TEXTBOOK THE PROBLEMATIC IN EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH: SOME NOTES summary: the production of academic knowledge in the subject-object

relationship entails understanding not only the role of the educator and the student but also the dimensions interventivas that transversalizam the teaching-learning process through textbooks and other media where the knowledge from the elaborate and re-focus their knowledge subjects. This article can be characterized as a preliminary dialogue with some authors, offering subsidies to our object of study, namely, looks or clues to the understanding of the framework of analysis about the textbook. This work was developed in an exploratory perspective of qualitative character, once, to capture multiple views of selected references about the textbook of history, refers to the relevant inquiries and referrals problematizações derived from the procedural dimension itself to this approach. ...
Prof. master ELicio Gomes Lima . Brasil


The textbook is the main source of information printed and used by most of the teachers and students, especially those who have less access to economic and cultural goods. In this sense, the textbook has a fundamental role in the process of education and literacy in our country, occupying in practice often the role as the main reference for the training and insertion in the world of writing. Despite this high social value, the academic research on textbooks, are recent, only in these last decades, thanks to the contributions of historiography (especially of the so-called New History or Cultural history), which is one of its aspects, have been thought provoking work on this cultural object.
In Brazil, are still missing, able to bring up sources from readings inside which can understand historically the textbook. Mainly there are also few jobs able to show sharper profiles, historically related to the subject Player (LIMA, 2004; ABREU, GALZERANI,

1988, 1999, 1998). In our study, the textbook is focused as a historical document (JACQUES LE GOFF, 1996)-cultural relations product (located in the world of school and also outside it), and at the same time these same relationships, therefore stablishing, the vision that legitimizes reading about their understanding, their scope and impact, cannot be pushed aside objects in your analysis. So, we organize this article in three moments: a) the

textbook: a preliminary reading; b) textbook of history as an object of research and c) to think about the textbook today. It is expected, that this first call can be for a deepening of theme, in view of the wealth of its actuality and necessity of the biggest and best discoveries. The textbook is not a neutral instrument; is the product of a vision of the world, of man, education and school. In this sense, the textbook is not only produced for the world of culture, but also produces, establishing this same world in which refers to the school culture and the culture in General. Therefore, when you take the textbook as an instrument of mediation between the production of pedagogical knowledge, the actions of teachers, and the experiences of students while social subjects, it is essential that seek to understand it more widely, as historically situated. Whereas the sensitivities, the read visions are constructed in sociocultural relations and transform over time (DARNTON, 1992), the textbook has an interpositive character, i.e., all the fellowships were/are affected by social, economic, political and cultural rights, and, at the same time, such an object affects these same conditions. It is essential not to lose sight of the dimensions lattices more widely in this venture, not to conceive the textbooks in a one-dimensional perspective, viewing them as shaped by a single speech. Reading is A sociocultural construction that involves various relationships (CHARTIER, 1996). Therefore, restrict the didactic literature to communication through the printed word, is to consider the existence and textual media diversity and the worst, with the risk to homogenize the possibility of use of materials in the production of school texts. A production that reinforces these observations Unveils some significant settings establishes relationships and comparisons with other works, and also offers some guidelines for conceptualization of the textbook is Batista's work (1999), which among other highlights, talks about the printed texts and textbooks as an object variable and unstable. In this work, the author considers that the textbook and school complex relations with the world of culture and entrecruzamentos also help in mapping of cultural currents, within a given context. After lifting some works that conceptualize and classify textbooks, discusses many of his categories, further defining the focus of such

objects, and provoking a considerable impact on the current reading of traditional studies. It is worth noting that Batista (1999) develops a history textbook from other documentary media, such as manuscripts, bringing up large amount of information about the history of the textbook. The study points to the area of the cultural and social history and reveals a interpretative richness able to relate past and present, cognitive and affective elements of reading, contributing at the same time, to rebuild the dimension of experiences from readers on a school space. A score important highlighted is that in the last years of this decade, there has been a renewal of interest in the field of education, history of education, studies in due, apparently, to studies in the area of Sociology and the history of books and reading (DARNTON 1990; CERTEAU 1990; CHARTIER, 1996; BANDOPADHYAY, 1993). The economic, social and cultural changes in its diverse forms of production are not the concerns of researchers about the textbook. You cannot reference the purpose of textbook from a single disciplinary axes, seen its multidimensionality, even if situated in fields such as literature and philosophy. Meanwhile Bailey (1999) points out that the textbook and the school establish complex correlations with the world of culture; that is, the cultural productions and the social dimension, as well as their determinants cannot be understood separately. Like this:
To the contrary of the widespread idea that the school knowledge, and particularly the textbooks, would consist only in a simplified adaptation, for school purposes, content produced in the field of culture and science, these investigations come evidencing that the origin of these knowledges and objects is more complex (cf., for example, Cherne, 1990 and Bittencourt, 1993) and that it is often to school and his books to assign the source of knowledge and knowledge appropriate for later scholarly and scientific spheres of knowledge (BAILEY, 1999, p. 533).

And continues on a wider domain of Psychology field, that relate the textbooks to school to classical knowledge (institutional culture) and, at the same time, social practices and policies that involve the production of this cultural object. In this sense, demonstrates that the textbook has an important role in the history of Brazilian culture, literacy practices, the field of editorial production and their relationships with the sociocultural and economic processes.

Hence be relevant to note that the textbook is an object variable and unstable, there is no way to put aside the constraints reflected prays for ideologies, but by the market, but by legal guidelines or even by editors. Highlights Bailey (1999) that the term "textbook" is used-so little appropriate – to cover a very varied range of printed carrier objects circulating in school. Indeed, the book is just one of many media texts present in the classrooms and several didactic collections other than the shapes take on a textbook. In addition, historical research about the textbook has shown the fundamental role played by the bracket of the texts also in the definition of read modes and to relate the texts[1]. At the same time, there has also been, historically, competition between the brackets on the movement of a text, with both printed as with the texts that link Visual images and sounds, and, yet, with the manuscript texts; However, textual culture has prevailed as a form of printed homogeneous transmission of texts. This culture is reinforced by those who conceive, plan and establish the purposes of printed textbooks (publishers, State), defining the printed support as textbook. Among those who advocate the inclusion in the category of textbooks, a set of texts predating the invention of the printing press, Magda Soares, for example, stating that the textbook would have been a Greek creation and that the work "elements of geometry" Euclid would have circulated since the 2nd century BC 300, as school text. In relation to the history of education-institutionalized in Brazil Colony school the Jesuits used manuscripts (Catechisms) as teaching material. Still, throughout the 19th century, for example, much of the material used for teaching in Brazil was composed of manuscripts, many of them the notary documents or personal letters. In this sense, the term printed cannot designate and cover all the dimensions of the set of texts circulating in the interior of the school – there are a multitude of media in the textual world. The printed textbook-like material form tries to establish itself as the paradigmatic reading, as part of the construction of national identity and as a vehicle of literacy, literacy and the dissemination of knowledge. Is the idea of the Gutenberg press as founder of modernity, the invention of new practices of readings and new content (CHARTIER, 1996), which imposes, in turn, a text template, book and read.

These are those texts and printed that, since the process of your conception, are raised for school purposes. As texts and printed, however, can win ' autonomy ' in multiple forms of readings and construction of senses by subject readers. It is for this reason that authors like Chopin (1992) and Bittencourt (1993), lean to assume that the book or the printed textbook is a phenomenon directly articulated to the origin and expansion of modern school institution, based on simultaneous education and pursuit of universalization of literacy and schooling. Second Bittencourt (1993, p. 25), in the 19th century this genre of printed in Brazil was intended, as a priority, the teacher, and ensure the domain of basic content to be transmitted to students and "[...] ensure the desired ideology by the education system ". Only in the course of the same century, such printed passed also being directly from use of the students, which became the privileged recipients of the textbook, while printed organized for teaching. However, these books addressed to pupils should be used with the mediation of teachers. In this way, the textbook is characterized as an instrument of learning, directed primarily to assist in student learning and at the same time for the teacher to organize and prepare their classes. In the years 1960 and 1970, due to the range of measures that military governments put in place, following the structural modernization process of Brazil, the textbook goes through numerous transformations: changes in the physical form of his supporters (including the incorporation of greater number of visuals, presented with higher quality graphics and colour), changes in the modes of reading and use (the manuals shall fulfil the functions of a compendium and a sketchbook exercises, assuming the voice of the teacher, and, thus, producing for the teacher a subordinate place and dependent on the teaching process); changes in design and editorial production of the book (with the strengthening of the institutions linked to the printed book: publishers, trade unions, associations); changes in the lifetime of the textbook (which becomes "consumable"). In a contradictory move, the modernized production of comics industry was not accompanied by investments in modernisation to the consumer market. In this way, strengthened the bonds of dependency on the comics industry in relation to the school and the educational sector. The creation of the COLTED (National Commission of technical book and didactic), by the military regime, is an example of an initiative that

narrowed even more such dependency ties-such organ, responsible for carrying out the National Program of Textbook, (PNLD) is to purchase books directly from publishers, determining conceptual characteristics, pedagogical and ideological requirements. It is in this period (1970) that the Brazil, packed by a set of modifications in the educational field, restructures its education system, expanding significantly the number of public schools and the expansion of enrollment. At the same time, to keep up with the expansion of the public school system there is a recruitment of teachers from predominantly intermediate and fractions of the middle classes, being largely composed of women. The numerical expansion, feminization, the incorporation of professionals trained not through via access to teaching were institutionalized factors that indicated a subprofissionalização process and proletarianization of the teaching occupation. This new teacher is that, according to the editors, are to be found the justifications for the didactic production that emerges in the period. This means, according to Batista (1999) which is around a set of socio-political-educational situations, which are incorporated the features of textbooks, in a relationship of conflict, dispute, that links different values, ideologies, cultures. This sociocultural object constructs in different modes, bypassing the conceptualization of textbook of MEC (printed by the Government of Fernando Henrique Cardoso, in 1996, through the PNLD), or even other restricted concepts, such as printed book for the development of the teaching process, or cultural goods, or, as ideological instrument in the service of the ruling power (GALZERANI, 1998; LIMA, 2004) In this sense, the textbook is not only produced for the world of culture, but also establishes this same world at the same time that reflects the constraints and the desired citizen profile. The supposed cultural neutrality of the textbook, its apparent exploitation, are guarantees of their social effectiveness; Therefore, it can be put at the service of all causes. Indeed, the textbook lends itself to cultural rituals of sociability and as such is in hand, historically constructed, and always open the ressignificações (LIMA, 2004).

THE TEXTBOOK OF HISTORY AS SEARCH OBJECT Especially from the Decade of 1970, the iconographic images acquire greater space and indoor use of textbooks in Brazil, being presented in colors to stimulate the interest and attention of students. We believe that the squares are of great importance for the construction of the sense of a text (the image complements the text), since they are integrated into written text in which attach themselves, but also the entire textbook that collaborate to compose the historic itinerary of an era for being linked to the historical-social context; There are important tools while reading objects of students. Without these relations the iconographic images empty sure felt as educational element, and even as a historical document, acting as mere objects of adornment or "illustration" within the text and, therefore, not contributing to the enrichment and deepening of proposed content and the more damaging: hindering understanding of students in an objective perspective. The same application can be used to corroborate not didactic works and times of authorships iconographic images make the reader understanding of these productions, pinning them as loose objects, hipsters of context and didactic text itself in its entirety. When the researcher (2004) developed a research about reading practices (mediated by Visual images) put into action by students of a 5th grade, 6th grade, today a public school in São Paulo, it was evident that an iconography used to enrich certain ideology can "mask" or to put it another way, telling a story that should be when looking at ideological context applies. The path for the development of research gave the intentional choice of iconographic images from textbooks of history of indigenous and black people, because they understand that such representations could express dominance and oppression, and at the same time conflicts and contradictions historically given. The choice of the 5th series as enclosing element of choice of textbooks of history, due mainly to the fact that, in this series the children:

Initiate a new phase of the transition, that is, the period of formal operations according to the constructivist design.


Faced with different opinions about certain subjects, which stimulate the ability to discuss problems (essays to heteronômicas elaborations).


Are challenged to develop activities that require higher levels of difficulties and by presenting potential to establish more complex relations with the sociopolitical practices interactively In this way, we tried to stand out and admire the students as producers of

knowledge and that to join the 5th series, their chances of extending their worldviews are extended and shared with a larger number of subject teachers in the classroom. Therefore, from this reference, there was the concern to list some topics covered by textbooks, which can be understood in a relationship with the broader socio-cultural context, pointing their Multiplicities, diversities, resistors, ruptures, contradictions and power relations as expressions of the wars of historically given symbols. To account for this task, we seek to articulate the research set around the following conceptual axes: 1. Knowledge production historical school 2. Social relations of dominations and resistances. 3. Power relations 4. Experiences. Within this perspective, the content of history textbooks, analyzed (table below) began to acquire importance to the search scope and highlighted to be explained from its contradictions and relations of power, perceived inside of it, both by educating the educator, through a reflection which might lead to transformative actions and the production of historical knowledge. Table 1: Didactic Collection of PNLD/2002
COLLECTION History and integrated life Brazil: A History under construction History of Brazil-General History History Past Present History – Revised Edition To understand the story Know and make history Work and civilization – A Global History AUTHOR'S NAME Cladino Pilleti, Nelson Piletti Sindri Macedo, Walter Wanderley José de Oliveira PUBLISHER Attica, 2002 Publisher of Brazil, 1996

Joaci Parthiban, Marco Antonio Villa Eliane Frossard Bittencourt Couto, Sonia Irene Silva de Freitas José Roberto Martins Ferreira Renato Mashinkila Gilberto Vieira Chowdhury Maria Fernanda Marques Antunes, Ricardo de Albuquerque Maranhão Fleet

Modern, 1997 Sami/current, 1997 FTD, 1997 Publisher of Brazil, 1997 Saraiva, 1999 Modern, 1999

Source: Lima (2004, organized by the author).

The initial readings of object, specified by the readings from Iconographies, allowed the perception that, students ressignificam the iconographic readings, when the educator is through questions, taunts and the lifting of the possibilities of the readings of the objects. Given the definition of the article does not intend to present here all discussions developed in research (2004). Believes that it is appropriate, for this moment to stand out some effervescences to think about the contemporary textbook that topic, will be treated below.


Authors such as e. p. Thompson (1981), Certeau (1994), among other focus on the subject historically located, engage in the construction of their own stories, interact with the multiple dimensions of social, a reflective and active attitude to understand, modify or save the conditions in which they live. These authors contend that the production of knowledge is the result of a historical process and socio-cultural, where the subjects are capable of producing value judgments, in line with its experiences, in space and time in which they are inserted. This vision helps with a lot of property, to enlighten us about the historic character of the school and its social commitment. Therefore, it became apparent to us that the knowledge of educating in the teaching-learning process is constituted from an extensive network of interrelation; that is, the family, the school, the social group, the religion, the mass media Act, simultaneously, along the schooling. Thus, the worldviews of students are addressed with

encountered/face/systematized culture that is part of the school curriculum. In this sense, it is evident that the school is not merely transmitting values come solely from the ruling class (elite), but an area permeated by convergences/divergences/oppositions, also between the cultural values (one can speak in a Dialogic Vox between school culture and worldviews of educator/student at a given time and place). The student does not arrive to the classroom as an empty container and/or passive agent, but brings with it a whole reading world in which is inserted, in interrelation with

other experiences, of course this does not except the own vision about class struggle and social division of labor, but this effervescence is that one realizes that the diversity of perspectives has contributed to better understanding of historical contextsEducational, informational, ideological, or not. Soon, the world read above the reading of the word. So in the didactic text information there are multiple possibilities of understanding, namely, the social context allows the subject (educating) exchanges, legitimation, ownership and the creation of "new" directions for the text in question and the educator the possibility, as mediator of the possible readings from Iconographies inquire about its validity in real reading. Research on textbook through Iconographies is certainly a laughedinstrument in history content. In research carried out by Lima (2004) conlui that the reproductions of paintings and photographic images, contributed in some way (even partially) to the understanding of the historical past, of political, social and economic interests involving the temporal context of the production of these works and the continuities and discontinuities that present themselves as a legacy of this historical process, which involves the genesis of the formation of the "people" of Brazil. Such images are representations of a given "reality" from worldviews of subjects who moved in power relations, either for the preservation and maintenance of power, is to show the contradictions and to cause disruption in the power structure established. This brushed content paints, photographs, diagrams and representations appear as recurring objects in construction process of ressignification knowledge. This is the heart not only of history textbook research, but while object itself in the history of education, thus enriching the clues for the teaching of history can be outlined with other possibilities, i.e. using the cultural manifestations as the Iconographies for the socialization of the history of a people. Therefore, this article can become introductory instrument to understand one of the multiple faces of the history textbook and the awareness that should the professor of history develop in the process of teaching.

FINAL CONSIDERATIONS The didactic text is not the expression of the thought of a single author, which in turn transmits closed values, which shape the "realities" of pupils from the printed information, contained in the textbooks. In this sense, many agents contribute and participate in the formation of sense of didactic text opening possibilities to multiple readings, readings and various uses of the contents of the same. Is this multidimensionality of didactic text that enables differences, the multiplicity of meanings, where the reader (student) can act as active subject within a given community, dialogue and confronting the socially established values. We take also into consideration the role of educator in this context, as an agent that shares the possibilities of construction of knowledge from school and experiences of everyday social practices in the cultural universe of students, perceived or explained in the classroom. Hence, the need for the commitment of the educator with society, the community, with the culture of which it is part, thus opening possibilities to a didactic text, PROBLEMATIZING read committed in conquests and transformations of the prevailing social values. In this way, multiple reads practices open to the subject teaching text reader, i.e. such readings allow the explanation of several voices present inside the text.

REFERENCES ABREU, m. read, history and history of reading. Campinas Sao Paulo: market of letters, 1999. BAILEY, a. a. g. an object variable and unstable: printed Texts and textbooks. In ABREU, m. (ED). Reading, history and history of reading.-Campinas, São Paulo: market of letters, 1999. BANDI, c. m. f. the textbook and historical knowledge: a history of the school know. (doctoral thesis) São Paulo: FFLCH/USP, 1993. CERTEAU, m. de. The practice of everyday life: the art of making. 5th ed. Petrópolis, RJ: Vozes, 1990. CERTEAU, m. de. The practice of everyday life: art of making. 5th ed. Petrópolis, RJ: Vozes, 1994. CHARTIER, R. Reading practices. São Paulo: Liberdade, 2001. CHOPIN, a. Le Manuel Scolaire in cent references. Paris: Institut National de Recherche Pédagogique, 1992. DARNTON, Robert. The kiss of Lamourette. São Paulo. Companhia das Letras, 1992. GALZERANI, m. c. b. Beautiful lies? The ideology in studies on the textbook. In PINSKY, J. (Ed). The teaching of history and the creation of the fact. São Paulo: context, 1988. GALZERANI, m. c. b. the almanack, the locomotive of the modern city. Campinas, the 1870 and 1880. doctoral thesis. Dept. of history, IFCH, UNICAMP. Campinas Sao Paulo: 1998. HOBSBAWM, e. age of Extremes. 2nd ed. 25th reprint. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2003. LE GOFF, j. history and memory. 4th ed. Campinas, SP, Brasil: Editora, UNICAMP, 1996. LIMA, Elicio Gomes. the multiple readings and worldviews in the textbooks of history. Dissertation (Master). Campinas/SP: Faculty of education, University of Campinas, 2004. MANGUEL. A. A history of reading. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 1997. MARTINS, w. the written word. History of the book, the press and the library. São Paulo: Ática, 1996. McMURTRIE, d. c. the book. 3rd ed. Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, Lisbon, 1997. PFROMM NETO. S.; ROSAMILHA, N.; DIB, C.Z. the book on education. Rio de Janeiro: Primor, Inl. 1974. ENDNOTES:


For a more in-depth about the texts and defining ways to read and to relate the texts see Chartier (2001); Martins (1996); Pfromm Neto, Rosamilha, Dib (1974); Manguel (1997) and McMurtrie (1997).

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