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1.Concept of institution: Institutions are social mechanisms that control the functioning of society and, consequently, of individuals, are of social interest, since they reflect quantitative and qualitative experiences of socio-economic processes. Organized under the scope of rules and standards, aim to ordering of interactions between individuals and between them and their respective organizational forms. (The system controls the body) FURUBOTN and RICHTER (2000) see the institutions as a well-defined set of rules, formal or informal, including arrangements that allow for its application. The restrictions would have the purpose of forwarding the behaviour of individuals for any particular direction. The institutional environment and the institutions themselves have direct influence on the configuration of the profile of organizations. Concept of organization: "Organization is a planned system of cooperative effort in which each participant has a definite role to play and responsibilities and tasks to perform". (CURY, 2000, p. 116). We can define any organization as a set of two or more people who perform tasks, whether in group or individually, but in a coordinated and controlled, acting in a given context or environment, in order to achieve a predetermined goal through the effective use of various means and resources available, led by someone with the functions of planning, organizing, leading and controlling. This definition of organization should retain some concepts fundamental to its proper understanding, in particular: 1. Coordinated Action: so that there is an organization, not just that a set of people to act with a view to achieving a common goal; it is also necessary that these people organize, IE, that develop their activities in a coordinated and controlled to achieve certain results. This coordination and control is usually performed by a leader. 2. Features: represent all the means placed at the disposal of the Organization and necessary for carrying out their activities. In this resources includes human resources, technological and material resources, financial resources, and credibility in the public attended. 3. Use effective: the organizational resources described in point above are, by definition, scarce, hence their allocation should be carried out effectively in such a way that the probability of attaining predefined objectives is the largest possible. It is here that the main justification for the need of management in organizations. 4. Objectives: Represent the intended targets or organizational results and get in the future or, in other words, the purpose that justifies all the activity or even the very existence of the organization. Of course, all organizations must determine not only their goals, but also define the measures and forms of action and resource allocation that if they think most appropriate for achieving them. 5. context: Represents all the external surroundings of the organization that directly or indirectly influences their actions and their performance. This external environment includes the economic, technological, socio-cultural, political, legal, and even a set of elements that Act closer and directly with the Organization, such as customers, suppliers, competitors, trade unions, the media, among others.
2. Mission, vision and goals:
1. "the mission is A magnanimous path that we have chosen to tread, the vision is the goal of acquiring the desired fruits that are the goals". 2. the mission is a broad statement of purpose that individualizes and lasting organization and distinguishes imposing the delimitation of their activities within the space you want to occupy in relation to the purposes. Vision is the desire, what one wants to achieve. Goals is the result of the final product obtained through targets which are the steps. 3. the need for a VISION for the Organization: The vision must show where they want to reach and what resources will be needed to achieve this goal. So she will be able to motivate attitudes and behaviors, give a direction to school and evaluate progress, comparing results (relationship between means and ends). Such a sight you want people rethink and re-examine the question who they are and for that are here. A vision is, in part, rational (product analysis) and, in part, emotional (product of imagination, intuition and values); involves strategy and performance for the organization. To understand an institutional vision, people make choices and adopt attitudes and behaviors more reasonable in relation to the environment and social relations imposed. How to make "turn theory into practice" After establishing and enunciate a vision, particularly of school organization, and need to take ownership of this vision, believe in it, externá it through the behavior and choices and be guided by it every day, so that they can do a self-assessment of institutional vision. And thus, becomes the theory into practice. Even though shared by all or many, you need determination to keep the vision, because there will always be circumstances around that attempted to overshadow it. However, our vision, especially when it involves how we see ourselves, always need to be protected against the natural desire to escape to a comfortable zone of comfort. 4. WHAT IS ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT? The organizational development aims to clear perception of what is taking place in the Organization's internal and external environments, the analysis and decision of what needs to be changed and the intervention needed to cause the change, making the Organization more effective, perfectly adaptable to changes and reconciling fundamental human needs with the goals and objectives of the Organization, which requires the active participationOpen, all elements that will be subject to your process and, most of all, a deep respect for the human person.
Title II. PEOPLE MANAGEMENT AND SUBJECTIVITY
The Manager should always seek to balance the good relationship between the team and its employees and the interests of the institution so that it can be reciprocal satisfaction. It is essential a job (communication, interaction) to educate everyone of the importance and impact of the behavior and attitudes of people to build a healthy work environment and at the same time seek to achieve the goals and desired outcomes, demonstrating, through exhibitions, theoretical and practical activities, the performance in the pursuit of a common goal the institution and the person. Therefore, it is up to the managers be aware that managing people is not only by laws, rules, bylaws, or by the techniques, methods and rational instruments, control and evaluation. To realise this, the Manager must understand that managing people is to understand that man is a being with desires, needs, ambitions, drive, personal expectations and professional, is a be subjectivity and communicates through words and behaviors which they express adhesion or resistance to an institutional project. Thus, the Manager must have in mind that man is a being endowed with reason and emotion (objectivity and subjectivity) and that brings in his career experiences through your social life, professional, religious and mental, among others.The understanding of individual differences, their potential, their possibilities,beliefs and values can be shared on the cultural dimension that will build another historical experience personal and collective in organizational groups. The Manager to have a vision, or holistic design on people management provides to members of your team working good organizational, environmental conditions and to develop their work in a stimulating and healthy. This way, you will be able to prevail on mutual reconciliation of personal and organizational goals. Therefore, people who are part of the organizational process need to be managed so that the Manager look under all circumstances to know their potential, their expectations, their skills, so that the same, when inserted on a project, to contribute in a more effective, efficient and committed, or whether you can act with ethics and competence. Exercise leadership in managing personal relations process is to have the understanding of organizational culture, strategic planning and align your team according to the skills of each one to achieve ' the expected results. This makes each element co-participativo of the process, is to make each feel that is part of the Organization and not to the part. We must reconcile the organizational goals with the individual, and to know at what time the intersection occurs, the common point between the parties involved. The Manager should keep in mind that people make processes. They are the ones who through their work that effectively contribute to the Organization and with the team.
Title III. UNDERSTAND THE CULTURAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF THE SCHOOL
The educational management passes by two aspects: the) Educational System -connected to the social function of the school, in the way it produces, disseminates and socialize the knowledge-national public policies. b) school system -covering the administrative processes, the pedagogical school community participation in educational projects of schools in their localities. (Municipalities and States) Educational Management: As administrative practice is recent incorporates the ideals of new public policies to replace the term school administration. The fact that the educational management idea develops that is associated with a context of other ideas like, for example, Processing and citizenship. This allows management thinking towards a conscious articulation between actions that take place in the daily life of the school and its political significance and social-educational system. School management: Understand the operation of the school from a team manager: Director of school, pedagogical coordinator, educational and Pedagogical Advisor, Advisor, educational and vocational supervisor classroom Manager as is designed professor nowadays and all employees that exist within a school. All these professionals must be involved to make a unit of action in school, focused on building excellence, around your goals-quality of education. · School-organizational culture-school culture · Professional identity-relationships-subjectivity · Pedagogical management-teaching-learning process
SCHOOL AND STANDARDISATION.
Institutions are organizations or social mechanisms that control the functioning of society and, consequently, of individuals, are of social interest, since they reflect quantitative and qualitative experiences of socio-economic processes. Organized under the scope of rules and standards, aim to ordering of interactions between individuals and between them and their respective organizational forms. Examples of institutions:
· · · · ·
The institutions policies include the organs and political parties . The religious institutions have names according to the religion, and can be called from churches, temples, synagogues, mosques, spiritist centres or other denominations. The educational institutions are schools, universities, etc. Scientific institutions Certain mechanisms without a physical basis shall also be considered institutions, such as marriage, social pressure, the language etc.
The organizational culture Organizational culture is the set of habits and beliefs established by standards, values, attitudes and expectations shared by members of the organization. It refers to the system of shared meanings for all members and which distinguishes an organization. Constitute the institutionalized way of thinking and acting that exists in an organization. The essence of the culture of an institution is expressed in their actions and relationships. Organizational culture represents the perceptions of Directors and employees of the Organization and reflects the mentality that prevails in the organization. For this reason, it makes the administration of people. School culture: Is the set of institutionalized aspects that characterize the school as an organization, which includes practices and behaviours, ways of life, customs and rites – the everyday story of school – material objects-making function, use, distribution in space, physical materiality, symbology, introduction, transformation, disappearance-and ways of thinking, well how meanings and ideas shared. Construction and deconstruction of professional identities Identity is the quality of that is identical, similar. You can also use the term associated with the professional issue, as the other possessor of the features that make them recognizable, people who hold the same values, skills, abilities, visions and perspectives on common or similar purposes. Identity is the process of constructing meaning based on a cultural attribute, or even a set of interrelated cultural attributes: · Human identity · National identity · Gender identity · Corporate identity · Professional identity Therefore, the professional identity is one of the aspects of these various identities that has each subject. Factors that permeate the institutions – operating system Components of the organizational culture. v Education system-levels v Objectivity (standards, techniques, rationality) v Subjectivity (individuality/subject) v Intersubjectivity (social relations) v Diversity (gender, racial, cultural, religious, étinico-etc..) v Own/differences (quantitative) v Disciplinary relations/transdisciplinary/Interdisciplinary crossv Community relations-external communities v Working conditions – structural and material
v Relative autonomy v Participative leadership – v Democratic management/management v v Educational management v Integrated curriculum v Pedagogical political project and projects v Continuing education-professional v Citizenship and human development v Institutional assessment v Quality of teaching
Title IV. EFFECTIVENESS OF THE TEACHING AND LEARNING PROCESS
The School Manager performs multiple functions and meets various demands that depend on your action-reflection-action. Must have skills and abilities allowing him to exercise strong leadership to adopt measures leading to the construction of an effective school, based on a culture of Teaching based on ethical principles for a democratic and participatory management. The effectiveness of the teaching and learning process involves ensuring the access of students to school and, above all, its permanence and success in educational process, providing favorable conditions for strengthening their identity as subject knowledge. Some tasks of the School Manager: · Coordinate the development and implementation of pedagogical proposal and its operationalization through lesson plans, articulating the curriculum with the Secretariat guidelines linked; · Encourage the use of technological resources and interactive materials for the enrichment of the school's pedagogical proposal. · Encourage and support the educational projects of the experimental school. · Ensure the achievement of the milestones defined by learning, and cycle through the series, monitoring student progress, identifying the needs for the adoption of measures to remedy the difficulties highlighted. · Ensure compliance with the school calendar, monitoring the practice of teachers (Regents and pedagogical coordinators) and its alignment with the pedagogical proposal, organizing the curriculum in teaching unit. · Accompany meetings of complementary activities-AC, evaluating the results of the process of teaching and learning, adopting, when necessary, intervention measures. · Link up with the Regional company departments and sectors of the SMEC in search of pedagogical, technical support-partner-educational and administrative, in order to raise the productivity of teaching and learning. · THEcompanies the frequency and continuous evaluation of the performance of students through the records in class Daily, analyzing, socializing data and adopting measures for correction of deviations. · Ensure compliance with evaluation system established in the School Rules. · Monitor the classroom routine through the actions of the Pedagogical Coordinator.
· Ensure a conducive school environment, establishing favourable conditions for inclusive education productively and citizen. · Identify the threats and weaknesses of school unit from its situational analysis, adopting measures to overcome the difficulties. · Monitor the implementation of the projects in partnership with other institutions, adapting them to the reality of your school
Title V.EDUCATIONAL AND MANAGEMENTLEGISLATION
The Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil of 1988 is the law and the Supreme Court of Brazil, serving as a parameter of validity to all other species regulations, standing at the top of the pyramid. It is the seventh to govern Brazil since its independence. Therefore, it is the set of laws, rules and regulations of a country that regulates and organizes the functioning of the State. Is the maximum law that limited powers and defines the rights and duties of citizens. No other country can act in conflict with the Constitution. The Constitution of 1988 is divided into 10 titles (the preamble does not count as title). The themes of each title are: Preamble-introduces the constitutional text. According to the majority, the doctrine preamble does not have the force of law. 1. Fundamental Principles -Announces under what principles will be directed to the Federative Republic of Brazil. 2. Individual rights and guarantees -sets forth a series of individual rights and guarantees, collective, social, and political. Ali uploaded guarantees (many of them non-existent in the previous Constitutions) represented a milestone in Brazilian history. 3. State Organization -sets the Federal Pact, tacking the assignments of each entity of the Federation (the Union, States, Federal District and Municipalities). Also defines exceptional situations of intervention in the federative entities, and concern about public administration and public servers. 4. Organisation of powers -defines the Organization and duties of each power (Executive, Legislature and Judiciary), as well as their agents involved. Also defines the legislative processes (including to amend the Constitution). 5. Defense of the State and institutions -the State of Defense, State of siege, of the Armed Forces and the Police. 6. Taxation and budget-sets limitations on the power to tax the State organizes the tax system and details the types of taxes and who should charge them. This is the breakdown of revenue and of standards for the preparation of public budget. 7. The financial and economic order-regulates the economic activity and also any State intervention in the economy. Talks still on the standards of urban policy, agricultural policy and land policy. 8. Social Order - deals with Social Security (including Social Welfare), Health , Social Assistance , Education, Culture, Sport, means of Social Communication, Science and
Technology, Environment, Family, give special attention to the following segments: children, youth, elderly and indigenous populations. 9. General Provisions -sparse articles on varied themes and that were not entered in other titles in General by dealing with specific subjects. 10. Transitional Provisions -makes the transition between the previous and the new Constitution. Also included are devices of a definite duration. The Federal Constitution of 1988 establishes the right to education as a social right in article 6; specifies the legislative powers in articles 22 and 24, IX, XXIV; devotes an entire part of the title of the Social order to blame the State and family, dealing with quality, access and organize the educational system, linking financing and distributing charges and powers to the Federation ones. In addition to the Bill, the great innovation of the constitutional model of 1988 in relation to the right to education stems from its democratic character, especially by concern in predict instruments geared towards its effectiveness Thus, the sense of the right to education in the Constitution Order 1988 is closely connected to the recognition of the dignity of the human person as the foundation of the Federative Republic of Brazil, as well as with their goals, specifically: the construction of a free society, justice and solidarity, the national development, the eradication of poverty and marginality, reduction of social and regional inequalities and the promotion of the common good. 1. DISTINCTION BETWEEN the SUBJECTIVE and objective: In this context, it is appropriate to draw the distinction between the subjective and objective of fundamental rights. The idea tied to the subjective perspective of fundamental rights, second Sarlet (1998, p. 152), consists of the "possibility that has the holder (...) to pursue the powers, freedoms or even the right of action or negative or positive actions that have been granted by the standard consagradora of the fundamental right in question ". This perspective has as reference the primary function of fundamental rights, consisting in the protection of the individual. The objective perspective implies the recognition of fundamental rights as "value of legal decisions-objective nature of the Constitution, with effectiveness in the entire legal system and that provide guidelines for legislative, judicial bodies and executives" (Sarlet, 1998, p. 140). Transcends the protection of the individual dimension, implying new function to fundamental rights, which covers the protection of the community itself. The objective perspective represents the autonomy of fundamental rights, pointing Sarlet (1998, p. 145/147) as main corollaries to their radiant efficiency, i.e. the ability to serve as guidelines for the understanding of the right infra, constituting mode of interpretation as the Constitution; the horizontal effectiveness, which implies the enforceability of fundamental rights not only against the State, but also in private relations; the connection with the theme of institutional guarantees, translated as the recognition of the relevance of certain public and private institutions, through protection against deleterious intervention of the ordinary
legislator, that notwithstanding, are unable to generate individual rights; creation of a general duty of State protection for the effective protection of fundamental rights in preventive character, both against the State itself, as against private individuals or even other States and, finally, the role of fundamental rights to act as a parameter to the creation and establishment of State organizations. In the context of the information society and globalisation, the fundamental right of the right to education is accentuated. Under the individual perspective, leverages the direct enforceability by the citizen and the goal is the duty of the solid State to promote its effectiveness. If the subjective plan if safeguards the development of the human personality and even the professional qualification, in objective plan the right to education is essential to the development of the country. 2. nature of CONSTITUTIONAL PRINCIPIOLÓGICA on EDUCATION Principles are rules that require something, in the best possible way, in accordance with legal and fácticas possibilities. The principles do not forbid, allow or require something in terms of ' all or nothing '; the optimization of a right or a legal right, having regard to the ' possible ' booking, legal or real. " (Canotilho 1999, p. 1177), States that: Rules, unlike, "are standards that verified certain assumptions, require, prohibit or permit something in definitive terms, without any exception (definitive)". The combination of principles and rules is perceived by Canotilho (1999, p. 1124) who understands the Constitution and open system of rules/principles/procedure. In large part, the rules dealing with education present themselves in the form of principles. And this is justified, because if on the one hand the Constitution to speak social rights imposes obligations to the State, on the other this imposition of obligations to make is not detailed to establish standards of type rule, prescribing objectively conduct and its consequences. Reveals the importance of legislative technique in the construction of constitutional law. The principiológico model, If on the one hand does not exhaust or does not terminate in definitive terms the legal treatment of particular issue, on the other hand gives opening for conflict resolution through the weighting of values. This is the way that presents itself to composition of conflicts in a complex society, where he stresses the role and responsibility of the judiciary. Roughly speaking, the social rights as programmatic standards oriented binding reveal idea of political pressure on the competent organs. As Organization standards, determine the imposition of certain powers to government agencies, but with binding capacity also limited to the political plan. The idea of institutional guarantees is addressed to the respect and the protection of particular social institution, which by its nature is tied to achievement of social, economic and cultural. Finally, the social rights as public subjective rights fruíveis rights stated directly by the citizen and opposable against the State, which has the duty to implement them. 3. area: (articles 205 to 214)
The right to education as a fundamental right Capture the whole dimension of the right to education depends on situate it in the context of social, economic and cultural rights, the so-called rights of 2nd dimension, in the framework of fundamental rights. The term fundamental rights guard synonymy with the expression human rights. Are rights that are its foundation of validity in the preservation of the human condition. Are rights recognised by the legal system as indispensable for the maintenance of the human condition. And education, while the duty of the State and social reality is no exception to the Right of the control. In fact, it is the very Constitution that sets out how the right of all, the duty of the State and of the family, with the triple function of ensuring the full realization of the human being, insert it in the context of the democratic State and qualify you for the world of work. At the same time, education represents both personal development mechanism of the individual, as society itself in which it inserts. Thus, the legal space of education is more accurate and delimited when we view the articles 205 to 214, without forgetting the nexus and links in other articles that characterizes the subjectivity. Therefore, the relevance of the standards articles 205 to 214 is a set of elements capable of minimal mode link to State action with a view to the realization of the right to education. Represent, ultimately, mechanisms capable of generating subjective rights subject to judicial protection. Therefore, this junction (subjective/objective) can be said: it is true that the provisions of articles 205 and 214 are sufficient to ensure a minimum of their enforceability and implementation, which is extremely relevant in particular to guarantee the possibility of judicial protection. In this sense, the Constitution defines the spheres of activity in the Organization of national education, the logic model of the distribution of legislative powersin collaboration as expressed in the constitutional article 211 prediction. By virtue of the definition of national standards (Constitution) organizes the education systems, which is based on the definition of priority areas of concern and action in instituting a system of collaboration between them. In this order of ideas, the municipalities competes Act primarily in elementary school and in the children's education, the Member States and the Distrito Federal in elementary and high school. As the Union's role is not limited only to the Organization of its education system, but especially the function binds a redistributive and supplementary function, with the objective of guaranteeing Equalization of opportunities and minimum standard of quality. Thus, there is a priority area for the Union, because in fact it acting, albeit in character of financial and/or technical support at all levels. Thus, within the framework of the Organization of education systems, the device of article 210 demonstrates both the concern with the role of education in promoting national integration, as with the preservation of regional peculiarities, by predicting the minimum content for
elementary, aiming at common basic training and respect cultural and artistic values, national and regional. In this aspect, even the specificity of indigenous culture is governed, in accordance with paragraph 2. It is worth noting that the prediction of religious education, in accordance with paragraph 1 of article 210, must be coadunada with religious freedom and stripped of linking with any kind of creed or religion. Its role is complementary to the formation of individual, linked to your spiritual development, essential to the full development of the human person sought by article 205. Although not specifically linked to educational systems, deserves reference to prediction of common competence of article 23, V, that determines all loved the Federation provide the means of access to culture, education and science. Once all collective duty determines federative and consequently if reinforces the need for joint and articulations, to optimize results. The initiatives provide the means of access from the maintenance of educational institutions until concrete measures to guarantee conditions of access to school, such as transportation, meals and educational material. Is the join of all these constitutional elements that form the goal of education. That should target the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of human rights and fundamental freedoms and shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all Nations and all racial or religious groups, as well as the development of activities for the maintenance of peace and human dignity. Anyway. Presented the cast of constitutional principles that defines the goal of the educational system, we must always have in mind the values that underlie the education: (articles 205 to 214 and the linked articles)
(a) INDIVIDUAL GUARANTEES: · Equal conditions of access and permanence in school, · Freedom to learn, teach, research and disseminate the knowledge, · Free public education in official establishments, · Compulsory and free elementary education, · Access to higher levels of education according to the merit of each one, · Assistance at the fundamental level with educational material, transportation, food and health; (b) QUALITY ASSURANCE: · Teaching pluralism · Professional enhancement, education · Democratic management of public education, · Standard warranty of quality · General standards, education · Quality assessment and authorization by the Government,
· Integrated teaching systems, (c) NATIONAL EDUCATION PLAN with objectives: · Eradication of illiteracy, · Universalisation of school attendance, · Improving the quality of education, · Training for work, · Humanistic, scientific and technological promotion of the country; (d) ORGANIZATIONAL PRINCIPLES: · Coexistence of private and public education, · Autonomy for universities and educational system · Progressive universalization of secondary education, free · Special education, · Nursery and preschool for children from 0 to 6 years · Night school for the student worker (e) PRIORITY ACTIONS: · Municipalities-elementary and early childhood education · States and Federal District – elementary and high school, · Union – higher education, maintaining the federal network of higher education and technology (f) FINANCING of education. (annual)
· Union 18%, · Member States 25% · Federal District 25% · Municipalities 25%
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