitigated. Regulation 45 of SEBI states that every mutual fund shall follow a formula approved by the SEBI for computing the NAV for each of the schemes. (15) Fund managers invest in unlisted securities. most MFs have to depend on the broker networks. (12) Unlike banks. (19) The cheque writing facility is available only to the money market mutual fund investors. sometimes in private limited companies to get better returns which lead to new risk profile. (11) Investor relations play a vital role in mobilizing the resources. (20) The high cost of fruitless search for good buys or undervalued securities reduces the funds return to their shareholders to below what they could have expected if they had selected randomly. SURAT
. Apart from few. But mutual funds are only confined to urban and semi-urban markets. Moreover mutual funds till now. it is an edge for the listed funds. redemption risk which is the second most important risk of open. investors are not adequately informed about the available exist options which creates a lot of confusion for the investors and they are compelled to liquidate their investments in the market at a highly discounted price. (17) There is a restriction on corporate investments up to a maximum of 60% of net worth of mutual funds. But there is no such stipulation for bank fixed deposits and gilt securities. (14) Most of the older schemes have been designed with complicated exit procedures. But this is available only to securities under section 112 of the Income Tax Act.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
(9) Net asset value (NAV) is one of the important factors which decide the performances of a mutual fund scheme. (13) Mutual funds have not yet developed product structuring to tap target customers.
20 DBIM. Most of the Indian companies and mutual funds have ignored this and failed to communicate to the investors about their organization and operation. For mutual funds. (16) Long-term capital gains have been reduced from 20% with indexation benefits to 10% without indexation. and merchants to tap the rural savings. Further. As a result. The cost factor is another problem facing the mutual fund industry. (10) India is a vast country with a comprehensive demographic profile. So the mutual funds cannot issue cheques on behalf of another bank. not have been able to introduce the schemes suitable to the needs of farmers. But till date no regulation specifies the formula to be used for computation of NAV. mutual funds do not have a strong distribution network.
Study and Research on Mutual Fund
(21) The development of mutual fund industry depends upon the maturity of the merchant banking industry. (25) Perhaps mutual funds are the most misunderstood financial products in India. Constitutes another big problem plaguing mutual fund research in India. (22) There is a lack of product conceptualization and innovation in mutual fund industry. (24) Lack of well-informed institutional market is the cause of market inefficiencies. The basic purpose of reforms in the financial sector was to enhance the generation of domestic resources by reducing the dependence on outside funds. (29) Few mutual funds have already shown full portfolio disclosures but most mutual funds hesitate to declare their portfolios. Possible causes for nonsatisfactory performance of mutual fund
I. This concept is already prevalent manufacturing but has not been introduced in fund management. has increased tremendously. Therefore. This calls for a market-based institution which can tap the vast potential of domestic savings and channelize them for profitable investments. than managing themselves. the need and scope for mutual fund operation. But unfortunately. the mutual funds enjoy ample resources at their disposal by mobilizing resources of the investors. (30) The absence of proper benchmarks against which performance can be measured. Importance of Mutual Funds
Owing to the size. (26) The lack of proper marketing and distribution system is another problem facing the mutual fund industry in India. the investors now prefer investing their resources in various mutual fund schemes. the merchant banking industry in the Indian capital market is not sufficiently matured. (28) The biggest problem the mutual funds face today in India is the lack of investors’ confidence. (23) The most important aspect for success of a mutual fund is the ability to outsource certain critical activities. The following reasons can be stated for the rising popularity of mutual funds: (1) With an emphasis on increase in domestic savings and improvement in deployment of investment through markets.
21 DBIM. Neither the investor nor the corporate finance manager perceives the product in a proper perspective. mutual funds are not making efforts in investor awareness programme which is the need of the day. The mutual funds with the expert and experienced management cadre can secure large varieties of high yielding “Blue chip” securities and show better results to the investing public. SURAT
. (27) Internet and thereby e-commerce which is inevitable now-a-days has not been introduced in mutual funds. Mutual funds are not only best suited for this purpose but also capable of meeting this challenge. operating economics and ability to commit large sums of money for long periods. Further.
being set up in the public sector. later sell these shares in the share market and to the promoters of the company at a much higher price.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
(2) An ordinary investor who applies for share in a public issue of any company is not assured of any firm allotment. In view of recent liberalized economic and industrial policies and concessions such as excise and customs given in recent budget for the growth of industrial sector. those subscribe to the capital issue made by companies get firm allotment of shares. Hence mutual funds have been able to speed their wings by spreading their funds in various industrial sectors. Dave. They also maximize gains by proper selection and timing of investment. Many investors have fell prey to misleading and motivated “headline” leads and lips. (9) Risk of loss due to ill-informed and misinformed purchase/sales is reduced as the managers of mutual funds have better access to information. SURAT
. This risk is reduced by diversification of portfolio in terms of companies and industries. (7) Mutual fund creates awareness among urban and rural middle class people about the benefits of investment in capital market through profitable and safe avenues. The mutual funds. they are considered to have a better knowledge of market behavior. Hence mutual funds help develop confidence among the investors. they bring a certain competence to their job. (5) Another important thing is that the dividend and capital gains are reinvested automatically in mutual funds and hence are not fritted away. former chairman of UTI. Mutual funds. Besides. mutual fund could be able to mop up a large amount of the surplus funds available with these people. S. the importance of mutual funds has been increasing. Even a small investor in mutual fund can get the benefit of diversification. Besides. in three words—yield.
J. (8) The mutual fund attracts foreign capital flow to the country and secures profitable investment avenues abroad for domestic savings through the opening of offshore funds in various foreign countries. have given the impression of being as safe a conduit for investment as bank deposits. (3) The psyche of the typical Indian investor has been summed up by Mr. some schemes provide tax relief under section 88 of the Income Tax Act which leads to the growth of mutual funds. (4) As mutual funds are managed by professionals.A. presently all schemes of mutual funds provide tax relief under section 80L of the Income Tax Act and in addition. Besides. the capital market— both primary issue market and secondary—have been witnessing unprecedented boom. (6) The mutual fund operations provide a reasonable protection to the investors. But mutual funds. Due to all the benefits. The automatic reinvestment nature of a mutual fund is a form of forced saving and can make a big difference in the long run. and security. liquidity. the assured returns promised by them have been great for the typical Indian investors. Defining Mutual Fund Risk
22 DBIM. another notable thing is that mutual funds are controlled and regulated by SEBI and hence are considered safe. Therefore. (10) Lastly.
Currency Risk: The possibility that returns could be reduced for Americans investing in foreign securities because of a rise in the value of the U. national elections). 23 DBIM. SURAT
• • •
. stocks historically have been subject to the greatest short term price fluctuations and have provided the highest long term returns. Investors looking for a fund which incorporates ass asset classes may consider a balanced or hybrid mutual fund width different asset classes. A stock fund that invests across many industries is more sheltered from this risk. A bond fund with below average risk. Income Risk: The possibility that a fixed-income fund’s dividends will decline as a result of falling overall interest rates. a poor harvest) will waken a country’s economy and cause investments in that country to decline. For example. Bond typically experience mote short term price swings. stock funds overall have a higher risk/return potential than bond funds. If interest rates go up. At the discretion of the manager(s). Bond income is also affected by the change in interest rates. securities are bought. government default). For example should not be compared t a stock fund with below average risk. such as telecommunications) is at risk that its price will decline due to developments in its industry. Inflation Risk: The possibility that increases in the cost of living will reduce or eliminate a fund’s real inflation-adjusted returns. Of all the asset classes. However.e. and in turn have generated higher long term returns. Income risk is greater for a short term bond fund than for long term bond fund. sold and shifted between funds with different asset classes according to market conditions. financial problems (rising inflation. a bonk fund faces interest rate risk and income risk. money markets) offer the greatest price stability but have yielded the lowest long-term return. or natural disasters (an earthquake. Mutual funds face risks based on the investments they hold. a sector stock fund (which invests in a single industry. Similarly. Credit Risk: The possibility that a bond issuer will fail to repay interest and principal in a timely manner. Even though both funds have low risk for their respective categories.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
Different Mutual fund categories as previously defined have inherently different risk characteristics and should not be compared side by side. bonk values will go down and vice versa. cash investments (i. dollar against foreign currencies. Also called exchange-rate risk. Following is a glossary of some risks to consider when investing in Mutual Funds: • • Call Risk: The possibility that falling interest rates will cause a bond issuer to redeem-or callits high-yielding bond before the bond’s maturity date.S. Bond yields are directly related to interest rates falling as interest rates fall and finding as interest rise. Industry Risk: The possibility that a group of stocks in a single industry will decline in price due to developments in that industry. Also called default risk. Bond values are inversely related to interest rates. Country Risk: The possibility that political events (a war.
depending on the type of scheme. Market Risk: The possibility that stock fund or bond fund prices overall will decline over short or even extended periods. L. The net assets value (NAV) is the actual value of one unit of a given scheme n any given business day. 20 . Since market value of securities changes every day. Manager Risk: The possibility that an actively managed Mutual Fund’s investment adviser will fail to execute the fund’s investment strategy effectively resulting in the failure of stated objectives. SURAT
. Net Assets Value (Nav)
The performance of a particular scheme of mutual fund is denoted by Net Assets Value (NAV). Net Asset Value is the market value of the securities held by the scheme. 200 lakhs and mutual fund has issue 10 lakhs units of Rs. So NAV is equals toMarket / fair value of schemes (+) Receivables (+) Accrued income (+) Other assets (-) Accrued expenses (-) Payables (-) Other liability (/) Number of unit outstanding. It is calculated by deducting all liabilities except unit capital of the fund from the realizable value of all assets and dividing it by number of units outstanding. Total return includes dividend and capital gains distributions along with any changes 24 DBIM.
K.Mutual fund invest the money collected from the investors in securities markets. or “lose money”. In simple word. from the original or invested amount. NAV of a scheme also varies on day to day basis. Stock and bond markets tend to move in cycles. with periods when prices rise and other periods when prices fall. The NAV reflect the liquidation value of the funds investments on that particular day after accounting for all expenses.10 each to the investors. then the NAV per unit of the fund is Rs. For example if the market value if securities of a mutual fund scheme is Rs. Measurements of Performance 1) Total return is generally regarded as the best measure of fund performance because it is the most comprehensive. Principal Risk: The possibility that an investment will go down in value. The NAV per unit is the market vale of securities of a scheme divided buy the total no of units of the scheme o any particular date. NAV is required to be disclosed by the mutual funds on a regular basis –daily of weekly.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
• • Interest Rate Risk: The possibility that a bond fund will decline in value because of an increase in interest rates.
2) Yield is the measure of net income (dividends and interest less expenses) earned by the securities in the fund’s portfolio during a specified period. Yield does not include the change.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
in the fund’s share price. in the investment’s value over a given period. 1. expressed as a percentage of an initial investment in a fund. Non Residents Including: • Non-Residents IncludesOther Corporate Bodies (OCBs) 3. A dividend distribution comes from the interest and dividends earned by the securities held by a fund. Foreign Entities: • Foreign Institutional Investors (FIIs) registered with SEBI • Foreign citizens and other foreign entities are not allowed to invest in Mutual Funds India
M. represents the change in that investment’s value over a given period. SURAT
. However. it is equally essential to know who can invest in Mutual Funds in India. Yield is expressed as a percentage of the fund’s NAV (including the highest applicable sales charge. Mutual Funds in India are open to investment for. Fund distributors are a very important link between the fund management industries and the investors. Eligibility for Investing In Mutual Funds In India
Mutual funds have been emerging as big financial intermediary in India. Total return. Residents Including: • Resident Indian Individuals • Indian Companies • Indian Trusts / Charitable Institutions • Banks • Non-Banking Finance Companies • Insurance Companies • Provident Funds 2. In a vast country like India it is a challenge to market these funds. if any. if any). assuming any distributions were reinvested in the fund. a capital gains distribution represents any net gains resulting from the sale of the securities held by a fund.
Under the provision of the act. 5 crore for US-64 scheme were RBI. sales and customer service. SBI and some contributors of initial capital of Rs. LIC foreign banks. UTI manages funds over Rs. LIC.221 crore as on 30/6/2001 and over 41. SURAT
. have made a strong impression especially in the larger cities. The contributors of initial capital of Rs.000 agents. 58.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
BRIEF INTRODUCTION OF MF COMPANIES
Classification of Indian Mutual Fund Industry
The private sector players. holding. the Government of India would appoint chairman of the board.
UTI Mutual Fund
UTI was set up in 1964 by an act of parliament and commenced its operation from July 1964. Today it has 54 branch offices. with a view to encouraging saving and investment and participation in the income. after an indifferent start in the early years. 5 crore for US-64 scheme were RBI. 266 chief representatives and about 67. The first scheme was Unit scheme 1964.80 million investors account under 85 schemes. It provides complete range of services to its investors. UTI is a trust without ownership capital and independent Board of trustees. profit and gain accruing to corporation from the acquisition. Unit trust of India (UTI) is the India's largest Mutual Fund organization.
ICICI Prudential Mutual Fund
26 DBIM. This sector has dented UTI's dominance resulting in a falling market share towards the end of the last millennium. management and disposal of securities. with a high quality of fund management.
Study and Research on Mutual Fund
The Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India Limited (ICICI) was founded by the World Bank, the Government of India and representatives of private industry on January 5, 1995 to encourage and assist industrial development and investment in India. The sponsors of the Fund are prudential plc of the United Kingdom (UK) and ICICI Limited. Prudential is one of the largest life insurance companies in the UK and one of the leading life insurance companies in the world. It operates on over 15 countries and markets medium to long-term savings product, including life insurance, pensions and unit trusts. It has a total of over 10 million customers worldwide. ICICI is a premier financial institution and its principal business is to provide medium and long-term project financing/leasing, consumer finance and other types of financial services to industry and individuals in India. The total financial assistance extended by ICICI since inception is Rs. 1,46,167 crores as of March 31,2001.Prudential ICICI Asset Management Company Limited, the investment Manager to the Prudential ICICI Mutual Fund, manages assets over Rs.6242.07 crores as of July 31, 2001 through 13 schemes.
IDBI Principal Mutual Fund
The Mutual Fund is sponsored by two leading names in the financial services industry- Industrial Development Bank of India (IDBI) and Principal Financial Services Inc. IDBI is a premier financial institution of India and one of the largest development banks in the world. Principal Financial Services Inc. is a member of the Principal Financial Group - a leading global provider of financial products and services, including Retirement and Investment Services, Mutual Funds, Life and Health Insurance, Annuities and Mortgage Banking, to business and individuals.IDBI Mutual fund has been constituted as a Trust in accordance with the provisions of the Indian trust Act,1882.The Mutual fund is registered with SEBI under registrationno.MF/019/94/0 dated December 13, 1994. The Fund was set up by Industrial Development Bank of India (IDBI) in 1994 by execution of a Trust Deed dated November25, 1994 under which IDBI was the sole Sponsor, Settler and Principal Trustee. IDBI, as sponsor to the fund, has irrevocably settled a Sum of Rs. 25 crore as the Trust corpus, which is held and managed as per the provisions of the Trust Deed. The Board of Trustees with IDBI as principal trustee discharges the Trusteeship functions of IDBI Mutual fund. The trustee had appointed IDBI mutual fund, since inception. IIMCO was a wholly owned subsidiary of IDBI and is registered under the Companies Act, 1956. Since March 31, 2000, the principal Financial Services Inc. has acquired 50% stake in the paid up equity capital of IIMCO through its subsidiary, Principal Financial Group (Maturities) Limited. With this move, the name has been changed to IDBI-PRINCIPAL Asset Management Company Limited (IDBI-PRINCIPAL) to reflect the change in ownership. IDBI was established in 1964 by the Government of India under IDBI Act. It is the premier development financial institution in the country and one of the largest development banks in the world with an asset base of over Rs 72,000 crore (US$ 16 billion) and net worth of over Rs 9,000 crore (US$ 2 billion). It currently has an investor base of 3.3 million. It has played a major role in institution building by setting up various specialized institutions to cater to the changing needs of Indian industry and capital market.
27 DBIM, SURAT
Study and Research on Mutual Fund Birla Sun Life Mutual Fund
The sponsor of Birla Mutual Fund is Birla Global Finance Ltd. (BGFL) is an Aditya Birla Co. engaged in asset based financing, corporate finance, trade finance, treasury and capital market operations. The Birla Global Finance Ltd. Was responsible for setting up and establishing the Mutual Fund to be called Birla Mutual Fund. Birla Mutual Fund has been constituted as a trust under the provisions of the Indian Trust Act, 1982 with SEBI. The objective of the Mutual fund is to offer to the public and other eligible investors units in one or more schemes in the Mutual Fund for making group or collective investments primarily in Indian securities in accordance with and as permitted under the directions and guidelines issued from time to time by SEBI.
ABN AMRO Mutual Fund
ABN AMRO Mutual Fund was setup on April 15, 2004 with ABN AMRO Trustee (India) Pvt. Ltd. as the Trustee Company. The AMC, ABN AMRO Asset Management (India) Ltd. was incorporated on November 4, 2003. Deutsche Bank A G is the custodian of ABN AMRO Mutual Fund.
Bank of Baroda Mutual Fund
Bank of Baroda Mutual Fund or BOB Mutual Fund was setup on October 30, 1992 under the sponsorship of Bank of Baroda. BOB Asset Management Company Limited is the AMC of BOB Mutual Fund and was incorporated on November 5, 1992. Deutsche Bank AG is the custodian.
HDFC Mutual Fund
HDFC Mutual Fund was setup on June 30, 2000 with two sponsorers nemely Housing Development Finance Corporation Limited and Standard Life Investments Limited.
HSBC Mutual Fund
HSBC Mutual Fund was setup on May 27, 2002 with HSBC Securities and Capital Markets (India) Private Limited as the sponsor. Board of Trustees, HSBC Mutual Fund acts as the Trustee Company of HSBC Mutual Fund.
ING Vysya Mutual Fund
ING Vysya Mutual Fund was setup on February 11, 1999 with the same named Trustee Company. It is a joint venture of Vysya and ING. The AMC, ING Investment Management (India) Pvt. Ltd. was incorporated on April 6, 1998.
Sahara Mutual Fund
Sahara Mutual Fund was set up on July 18, 1996 with Sahara India Financial Corporation Ltd. as the sponsor. Sahara Asset Management Company Private Limited incorporated on August 31, 1995 works as the AMC of Sahara Mutual Fund. The paid-up capital of the AMC stands at Rs 25.8 crore.
State Bank of India Mutual Fund
State Bank of India Mutual Fund is the first Bank sponsored Mutual Fund to launch off share fund, the India Magnum Fund with a corpus of Rs. 225 cr. approximately. Today it is the largest Bank sponsored Mutual Fund in India. They have already launched 35 Schemes out of which 15 have already yielded handsome returns to investors. State Bank of India Mutual Fund has more than Rs. 5,500 Crores as AUM. Now it has an investor base of over 8 Lakhs spread over 18 schemes. 28 DBIM, SURAT
Study and Research on Mutual Fund Tata Mutual Fund
Tata Mutual Fund (TMF) is a Trust under the Indian Trust Act, 1882. The sponsorers for Tata Mutual Fund are Tata Sons Ltd., and Tata Investment Corporation Ltd. The investment manager is Tata Asset Management Limited and its Tata Trustee Company Pvt. Limited. Tata Asset Management Limited's is one of the fastest in the country with more than Rs. 7,703 crores (as on April 30, 2005) of AUM.
Kotak Mahindra Mutual Fund
Kotak Mahindra Asset Management Company (KMAMC) is a subsidiary of KMBL. It is presently having more than 1,99,818 investors in its various schemes. KMAMC started its operations in December 1998. Kotak Mahindra Mutual Fund offers schemes catering to investors with varying risk return profiles. It was the first company to launch dedicated gilt scheme investing only in government securities.
Reliance Mutual Fund
Reliance Mutual Fund (RMF) was established as trust under Indian Trusts Act, 1882. The sponsor of RMF is Reliance Capital Limited and Reliance Capital Trustee Co. Limited is the Trustee. It was registered on June 30, 1995 as Reliance Capital Mutual Fund which was changed on March 11, 2004. Reliance Mutual Fund was formed for launching of various schemes under which units are issued to the Public with a view to contribute to the capital market and to provide investors the opportunities to make investments in diversified securities.
Standard Chartered Mutual Fund
Standard Chartered Mutual Fund was set up on March 13, 2000 sponsored by Standard Chartered Bank. The Trustee is Standard Chartered Trustee Company Pvt. Ltd. Standard Chartered Asset Management Company Pvt. Ltd. is the AMC which was incorporated with SEBI on December 20,1999.
Franklin Templeton India Mutual Fund
The group, Frnaklin Templeton Investments is a California (USA) based company with a global AUM of US$ 409.2 bn. (as of April 30, 2005). It is one of the largest financial services groups in the world. Investors can buy or sell the Mutual Fund through their financial advisor or through mail or through their website. They have Open end Diversified Equity schemes, Open end Sector Equity schemes, Open end Hybrid schemes, Open end Tax Saving schemes, Open end Income and Liquid schemes, Closed end Income schemes and Open end Fund of Funds schemes to offer.
Morgan Stanley Mutual Fund India
Morgan Stanley is a worldwide financial services company and its leading in the market in securities, investmenty management and credit services. Morgan Stanley Investment Management (MISM) was established in the year 1975. It provides customized asset management services and products to governments, corporations, pension funds and non-profit organisations. Its services are also extended to high net worth individuals and retail investors. In India it is known as Morgan Stanley Investment Management Private Limited (MSIM India) and its AMC is Morgan Stanley Mutual Fund (MSMF). This is the first close end diversified equity scheme serving the needs of Indian retail investors focussing on a long-term capital appreciation.
Escorts Mutual Fund
29 DBIM, SURAT
Alliance Capital Mutual Fund
Alliance Capital Mutual Fund was setup on December 30. Ltd.
Canbank Mutual Fund
Canbank Mutual Fund was setup on December 19.
Benchmark Mutual Fund
Benchmark Mutual Fund was setup on June 12. The Trustee is ACAM Trust Company Pvt. 1987 with Canara Bank acting as the sponsor. The Trustee Company is Escorts Investment Trust Limited. . was setup on January 3. 1995 with the name Escorts Asset Management Limited. (UII) and is constituted as a Trust in accordance with the provisions of the Indian Trusts Act. Cholamandalam Trustee Co. a Government of India undertaking and the four Public Sector General Insurance Companies. 1996 with Excorts Finance Limited as its sponsor. The New India Assurance Co. The Corporate Office of the AMC is in Mumbai. Ltd. Ltd. Ltd. sponsored by General Insurance Corporation of India (GIC). 1882. The Trustees of LIC Mutual Fund have appointed Jeevan Bima Sahayog Asset Management Company Ltd as the Investment Managers for LIC Mutual Fund. and AMC. Incorporated on October 16. is the AMC. Ltd. LIC Mutual Fund was constituted as a Trust in accordance with the provisions of the Indian Trust Act. 1994 with Alliance Capital Management Corp. The Oriental Insurance Co.
LIC Mutual Fund
Life Insurance Corporation of India set up LIC Mutual Fund on 19th June 1989. Ltd (OIC) and United India Insurance Co. as the sponsored and Benchmark Trustee Company Pvt. (NIA). the Alliance Capital Asset Management India (Pvt) Ltd. 2001 with Niche Financial Services Pvt. of Delaware (USA) as sponsorer. as the Trustee Company. Ltd. 1882
30 DBIM. 1993 is the AMC. Benchmark Asset Management Company Pvt. It contributed Rs. with the corporate office in Mumbai. 2 Crores towards the corpus of the Fund. The Company started its business on 29th April 1994. Ltd. incorporated on March 2. 1997. 2000 and headquartered in Mumbai.
Chola Mutual Fund
Chola Mutual Fund under the sponsorship of Cholamandalam Investment & Finance Company Ltd. Ltd (NIC). Its AMC was incorporated on December 1. Canbank Investment Management Services Ltd.
GIC Mutual Fund
GIC Mutual Fund. National Insurance Co. is the Trustee Company and AMC is Cholamandalam AMC Limited.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
Escorts Mutual Fund was setup on April 15. viz. SURAT
The UTI was regulated by a special Act of Parliament while funds promoted by public sector banks were subject to RBI Guidelines of July 1989. SEBI allowing the MF's to launch commodity mutual funds. Some facts for the growth of mutual funds in India 100% growth in the last 6 years. all mutual funds are regulated by SEBI. 1998 and 1999.
Mutual Funds – Organization
31 DBIM. 'B' and 'C' class cities are growing rapidly. Trying to curb the late trading practices. are now regulated by the capital market regulator. Today most of the mutual funds are concentrating on the 'A' class cities. The regulations were thoroughly reviewed and re-notified in December 1996. administration and management of mutual funds in India were clearly laid down. The Securities & Exchange Board of India (SEBI) was formed in 1993 as a capital market regulator. Soon they will find scope in the growing cities. SURAT
. Net Asset Values and Pricing of Mutual Funds. Regulations also prescribed disclosure requirements. highest in the world. Today.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
MUTUAL FUND REGULATION
There was no uniform regulation of the mutual funds industry till a few years ago. Mutual fund can penetrate rurals like the Indian insurance industry with simple and limited products. US based. Efforts have been made to bring UTI schemes under SEBI's ambit with the result that all schemes. 1996 have been further amended in 1997. The SEBI (Mutual Funds) Regulations. The rules for the formation. Emphasis on better corporate governance. Number of foreign AMC's are in the que to enter the Indian markets like Fidelity Investments. One of its responsibilities was to regulate the mutual fund industry and it came up with comprehensive regulations for the industry in 1993. Only channelizing these savings in mutual funds sector is required. The revised guidelines tighten the accounting and disclosure requirements in line with recommendations of The Expert Committee on Accounting Policies. We have approximately 30 mutual funds which is much less than US having more than 800. Our saving rate is over 23%. with the exception of Unit 64. There is a big scope for expansion. with over US$1trillion assets under management worldwide.
This is because most AMCs lose money in the first few years of operations. This is the last place where high quality persons would want to remain and work. Hence. a sponsor which is financially weak or which cannot capital to the business either because of its inability or unwillingness will result in an unhealthy operation. In most cases. Since mutual fund business did not have access to too much money. In these organizations. SURAT
. these losses are much more than the capital requirements stipulated by SEBI.This is also a problem that has afflicted some of the AMCs floated by nationalized banks. people who are going to manage the funds. This is exactly what has happened with some AMCs promoted by Indian business houses. The fund managers had no experience in the activity making a mockery of "professional management". It is very critical to the performance of a mutual fund as it decides on the style of functioning. a posting in the AMC became punishment postings for some personnel who were not doing well in the parent organization or who lost out in the organizational politics.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
There are many entities involved and the diagram below illustrates the organizational set up of a mutual fund: How important is an AMC (Asset Management Company) behind a mutual fund? AMC controls the operations and functioning of a mutual fund. The worst affected are the investors.
32 DBIM. the commitment to service quality and overall supervision.
The financial strength and the commitment of the AMC sponsors to the business are very key issues. the traditional thinking is prevalent which can be summarized as "money is power". The AMC then remains stunted and the sponsors lose interest. The CEO’s of the AMCs did not have any clue of the mutual fund business and neither were they interested in it – the entire effort was spent in getting a posting back in the parent. The sad results are there to see. There will be a tendency to cut corners and unwillingness to spend money to expand operations. It looks extremely likely that some of these AMCs will no longer exist in a few years. Some of the parents had to provide funds to bridge the gap in "assured return schemes". The management of the banks also did not allow these AMCs to become independent viable businesses.
.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
Organization structure of a Mutual Fund
The offer document of the scheme tells you its objectives and provides supplementary details like the track record of other schemes managed by the same Fund Manager. You can begin by defining your investment objectives and needs which could be regular income. the quantum of risk you are willing to take and your cash flow requirements. you buy fewer units when the price is higher and more units when the price is low. Step Three . By investing a fixed sum each month. Step Five.Select the ideal mix of Schemes Investing in just one Mutual Fund scheme may not meet all your investment needs. For selecting the right scheme as per your specific requirements. Some factors to evaluate before choosing a particular Mutual Fund are the track record of the performance of the fund over the last few years in relation to the appropriate yardstick and similar funds in the same category. Other factors could be the portfolio allocation. Therefore.Start early 35 DBIM. thus bringing down your average cost per unit. say every month.
Step four .Invest regularly The best approach is to invest a fixed amount at specific intervals. financial independence. lifestyle. the dividend yield and the degree of transparency as reflected in the frequency and quality of their communications. the first step is to assess your needs. You may consider investing in a combination of schemes to achieve your specific goals. Step Two .Study and Research on Mutual Fund
Steps for Investing In Mutual Fund
Step one . SURAT
. This is called rupee cost averaging and is a disciplined investment strategy followed by investors all over the world.Choose the right Mutual Fund The important thing is to choose the right mutual fund scheme which suits your requirements. buying a home or finance a wedding or educate your children or a combination of all these needs. You can also avail the systematic investment plan facility offered by many open end funds.Identify your Investment needs Your financial goals will vary. and level of income and expenses among many other factors. family commitments. based on your age.
you will make more than if you wait and invest later.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
It is desirable to start investing early and stick to a regular investment plan. b. Receive dividend within 42 days of their declaration and receive the redemption or repurchase proceeds within 10 days from the date of redemption or repurchase. a need for mutual fund association in India was generated to function as a non-profit organisation. which are likely to modify the scheme or affect the interest of the unit holder. Association of Mutual Funds India has brought down the Indian Mutual Fund Industry to a professional and healthy market with ethical lines enhancing and maintaining standards. You may reap the rewards in the years to come. Approve or disapprove any change in the fundamental investment policies of the scheme. Receive unit certificates or statements of accounts confirming the title within 6 weeks from the date of closure of the subscription or within 6 weeks from the date of request for a unit certificate is received by the Mutual Fund. 2. 5. financial position and general affairs of the scheme.
Rights of a Mutual Fund Unit holder
A unit holder in a Mutual Fund scheme governed by the SEBI (Mutual Funds) Regulations is entitled to: 1. The role of Association of Mutual Funds in India The Association of Mutual Funds of India works with 30 registered AMCs of the country.AMFI is an apex body of all Asset Management Companies (AMC) which has been registered with SEBI. The objectives are as follows:
36 DBIM. 3. Receive information about the investment policies. 1995. Wind up the schemes.whether starting a career or retiring.
Association of Mutual Funds in India (AMFI)
With the increase in mutual fund players in India. growth oriented or income seeking. If you start now.The final step All you need to do now is to Click here for online application forms of various mutual fund schemes and start investing. Till date all the AMCs are that have launched mutual fund schemes are its members. SURAT
. It functions under the supervision and guidelines of its Board of Directors. The power of compounding lets you earn income on income and your money multiplies at a compounded rate of return. Mutual Funds are suitable for every kind of investor . investment objectives. Change the Asset Management Company. It has certain defined objectives which juxtaposes the guidelines of its Board of Directors. Step Six . conservative or risk taking. Inspect the documents of the Mutual Funds specified in the scheme's offer document. 4. Association of Mutual Funds in India (AMFI) was incorporated on 22nd August. It follows the principle of both protecting and promoting the interests of mutual funds as well as their unit holders. The dissenting unit holder has a right to redeem the investment. c. Vote in accordance with the Regulations to:a.
Association of Mutual Fund of India do represent the Government of India. INSTITUTIONS GIC Asset Management Co. Ltd. PRIVATE SECTOR Benchmark Asset Management Co. Pvt. This mutual fund association of India maintains a high professional and ethical standards in all areas of operation of the industry. Jeevan Bima Sahayog Asset Management Co. Ltd. 6. the Reserve Bank of India and other related bodies on matters relating to the Mutual Fund Industry. Cholamandalam Asset Management Co.
The sponsors of Association of Mutual Funds in India
A BANK SPONSORED BOB Asset Management Co. Ltd Sundaram Asset Management Company Ltd. Ltd. It also recommends and promotes the top class business practices and code of conduct which is followed by members and related people engaged in the activities of mutual fund and asset management. Reliance Capital Asset Management Ltd. Pvt. Ltd. 37 DBIM. Ltd. Kotak Mahindra Asset Management Co. SBI Funds Management Ltd. The agencies who are by any means connected or involved in the field of capital markets and financial services also involved in this code of conduct of the association. Tata Asset Management Private Ltd. 4. Capital Management Pvt. Ltd. 5. UTI Asset Management Company Pvt. Ltd. At last but not the least association of mutual fund of India also disseminate information’s on Mutual Fund Industry and undertakes studies and research either directly or in association with other bodies. J. SURAT
.M. Escorts Asset Management Ltd. Ltd. AMFI interacts with SEBI and works according to SEBIs guidelines in the mutual fund industry. 7.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
1. 3. AMFI undertakes all India awareness programme for investors in order to promote proper understanding of the concept and working of mutual funds. It implements a programme of training and certification for all intermediaries and other engaged in the mutual fund industry. Sahara Asset Management Co. It develops a team of well qualified and trained Agent distributors. 2. Can bank Investment Management Services Ltd.
50 crores. Principal Asset Management Co. (Source: Association of Mutual Funds in India Publications)
SEBI Regulations Regarding Mutual Fund
The SEBI regulations for the establishment and issue of schemes by mutual funds are as follows: Mutual fund shall be established in the form of trusts under the Indian Trust Act and managed by separately formed asset management company. Ltd. For each scheme. The minimum amount to be raised with each closed-end scheme should be Rs. The directors should have at least 10 years experience in the field of portfolio management. Morgan Stanley Investment Management Pvt. Ltd. Ltd. Ltd. 20 crores and for the open-ended scheme Rs. JOINT VENTURES . venture capital funds. Ltd. SURAT
. Money market mutual fund would be regulated by the RBI and other mutual funds would be regulated by SEBI. financial administration. Fifty per cent members of the board of AMC must be independent directors and must have no connection with sponsoring organization. The SEBI has the authority to withdraw the authorization of AMC if they fail to work for the interest of investors. Deutsche Asset Management (India) Pvt. HSBC Asset Management (India) Private Ltd. Ltd. Prudential ICICI Asset Management Co. If the minimum amount or 60% of the target amount is not raised. Standard Chartered Asset Mgmt Co. ING Investment Management (India) Pvt. 10 crores. DSP Merrill Lynch Fund Managers Ltd. HDFC Asset Management Co. there should be a separate and responsible fund manager. Pvt.
38 DBIM. Franklin Templeton Asset Management (India) Pvt. the first 45 days should be considered for determining the target figure.PREDOMINANTLY FOREIGN Alliance Capital Asset Management (India) Pvt.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
C2 JOINT VENTURES. For openended schemes. An AMC cannot act as the AMC for another mutual fund. Ltd. Ltd. Ltd. Credit Capital Asset Management Co. Ltd. Pvt.PREDOMINANTLY INDIAN Birla Sun Life Asset Management Co. Ltd. The AMC should have a minimum net worth of Rs. and insurance companies. the entire subscription has to be returned to the investors. Each scheme of the mutual fund is registered with SEBI before it is floated in the market. AMCs are also allowed to do other fund based businesses such as providing investment management services to offshore funds. etc. This stipulation is not applicable to banks sponsoring mutual funds. other mutual funds. Closed-end schemes should not be kept open for subscription for more than 45 days.
Study and Research on Mutual Fund
The SEBI guidelines (1999) restrict MFs to invest not more than 10% of NAV of a scheme in shares or share related instruments of a single company. SURAT
. The initial issue expenses should not exceed 6% of the funds raised under each scheme. The SEBI after due investigation may impose penalty on mutual funds for violating the guidelines
39 DBIM. SEBI increased the maximum investment limit for MFs in listed companies from 5 to 10% of NAV in respect of the open-ended funds. All mutual funds must distribute a minimum of 90% of their profits in any given year. Every mutual fund is required to send the audited annual statements of accounts and six months un audited accounts of net assets for each of its schemes to the SEBI. The SEBI shall lay down a common advertising code for all mutual funds to comply with.
In India fund managers do not have such leeway.A. A research agency that specializes in internet technology estimates that over the next four years Mutual Fund Assets traded on.line will grow ten folds from $ 128 billion to $ 1. while in India the Net is used as a source of Information. about 9. However.7 million households will manage their assets on-line by the year 2003.2005)
Internationally.line trading is a great idea to reduce management expenses from the current 2 % of total assets to about 0.S.2005)
40 DBIM. mutual funds cannot be left far behind. Such changes could facilitate easy access.S. 72% of the core customer base of mutual funds in the top 50-broking firms in the U. In the U. such a facility is not yet of avail in India. (Source: The Financial Express: September.75 % of the total assets. Only Fidelity and Capital are non-bank mutual funds in this group. lower intermediation costs and better services for all. (Source: The Financial Express : September 04.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
Some basic facts
GLOBAL & INDIAN SCENARIO
The money market mutual fund segment has a total corpus of $ 1. whereas equity assets traded on-line will increase during the period from $ 246 billion to $ 1. This will increase the share of mutual funds from 34% to 40% during the period.commerce and its breakthroughs.227 billion .sponsored. In fact in advanced countries like the U. eight are bank.S. On.561 billion.48 trillion in the U. mutual funds buy. on-line investing continues its meteoric rise. are expected to trade on-line by 2003. They have realized the potential of the Internet and are equipping themselves to perform better. the total number of schemes is higher than that of the listed companies while in India we have just 277 schemes Internationally. SURAT
.S. Many have debated about the success of e. In the U. against a corpus of $ 100 million in India.sell transactions have already begun on the Net. Out of the top 10 mutual funds worldwide. but it is true that this aspect of technology could and will change the way financial sectors function.S. 04. mutual funds are allowed to go short.
In India . Therefore if the administrative costs are low . It is only the performance of equity funds. Here are some of the basic changes that have taken place since the advent of the Net.line. brokers could get more Net savvy than investors and could help the investors with the knowledge through get from the Net. With smaller administrative costs more funds would be mobilized . Direct dealing with the fund could help the investor with their financial planning.25% and equity funds can charge 2. Morgan Stanley Growth Fund units still trade below the original IPO price of Rs 10.e. Monthly Equity Plans of SBI Mutual Fund. UTI and Canbank Mutual Fund and of course Morgan Stanley Growth Fund. This is so because these funds truly had participation from masses. New investors would prefer online : Mutual funds can target investors who are young individuals and who are Net savvy. they have come with reasonable returns. The Internet users are going to increase dramatically and mutual funds are going to be the best beneficiary. sites like AOL offer detailed research and financial details about the functioning of different funds and their performance statistics. a is witnessing a genesis in this area.
41 DBIM. Their poor performance has been amplified by the closed end discounts i. units of these funds quoting at sharp discounts to their NAV resulting in an even poorer return to the investor.5% as administrative fees.75% if trading is done on. Mutual funds could bring down their administrative costs to 0.
Lower Costs: Distribution of funds will fall in the online trading regime by 2003 . SURAT
. bond funds can charge a maximum of 2. the benefits are passed down and hence Mutual Funds are able to attract mire investors and increase their asset base. Investors feel that after 5 years. Net based advertisements: There will be more sites involved in ads and promotion of mutual funds.
Why had mutual funds in India performed so poorly in the past?
Most investors associate mutual funds with Mastergain. It is incorrect to think that all mutual funds have performed poorly.6 million net users who are prime target for these funds and this could just be the beginning. India has around 1. since servicing them would be easier on the Net.S. Better advice: Mutual funds could provide better advice to their investors through the Net rather than through the traditional investment routes where there is an additional channel to deal with the Brokers. If one looks at some income funds. In the U. As per SEBI regulations .A fund manager must be ready to tackle the volatility and will have to maintain sufficient amount of investments which are high liquidity and low yielding investments to honor redemption. which has been poor. with a fund like Morgan Stanley having more than 1 million investors.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
Such increases in volumes are expected to bring about large changes in the way Mutual Funds conduct their business.
when the NAV of US 64 was going down. theoretically. This reduced the value of the residual investments in the scheme. Since then it has gone up and come down several times but has remained in the same range. The stock markets have done very badly in the last seven years. in 1994 and the prices prevailing at present. for a seven-year investment period. UTI would not be able to meet them without support of outside bodies like the RBI. Many people felt that if there were large-scale redemptions. If the investor in the fund has invested in some stocks in the sector on his own. If one considers the fact that the Sensex has been changed several times. in all probability. UTI kept increasing the sale and repurchase prices of US 64 units. the effective returns on the old Sensex.
What went wrong with Morgan Stanley?
Morgan Stanley raised large corpus (more than Rs10bn) in around early 1994.providing them the service of investment advice and management. E.
What went wrong with US64?
Basically. steel. if all investors wanted to redeem their US 64 units on the same day. The BSE Sensex crossed 3000 for the first time in early 1992. Good funds can beat returns in their asset class to some extent but that’s all.g. the US 64 simply did not have the money to meet the redemptions on its own (due to the difference between NAV and the repurchase price). Effectively. and shares of public sector units. The stock market collapse after the Pokhran II nuclear tests was the last straw. A good fund manager would probably sell part of the fund before prices fall too much and wait for an opportune time to reinvest at lower levels once the dust has settled. No one can do anything about it. have been substantially negative. with all the weak stocks having been weeded out. take the case of a sector specific fund like a Pharma fund which invests only in shares of pharmaceutical companies. Further. comes with new regulation that severely restricts the pricing freedom of these companies resulting in negative outlook for the sector. In that case. This problem was compounded by the persistent fall in the prices of shares. it set a panic amongst investors of US 64. Returns provided by mutual funds are a function of the returns in the underlying asset class in which the fund invests. 42 DBIM. the NAV of the fund would fall to a lesser extent – but fall it will. The following table gives some of the prices of stocks considered "blue chips" in 1992. No one bothered to explain to them that Morgan Stanley AMC was a service provider . for a period of 2-3 years.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
One must remember that a Mutual Fund does not provide assured returns and neither can it "manufacture" returns out of thin air. especially the shares of companies in basic commodity industries like cement. The entire exercise in fund raising was centered on the hype of the fund being the first fund promoted by an internationally acclaimed asset management company. manmade fibers etc. When this became known. existing in 1992. the total return has been almost zero. It was marketed like any other public issue and fund investors rushed to invest in the scheme hoping to get superior returns. the UTI distributed more dividend to the unit holders of US 64 than the return earned from the investments in the scheme. Throughout this period. Let us extend this example to an analysis of the investment climate in the last 7 years. the prices of all stocks in the sector could fall substantially resulting in a severe erosion in the NAV of the fund. If the Govt. SURAT
. The prices of many leading stocks of yesteryear have fallen by more than 50% in these seven years. No one explained to them that they were not investing in a share of a company – in fact the artificial gray market premium served to perpetrate this feeling. his personal investments may have depreciated to a larger extent. which resulted in the erosion of the scheme’s book reserves and a wide difference between the actual NAV and the sale/repurchase price.
As the NAV went below par. High industrial growth and tight money created a shortage for credit and rates started going sky high. many erstwhile blue chips have reported disastrous financial performances. Being a closed-ended scheme the Morgan Stanley’s mutual fund unit is also listed on the stock markets. In fact. This deluge of paper soaked up money and reduced the amount available for fresh investment both from resident Indians. pharmaceutical and software companies at the right time which improved the NAV from 1998 onwards. The fund’s managers invested a considerable amount of money in smaller companies with low floating stock and low market capitalization. What followed was the great crash. which will reduce the NAV). Many of these stocks lost more than 90% of their peak prices. coincided with the peak of stock market boom. Many corporates and banks started redeeming their holdings in the Unit Trust of India and other mutual funds. many of them at high issue prices. the RBI commenced on its tight money policy in a bid to control inflation from raising its head. It ensured that the name "Morgan Stanley" was now a part of the dreams of more than 1 million Indians. These companies had experienced the highest appreciation in prices in the immediate past. This put major pressure on the market. There were very few companies which did not wash their hands in this great gravy train. the NAV of MSGF mirrors this gory saga of the Indian markets. To top it. The market position started changing from late 1994. Money supply tightened and bond yields started increasing dramatically. Morgan Stanley AMC restructured the funds portfolio at big losses. The fund started buying back units in order to reduce the discount and also to boost the NAV (buying back units at prices below the NAV results in a profit. The boom in the market made it possible for many companies to raise equity capital and literally hundreds of public/rights issues opened for subscriptions every week. The fund managers were compelled to invest in equities in a big hurry as a number of Foreign Institutional Investors were investing huge sums of money in the country resulting in a mad rush for equity stocks. the biggest losers were the smaller capitalization stocks. either through the secondary market or through private placements.
43 DBIM.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
The IPO was a great success. And in this crash. Indian stock markets lack depth and are quite illiquid. Crisis of confidence led to its price on the stock exchange crashing and it started quoting at a steep discount to its NAV. Consequently. the fund invested considerable amount of money in FMCG. At this time. Most of the stocks in the Sensex have performed poorly with markets punishing commodity companies and companies with non-transparent Indian managements. unfortunately. which was already showing signs of weakness. There were also massive private placements of equity shares and GDR issues at huge premiums. investors’ confidence was shattered. The fund raising exercise. Since then the equity markets have gone nowhere with the index still below the level at which the fund was invested. Given its large corpus size no amount of buy back or otherwise support could help boost the investor confidence. domestic mutual funds and from foreign institutional investors. SURAT
4% 3. 44
DBIM.9% 1.0% 1.31 140.799.4% 1.30 6.30 6.0% 0.7% 6.983.138.36 4.0%
Some Facts for the Growth of Mutual Funds In India
100% growth in the last 6 years.43 1.2% 2.1% 7. with over US$1trillion assets under management worldwide.854.158.435.Study and Research on Mutual Fund Mutual Fund in various Sectors of India
Engineering Banking/Finance Oil & Gas Metals & Mining Cement Information Technology Telecom Pharmaceuticals Automotive Manufacturing Utilities Media Chemicals Conglomerates Services Miscellaneous Food & Beverage Tobacco Real Estate Consumer Non-Durables Consumer Durables
Investment (Rs. Mutual fund can penetrate rurals like the Indian insurance industry with simple and limited products.18
Weightage 16.06 22.4% 3.27 2. We have approximately 29 mutual funds which is much less than US having more than 800.6% 3.2% 15.237.816. Our saving rate is over 23%.8% 10. Only channelizing these savings in mutual funds sector is required.93 4.33 2.9% 4. Today most of the mutual funds are concentrating on the 'A' class cities.8% 4. cr) 22.5% 1.664.037.01 10.316.0% 3.813.141.766.01 4.037. SEBI allowing the MF's to launch commodity mutual funds.55 6.87 9.644.072.35 2. Soon they will find scope in the growing cities.243.1% 3.3% 100.20 3.205.3% 3.40 4.965. highest in the world.68 355. There is a big scope for expansion.24 4.35 4.6% 4.85 14. 'B' and 'C' class cities are growing rapidly. US based. SURAT
.800. Number of foreign AMC's are in the que to enter the Indian markets like Fidelity Investments.39 1.0% 2.
Institutional investors dominate these industry. 150. MF AMCs are beefing their distribution channel. which helps in innovating and developing new products by analyzing customer’s expectancy gap. Mutual Fund players are formulating their strategies to have a share of the growing market. Small families are being targeted using the balanced schemes. They are developing their products for both the mass and the niche market. But intensifying competition and steady growth of Mutual Funds has forced AMCs to increase their reach in non metro cities and small towns. For the mass-market. The miniscule penetration among retail investors can be attributed to their lack of awareness and risk aversion attitude. Trying to curb the late trading practices. considering clients financial goals. It is poised to grow by a CAGR of 89%. their investment is lower. They are meticulously segmenting and targeting their needs. In contrast. which aill help them expand their reach. where the potential is high and penetration is low. This is mainly attributed to the huge saving tendency among Indians. wider product mix.3%. The segmentation is based on the customers’ psychographic profile.
Redefining distribution The Indian mutual fund industry is going through a phase of transformation since liberalization. Savings contribute about 25% of the GDP to Mutual Fund assets. In contrast. whereas demographic segmentation helps in launching specialized or niche products. They hold about 65% of the Indian Mutual Fund assets. Usually. which is one of the highest in the Asia region. To realize the potential of the retail segment. distribution has been confined to the metros. Until now. government-sponsored.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
Emphasis on better corporate governance. SURAT
. middle-ages people by pension schemes and retired people by income schemes. risk-taking ability and time duration.
45 DBIM.000 cr. They are targeted by institutional schemes and money market schemes. institutional investors prefer to invest in mutual fund schemes because of the professional management of the funds. risk-free products are the proffered option for retail investors. high liquidity and cost efficiency. The big opportunity The Indian mutual fund industry is worth around Rs. Liberalization has paved the way for foreign investors in the MF industry. where as retrial investors’ accounts for only 1. AMCs perform psychographic segmentation. These has increased the pace of evolution in the industry and made more products and services available to investors. demography/ socio-economic condition. which offer high opportunities.
by an act of Parliament in 1992. Hence they come under the purview of SEBI. Other entities that SEBI also regulates are companies when they issue equity or debt.The Capital Market Regulator The Govt. how they should make disclosures of information to the investor and generally acts in the interest of investor protection. Political and Legal Factors :
Regulators in India
SEBI. SEBI requires all Mutual Funds to be registered with them. it has been clarified that all Mutual Funds. It issues guidelines for all Mutual Fund operations including where they can invest. custodians. how they should account for income and expenses. Mutual Funds have emerged as an important institutional investor in capital market securities. stock exchanges and brokers in the secondary markets. what investment limits and restrictions must be complied with. the operations of bank-owned Mutual Funds are governed by guidelines issued by the Reserve Bank of India. share registrars.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
1. bankers in the primary markets. Banks come under the regulatory jurisdiction of the RBI. of India constituted SEBI. Subsequently. come under the 46 DBIM. and foreign and institutional investors such as FIIs. Therefore. as the apex regulator of all entities that either raise funds in the capital markets or invest in capital market securities such as shares and debentures listed on stock exchanges. SURAT
. RBI — The Money Markets Regulator • RBI as Supervisor of Bank-Owned Mutual Funds The first non-UTI Mutual Funds were started by public sector banks. being primarily capital market players. offshore Mutual Funds with dedicated Indian Mutual Funds or venture capital investors.
if a Mutual Fund manager offers a Money Market Mutual Fund scheme. ultimately supervises both the RBI and the SEBI. It is generally understood that all market related and investor related activities of the funds are to be supervised by SEBI. The company law board (CLB) is the apex regulatory authority under the companies Act. Any fund mergers of bank-sponsored funds with others will also involve RBI approvals. which is charged with implementing the government policies. of India. The primary legal interface for all companies is the Registrar of companies (R0C). All AMC accounts and records are filled with the RoC. The company Law Board is a body specially constituted by the central Government for carrying out judicial proceeding with respect to company affairs. the MOE has also been playing the role of an appellate authority for any major disputes over SEBI guidelines on certain specific capital market related guidelines. the bank-owned funs continue to be under the joint supervision of both the RBI and the SEBI. which is part of the Ministry of Law and Justice of the Govt. The CLB. For example. They also. Ministry of Finance The Ministry of Finance. Besides being the ultimate policy making and supervising entity. or the trustee company as the case may be is in compliance with all companies act provisions. Department of company affairs and register of companies Mutual Fund Asset Management Companies corporate trustees are companies registered under companies act 1956 and therefore answerable to regulatory authority empowered by the companies act. The overall responsibility for formulating and modifying regulation relating to companies lies with the DCA. another arm of the CLB called the company law bench is the appellate authority for corporate offences.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
regulatory umbrella of SEBI. However.in particular any cases of insider trading or merger and acquisition. the RBI guidelines on bank funds avoid issuing instructions on investment and market operations that may conflict with SEBI instructions. in such 47 DBIM. be it banks and companies that issue securities such as certificates of deposit or commercial paper. therefore. While the CLB guides the DCA. Thus. the CLB’s role assumes importance. Since Mutual Fund AMOs are companies. For this reason. The DCA has legal power to prosecute company directors for failure to comply with any of company’s law provisions as also for non repayment of deposits or frauds and other offences. who may demand additional information and documents from the company. have the sole supervisory responsibility over all entities that operate in the money markets. The R0C ensures that the AM. if banks as funds sponsors have offered assured return schemes. while any issues concerning the ownership of the AMCs by banks fall under the regulatory ambit of the RBI. The RoC plays the role of a watch dog with respect to regulatory compliance by companies. • RBI as Supervisor of Money Market Mutual Funds Reserve Bank of India is the only government agency that is charged with the sole responsibility to control the money supply in the country. SURAT
. Company Law Board. such MMMF has to abide by the policies laid down by the RBI. The DCA forms part of the company law board. Rocs in turn are supervised by the department of company affairs. RBI would have to review the capital adequacy and financial implications of the guaranteeing bank. or banks and Mutual Funds who are allowed to borrow from or lend in the call money market. Member of a company who feel that the company is being managed in a manner which is oppressive to any member or which is against public interest or the company’s interests can appeal to the CLB for redressal.
1882. Exchange Rules and the companies Act provisions would generally decide on trading clearing. and may call for inspection of documents. AMFI is not yet a SEBI registered SRO. as they are the same as the trust and cant sure themselves. If there is a bank sponsored find. which in turn reports to the Charity Commissioner. 1963 and is voluntarily under SEBI regulations. Such schemes are subject to regulation by the concerned stock exchanges through a listing agreement between the fund and the stock exchange. AMFI is an industry association of mutual funds. As the members of AMC or Trustee companies will usually be the sponsors and their joint venture partners or associates. except offshore funds. they have to send periodic report to the roc and the co law board is the appellate authority. have the shares of the aggrieved members purchased by other members and/or terminate/modify the company’s arrangement with the managing director. Many closed-end schemes of Mutual Funds are listed on one or more stock exchanges. it is unlikely that Mutual Fund investors will have anything to do with any of these regulators. AMFI aims at increasing investor awareness about mutual finds. encouraging best practices and bringing about high standards of professional behavior in the industry. to be complied with by the fund trustees. SROs are the second tier in the regulatory structure. other director(s) or senior officials. UTI is governed by the UTI act. Listed mutual funds are subject to the listing regulations of stock exchanges. are Co. Funds or AMCs do not get directly involved with purchase and sales of units of such listed closed-end schemes. transfer and settlement of the buying and selling of Mutual Fund units on the markets. Since the AMC and trustee co.s they are regulated by the department of co affairs. being Public Trusts are governed by the India Trust Act. may regulate the conduct of the company’s affairs. All stock exchanges are SROs. as the registrars handle all such transfers as in case of shares. Investors cannot sue the trust. Office of the Public Trustee Mutual Funds. UTI can borrow as well as lend and also engage in other financial services activities. SEBI is the regulator of all funds. The CLB has the legal standing of a civil court.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
Legal and Regulatory Framework
Mutual funds are regulated by the SEBI (Mutual Fund) regulations. SURAT
. SROs cannot do any legislation on their own. Bank sponsored mutual finds are jointly regulated by SEBI and RBI permission. enforce attendance and examine witness on oath and pass judgments in the same manner as a civil Court. 1996. Stock Exchanges Stock Exchanges are self regulatory organization supervised by SEBI. AMFI has created code for mutual funds. Mutual Fund regulation – How is it important?
48 DBIM. it cannot provide a guarantee without RBI permission. The Board of Trustees or the Trustee Company is accountable to the Office of the Public Trustee. The authorities would generally regulate the AMCs whose shareholders may have recourse to them in specific cases. Any person aggrieved by a decision of the CLB may appeal to the High Court. RBI regulates money and govt securities in which mutual fund invest. These Regulators enforce provisions of the Indian Trusts Act.
Regulatory guidelines relating to insider trading. no single investor should hold more than 25% of the scheme’s corpus. Economical Environment
49 DBIM. minimum number of investors for each scheme and marketing of mutual funds have now been issued to protect small investors. to bring uniformity in valuation across funds.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
While the Mutual fund industry in India is four decades old major developments in improving regulatory framework haves taken place only during the past five years. marketing an investor – service activities required to be AMFI-certified.
2. Regulatory environment in India. Minimum of 20 investors.Sebi has also been closely monitoring investment decisions in unlisted securities and mergers between schemes and fund houses. Comprehensives risk management systems put in to place with which mutual funds most comply.What has been done so far?
Late trading: Guidelines have just been issued by sebi (after consultation with AMFI) for uniform cut-off times. late trading. All individuals involves in mutual fund selling. After the UTI debacle the marker regulator Sebi has taken several measures to develops a comprehensive regulatory framework for mutual funds in association with AMFI. Many regulatory changes have been implemented to improve surveillance and protect the rights of investors. SURAT
. Guidelines issued with respect to non-traded/thinly-traded debt and equity securities. switching assets.
ASEAN countries and during the eighties South Korea.Study and Research on Mutual Fund Indian Economy Overview
Economics experts and various studies conducted across the globe envisage India and China to rule the world in the 21st century. leading to the shift of focus from the US and the rich countries of Europe to the two Asian giants. Similarly in the realm of health and education and other human development indicators India's performance has been far from satisfactory.9 percentage points. will overtake Japan and become third major economic power within 10 years. For over a century the United States has been the largest economy in the world but major developments have taken place in the world economy since then. contributed to the rising share of Asia in world GDP. it must expedite socio-economic reforms and take steps for overcoming institutional and infrastructure bottlenecks inherent in the system. By 2035. with the Indian economy only a little smaller than the US economy but larger than that of Western Europe.
Issues and priorities for India
As India prepares herself for becoming an economic superpower. and hence the latter will emerge as the third pole in the global economy after the US and China. the rising share of China and India has more than made up the declining global share of Japan since 1990. Availability of both physical and social infrastructure is central to sustainable economic growth. followed by the US and Japan with a decline of about 1 percentage point each.
50 DBIM. Since independence Indian economy has thrived hard for improving its pace of development. India is likely to be a larger growth driver than the six largest countries in the EU. Within Asia. By 2025 the Indian economy is projected to be about 60 per cent the size of the US economy. Notably in the past few years the cities in India have undergone tremendous infrastructure up gradation but the situation in not similar in most part of rural India. According to some experts. The transformation into a tri-polar economy will be complete by 2035. In order to attain the status that currently only a few countries in the world enjoy and to provide a more egalitarian society to its mounting population. Currently Indian economy is facing these challenges: Sustaining the growth momentum and achieving an annual average growth of 7-8 % in the next five years. the share of the US in world GDP is expected to fall (from 21 per cent to 18 per cent) and that of India to rise (from 6 per cent to 11 per cent in 2025). though its impact will be a little over half that of the US. During the seventies and the eighties. appropriate measures need to be taken. India. showing a wide range of regional inequalities with urban areas getting most of the benefits. Simplifying procedures and relaxing entry barriers for business activities. The rich countries of Europe have seen the greatest decline in global GDP share by 4. which is now the fourth largest economy in terms of purchasing power parity.India and China. along with China and India. SURAT
Due to a high population growth. India needs to improve its HDI rank. Developing world-class infrastructure for sustaining growth in all the sectors of the economy. Government had reduced its controls on foreign trade and investment in some areas and has indicated more liberalization in civil aviation. Allowing foreign investment in more areas Effecting fiscal consolidation and eliminating the revenue deficit through revenue enhancement and expenditure management. telecom and insurance sector in the future. The UPA government is committed to furthering economic reforms and developing basic infrastructure to improve lives of the rural poor and boost economic performance. Expanding industry fast. However in terms of density India exceeds China as India's land area is almost half of China's total land.
India . GNI per capita remains very poor. It was only $ 2880 in 2003 (world bank figures). as at 127 it is way below many other developing countries' performance.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
Checking the growth of population. by at least 10% per year to integrate not only the surplus labour in agriculture but also the unprecedented number of women and teenagers joining the labour force every year. Boosting agricultural growth through diversification and development of agro processing. SURAT
. Empowering the population through universal education and health care.A Growing Economy
51 DBIM. India is the second highest populated country in the world after China.
However. Indian economy has been predicted to grow at a level of 6. Growth in the Indian economy has steadily increased since 1979. In fact. in comparison to many East Asian economies. SURAT
. However.8% since 1994 ( the period when India's external crisis was brought under control).9 %.7% per year in the 23-year growth record. This can be achieved by bringing more area under irrigation and by better water management.1% in the current year primarily because of a bad monsoon.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
A growth rate of above 8% was achieved by the Indian economy during the year 2003-04 and in the advanced estimates for 2004-05. Thus. there is a paramount need to move Indian agriculture beyond its centuries old dependency on monsoon. Many factors are behind this robust performance of the Indian economy in 2004-05. High growth rates in Industry & service sector and a benign world economic environment provided a backdrop conducive to the Indian economy. Though. The tenth five year plan aims at achieving a growth rate of 8% for the coming 2-3 years. the Indian growth experience lags behind. the Indian economy has posted an excellent average GDP growth of 6.
52 DBIM. the growth rate for 2004-05 is less than that of 2003-04. agriculture fell sharply from its 2003-04 level of 9 % to 1. it is still among the high growth rates seen in India since independence. having growth rates above 7%. averaging 5. Another positive feature was that the growth was accompanied by continued maintenance of relative stability of prices.
The level of foreign exchange reserves crossed the US $100 billion mark on Dec 19.9% in 2004-05 from a 9. However. The fiscal deficit decreased to 7. With continued higher corporate earnings in 2004-05. 7.5 million. Despite strengthening nominally against US $. Alike current account.3 per cent registered during the corresponding period of the last year. we now turn to the sectoral performance. SURAT
. 2004) increased by 7. this trend saw a brief reversal during may-august 2004. 16. Equity market return was 85% in 2003-04.2 in 2002-03. Non-Food credit during the financial year so far. capital account too witnessed decline.
53 DBIM. 16.4% of GDP in 2003-04. foreign institutional investments and other capital inflows. broad money stock (M3) (up to December 10. driven entirely by the increase in the net foreign exchange assets of the RBI. The downward trend in interest rates continued in 2004-05. Rupee depreciated against other major non-dollar currencies. Fiscal deficit of states & center was decreasing in early 90s but due to rise in fiscal deficit in recent years.0 per cent of BE in the corresponding period last year.4% in the current year to January 28. The capital account surplus in April-September was also down by around US $ 1. Indian Rupee has steadily appreciated vis-à-vis US dollar. India's exports during AprNov registered a growth of 24% from the last period but India's position was down from 30th to 31st rank in the top exporting countries of the world. registered a growth of 20. the Real Effective Exchange rate of the Rupee depreciated and this trend continued until end 2004. 2005.6 per cent) as compared with a growth of 5. second highest in Asia. with bank rate standing at 6% as on Dec 10. 2005. Thus.5 per cent (exclusive of conversion. the sensex crossed 6800 mark in March 2005 but high stock market volatility remained higher in India compared to other Asian countries. Growth momentum in exports was maintained.13 billion on March 18. current account surplus and the valuation gains arising from appreciation of the major non-US dollar global currencies against US dollar contributed to such a rise in Forex reserves.3% in 2003-04 from 9.3 per cent) as compared with the growth rate of 10. (caused mainly by widening US deficits). Such a reversal was observed on the back of rise in POL and non POL imports which overwhelmed the growth of exports in US dollar terms at over 23 per cent. The current account of BOP having been in surplus since 2001-02. 2003 and was $142. turned into deficit in the first half of the current year( April-September 2004-05). 2004. During the current financial year 2004-05. Having given the broad picture of Indian economy.2 per cent of BE compared with 56. The main contributors to capital account surplus were the banking capital inflows.5 per cent (exclusive of conversion. corrective measures have been adopted. Reserve money growth had doubled to 18. Banks recovery management improved considerably with gross NPAs declining from Rs 70861 crore in 2001-02 to Rs 68715 in 2002-03.4 per cent during the same period of the last year indicated a positive outlook. The capital inflows. 2004) incremental gross bank credit increased by 20. The latest Re/$ Exchange rate (March 2005) stood close to 44. A strong BOP position in recent years has resulted in a steady accumulation of foreign exchange reserves.9 per cent in the same period of the previous year. During the current financial year (up to December 10. fiscal deficit in April-October 2004 is 45.5 per cent) as compared with an increase of 8. The expectation of sensex crossing 7 K mark is not yet realized. According to recent estimates.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
Because of the weakening of the US dollar for the last two years.4 per cent (exclusive of conversion of non-banking entity into banking entity. Though. it declined to 6.
For example. Although these results were established mainly for industrial countries. they are likely to apply just as forcefully in developing countries. which--even with higher recourse to foreign saving--would require a domestic saving rate of around 30 percent by the turn of the century. initially. Private saving. empirical studies suggest that higher growth generally tends to precede higher saving. policies aimed directly at mobilizing saving are not necessarily the best instrument to achieve this target. 54 DBIM. based on cross-country studies. driven by rising per capita income and continued financial deepening. a lower share of agriculture in the economy and an increase in the age dependency ratio would tend to increase private saving. This research suggests that the main policy focus should be on initiating a virtuous growth-saving circle by fostering growth through fiscal consolidation and strong structural reforms. responding to higher growth. Strategy for higher saving While higher domestic saving is needed to finance faster growth.Study and Research on Mutual Fund The Saving Pattern of India
The double task of alleviating poverty and keeping up with fast-growing Asian neighbors prompted the Indian government to announce a target of 7 percent or more for annual GDP growth over the next 10 years. Even assuming some improvement in investment efficiency (in the absence of reliable employment and capital stock data. A key question is whether India will be able to finance the investment necessary to reach this target through increased domestic saving and avoid a much greater recourse to foreign saving with its associated risks on the external front. has found little evidence that policy efforts to boost saving have been very effective. including financial liberalization. Ogaki. including privatization and financial liberalization. there are no estimates of total factor productivity growth). In the case of India. this would result in a saving rate of about 28 percent of GDP after 2000. which eventually would have to provide the bulk of additional investment financing. A strategy to improve India's saving performance needs to take account of recent insights in the saving literature. it has been argued that growth has suffered less from a low saving rate than from inefficient investment. Taking into account likely developments in public saving. in part because of the dominant role of the public sector in the economy. There is also a growing literature that. the growth target implies that the investment rate would need to increase to well above 30 percent. Sufficient savings? Econometric regression analysis suggests that private saving is likely to continue to increase--albeit gradually--over the coming years. But this is not likely to be enough to finance the investment needed to reach the government's growth objective. In light of this evidence. growth would need to be financed mainly through higher public saving. Moreover. stronger action on both the public and private saving fronts is called for. If the growth target is to be achieved. In addition. would follow with a lag. Over the past few years. several studies of saving in developing countries have found that tax and interest rate incentives have been largely ineffective. Financial liberalization--in particular. reform of long-term saving instruments--would help to ensure that private saving was efficiently allocated. it may be more effective to increase domestic saving by rising public saving and implementing a strong structural reform program. SURAT
. Under such a strategy. The case for an indirect approach to higher private saving is supported by recent findings that traditional saving policy instruments--like higher interest rates or special tax incentives--fail to raise the private saving rate in the long run.
Following nationalization of the Indian commercial banks in 1969 (foreign banks were not nationalized) there was a massive expansion of the banking system spreading bank branches to all parts of the country. There is certainly need and scope for further increased the rate of savings and thereby also the rate of investment. Changes in the tax regime would therefore affect only a small part of the population. a possibility which is confirmed by recent studies of total factor productivity such as Ahluwalia and Goldar which show slower growth in these indices of industrial productivity in India compared with other developing countries. either because their income is too low or because they fail to report to the tax authorities. An important feature of the increase in the aggregate savings rate is that it has occurred entirely because of the rapid growth in private household savings as a percent of GDP. but it is much higher than the rates achieved in all the other low-income countries except China. rates paid on term deposits with banks and other government-sponsored small savings schemes have yielded positive real rates of return for savers. especially for maturities of three years and above. Moreover. especially in the form of financial assets.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
Ostry. What is more. is the ability to mobilize resources for investment. but perhaps even to achieve some further acceleration. as a higher share of income must be devoted to subsistence consumption.7 percent in 1980-81. testifying to the success of self-reliance in this sense of the term. More recently positive real rates of return have been available even for shorter maturities. This is because all available evidence suggests that the incremental capital-output ratio is higher in India than in other countries. SURAT
. reflect on important structural transformation in the economy in terms of its resource mobilization capability. which increased only marginally from 17 percent in 1960-61 to 18 percent in 1970-71. and Reinhart (1996) have found that the responsiveness of private saving to changes in real interest rates is less at lower levels of per capita income.
Financial & Economical Development
An important aspect of performance. It has stayed at that level in the eighties. This rapid growth reflects the cumulative impact of a conscious policy of giving strong incentives for private household savings. and their evident sustainability. and would be unlikely to significantly alter overall saving behavior. They estimated that the response of saving to changes in interest rates in India was among the lowest in the developing world. then increased sharply thereafter to reach 24.
55 DBIM. Even if the investment rate is only maintained at around 24-35 percent. had increased to 23 percent by 1985-86. Interest rate policy was also geared to encourage household savings and for the past ten years or so. it should be possible not only to maintain the present 5 percent growth rate. This points to the scope for increased efficiency in resource use. which has a direct bearing on the longer-term growth potential of the economy. This investment rate is not high compared with rates achieved in the more rapidly growing middle-income countries. The ratios of private corporate sector savings and public sector savings to GDP have remained more or less constant at 2 percent and 3 percent of GDP respectively. But the levels already achieved. which was 17 percent in 1970-71. The spread of bank branches definitely helped to mobilize private savings for investment in the organized sector. India’s recent performance in this dimension is commendable. Chelliah (1996) and others have pointed out that most Indian households do not pay income tax. including also rural areas. while private sector savings increased from 12 percent of GDP in 1970-71 to 18 percent of GDP in 1985-86. The gross domestic savings rate. the high rate of investment is being financed almost entirely from higher domestic savings. The rate of gross domestic investment in the economy.
Study and Research on Mutual Fund
This favorable interest rate policy was reinforced by fiscal incentives for savings built into the direct tax structure which provide deductions from taxable income of the interest earned on a wide range of financial instruments. These limitations are fully recognized and a number of initiatives have been taken to overcome these problems. etc. a deduction is aloes allowed for a part of the amount invested. In the area of resource mobilization therefore.
3. The term lending financial institutions. This weakness has been widely recognized and it is to be hoped that the various measures being taken to improve public sector performance will correct this problem. The capital market remains thin and vulnerable to manipulation. insider trading. have been more active in it in the past two years. including institutional investors. These incentives.Social Aspects
The advertisement for each scheme shall disclose investment objective for each scheme. and hitherto a conservative income-oriented operation at that. floated a second fund aimed at capital appreciation. They certainly encouraged the flow of savings into these investments and on the whole probably also stimulated total savings. It is also inadequately regulated in terms of rules for full disclosure and restrictions on trading malpractices. which have been steadily strengthened and expanded in the past ten years. The Unit Trust of India. in particular. The State Bank of India is to float a second mutual fund to complete with the Unit Trust. until now the only mutual fund operating in India. SURAT
. By 1986-87 this had increased more than tenfold. have had the effect of raising the effective pretax return on eligible financial investments. It will also serve as a forum for the development and implementation of ideas aimed at developing a healthy capital market. The 1986 and 1987 budgets liberalized the treatment of long-term capital gains on sale of shares so that the maximum tax on capital gains on shares is only 20 percent for shares held for more than one year. An advertisement shall be truthful. fair and clear and shall not contain a statement. For certain types of long-term savings instruments. the economy has shown a reasonably good performance with important structural changes taking place which have strengthened its capability to mobilize and allocate resources efficiently. insider trading. which up to now have played only a limited role in the capital market. The process is as yet far from complete. It lacks adequate depth in terms of the existence of large numbers of active participants. which would have very important implications for mobilizing capital and allocating it efficiently. to protect the investor. This is an impressive rate of expansion by any standard and is indicative of a structural transformation taking place in an important area. Social Environment
Rules regarding Advertisement . Until about 1980 the volume of funds sought to be raised directly from the capital market through equity and bonds was only about Rs 500 crores per year. The Government also proposes to set up a National Securities and Exchange Board which will serve as an agency supervising the functioning of the stock markets and setting clear rules on issues such as disclosure. The principal weak area has been the generations of investable surpluses form the public sector.
56 DBIM. promise or forecast which is untrue or misleading. including. The institutional mechanisms for mobilizing household savings for productive investment have been further strengthened in the eighties by the remarkable development of the domestic capital market.
redemption of units or payment of interest or dividend to the unit holders. SURAT
. Every mutual fund shall compute and carry out valuation of its investments in its portfolio and publish the same in accordance with the valuation norms specified in Eighth Schedule Every mutual fund shall compute the Net Asset Value of each scheme by dividing the net assets of the scheme by the number of units outstanding on the valuation date. unless the comparison is fair and all information relevant to the comparison is included in the advertisement. The advertisement shall not compare one fund with another. shall state "all investments in mutual funds and securities are subject to market risks and the NAV of the schemes may go up or down depending upon the factors and forces affecting the securities market". The Net Asset Value of the scheme shall be calculated and published at least in two daily newspapers at intervals of not exceeding one week: The price at which the units may be subscribed or sold and the price at which such units may at any time be repurchased by the mutual fund shall be made available to the investors. Provided that moneys collected under any money market scheme of a mutual fund shall be invested only in money market instruments in accordance with directions issued by the Reserve Bank of India. The offer document and advertisement materials shall not be misleading or contain any statement or opinion. implicitly or explicitly. All advertisements issued by a mutual fund or its sponsor or asset management company.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
Advertisements shall not be so framed as to exploit the lack of experience or knowledge of the investors. which are incorrect or false. The mutual fund shall not borrow except to meet temporary liquidity needs of the mutual funds for the purpose of repurchase.
Investment objectives and valuation policies
The moneys collected under any scheme of a mutual fund shall be invested only in transferable securities in the money market or in the capital market or in privately placed debentures or securitised debts.
57 DBIM. The mutual fund shall not advance any loans for any purpose.
The MF transaction become fast and it provides the services to the client very rapidly the technology is the only reason to meet such kind of qualitative service. SURAT
. Market reach ness is also possible through the technologies. Technological Factor:
The technology wave. records and documents are maintained. which have transform many industry in how they operates and survive has also come to the aid of MF industry to widen its reach. starting your own business. The financial year for all the schemes shall end as of March 31 of each year. Technology plays an important role especially to the MF industry. By staying on course with your asset allocations. It’s never easy to find the time to review your investment plan when you’re in the midst of any of these life changes. and your overall financial picture. both short term and long-term. The advantage includes lower distribution cost through online transactions. offers flexibilities to investors. Still MF industry requires some sort of technological innovation to tap the market of small town and cities so as to grow in a rapid manner. whenever you make a major life change. records and documents. Some common examples of life changes: switching careers. You don’t want to enter a new phase of your life with a plan that was designed for different circumstances. (Source: Analyst. you will help ensure that your overall portfolio continues to work effectively toward achieving your investment goals.
In addition to the annual review. Every mutual fund shall have the annual statement of accounts audited by an auditor who is not in any way associated with the auditor of the asset management company. July 2005)
58 DBIM. and entering college or paying tuition for a child. your time horizon.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
Every asset management company for each scheme shall keep and maintain proper books of accounts. Most of these events are likely to affect your ability to invest. more customized and personal advised to customers and reaching out to growing young and net-savvy population of India. it’s time to reassess your overall financial situation. but it’s worth making the effort.
4. Every mutual fund or the asset management company shall prepare in respect of each financial year an annual report and annual statement of accounts of the schemes and the fund as specified in Eleventh Schedule. for each scheme so as to explain its transactions and to disclose at any point of time the financial position of each scheme and in particular give a true and fair view of the state of affairs of the fund and intimate to the Board the place where such books of accounts. buying a house. retiring. having a child. getting married or divorced.
New entrance increased in the competition and decline market share of existing co.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
PORTER’S FIVE FORCE MODEL
Suppliers of Key Inputs
Rivalry Among Competitor
The competition of competitor will depend upon 5 pillar where MF cos really compete. People should get their statement on time through e-mail. we can at last say that the rivalry among competitor is high. the investors will switch over the new co which gives them higher return. So. In the past 1992 public and private financial institution with foreign collaboration came in the mkt. insurance cos are now entering in the MF as the purpose of diversified business. NBFCs. SURAT
(Of firms in other industries)
Rivalry Among Competing Sellers
Potential New Entrants
. AMCs don’t really splurge that much or AMCs don’t charge so high for the fund. First is performance.s. That is really driving growth in this industry.fifth is new product innovation. and GIC floated MF. Forth is a brand . In the MF industry the investor’s loyalty level is very low. Third is good service transparency reliability and timely service. Thus we can see the entry of new competitors is high. Banking co. II) The Potential Entry Of New Competitors Until 1987.AMCs has to spend marketing building awareness about and the co as such . So. AMCs have to have a good enough performance at least in the top quartile. phone call or by walking in to an investor serviced center. LIC. Merchant bankers.s. the UTI was the sole mutual fund in India. Second is strict control on cost. Then banks. 59 DBIM. AMCs need to think about new products. which AMCs have to maintain. So.
III) Competitive Pressure From Substitute Products
Capital Market. company deposit. Indians hold around a seventh of the total global stocks gold i.Indians spend around Rs 40000 crs. The size of market is very large. New insurance companies give better product and securities for the long term plan. On really need to have an industry wide focus on build8ing the retail corpus and the saving habit. all this dill continue. real estate investment. still 10%-15% is huge investment proportion with bullion market
60 DBIM. Competition will only intensify. the AUM of the Indian Mutual fund industry worth Rs. which constitute the major investme5tn sources in other developed MF market. annually on gold jewelry and investment. FIIs movements toward stock market which lead to boom in the stock market. There will always be people who find India valuable at a particular point and people who will want to exit out at that point. Bullion market is one of these competitive pressures for MF industry. When we try to compare bank deposit an mutual fund AUM . A large pool of money in sasvingi9n India is still with the state bank and Pvt.50. According to the world gold council. and post scheme. So. . insurance.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
Competition is most welcome because Mf is an underserved marker long term competition coming in. post office. Completion is nothing as compared t the size of market and if all of them co-operate and growth the marker will still be large enough to accommodate all of them and many more.2004 while bank deposits figure was a mammoth re 16. the threats from new entry are very high due to potentiality of market and favorable government policy. Recently there is boom period prevail in the stock market as investor prefers to invest directly to stock market. So consolidation. 15000 tons worth Rs 9.000 cr. India enjoys the distinction of being major consumer of gold. Again still today people would like to invest in real estate which gives even higher returns than the equi9ty market or even equity fund of mutual fund. The biggest hindrance to the growth of industry lies in its inability to attract the saving of the public. bullion market are substitute of Mutual fund.537 crores in dece.50. who are totally of some what unaware about MF. Mergers entry of new strong players form aboard and new Indian players getting in . is always welcome.579 cr. Bank deposits.1. So.e. Now interesting things to consider that the total investment consumption on gold can be 85% utilized for jewel purpose 10%-15% for investment purposes and 5% for production usages. Banks.. The MF industry will have to educate the investors. Risk aversion people prefer to invest in Bank fixed deposits. one can say that MF industry still behind. the association of world’s leading gold producers.
who are now a day busy in promoting the various schemes so as to fulfill the investor’s need and tap as much market as possible. the no of AMCs are very low. but the investment volume is very high that is why the bargaining power of buyers is high. safety against investment. Investment Classes 1) Bank Saving 2) Bank Fixed Deposits 3) RBI Bond 4) NSC 5) LIC 6) PPF 7) Debt MF 8) Diversified and Equity MF Returns (%) 3. which best suit to his/her investment objective and bargain for the same. There are many MF companies. On the other way round investor full utilizes their bargaining power which choosing a fund. these are the substitute product which should be taken care by MF industry. through over all situations we can say that the bargaining power of investor is high.50% 4 %. And that is why the threats from substitute product is very high. AMCs provide various schemes of MF so as to reach or facilitate the objective of investor like high liquidity. SURAT
. Investors choose those schemes.50% 5%-6% 6%-8% 8% 9. the investor having a strong bargaining power So in a nut shell we can say that.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
Let’s compare various Investment option with MF. The switching cost in the form of entry load and exit load is high.6% 10.) So.50% 9. As there are around 31 mutual fund company and there are large cluster of investor to supply and invest in various schemes of AMCs So. Investor can not easily switch over form one scheme to another. But when we see over all situations then companies are facing threats from investors. high return.
(V) Bargaining power of buyers (Investors)
We can consider Indian investor as a buyer and supplier both as the supply of money to AMCs and investment from AMCs both done by investor only. So.
61 DBIM. low risk.
(IV) Bargaining Power of Supplier (Investors)
We can consider the investor investing in MF is the supplier for the AMCs.50% (Source: Reliance Capital Asset Management Book let. Investors prefer those schemes which fulfill their investment objective.
strategy behavior and same profitability. they introduce newer and newer scheme in the market by days lapses. so manager must continue to be aware of how AMCs may differ in their future competitive postures and strategies. generally same strategic groups compete against one another more intensely than against firm in different strategic group.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
Strategic Map of Mutual Fund Industry
In strategic group mapping. Pru. they all try to make awareness in the market. SURAT
. various AMCs have apparently 62 DBIM. Competition within a strategic group is often more heated than that between strategic groups. The reason why these AMCs within the same strategic group tend to compete more fiercely within each other is their similarities or their lack of opportunities to make themselves distinctive. These phenomenons result from the fact that firm within the same strategic group display similar product characteristics. Strategic groups can shift over time. The players of strategic group are likely to pursue a similar competitive strategy for a similar type of buyer. They are following the same kind of strategy to penetrate in the new market. ICICI and UTI are within the same strategic group they are facing same kind of situation. As a result. it is difficult for rival to distinguish them selves easily from another. In the recent years. As Franklin Templeton.
of player around 31 AMCs. it is the reason because there is a more no.36% considering overall MF industry.16% over all marker share. Reliance AMC and SBI AMC having a opportunity to increase their scheme to compete the huge giant like UTI.ICICI both are “joint venture pre-dominant foreign AMC”. They are fall in “High-High” quadrant i. So.
63 DBIM.36% which is very negligible. player dominate the industry. AMCs should considered that the no. ICICI to increase their AUM. of schemes.e. SURAT
.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
decided to enter in to the new geographical region especially the semi-urban area where the huge market is prevail.ICICI. while the foreign players like Pru. Franklin Temp. they are Birla and TATA.23% and Franklin contend with 10. although UTI having a huge market share around 71% with in the bank sponsored AMC which having a highest share of 13. But as we discuss they are facing a stiff competition with in the same strategic group . This is quick wondering situation that even though Birla having a more scheme than the leader UTI.e. i. the market share of leader is only 13. Now. even though the AUM is medium in nature. HDFC AMC.ICICI are dominating the industry. Now when we concentrate on that players which is having a medium level of AUM even though higher no. they are having high AUM as well as high plans (schemes). when we see the strategic map then we find that UTI. that may possible that their AUM can be increase and they can shift from one strategic group to another.ICICI contend 10. we can say that pvt. So. even though the AUM is medium in nature. as some of the firm in the recent year coming with “new scheme offering” . Similarly TATA having a slight less than UTI. HDFC and Pru.As we see that UTI only the AMC who is bank sponsor other two. Franklin and Pru. TATA AMC. Birla AMC. And Pru. Franklin. of firm within a group can also change. Franklin and Pru. which is still untapped. which are operating in MF industry.
growing very rapidly. The GDP growth rate growing around 8%. especially in the metro cities. Investor has to be very careful at the time of choosing right investment media. and other rules related to mutual fund industry. there is a boom period in the equity market. This fact has been one of the opportunity for the MF industry. 4) Sectoral Growth Along with economy. from these one can say that it is one of the greatest opportunity to the MF industry. banking sector. Private bank and company went in to scam or bankruptcy. pharma sector. 2005). Again the saving ratio of Indians’ are 28% which is also favoring to the MF industry. India is in the category of developing countries. 5) Bull Capital Market Since couple of years. The objective of MF is minimize risk and increase the mutual benefit leads it to the way of success. there is huge opportunity with MF industry to invest in these growing sector and grow along with favorable situations. Sensex now cross the limit of 9000 (as on13th December. MF industry has good potential especially for equity oriented schemes. So this is good opportunity to MF to tapped with. 7) Interest Rate
64 DBIM. the investment is very risky. Policy Mutual fund industry should follows the rules and regulations made by Indian govt. Earlier there is tax on long term capital gain (LTCG). So. So. Even MF industry should comply the regulation made by SEBI and AMFI. It provides long term capital appreciation as well as dividend. The equity holder getting a huge return. So. particular sector like power sector. 3) Rapid growth in Economy and Savings Indian economy is currently at growing stage. which can easily track the equity investors perspective. When we see the mutual fund industry growth in the urban areas. As Mutual Fund’s one of the scheme which specifically invest in particular sector only. regarding taxation. 6) Market Risk Now a days investment is being riskier. But as far as budget 2005 is concern it is totally favorable to the MF industry. which is removed in these year. That means dividend and LTCG is totally tax exempt in the hand of investors. SURAT
. 2) Favorable Govt. automobile sector and so on. which is almost untapped.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
1) Rural market is untapped One of the biggest opportunity with the mutual fund industry is the rural market. it is incredible but the growth in the rural areas is very low as well as the market is very huge but partly untapped which the opportunity for the mutual fund industry is.
MF provides more return than banks. Investor can get more return than he can anticipate. So biggest opportunity with MF industry is to develop and grow the industry along with the favorable execution of AMFI and SEBI. Investors are being educated so they consider all facts and have good investment opportunity. has let the interest rate down. 10) Investor’s Profile The growth of any AMCs is depends upon the investors profile. Even though banking is 10 times bigger than MF industry. Some investors still feel difficulty in understanding MF concept and its schemes objectives. 8) Investment Pattern In the present scenario investors investment pattern is getting higher return with a less risk. Now.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
Govt. 11) Technology Related Opportunity Technology plays an important role in capital market as well as in the MF industry. Investor have lower awareness regarding the companies concerning with Mutual Fund. The literacy level in India is growing. Even though there is a huge potential for the MF industry but due to lack of awareness these potential turns in to the threats for the industry. So there is a 10 time more growth opportunity for the MF industry in near future. it is only 5-6%. 12) Mutual Fund is 1/10th of banking sector When we see the bank rate. Before some years. These can lead to success of MF.
1) Fail to Aware the investor Still investors are not well aware about investment in MF and its schemes. These is an opportunity for the MF that it can give the more return on diversified portfolio management. So MF concept can be well explain to the qualified investors. it is opportunity for the industry. With the application of technology and wider use of telecom facilities MF are attempting to reach of wider cross section of our society. These unawareness was proved to be failure aspects for the industry. So. investors were preferred to invest in the bank deposits for getting a higher return. 9) Sound Execution of Regulation from SEBI and AMFI SEBI and AMFI’s initiative for registration. Today investors is more trust worthy with government banks and post office. Now a days economic condition is strong which has let interest rate down to 5% -6%. The literacy level is very important especially for the investment . SURAT
65 DBIM. MF is the only investment media where one can have all type of investment pattern so these can be stated for investors attractiveness to the industry. certification and code of conduct have been vital in building a strong and informed selling forced for the industry. But still MF is one of the preferable option for the investors. The rate was around 13%.
4) Impact of Global Developments Though the economic reforms have brought India on the global investment map. the awareness level in India about MF industry is largely restricted to high income investors and A class cities. A large pool of money in saving in India is still with the state-run and private banks. these also expose Indian financial market.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
For the MF industry the reach ness is very much important. which have strong growth potential. including Indian MF industry. especially to give personalize investment advice to the investor is creating road blocks for the growth in MF. which constitute the major investment sources in other developed MF markets. 5) Operational Hassles Operational inefficiency are still hampering the growth prospects of the industry. Industry is in lack of reach ness which is a big threat and hindrance for the growth of industry. Further.
66 DBIM. The rapid obsolescence of technology huge up front investment costs are also getting in the way of mutual funds from embracing the technology waves. distribution models and advisors in these areas have blocked out a large pool of potential investors for the industry. Bank Dominance The biggest hindrance to the growth of industry lies in its inability to attract the saving of public. SURAT
. Lack of access. Managing risk in such a scenario will be a key threats and challenge for the Indian MF industry. MF is failed to reach the interior of the country. As insurance and post office provides the return which is comparable to the MF industry with less risk so these is one of the huge threat to the MF industry which should be taken care of. Currently major players have their market from metro and big cities. Investments in technology take up huge capital and are pretty risky for the MF companies to invest in. Lengthy transaction cycles and old fashion distribution models like cheque based returns are preventing the industry to grow at good rate. 7) Competition from various investment option One of the great threats to the MF industry is the competition from various investments options available in the market like post office. Fluctuation in the global markets and financial system will now be evident as the Indian markets get link to other foreign markets. to the volatility in international markets. Still the way to the small town and villages is open. insurance and so on. When we see the growth of MF in metro cities it is very good but the rural areas and semi urban area are still untapped by the MF industry. 6) Lack of investment advisors The lack of investment advisors. These rules out the potentially huge B.C class cities and rural areas.
The changing profile of customers (investors) must be taken into account in identifying the savings market. and so on. There is little scope for flexibility. Most of the schemes launched in India are either income or income-cum-growth schemes. Therefore. This has probably happened on account of lack of experience and the risk-averse.
67 DBIM. Investor's options have been restricted due to limited commodity range. regular income. tax benefits. SURAT
. Commodity (scheme) Planning Mutual fund commodity (scheme) are basically investment-oriented and the savings mobilized by the Mutual Fund are invariably invested in the instruments (shares.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
8 C's Model
MARKETING & MUTUAL FUND
Commodity (Scheme) Planning Customer Service Marketing Plan Cost
1. few are pure growth schemes. due care needs to be taken while designing particular commodity taking into account excepted changes in capital / stock market in view of future investment returns. Different segments of the potential savings market have different expectations-long term growth. Tax laws and other related regulations also play an important role in designing a new product because benefits can be offered to investors within the exiting framework of tax regulations. debentures) projected in the schemes. New commodities must be aimed at satisfying one or more objectives. conservative attitude of mutual fund managers.
While deciding on the price. incentives. most of the schemes are linked to the names of organizations: the "DHAN Series" is identified with LIC Mutual fund. India has around 1. and ensures customer loyalty. The scheme may also declare the price at which such units may at any time be purchased by the Mutual Fund. New investors would prefer online: Mutual funds can target investors who are young individuals and who are Net savvy. It can be said that Indian funds have been quite successful in brand policy and brand identification.
3. It is computed by deducting all liabilities (except unit capital) of the fund from the realizable value of all assets and dividing it by number of units outstanding. It signifies the realizable value that the investor will get for each unit that one is holding. inherent benefits and investment objectives. commodity planning. commodity launching is a crucial element in marketing. Brand name highlights the market segments. Commodity Branding
An important function of scheme development is the selection of brand name and pricing of the scheme. test marketing can be conducted. The scheme may provide for the price (cost) at which the units may be subscribed or sold to the independent participants in the scheme. Many Indian Mutual Funds have performed poorly due to wrong timing of launch. Convenience
Better advice: Mutual funds could provide better advice to their investors through the Net rather than through the traditional investment routes only.
2. Before formally launching a new commodity. Brand identity is an important marketing factor because it facilitates product identification at the market place. brokers could get more Net savvy than investors and could help the investors with the knowledge they get from the Net. and commissions are also to be decided in advance because the expenses towards these items will affect the ultimate returns to investors. where there is an additional channel to deal with the Brokers. The net asset value of the fund is the cumulative market value of the assets fund net of its liabilities. In India. In India. Mutual Fund is also to publish the sale and repurchase prices at least once in a week. The Internet users are going to increase dramatically and mutual funds are going to be the best 68 DBIM. brokerage charges. if the scheme is liquidated on that date. Mutual Fund Management should also ensure that the difference between the sale and repurchase price does not exceed 7% of the sale price. This repurchase price (cost) is based on the Net Asset Value (NAV). Indian Mutual Funds follow the historic costing structure.6 million net users who are prime target for these funds and this could just be the beginning. Market research can help to assess the needs of potential customers.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
The cost of Mutual Fund products is inextricably linked with returns. availability of existing schemes and future growth in demand. since servicing them would be easier on the Net. "Master Series" with Unit Trust of India and "Magnum" with SBI Mutual Funds.
4. Direct dealing with the fund could help the investor with their financial planning. SURAT
With smaller administrative costs more funds would be mobilized.Mutual fund investor can exchange there existing investment in the mutual fund with another mutual fund of similar amount. Underwriters / distributors are prohibited from buying mutual funds shares for themselves unless it is for a bona fide investment account.In the case of direct sales funds are offered to investors directly at NAV and no sales load is charged. mutual fund are paying greater attention to rural marketing.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
beneficiary.Shares can be purchased over telephone or through mail by sending filled application forms along with cheques to the mutual fund. Telephone or mail purchase:. Channel
A new mutual fund scheme may have all the qualities but that does not ensure its spontaneous acceptance by customers. which enable distributors to realize economies of scales.
69 DBIM.This is a very convenient way to acquire mutual fund shares. The entire members get shares at reduced prices. Share exchange plan:. local level activities are supervised and coordinated by the zonal and branch offices. corporate agents etc. The identification of appropriate market segment for the product. Automatic Monthly Investing:. An underwriter purchases shares at NAV and sells them to the investing public.Shares of open-ended mutual funds are available through distributors (also called brokers / dealers / sponsors) who act as underwriters. Many companies operate this plan that allows shareholders to authorize a fund to debit their bank accounts monthly for the purchase of bank shares. Through the corporate offices formulated the overall marketing strategy and co-ordinate the activities relating to publicity and product distribution. SURAT
. Mutual funds are also marketing of these types of financial services. A fund manager must be ready to tackle the volatility and will have to maintain sufficient amount of investments which are high liquidity and low yielding investments to honor redemption. merchant bankers. Success would greatly depend on appropriate channel. They are also marketed by distribution of application forms through a tie-up with newspapers. Investors can also buy units through direct subscription. institutional. Public sector mutual funds like LIC MF. Mutual funds are also marketed through stockbrokers who are members of stock exchanges.
5. In order to tap the savings tendency of the rural India. Sales through Underwriters:. selection of channel and promotional aids are essential.many underwriters for maximum market penetration practice Group selling. The commission of the underwriters depends on the spread of bid and offering price. Mutual Fund is mainly sold through marketing intermediaries whose job is really marketing of these types of financial services. Some of the innovative distribution channels to attract prospective investors are: Direct sales:. Group selling:. UTI have an edge over others due to their well-established agency network.
And hence. although they rely on external agencies and internal agencies (transfer and registrar agents) who are specialized in these jobs. The need to use the other mediums beyond TV is fantastic. Also the risk appetite of the investor and his cash flow requirements need to be mentioned clearly.two million transactions in FMCGs. In case of a financial product. Prompt and timely service in issuing certificates / cheques and in attending to any customer problems would make a distinct difference. as in any other financial service industry. but only to the extent of 100 to 150 rupees. some mutual fund also offers insurance benefits to attract investors. In India most mutual funds provide after-sales service through both external agencies and internal service department. buying a home or finance a wedding or educate your children or combination of all these needs. here you would need to make only 10. Mutual fund advertisements are regulated by SEBI. family commitments. financial independence. which could be regular income. Servicing has great significance in mutual funds. lifestyle. Therefore. it is higher. Minimum outlay is 3000 . Expected return being more or less same for all the schemes. the probability of holding on to your target group through direct contact is fairly high.Study and Research on Mutual Fund 6.
70 DBIM. FMCG products. SURAT
. which prohibits material and contents of publicity. it is the quality of services which becomes the deciding factor. One can being by defining the investment objectives. which may mislead the investing public. and level of income and expenses among many other factors. management and performing servicing. its comparative advantages and future potential. the first step should be to assess your needs. Campaign
Scheme campaign / promotion in India has taken the usual routes of advertisement and publicity. Advertisement campaigns mainly aims at creating awareness of the product. specially chocolates come in impulse purchase category. Mutual fund does need to develop to in-house expertise to render after-sales service more promptly and cost effectively.
Marketing of FMCG v/s Financial Product
FMCG is a low outlay area. While you would be making million . it is a totally different ball game. Many mutual funds offer incentives for early subscription. In gifting yes. past performance of similar products and superiority of the fund in relation to others in terms of assets.
The marketing of services is significantly influenced by the quality of service and the interpersonal relationship between customers and the service organization.3500 rupees. 7 Customization The financial goals will very. Usually 15 to 20 rupees is the maximum outlay that you would want from a consumer in one go. based on investor's age.000 transactions.
assurance. And one of the things right at the top is getting the consumer to invest in your brand. It should not contain a statement. SURAT
. (3) The sale offer should contain only information. (5) It should not contain any information.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
Importance of Brand in Mutual Fund
Most important thing that people see is longevity of the company's offerings. stands for trust and care. Investors are actually going to invest your money into it. (2) Advertisement should be true. it should also indicate the resources available to back such guarantee. (9) Mutual funds shall indicate in their advertisements—the settlers. If company look at the standard pyramid. And it is extremely important to get people to invest with company. more so in financial sector. substance of which is included in the fund’s current prospectus. and clear.
71 DBIM. promise. at the first level they build brand awareness. and financial advisors to the fund.
Mutual Fund Guidelines on Advertisements
SEBI has prescribed an advertisement code for mutual funds. (6) It should not compare on fund with another unless comparison is fair. they have been in India for five years now. fair. annual yield. which advertise yield must use standardized computations such as tax/value. (8) If the advertisement guarantees a minimum return. it is very important to have good brand name to develop trust in people's minds. company started off with building basic awareness. (4) The advertisement should not be so framed as to exploit the lack of experience or knowledge of the investors. the accuracy of which is dependent on an assumption. (7) The mutual funds. trustees. Has the brand been able to build realistic expectations? Has it performed up to the expectations? How many have considered it? It is like an education program. etc. As Prudential ICICI was new. they have already attained that. (10) Mutual funds which advertise past performance should state that these are not indicative of future returns. The brand. managers. the important features of which are as follows: (1) Advertisement should not be published unless approved by the designated person. or forecast which is false or misleading. so the brand becomes very important. Secondly.
But he also wants a high degree of returns. Over a period of five years. so the company get him in office through the Web. sheer outlays that you need to put to create enough impact tends to be very high. maybe buying a second car and henceforth. Research shows that weekend reading of magazines is far higher than weekday reading of magazines. at taking a new house.
A Role of Advertising Message
A very important aspect where an agency comes in is to move away from only obvious benefit to a benefit that addresses particular needs of a customer. they will use television and print. he is looking at building assets for himself. They try and are there in all the mediums at the same time. is the jump an agency has to take. so he would get a far higher accumulation of wealth five or ten years later than he would by investing in any other financial tool. because he is looking at a number of things. They want to target him at home. So. If companies want to use one medium. and measure the effect that you would have in terms of increased brand recall and other fronts. So this is a need state that 10 years later he will get a larger chunk of money. On weekend. and half of that time I would not be present on other media. What is not so obvious is that a person from 25 to 35 age group is willing to take a high degree of risk. they get him through in-cinema advertising. From the obvious reason for investing to a 'state of need' that leads to investment. may be he travels a lot during weekdays. the obvious benefit would be I would take care of your investment you don't need to worry about taking calls on stocks etc.so that is the obvious benefit. they get him wherever he is. And as research shows that 60% of all surfers check net from office. equity outperforms all other investments. if they say that I would have presence six months an year and be present in all the mediums v/s I will have a presence all the twelve months. so use outdoor and radio and maybe again print. For example if you plan to invest in equity. and through magazines.
Indian Television Advertisements for Mutual Fund
72 DBIM. So media multiplier works. SURAT
. That is what we as a mutual fund are supposed to do anyway. first option works far better.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
Media vehicles chosen by Mutual Fund Industry
Companies have very synergistic view on media planning. If they feel that their target audience is male thirty plus. Companies believe that it actually gives them synergies. again company get him through television advertising.
Everything seems hazy as we see the world through his eyes.
Fumbling through the house. MVO: "Invest karte wakt bhi. MVO: "Isiliye aapko sahi raah dikhaye.. a man turns off the shower and dries himself..Study and Research on Mutual Fund
1.ki aagey kya hai... Birla Sun Life
Hearing a child cry.Birla Sun Life Mutual Fund. yeh dekh paana.
. The name that inspires trust. he puts them on and gets back his vision. aasan nahin hota." Going up to the table.
Finally managing to trace it." Super: 'Birla Sun Life Mutual Fund.'
73 DBIM.. SURAT
.. he trips and hurts his foot... our friend gropes for his glasses.
two kids carry on with their study. SURAT
. Future safety of investment is emphasized with message that we are driving you to proper direction for that you just trust on us. Standard Chartered Mutual Fund
Enjoying the privacy under the bed. with great reverence and offer their gurudakshina to their music teacher. upper middle class and upper middle class. MVO: "Aisa naam jo vishwas jagaye.
Message / Theme of the Advertise. Target Segment of advertisement. Emotional (sentiment) Appeal Time duration of Advertisement.
In the next shot.
74 DBIM. Appeal used in Advertisement. as one of them revises and recites his table of five using one rupee coins. 30 seconds."
Finally in the arms of her father the baby quietens down and smiles cheerfully. Middle class. two children walk in.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
Entering a room we find the baby howling away.
Next we get to see a kabadiwala handing over the money from the sale of the papers to a woman. SURAT
An old man receives some money through post and he too quietly conceals it in his armchair. the boys put them back safely into a box. the guru safely puts the money under the cover of his harmonium.
MVO: "Looking for a safe place for your money. Standard Chartered Mutual Fund.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
Accepting his due.
The woman then rushes into her kitchen and hides the money inside her sugar jar."
Message / Theme of the Advertise. 75
Having finished with the coins.
3..Study and Research on Mutual Fund
We know you are always seeking for a place where you feel your money is safe and we care for you to provide safety to your investments.Aaj mutual fund agent se milke hi aaunga.. Vishwaas.UTI to UTI hai. SURAT
... Yuhin nahin koi croron ka vishwaas..haasil karta hai saalon se.. General people (who seeks for secured investment option) Appeal used in Advertisement.
Message / Theme of the Advertise.
... 37 salon se. Rational (Safety & Security) Appeal Time duration of Advertisement. "Meri rai to kaayam hai. Kahi suni baaton par mat jaana." Super: 'UTI Mutual Fund..." informs the young man. Sada kaayam. Target Segment of advertisement. 60 seconds.
DBIM. UTI Mutual Fund
An old man plays with his grandson in their garden when his son approaches.
Prudential ICICI is taking care of your investments. MVO: "Just as you are taking care. Prudential ICICI Mutual Funds
A man about to leave for the office.of your loved ones.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
Ad simply shows they are having trust of lacs of people from about last 37 years. The people who seeks trustable AMC for their investments. Prudential ICICI Mutual Fund.. spots his wife trying to tie a diaper for their newborn with one hand. In ad young earning son and retired father is shown in such a way they indirectly shows that we are providing service to both generation. SURAT
.. 15 seconds. he begins. the deed is done and the three of them rejoice.. but is rewarded with a smack from the little feet.
After much uproar. Shushing her protests.. as the other is in a cast. Target Segment of advertisement. Ad also shows the satisfactory trust of old man and his emotional touch with Unit Trust of India.
He interrupts and decides to help her out. Appeal used in Advertisement.
77 DBIM. Emotional (trust) Appeal Time duration of Advertisement.
A waiter serves the tea he had ordered for.. “As parents takes care for their child in similar way we take care for investments”. Franklin Templeton Investments
The film opens with a man in a restaurant.
. Franklin Templeton Mutual Funds mein invest keejiye. enjoys the first one's tea... Emotional (Sentiment) Appeal Time duration of Advertisement. MVO: "Isi tarah bina aapke jaane. Our man is so busy with a paper that he realizes his half-empty glass much later. Appeal used in Advertisement..... 10 seconds. The person who seeks for good take caring of their investment is targeted. aur tax aapke fixed deposit ko ghata dete hain. Mehangai aur tax ka dat ke saamna keejiye.and leaves comfortably. Target Segment of advertisement. is the message of this ad." 78
.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
Message / Theme of the Advertise. mehangai.
A little later another man comes from behind. The message shows their core value for presenting themselves as a takes care of their customers.
10 seconds.. Target Segment of advertisement..
His dad wishes him and gifts him a police uniform. Rational (Safety + Security) Appeal. The company emphasizes on security of fund and also makes trust in the mind set of customers that we are here to make your investments safe. Appeal used in Advertisement. ad execution technique Humour.
Converting the uniform into a dacoit's dress he comes out shattering his dad's dreams and shouts. Time duration of Advertisement. UTI Mutual Fund
A boy is all smiles celebrating his birthday. while dad dreams of his son growing up to be a police officer. The ad simply shows the safety of investment against the outer risks.
The excited child rushes to change into it.
6.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
Message / Theme of the Advertise.. The person who seeks for good take caring of their investment is targeted. SURAT
79 DBIM. "Ab to.
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. The person who seeks for good future for their child is targeted. After that the message shows that like a child one should not carefree for their future and company promise to give secured future of their child. Rational (Security) Appeal. Time duration of Advertisement. Tyar rahe UTI Mutual Fund ke children's career plan ke saath.. The ad simply shows the security for investment against the uncertain future. The persons who seek for good results for their efforts are to be directly targeted.." Multiplying the number of shares you own by the Offer Price tells you how much you would pay to buy those same shares. The person shows for dreaming in good results of his efforts and suddenly he founds the invert result for it.." MVO: "Bachchey to nadan hai.
80 DBIM. ad execution technique Humour. par unka bhavishya koyi.gabar main hi banoonga.
. Appeal used in Advertisement.
The News Paper Advertisement of Mutual Fund
Although they may look pretty cryptic.. You can determine the value of your portfolio by multiplying the number of shares you own by the "NAV.khel nahin. fund listings are very easy to read and can tell you a great deal about the fund in a small amount of space. 15 seconds.. Target Segment of advertisement."
Message / Theme of the Advertise..
so don't reject funds for consideration based only on these tables. If you are trying to make a decision about buying a fund. you will probably not find it necessary to check on the daily value of your fund shares. and "x" means quotes are based on ex-dividend values. Symbols after the fund names provide you with important information about the fund and the charges associated with it: Funds designated with an "r" charge a fee when you redeem (sell) your shares. "p" means a fund has a 12b-1 fee. "NL" means it is a no-load fund and you would pay the same price per share to buy it as you would receive if you were to sell it. and a minus (-) value means each of your shares has fallen by that amount. As a long-term investor. If the most recent day's numbers are not available for a fund. "NAV" means "Net Asset Value" and is the value of stocks being held in the portfolio divided by the number of the shares in the fund being held by the shareholders." plus any sales charges. "NAV" shows how much each share in the fund is worth. SURAT
. However. A plus (+) value means your shares have increased in value since the close of the last trading day by the amount indicated. But they don't provide all of the information you need.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
Funds are listed alphabetically by Fund Company with specific funds listed under each company. "t" means a fund has both a 12b-1 fee and a deferred sales charge or redemption fee. "Offer Price" is the amount you would pay if you wanted to buy the shares and is the same as the "NAV. An "e" signifies prices are quoted after capital gains distributions are deducted. you can obtain performance data and daily share prices directly from the fund company by calling their toll-free 81 DBIM. This tells how much the net asset value of the fund has changed since the previous trading day. whenever you want to check the progress of your fund. Mutual fund newspaper listings are most useful for keeping track of what is happening to the funds you own. the previous day's prices will be listed and an "f" entered after the fund name. Some newspapers provide more detail than others and include investment objectives and total return data. newspaper listings can give you some idea about fund families and provide some indication about fees and expenses. Change shows the amount by which the net asset value of one share of the fund increased or decreased the day before.
Agents advice the customers on the kind of needs of the client. Bajaj Capital etc. the role of the distribution channel remains critical as it is helps stave off competition by maintaining relationship providing advisory services and customizing need-based solutions. The last-named process carries no sales charge. To unload their work. Relationship play an important role while selling Mutual Fund products. 82 DBIM.
Distribution Model of Mutual Fund
In a highly competitive environment. SURAT
. sub-broker and agents. These AMCs. or directly by the fund to the investor. appoint their agents to sell the MF AMCs products. or a low one. Distribution Channel for Mutual Fund Industry
INSTITUTIONAL BROKERS LARGE CORPORAT E
Open-end mutual funds may be sold by securities dealers and brokers. and such funds are called no-load or low-load. they take shelter in third party distribution AMCs like Karvy. the companies bear huge market expenses in the form of higher commission to lure investors. by financial planners. AMCs are opting for the services of large distributors to sell their products by leveraging their value chain. All funds have management fees regardless of distribution methods.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
number. which comprises of a broker. Increasing commoditization and growing needs of the customers are forcing players to shift to solution-based models form product-based ones. So. in turn. it is difficult for AMCs to manage and monitor a large agent force. referring to current prices of mutual funds listed daily in most newspapers. product innovation or development has become a necessity for mutual fund to stay ahead. In either model. or visit their website. To control increasing operational costs. An agent is an essential channel between investors and the mutual fund products. by a sales staff employed by the fund management. However.
Mutual Fund players have to break splurging marketing expenses to push their products against others. where it can be 3-5 days or more. the post office plays a vital role because its offices are distributed through throughout the country. In addition. Such hassles could prevent investors from investing in mutual funds. UTI is distributing its offering through selected branches of the Indian Bank of India and Allahabad Bank. but the cost burden is huge. The post office is also being used as a channel of distribution by mutual funds AMCs. The contribution of direct marketing to the total sales is miniscule. AMCs are exploring distribution models like depository models and distributor model in lieu of the existing collection centers model. technological advancement of remittance instruments such as Electronic Clea Servicing (ECS). However. Mutual Fund player are also using the internet to distribute products because of the cost advantages and increased communication. A major reason for this is the high cost of developing retail infrastructure.
Changing paradigms about Mutual Fund Distribution
To overcome the distribution bottleneck and increase penetration. is marking the process fast and reducing delay in fund transfer across cities. SURAT
. given the fact that the post office has the largest distribution network than any other institution or bank in the country. they are also appointing sales personnel to meet investors. Such delay is quite pervasive in the smaller towns. It will be helpful to investors who will be 83 DBIM. except in the liquid and money market schemes. So. There is also a regulatory entanglement in fund realization. The depository model is expected to transform the model of distribution. The extensive availability of the central Government’s assured return on small savings products are restricting the competition as well as the penetration of a wide variety of mutual fund products. enhancing the reach through the existing distribution model will require more investments. mutual fund investments are confined to the metros. According to the securities Market Infrastructure-Leveraging Expert (SMILE). In the proposed depository model. where investors are not willing to take risk. Electronic Funds Transfer(EFT) and real-Time Gross Settlement System (RTGS). tier 1 and tier 2 cities (about 50 cities). Inaddition. However these problem is resolved with appointment of adapt registrars to meet the time lines of recording the transactions. Besides. So. existing collection center will be replaced by the Depository Participants (DP) as the point where investors and depositors submit the application form. As of now. delay in fund transfer and tardy inter city payment system are the major problem. scaling up the operation by increasing the volumes through increasing investment in other cities doesn’t seem feasible. Educating investors about the advantages of investing in mutual funds compared to risk-free saving instrument is a big task for the industry. the fact that the internet has its limits in providing customized investment advise to individuals. the transaction cost of establishing collection centers. particularly in the smaller towns. As far as retail penetration is concerned. Allotment of units Net Asset Values (NAVs) is done before the realization of funds.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
However. restricts it’s use on a large scale. Mutual fund AMCs are also using bank and non banking financial AMCs (NBFC) as distribution channels to leverage their reach and huge client base. This poses a great challenge for the industry to realize its potential. educate them and sell their products.
Challenges With Regard To Distribution of Mutual Fund
Lack of awareness and a risk aversion among retail investors are the major challenges for the industry.
To avoid such conflict of interest. adoption of such a model will lead to channel conflict between distributors and DPs. then Independent Financial advisers’ (IFAs) not only be critical in giving advisory services to investors but also in pushing their products. However. Sebi has recommended the conversation of the exixting collection centers and registrar and mutual fund offices into limited purpose DPs. The depository model can take advantage of already established equity market infrastructure and increase penetration. SURAT
. As a consequence. The fund can be distinguished or preferred by the buyers on the style of fund management such as value investing style or growth investing style. It will lead to more demand for specialized/ niche products. distributor is linked with the registrar through the depository. who are also a part of the distribution channel. This will reduce the apprehension of distributors about approaching DPs. In This new model. It will be very difficult to replace the depository model with the distributor model. While it is easy to change from the collection center model to the depository model. They will help investors buy products as per their financial needs.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
able to transact different kind of mutual fund through a single point.
84 DBIM. If the distributor model is the proffered mode of distribution. investors will become more aware of the product frames.
To analyze the individual preferences about mutual fund b. 85 DBIM. To know thrust area for mutual fund industry
3. Sources of data
Source of data collected are: i) Primary Source:Primary sources includes survey of the respondent residing in the Surat city ii) Secondary Source:Secondary Source includesInternet. Primary Objective: The main objective of this study is to gain the in knowledge about mutual fund industry as a whole & to know the attitude of investors towards the mutual funds. Sampling Method I have selected the convenient sampling method for my research study. Problem Definition
The Mutual fund industry flourishes in the present scenario. The unexpected Growth in the mutual fund industry is due to lot many factors like suitable budget for the mutual Funds. Agents and stock brokers. c.
2. To know the investment pattern of small and medium size enterprises.
. So I have selected Surat city as sample area. Charted Accountants (CAs). Sampling Area My research objective is to know attitude of investors towards mutual fund in Surat city.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
1. Objective of the study
Here I can segregate my research objective in to the two categories.
4. Sample design
Sample Size The sample size for my research is 150. Secondary Objective: The secondary objectives of this research study are… a. mindset of the investor now a Days change & they are ready to take little risk towards their investment in Which deal to growth in the mutual fund industry? The main problem for which the research work in this management research project has conducted to know the various factors hinder the growth of mutual fund in the same area. SURAT
Study and Research on Mutual Fund
1) Time constraint. The method adopted for primary data collection in this study is personal interview method at the respected place. Secondary data collected from various books. and websites. Most of the time in order to save my time I used to ask question verbally and as per answer of resonance. The questionnaire was frame in such a way to bring out the relevant information along with allied information in minimum possible time. 2) Lack of Resources. magazines. Research techniques
Data Collection The research instrument in this study to collect primary data is questionnaire. I fill the questionnaire accordingly. Various Magazines & bulletins Related books
5. The questionnaire was frame with the help of faculty member and finance students of my college.
86 DBIM. SURAT
. c. 3) Cost constraint. Method of Contact: The method which we have adopted in my research is Personal Interview
6. 4) The research is solely based on respondents’ discretion. Method of Data collection: The data collection approach adopted in this study is survey method.
He or she believes that coffee tastes very good. Consumer attitudes are a composite of a consumer’s (1) beliefs about. and some beliefs may. In practice. we now take negative numbers from -1 to -7.. attitude would have been 24+(-28)=-4. For example. Thus. coffee is easily spilled and stains papers).. upon closer examination. this is sometimes a logical consequence of 87 DBIM. on this attribute (since this is a negative belief. behavioral intention. These components are viewed together since they are highly interdependent and together represent forces that influence how the consumer will react to the object. or a 4 on a scale from 1 to 7. On the other hand.g.g. his or her total. Affect.g. buy or not buy the brand).g.. but not good on a hot summer evening when one wants to sleep). A consumer may hold both positive beliefs toward an object (e. (2) feelings about.g. The Multiattribute (also sometimes known as the Fishbein) Model attempts to summarize overall attitudes into one score using the equation:
That is. coffee is hot and stimulates--good on a cold morning. but there may also be feelings which are relatively independent of beliefs. or aggregated. an extreme environmentalist may believe that cutting down trees is morally wrong. Thus. For example. the product here is 4(6)=24. Sometimes these feelings are based on the beliefs (e. he or she believes that the potential of a drink to stain is extremely important (7). with -7 being worst). usually a brand or retail store. we now have 7(-4)=-28. Conceptual Framework
Attitudes Definition. or a 6 on a scale from 1 to 7. Consumers also hold certain feelings toward brands or other objects. The first component is beliefs. (3) and behavioral intentions toward some object--within the context of marketing. Since a consumer holds many beliefs. of course.. for each belief. The behavioral intention is what the consumer plans to do with respect to the object (e. be contradictory (e. Had these two beliefs been the only beliefs the consumer held. some beliefs may be neutral (coffee is black). it may often be difficult to get down to a "bottom line" overall belief about whether an object such as McDonald’s is overall good or bad. As with affect. that a historical figure was a good person but also owned slaves). and some may be differ in valance depending on the person or the situation (e.g. but may have positive affect toward Christmas trees because he or she unconsciously associates these trees with the experience that he or she had at Christmas as a child.Study and Research on Mutual Fund 7. at a score -4. a consumer believes that the taste of a beverage is moderately important. consumers tend to have many more beliefs that must each be added to obtain an accurate measurement. we take the weight. that pork contains little fat). coffee tastes good) as well as negative beliefs (e. Note also that the beliefs that consumers hold need not be accurate (e.. In addition. Beliefs.. a person feels nauseated when thinking about a hamburger because of the tremendous amount of fat it contains).g. or importance (Wi) of that belief and mutiply it with its evaluation (Xib). and coffee fares moderately badly. SURAT
how important these beliefs are. that this represents a case of shaping). A student thinks that smoking is really cool. One way to get people to switch to our brand is to use temporary price discounts and coupons. by the way. Changing attitudes is generally very difficult. Consumers are less likely to use this availability as a rationale for their purchase and may continue to buy the product even when the product is less conveniently located. products which are better known. People like to believe that their behavior is rational. Although Energizer Bunny ads try to get people to believe that their batteries last longer. (Notice.. he or she will go there because it is a hangout for his or her friends. For example. For example. Attitude-Behavior Consistency.
Attitude Change Strategies. even if consumers to do not develop any specific beliefs about the product. although a consumer does not really like a restaurant.g. Thus. he does not smoke. she would rather have a computer.. Finally. to get the consumer to buy more or to switch brands). which were never uncovered because an erroneous measurement was made. Changing behavior. they may justify the purchase based on that deal (i. One approach is to try to change affect. and their evaluation of the performance of mopeds with respect to these beliefs. but since his friends think it’s disgusting. Changing affect. consumers often do not give very reliable answers. thus. Consumers often do not behave consistently with their attitudes for several reasons: Ability. we "pair" a car with a beautiful woman. which may or may not involve getting consumers to change their beliefs. the Pillsbury Doughboy does not really emphasize the conveyance of much information to the consumer. the low price) and may then switch to other brands on deal later. particularly when consumers suspect that the marketer has a self-serving agenda in bringing about this change (e. however. consumers do not consciously set out to enumerate how positively or negatively they feel about mopeds. Alternatively. the more a product is advertised and seen in stores. A better way to get people to switch to our brand is to at least temporarily obtain better shelf space so that the product is more convenient. it attempts to create a warm. • Measurement problems. we can try to get people to like the advertisement and hope that this liking will "spill over" into the purchase of a product. • Social influence. One strategy uses the approach of classical conditioning try to "pair" the product with a liked stimulus. instead. the consumers may act consistently with their true attitudes. In many situations. she may lack a driver’s license.. tend to be better liked--that is. when consumers buy a product on deal. He or she may be unable to do so. and when a market researcher asks them about their beliefs about mopeds.g. chances are that they will continue unless someone is able to get them to switch. Although junior high school student likes pick-up trucks and would like to buy one. the main emphasis is on the likeable bunny. fuzzy image.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
beliefs (or affect). and has money for only one of the two. but may sometimes reflect other circumstances--e. 88 DBIM. SURAT
. • Competing demands for resources. once they use our products.e. the more it will generally be liked. Although the above student would like to buy a pickup truck on her sixteenth birthday. through the mere exposure effect. Measuring attitudes is difficult.
in the above examples. • Add beliefs. However. a competing supermarket has slightly lower prices. elaboration is likely to be more extensive.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
Changing beliefs. the "but" part must be emphasized. it is usually not feasible to make beliefs less important--consumers are likely to reason. and very risky. but very safe) or (2) admits something positive about a competing brand (e. then. for products which are either expensive or important for some other reason (e. even if they are inaccurate. However..g.. Thus. and thus Bill Cosby is able to endorse Coke and Jell-O without having any special credentials to do so. contain overriding arguments why the sponsoring brand is ultimately superior--that is... The ELM suggests that for "unimportant" products. • Change ideal. Hard Candy may have attempted to change the ideal away from traditional beauty toward more unique self expression. two-sided appeals. For example. Attitude research has shown that consumers often tend to react more favorably to advertisements which either (1) admit something negative about the sponsoring brand (e. compliance increased to 80%. particularly when consumers hold unfavorable or inaccurate ones..g. and the endorser is expected to be "congruent. • Change the importance of beliefs. The ELM suggests that consumers will scrutinize claims more in important situations than in unimportant ones.g. Since the reason offered really did not add substantive information. a basket ball player is likely to be effective in endorsing athletic shoes. For example. Consumers were suspicious and rejected this information. would you bother bringing them up in the first place? However. the beef industry has added beliefs that beef (1) is convenient and (2) can be used to make a number of creative dishes. The Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) and Celebrity Endorsements. "elaboration" was low.
One-sided vs. when the justification "." or compatible. we found that in the study of people trying to get ahead of others in a line to use photo copiers. elaboration will be low. Several approaches to belief change exist: Change currently held beliefs. SURAT
.g. Vitamin manufacturers attempt to add the belief that stress causes vitamin depletion. with the product. For example. For example. It is generally very difficult to attempt to change beliefs that people hold.. the Volvo is a clumsy car. it may be possible to strengthen beliefs that favor us--e. Two-sided appeals must. we conclude that it was not extensively analyzed--in the jargon of the theory. because I have to make copies" was added. this is often difficult to achieve because consumers tend to resist. Consumers are less likely to resist the addition of beliefs so long as they do not conflict with existing beliefs. and provided extensive factual evidence in its advertising to support this reality. Although the sugar manufacturers would undoubtedly like to decrease the importance of healthy teeth. but offers less service and selection). the petroleum industry advertised for a long time that its profits were lower than were commonly believed. and only few firms succeed. however. why. but the belief can be made stronger. a vitamin supplement manufacturer may advertise that it is extremely important for women to replace iron lost through menstruation. Although attempting to change beliefs is the obvious way to attempt attitude change. particularly those that are strongly held. to attempt to change ideals. It usually difficult. the compliance rate was about fifty percent when people just asked to get ahead. On
89 DBIM. Most consumers already agree with this. which sounds quite plausible to most people. a pain reliever given to a child that could be harmed by using dangerous substances). but not in endorsing automobiles.
could endorse fast food restaurants effectively. but may backfire in certain cultures.
90 DBIM. but not athletic shoes. a nationally syndicated auto columnist would be successful in endorsing cars.g. Several approaches to appeal may be used. Humor appears to be effective in gaining attention. but may backfire if consumers believe that people’s feelings are being exploited. Fear appeals appear to work only if (1) an optimal level of fear is evoked--not so much that people tune it out. which may in turn result in increased sales. however. All of them. Appeal approaches. a more favorable attitude toward the advertisement may be created by humorous advertising.. which is illegal in many countries. SURAT
. In addition.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
the other hand. Comparative advertising. often increases sales for the sponsoring brand. gingivitis and tooth loss can be avoided by using this mouth wash. but does not appear to increase persuasion in practice. but enough to scare people into action and (2) a way to avoid the feared stimulus is explicitly indicated--e. The use of affect to induce empathy with advertising characters may increase attraction to a product.
. of respondents 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Post Office Insurance BFD NSC B&D Recurring UnOrganized Sector Mutual Fund Equity PPF
91 DBIM. Data analysis
1) Investment Tool That Respondent Used To Invest In Findings: Investment Options BFD Post Office Insurance Mutual Fund Equity NSC B&D Recurring PPF Un-Organized Sector Respondents 38 88 100 92 76 48 10 14 18 5
No.Study and Research on Mutual Fund 8.
approx.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
Data interpretation: From the above data. So we can say that there is definitely a shift towards other investment avenues like Mutual Fund. approx 65. But when we compare Mutual Fund and Insurance with Bank. Then the other reason why people invest in Mutual Fund because it takes care about varied needs of investors and provides tax benefits. This is just because respondents’ main objective of investment after tax benefit is return which they receive higher in Post Office & Equity compared to other investment avenues. because of declining return from Bank. Only 27. Post Office also provides tax benefit .28% respectively. SURAT
.14% of respondents invest in Banks. Insurance. Banks proportion of respondents’ investment is too low. Equity etc.
92 DBIM. we can see that nearly 70% of respondents invest in Insurance polices & 65.71% because it helps in making calculated and diversified investment. Equally there are a high number of respondents investing in Mutual Fund.71% of respondents in Mutual Fund. Respondent investing in Post Office & Equity is 62. 70% because saving risk for contingencies’ reduces and it provides tax benefit to investors which is one of the main & important criterions for investors while investing in different avenues. There are a high number of respondents investing in Insurance..85% & 54.
33% of respondents return Benefit as the most important criterion while investing in different avenues. saving & safety.Study and Research on Mutual Fund 2) Objective of Investment (Rank according to investors)
Findings: Rank 1 2 3 4 5 Tax Benefit 30 79 13 25 3 Return 80 30 19 9 12 Liquidity 10 25 68 24 23 Saving 11 7 28 53 51 Safety 19 9 22 39 61
Data interpretation: From the above data. As return is one of the main objectives of investment we can see that there are number of respondents investing in Post Office & Equity where they receive higher return. People give more preference to tax benefit and return as we already saw that there are number of people investing in Insurance & Mutual Fund. SURAT
. followed by Tax benefit. liquidity.
93 DBIM. 53.
Equally there are a high number of respondents investing in Mutual Fund. because saving risk for contingencies’ reduces and it provides tax benefit to investors which are one of the main & important criterions for investors while investing in different avenues. Then the other reason why people invest in Mutual Fund because it takes care about varied needs of investors and provides tax benefits. because it helps in making calculated and diversified investment.Study and Research on Mutual Fund 3) Investment options
Findings: Ranks 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 BFD 9 13 13 9 11 19 42 34 Insurance 35 28 29 12 14 2 18 12 B&D 10 7 15 34 10 28 22 24 Post Office 23 15 32 20 23 28 2 7 NSC 25 25 16 34 24 15 4 7 Mutual Fund 32 38 15 8 22 17 11 7 Recurring 8 2 13 8 19 15 38 47 Equity 8 22 17 25 27 26 13 12
Data interpretation: The data reveals the fact hat generally people prefer to invest first is in Insurance. SURAT
. People prefer last option to BFD as the return is very low in BFD.
That means the investor may go for those investment which has maturity of more than one year. it requires lock in period of three or more years. So Mutual Fund can target these long term investors which are nearly 76% of sample of Ahmadabad region. of Respondents 114 36
Data interpretation: From the facts & figure we can easily judge that almost 76% respondents invest their fund for Long term. So this kind of result is very much favorable for Mutual Fund Industry. SURAT
95 DBIM.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
4) Average Tenure of Investment Findings: Investment Tenure Long Term Short Term No. When we take into consideration Equity fund.
nearly 41. The number of respondents expecting high return of 10% to 13% from portfolio is more because they like to invest in equity market as the market is showing a positive growth from past few years.7% 7% .e.10% 10% . So I order to get higher return people invest in equity.42% of respondents expect 7% to 10% return from there portfolio. Insurance etc. Similarly the number of respondents expecting 10% to 13% return from portfolio.57% is also high because respondents one of the main criterion for investment is return.13% > 13% No.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
5) Expected Return on Port folio Findings: Return 4% . 17 62 58 13
Data interpretation: From the above data we can judge that most of the respondents i. of Res.
96 DBIM. i. NSC etc. SURAT
. This because people prefer to invest in Post office.e. is nearly 38.
Almost 55. respondents generally invest directly or they generally take advice of friends & relatives.71% of respondents invest directly and nearly 51.
97 DBIM.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
6) Investment Advisory Findings: Advisor Bank Agent Direct Investment CAs Friends & Relatives Investment Analyst
No. of Respondents 28 63 83 47 77 6
Data interpretation: Taking into consideration the advice which is taken by investors. Only 4.43% of respondents.43% of respondents take friends & relatives advice. The least preferred advisor is Investment Analyst. In Investment Option like Insurance & Mutual Fund Respondents take advice from Agent that is almost 41.28% of respondents take advice from Investment Analyst. SURAT
Data interpretation: Considering the Awareness of Mutual Fund among investors. level of education prevailing in the city & so on. As we know the living standard.
98 DBIM. So due to which we can see the awareness among the respondents is far better. level of education etc in the research area i.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
7) Mutual fund Awareness Findings: Response Aware Not Aware No.43% of respondents are aware about Mutual Fund.e. almost 81. of Res.57% of respondents are not aware about Mutual Fund. SURAT
. Only 18. Ahmedabad is far better. it basically depends upon the area in which the research is conducted.
Study and Research on Mutual Fund 8) Mutual fund Investment
Findings: Response Invested Not Invested No.
99 DBIM. of Respondents 99 51
Data interpretation: Considering the awareness factor of Mutual Fund we find that almost 81% of respondents are about Mutual Fund but when we see how many of them invest in Mutual Fund its only 65. So Mutual Fund companies should try to tap the untapped respondents nearly 34%. so as to take the advantage of the opportunities. SURAT
.28% of respondents do not invest in Mutual Fund.715 of respondents who invest in Mutual Fund while remaining 34.
15. lack of knowledge. There are some reasons for this gap.e. No. So AMC’s in order to reduce the main hurdle i.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
9) Reason for not Invest in Mutual fund Findings: Reasons Lack of Knowledge Lack of Trust in MF Difficulty in selecting the scheme Inefficient Investment Advisory Bitter past Exp. SURAT
.71% of respondents do not invest due to difficulty on selecting schemes which the fundamental awareness of mutual fund. they should try to educate the investors. Around 45% respondents do not invest in Mutual Fund due to lack of Knowledge while 20% of respondents do not invest due to lack of trust. of Respondents 68 30 24 19 9
Data interpretation: As we find there is a wide gap between people who are aware about mutual fund & those who invest in mutual fund.
invest in balance fund to have moderate return at moderate risk. of Res. 29 66 55
Data interpretation: Around 65. SURAT
. Investors invest in Findings:
Type of MF Debt Equity Balance
No.While 37% of respondents. The relative higher investment in Equity fund is due to positive movement of Capital market and the other reason is because respondents receive higher return.71% of respondents invest in Mutual Fund out of those 44% of respondents invest in Equity fund while 37% of respondents invest in Balance Fund and only 19% of respondents invest in Debt Fund.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
10) Type of MF.
The safe investment for one person may not be safe investment for another.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
11) Mutual fund as a safe Investment tool Findings: Response Safe Not Safe No. The other reason why MF is a safe investment too it helps investors to take calculated & diversified risk. It also considers the varied needs of investors & provides tax benefit. Around 80% of respondents feel that MF fund is safe investment tool as their fund can be well managed by qualified Fund Managers. SURAT
. of Respondents 120 30
Data interpretation: The matter of safe investment is subjective. Only 20% of respondents believe that MF is not a safe investment tool for them due to systematic risk or due to their past experience.
Study and Research on Mutual Fund 12) Reasons for thinking MF as a risky investment tool
Findings: Reasons Risk Factor Lack of trust on AMC Longer Procedure Load Charges No. of Respondents 13 7 6 4
Data interpretation: As we saw 20% of respondents don’t believe that Mutual Fund is a Safe Investment tool. There is certain reason for that. Around 44% of respondents out of 30 respondents who feel Mutual Fund is risky. Risk may be systematic or unsystematic risk. While around 23% of respondents do to believe Mutual Fund to be safe Investment due to lack of trust.
103 DBIM, SURAT
Study and Research on Mutual Fund 13) Awareness about Tax Benefit in MF
Findings: Response Aware Not Aware No. of Respondents 101 49
Data interpretation: Around 67% of respondents are aware that Mutual Fund provides tax benefit while around 33% of respondents do not know that Mutual Fund provides tax benefit. So Mutual Fund players should try to increase awareness about tax benefit because Tax Benefit is one of the main Objective of Investors Investment.
104 DBIM, SURAT
Study and Research on Mutual Fund
14) Objective to invest in MF Findings: Objective to invest in MF Long term capital gain Safety of Capital Short term capital gain Planned investment for occasion No. of Respondents 120 28 37 55
Data interpretation: From the above data we can see that the main aim behind respondents investing in mutual fund is Long term Capital gain. Around 80% invest in mutual fund with the objective of capital gain. The least considered objective while investing in Mutual fund is safety of Capital.
105 DBIM, SURAT
of Respondents 49 79 84 45 37 28 47 6 13 24 2 28 8
106 DBIM. SURAT
.Study and Research on Mutual Fund 15) Awareness about various AMCs
Findings: AMCs Tata SBI MF PRU ICICI MF Franklin Templton Kotak MF Reliance MF HDFC Birla Sundaram Fedility BOB JP Morgon Std Chartered No.
107 DBIM. today we have the best system and procedure. especially due to fall in interest rates coupled with the rising inflation. Mutual Fund as a concept is well known. It is important to gain mind-share rather than wallet share of the investors. What is needed is the spread of awareness beyond regional limits. real estate. provident fund etc. use of technology. money will follow. and Mutual Fund obviously become a viable alternative. This Mutual Fund industry is playing an important role to provide Alternative Avenue to the entire gamut of investors in a scientific and professional manner. but the target audience still needed to gain more awareness. good regulatory mechanism. Currently industry is gradually growing phase and Indian Mutual Fund industry has been definitely maturing over the last few years and the level of awareness today is much more than what it was in the past. Mutual fund industry has been evolving very well for an important reason that. The future is very bright. SURAT
.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
Up till now sought after investment avenues like bank deposits. gold. If Mutual Funds gain investors trust. But the level of awareness has not yet reached the rural and other smaller towns and it is more of a smaller towns and it is more of an urban phenomenon. Mutual Fund is in the business of managing trust. transparency and sharing of details and dissemination of information at an improved level.
So industry should consider this point in to consideration and try to avoid the hindrance by investing in the technology like punch machine and cash management service(CMS). Operational inefficiency is still hampering the growth prospects of the industry. Generally people know the concept of MF but they are not aware about the various schemes so AMCs should try to make awareness about various scheme. 4. by providing the material for the basic concept of mutual fund. SURAT
. insurance and so on. Try to avoid the bad and painful experience of US 64 by providing today’s situation of MF and the Advantages from MF. As insurance and post office provides the return which is comparable to the MF industry with less risk so this is one of the huge threats. 3. 6. Lengthy transaction cycles and old fashion distribution models like cheque based returns are preventing the industry to grow at good rate.Study and Research on Mutual Fund
RECOMMENDATION & SUGGESTION
1.AS we know that the situation at the time of US 64 and the today’s scenario is quiet different .
108 DBIM. 7. One of the great threats to the MF industry is the competition from various investments options available in the market like post office. As we know that the villages and town are the untapped market for them so for increasing their presence in more village and tap more investor they should aware the investor by conducting seminars. So in short AMCs should understand the investor and make differentiate the both situation as a whole. 5. Companies should educate the people by intimating about favorable budget impact on MF. As we see that there is poor reach as far as mutual fund is concern. 2. So AMCs should concentrate to make effective their distribution channel. So AMCs should reduce the risk which is involved in MF at the time of investing in MF by constructing the special effective risk management department.As today there are 31 AMCs exist in the market and still there is expectation to increase more number of AMCs in near future.