# 3/8/2011

Engineering Drawings - Show Dimensions, Tolerances, etc.

Control Charts for and R Control Limits, Specification Limits • Control limits are functions of the natural variability of the process (usually set at 3 sigma 3-sigma from the mean) • Specification limits are determined by developers/designers.

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Control Charts for and R Control Limits and Specification Limits • There is no mathematical relationship between control limits and specification limits. • Do not plot specification limits on the charts
– Causes confusion between control and capability – If individual observations are plotted, then specification limits may be plotted on the chart.

x

Limit Limit Nominal Max

Nominal Max

Process Capability
Lower Specification Upper Specification

Unacceptable, process needs adjustment back to centre of range. Acceptable, even if things change slightly.

Limit

Nominal

Max
Process variability matches specifications Lower Specification Upper Specification

Limit

Nominal

Max
Unacceptable, needs to reduce the variability.

Limit Acceptable now, but the slightest change will make it unacceptable. Should reduce the variability
Time distributions in the proposal writing process

Nominal

Max

Process variability well within Lower specifications
Specification

Upper Specification

Unacceptable, needs to re centre the process and reduce variability

Process variability exceeds specifications

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Inspector’s skill.73% of outcomes within specifications Process Capability Cpk ⎡ Upper Specification Limit − x C pk = minimum of ⎢ . Feigenbaum. SERVICES • DEFECT REDUCTION TECHNIQUE • CORPORATE PHILOSOPHY 1970: Zero Defects : Crosby 1960: Japanese Quality movement – Deming.PRODUCT. 2. Ishikawa 1950: reconstruction of Japan – SPC 1940: Statistical Sampling Techniques : W E Deming 1930: statistical Sampling : W A Shewhart 1920: Time & Motion studies – F. Raw materials. Measurement method / instruments. PROCESS. Taylor Each phase built on the structure and gains from the previous phases 2 . 5.3/8/2011 Factors influencing process capability Process Capability Ratio 1. 6. Cp = Process capability ratio. Condition of machine/ equipment. 3. Juran Taguchi. Cp = specification width process width Upper specification – l U ifi i lower specification ifi i 6σp where normal distribution is assumed (number of samples is large): Cp>1 implies a process has the potential of having more than 99. 4 Skill of operators operators. or 3σ p ⎢ ⎣ x − Lower Specification Limit ⎤ ⎥ 3σ p ⎥ ⎦ where x = process mean σ p = standard deviation of the process population Assumes that the process is: • under control • normally distributed Meanings of Cpk Measures Cpk = negative number Cpk = zero Cpk = between 0 and 1 Cpk = 1 Cpk > 1 The Evolution of Quality Six Sigma BPR – M Hammer Six Sigma : Motorola 1996 1990 1987 1980: TQM : Quality Circles WHAT IS SIX SIGMA ? • QUALITY BENCHMARK . 4. Type of operation and operational conditions.

Customer satisfaction and cost reduction within all components of the production and delivery process. design for manufacturability.3/8/2011 Results From Six Sigma in GE A FEW SIX SIGMA RESULTS… MOTOROLA ( 1987-1994) – REDUCED IN PROCESS DEFECT LEVELS 200 TIMES 3500 3000 3000 2500 2500 2500 – REDUCED MFG.4 BILLION – INCREASED S C S SHARE VALUE 4 TIMES S USD Millions D 2000 1500 . Focused on operational excellence. variation and defect reduction.Critical to Quality The key measurable characteristics of a product or process whose performance standards or specification limits must be met in order to satisfy the customer. Customer level CTQ Product / Process level CTQ OM process cycle time Shifter fork movement. Customer satisfaction and cost reduction within all components of the development and new product introduction process. lean production techniques. etc.7% IN 1998 0 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Six Sigma cost Six Sigma productivity Delighting customers Three Emphasis Areas for Six Sigma Basic Terminologies Focused on product design excellence. COSTS BY \$ 1. Finance.CUMULATIVE SAVINGS \$ 14 BILLION (UPTO 1997) • GENERAL ELECTRIC – 1997 : \$ 300 MILLION PROFIT 1000 1200 900 700 500 380 200170 450 500 600 500 600 – 1998 : \$ 600 MILLION PROFIT – OPERATING PROFITS INCREASED TO 16. They align improvement or design efforts with customer requirements. Areas of focus include Sales. Six Sigma touches on all aspects of the Business Enterprise • • • • • • CTQ Metric Defect / Defective DPU Opportunity & DPMO COPQ CTQ . Focused on product production excellence. Customer satisfaction and cost reduction within all components of the operation. HR. Materials. cone clutch Customer Generated CTQs Q Process Generated Business Generated Order Delivery on time Smooth gear shifting Six Sigma speaks only in terms of Metrics So measure everything that results in customer satisfaction 3 .

certain process metrics have to be defined .3/8/2011 Examples of Metric Process metric To define the result / output of processes. and sub-assemblies Xp Measurement Evaluation Monitoring and g control Product Process y = Quality Characteristic Defining Processes & CTQ’S Identify customer driven Critical-to-quality (CTQ) characteristics Identify Key processes that cause defects in a CTQ Characteristics Output For each product or process CTQMeasure. improve &CONTROL Z1 Zp Z2 Uncontrollable inputs Process identification matrix Customer driven CTQ Improved CSI Score Basic Terminologies • • • • • • CTQ Metric Defect / Defective DPU Opportunity & DPMO COPQ Vehicle servicing Service Level CTQ Sub CTQ 1 Waiting time for registration Sub CTQ 2 Waiting during service Sub CTQ 3 Satisfaction At time of delivery Process1 Process2 Process3 Registration of service request Servicing process After service follow up 4 . Process Metric %QC & Rework time No of defects (DPMO) Material residing time Cost per KM Travel Hit ratio --------------Business results metric Manpower cost Rework/Warranty cost -------.Inventory carrying cost -------.the standards which help track and monitor the processes. Analyze.ROI -------Order booking value Process metric control Process output is dependent on inputs(X) we provide to the process . components. These may add up to a Business level metric.that is Y= f (X) To control “Y” we must control “Xi” Controllable Inputs X1 X2 Input raw materials.

of units x No. of opp. of defects x 106 No. of defects / Total no. DPU = Total no. Defect Defect vs Defective Defect is within a unit Duster length = 10. Defect Per Unit (DPU) Shoe No.1cm Defective is for a unit.5 defects per unit 5 . of defects 2 1 3 0 Total = 6 Opportunities:Any measurable event that provides a chance of not meeting specification limits of a CTQ DPMO : Defect per million opportunities = No. of units = 6 / 4 = 1. 1 2 3 4 Total = 4 No.3/8/2011 Unit Unit is the basis of measurement of a metric. Length : Metric Meter : Unit.

Harry & Richard Schroeder in “ Six Sigma” Six Sigma as a Philosophy Costs Internal & External Failure Costs Prevention & Appraisal Costs σ is a measure of how much variation exists in a process Old Belief High Quality = High Cost Old Belief 4σ Quality Internal & External Failure Costs Prevention & Appraisal Costs New Belief High Quality = Low Cost Costs 4σ New Belief 5σ 6σ Quality 3 Sigma Vs 6 Sigma 6 Sigma curve The Objective Of Six Sigma Off-Target Too Much Variation LSL 3 Sigma curve Defects USL LT UT Centered On-Target LT UT Center Process Reduce Spread 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 UT : Upper Tolerance LT : Lower Tolerance LT UT In a 3 sigma process the values are widely spread along the center line. Whereas in a 6 Sigma process.807 6.4 (world class) DPMO 308.210 (industry avg.3/8/2011 THE COST OF POOR QUALITY Sigma level 2 3 4 5 6 66. the values are closer to the center line showing less variation in the process.) 233 3. showing the higher variation of the process. Reduce Variation & Center Process : Customers feel the variation more than the mean 6 .537 (non-competitive) COPQ not applicable 25-40 % of sales 15-25% of sales 5-15% of sales < 1% of sales Each sigma shift provides a 10 % net income improvement Source : Mikel J.

Process • Cause • Problem • Control To get result. XN • Independent p • Input . why do we constantly test and inspect “Y” Y = f (Man. b) Work through FMEA with team 7 .5 SD LSL SD = 1 1. should we focus our behaviour on y or x ? • • • • • DEFINE MEASURE ANALYSE IMPROVE CONTROL D M A I C If we understand that “X” is the cause. Machine . Method. Mother Nature) 1 Input1 input2 2 Input1 input2 1 Process Mapping 3 Input1 CTQ1 input2 CTQ2 Step1:Process mapping a) Form team using subject matter experts and process owners b) Define the current process steps and input (x’s) c) Identify which process steps affect each CTQ d) Identify the characteristic of each process input Step2: C&E Matrix (Cause & Effect Matrix) a) List the controllable and critical inputs vertically in the C&E matrix.5 SD USL 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 DMAIC Y= •Y p • Dependent • Output • Effect • Symptom • Monitor f(X) • X1 …………. b) List the CTQ’S horizontally c) Use the same team to corelate and weigh the impact of each input to each CTQ Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) Process Step/Input Potential Failure Mode Potential Failure Effects What is the impact on the Key Output Variables (Customer Requirements) or internal requirements? S E V How Severe is the s effect to the o O C C How often does ca ause or FM oc ccur? D R E P T N How well can you n Potential Causes Current Controls 2 C&E Matrix (Cause & Effect) Imp. Input1 input2 3 3 4 5 29 34 Step3:FMEA a) List the key inputs which Rank high in the C&E matrix in the input column of FMEA. Material.3/8/2011 Amount of process shift allowed 1. Rating What is the In what ways does process step/ the Key Input go Input under wrong? investigation? Step/Input What causes the Key Input to go wrong? 3 CTQ1 5 CTQ 2 score What are the existing controls and procedures (inspection and test) that prevent eith the cause or the Failure Mode? Should include an SOP number. Measurement.

Input1 input2 ANALYZE Screened List 3 3 4 5 29 34 IMPROVE Found Critical X’s Step1:Process mapping a) Form team using subject matter experts and process owners b) Define the current process steps and input (x’s) c) Identify which process steps affect each CTQ d) Identify the characteristic of each process input Step2: C&E Matrix Step3:FMEA (Cause & Effect Matrix) a) List the key inputs which a) List the controllable and Rank high in the C&E critical inputs vertically in matrix in the input coulumn the C&E matrix.step methodology Guide posts Define Measures Analyze Improve Control DI R E C TI O N Initiate.scale processes TOOLS • MGP • Customers research • QFD • Benchmarking • FMEA / error proofing • Process simulation • Design scorecards TRANS PORT • Project management 8 .step methodology Guide posts DI R E C TI O N Define Measures Analyze Improve Control What are the customer’s needs & key processes ? What is the frequency of defects ? When and where do defects occur ? How can we fix the process ? How can we ensure process remains fixed ? • Gage R & R • Process Capability Improvement • Historical DOE • Full factorial DOE • Fractional Factorial DOE Control • Mistake proofing • X-bar & R chart • I & MR chart • p .10 4-8 3-6 All X’s Process Step/Input Potential Failure Mode Current Controls Imp. and plan the project Understanding customer needs and specify CTQs Develop design concepts and high level design Develop detailed design and control / test plan Test design and implement full . Rating 3 CTQ1 5 CTQ 2 score MEASURE • C&E Matrix • FMEAs • M lti V i Studies Multi-Vari St di • Design of Experiments (DOE) 1st “Hit List” What is the In what ways does y g process step/ the Key Input go Input under wrong? investigation? Step/Input What causes the Key g g Input to go wrong? What are the existing controls and procedures (inspection and test) that prevent eith the cause or the Failure Mode? Should include an SOP number.3/8/2011 1 Input1 input2 2 Input1 input2 3 FMEA Potential Failure Effects What is the impact on the Key Output y Variables (Customer Requirements) or internal requirements? S E V How Severe is the t effect to the Potential Causes O C C How often does cause c or FM oc ccur? 1 Process Mapping 3 Input1 CTQ1 2 input2 CTQ2 C&E Matrix (Cause & Effect) D R E P T N How well can you n The Funneling Effect • Process Maps 30+ Inputs 10 . b) List the CTQ’S b) Work through FMEA with team horizontally c) Use the same team to corelate and weigh the impact of each input to each CTQ CONTROL • Control Plans Controlling Critical X’s Critical Input Variables SIX SIGMA METHODOLOGIES : DMAIC Process Improvement Tools Measurement Analysis • Pareto Charts • Histogram • Scatter Diagram • Run Chart • FMEA • t-test • Test for equal variances • ANOVA • Chi-square • 2-proportions • Regression • Project Charter • Process Mapping • Cause & Effect diagram • Descriptive statistics The 5 .Chart • c-chart TOOLS Survey interviews inquiries process map Measurement sigma score cost of poor quality Statistical analysis pareto FMEA DOE SOP risk analysis action planning Error proofing process monitoring • Residual Analysis • Solution design matrix • Pilot TRANS PORT SIX SIGMA METHODOLOGIES : DMAIC The 5 . of FMEA.15 8 . scope.