Professional Competencies for Canadian Pharmacy Technicians at Entry to Practice September 2007

Professional Competencies for Canadian Pharmacy Technicians at Entry to Practice

September 2007

1
National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities (NAPRA

Professional Competencies for Canadian Pharmacy Technicians at Entry to Practice September 2007

Contents
Acknowledgements Background A Vision for Pharmacy Practice: A Changing Pharmacy Profession in Canada Vision for Pharmacy Technicians Competencies for Entry Level Pharmacy Technicians Assumptions Professional Competencies for Canadian Pharmacy Technicians at Entry to Practice Purpose of this Document Glossary Competency Categories Competency #1 Legal, Ethical, and Professional Responsibilities Professional Collaboration and Teamwork Drug Distribution: Prescription and Patient Information Drug Distribution: Product Preparation Drug Distribution: Product Release Drug Distribution: System and Inventory Controls Communication and Education Management Knowledge and Skills Quality Assurance Page 3 4 5 5 5 5 6

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Competency #2

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Competency #3

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Competency #4 Competency #5

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Competency #6

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Competency #7 Competency #8 Competency #9

National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities (NAPRA)

ON K1P 5Z9 (613) 569-9658 fax (613) 569-9659 e-mail: info@napra. Suite 750. Ottawa. 220 Laurier Avenue West. 2007. without the written permission of the author. electronic. or used in any information storage and retrieval system. Connie Best Bonnie Bokma Cathy Comeau Deborah Drake Tim Fleming Martha Gibbs Michele Huber Shelly Kasprick Lynda Moleschi Diana Somer Marie-Lyne Theriault Patti White Prince Edward Island Ontario Nova Scotia Alberta Canadian Association of Pharmacy Technicians (CAPT) New Brunswick Saskatchewan Manitoba British Columbia Alberta Quebec Newfoundland Carolyn Bornstein Dale Cooney Doreen Leong Marie Rocchi-Dean David Hill Susan James Sharon Lee Carol O’Byrne John Pugsley Karen Wolfe Canadian Society of Hospital Pharmacists Alberta College of Pharmacists College of Pharmacists of British Columbia Association of Faculties of Pharmacies of Canada Canadian Council for Accreditation of Pharmacy Programs Ontario College of Pharmacists Canadian Association of Pharmacy Technician Educators Pharmacy Examining Board of Canada Pharmacy Examining Board of Canada National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities ©National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities. All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced in any form by any photographic. The National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities (NAPRA).Professional Competencies for Canadian Pharmacy Technicians at Entry to Practice September 2007 Acknowledgements NAPRA thanks the working group participants and stakeholders for their time and efforts in the revision of these competencies.ca 3 National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities (NAPRA) . mechanical or other means.

skills. 4 National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities (NAPRA) . each of these provinces developed an examination process. and promoting the harmonization of legislation and standards These national competencies for pharmacy technicians were developed in 2007 as a response to changing pharmacist and technician roles and greater complexity in the pharmacy practice environment. the examinations required to enter the profession. establishing pharmacy technician qualifications at a national level. The Ontario College of Pharmacists (2003) and the Canadian Association of Pharmacy Technicians. and codes of conduct. however.Professional Competencies for Canadian Pharmacy Technicians at Entry to Practice September 2007 Background The National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities (NAPRA) was formed in February 1995 as an umbrella organization of Canada’s provincial pharmacy regulatory bodies. thus. The competencies comply with national and provincial/territorial legislation and may assist in developing or revising legislation and regulatory authorities’ standards. specifies that any worker qualified for an occupation in one province or territory should be granted access to employment in that occupation in any other province or territory in Canada. Labour Mobility). pharmacy technicians have supported the pharmacist role. Northwest Territories. and Nunavut) revised these competencies during a workshop hosted by NAPRA in June 2007 and by electronic consultation. bylaws. developed by pharmacy technicians and other stakeholders. The mission of our association is to facilitate the activities of provincial pharmacy regulatory authorities in their service of public interest. Representatives of the pharmacy profession from all Canadian jurisdictions (except the Yukon. serving as a national resource centre. These competencies simultaneously frame the requirements for entry into a regulated health profession. and promoting the ability of provinces and territories to meet the terms of the federal Agreement on Internal Trade. both roles need to be expanded. is a critical step in recognizing the increasingly complex knowledge and skills in the pharmacy practice environment. so will pharmacy technicians . Alberta (2004) developed competency profiles to describe the role of pharmacy technicians in their provinces. For the past thirty years. ethics. as pharmacists engage in full utilization of their knowledge. NAPRA accomplishes this by: • • • representing the interests of the member organizations. and abilities. NAPRA believes that this national competency profile. and. and the standards for program accreditation. The federal Agreement on Internal Trade (Chapter Seven.

and other health care providers. outcomes. security. caregivers. Vision for Pharmacy Technicians As reflected in the competencies for entry into practice. and use of medications. spending more time managing drug therapy issues and monitoring drug therapy outcomes in collaboration with patients. They will collaborate with pharmacists in the promotion of wellness. and integrity of information and the drug distribution systems. May 25 2007.Professional Competencies for Canadian Pharmacy Technicians at Entry to Practice September 2007 A Vision for Pharmacy Practice A Changing Pharmacy Profession in Canada 1 The demands on the health care system and the changes in the delivery of health care require effective use of human resources. Canadian Pharmacists Association. As regulated health professionals. May 25 2007 2 5 National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities (NAPRA) . disease prevention. treatment indication. skills. Canadian Pharmacists Association. “Pharmacists will have prescribing rights. will continue to protect the safety. and of product and drug distribution. disease prevention. individually and in teams. and supporting the autonomy of patients.focused care. physicians. Pharmacists will play an increasingly important role in medication management. Their expertise will focus on the knowledge. regulatory authority in their province or territory. pharmacy technicians will be responsible and accountable to patients through legislation and the standards. and abilities related to technical aspects of prescription and patient information. these competencies describe their primary functions and activities and reflect 1 Adapted from the Blueprint for Pharmacy –Draft for Pharmacy Consultation.focused care and to optimize the safe and effective preparation.)”2 Pharmacists are poised to play a prominent role in health promotion. chronic disease management. when envis ioning pharmacy practice states. and access to relevant patient information through electronic health records (including test results. to provide patientcentred. bylaws. Competencies for Entry Level Pharmacy Technicians Recognizing that pharmacy technicians have varying backgrounds of education and training. greater authority to order tests. The Canadian Pharmacists Association. Blueprint for Pharmacy –Draft for Pharmacy Consultation. Pharmacy technicians will be responsible and accountable for ensuring patient safety and for the accuracy and quality of product preparation and release. and chronic disease management. including roles in automated dispensing and computer technologies. Expanding the roles and responsibilities for pharmacy technicians as regulated health care professionals will play an integral part of this more fully realized patient-centred and outcomes-based care. pharmacy technicians will work in collaborative relationships and will be committed to patient-centred. enhancing pharmacy technician practice. distribution. outcomes. Furthermore.

6 National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities (NAPRA) . pharmacy students or interns. skills. abilities. rights. abilities. and attitudes to think critically. have responsibility for patient care and to the circle of care through collaborative relationships with pharmacists. and professional judgment appropriate to the pharmacist role to offer and optimize patient care.long learning. Pharmacy Technicians: 1. take responsibility for their continuing professional development and commit to life. Assumptions Assumptions are crucial overarching concepts that guide the competency development process and must be considered while reading the detailed competencies that follow. specialized knowledge of drug therapy. and others. are accountable for direct patient care knowledge. 4. 3. are health professionals who use their knowledge. 5. are accountable for respecting and supporting the role. and generate professional judgment s appropriate to the pharmacy technician role that optimize patient care. are health professionals who practice within a knowledge-based environment in which they use high. the pharmacy team. and responsibilities of patients.Professional Competencies for Canadian Pharmacy Technicians at Entry to Practice September 2007 the common and essential knowledge. 2007). and professional standards within his/her jurisdiction. health care providers. and attitudes at the point of entry into the profession required to benefit the Canadian public. 3. their decision.making and activities are carried out independent ly or as a team member. have responsibility for patient care through direct assessment and intervention. skills. make decisions. Both these documents are available on the website of the respective organizations. pharmacy technicians. 2. given the situation and the extent of professional judgment required. solve problems. Pharmacists: 1. March 2007) and National Educational Outcomes for Pharmacy Technician Programs in Canada (Canadian Pharmacy Technician Educators Association. recognize and differentiate practice situa tions within the collaborative relationship in which they make decisions and take action independently. 7. 4. and those that are team based in nature. pharmacy technicians. 2. These assumptions have been adopted from two essential documents: Professional Competencies for Canadian Pharmacists at Entry to Practice (NAPRA. practise in accordance with professional registration and licensure.level critical thinking. those that require pharmacist intervention. Second Revision. possess both broad-based and pharmacy specific knowledge 6. and others. mentor pharmacists. Pharmacy technicians work in collaborative relationships in which.

9. practise in accordance with provincial/territorial professional requirements. these competencies do not authorize pharmacists or any other health professionals to immediately delegate responsibility for activities to pharmacy technicians. 2. 8. 6. pharmacy technician students. attitudes. In some jurisdictions. These competencies may assist in the development of transitional “bridging” educational programs to assist those pharmacy technicians who wish to become regulated in meeting the requirements established by their regulatory body.Professional Competencies for Canadian Pharmacy Technicians at Entry to Practice September 2007 5. describe the roles and responsibilities that pharmacy technicians perform. and attitudes related to technical and distributive aspects. As well. In those jurisdictions where this occurs. collaborate with and are an integral part of the health care team. 7 National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities (NAPRA) . • to support the development of a national entry to practice examination for pharmacy technicians (being developed by the Pharmacy Examining Board of Canada). These competencies do not authorize pharmacy technicians to immediately assume expanded roles. and • to support national educational outcomes for pharmacy technician programs (developed by the Canadian Pharmacy Technician Educators Association). act as mentors to pharmacy technicians. these competencies may assist in the development of standards of practice for pharmacy technicians. These competencies have been written assuming pharmacy technicians will be a regulated profession. bylaws. skills. and policies. abilities. standards. 7. and others. Purpose of this Document: This competencies document is a foundational document developed for a number of specific purposes: • to support the development of a national accreditation standard for pharmacy technician educational programs (under the authority of the Canadian Council on Accreditation of Pharmacy Programs). pharmacy technician is a professional title protected by legislation. skill. possess pharmacy specific knowledge. and/or judgments required for competent performance. Professional Competencies for Canadian Pharmacy Technicians at Entry to Practice: 1. take responsibility for their continuing professional development and commit to life.long learning. are performance statements describing significant job related knowledge. abilities.

(Adapted from Professional Competencies for Pharmacists at Entry to Practice. Continuing Professional Developme nt The means by which individual pharmacy technicians maintain and enhance their own competence. National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities. March 2007). abilities. provision of optimal care. • share relevant information. • establish the expectations of each participant.making and problem-solving skills. (Adapted from Professional Competencies for Pharmacists at Entry to Practice. March 2007). critical thinking. professional and collaborative relationships. Collaborative Relationship A relationship between two or more health professionals that is developed to: • facilitate communication. March 2007). • Competency Unit: A major segment of an overall competency that describes a key activity necessary to carry out that competency. National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities. and expected performance of pharmacy technicians entering an expanded and regulated professional role. • Competency Statement: A significant job component requiring the application and integration of relevant knowledge. 8 National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities (NAPRA) . • determine mutual goals of therapy that are acceptable to the patient. National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities. Second Revision. attributes. (Professional Competencies for Pharmacists at Entry to Practice. This profile describes specialized knowledge. Framing this competency profile are patient safety. attitudes. Second Revision. March 2007). units. and/or judgments. decision. (Adapted from Professional Competencies for Pharmacists at Entry to Practice. Competency Profile A summary of the professional role that includes the competency statements. skills. and elements that describe the professional knowledge. • Competency Element: A sub-section of a competency unit describing or detailing the key performance indicators of the expected activity. and attitudes required for competent performance and it reflects the pharmacy technician role in diverse situations and pharmacy practice settings. abilities.Professional Competencies for Canadian Pharmacy Technicians at Entry to Practice September 2007 Glossary Circle of Care All members of the health care team who have direct responsibilities for providing care to an individual. skills. and professional judgement. Second Revision. legislation. National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities. Second Revision.

National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities. the possibility of the patient taking the drug for no medically valid reason. March 2007).Professional Competencies for Canadian Pharmacy Technicians at Entry to Practice September 2007 Critical-Thinking The ability to solve problems and make decisions safely and appropriately. drug interactions. 1996). (Professional Competencies for Pharmacists at Entry to Practice. Drug Therapy Related Problem A drug related problem is an undesirable event experienced by a patient that involves. (Professional Competencies for Pharmacists at Entry to Practice. which would create bias and reduce the visibility of an error. Second Revision. National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities. Such verification can be performed in the presence or absence of the first authorized individual. dispensing. and actions and reflection. (Strand et al. the most critical aspect is to maximize the independence of the doub le check by ensuring that the first authorized individual does not communicate what he or she expects the second authorized individual to see. Drug Distribution System A system designed to facilitate the safe transfer of a medication from the manufacturer to the patient in a manner that preserves both the integrity of the medication and the safety of the patient. These may include allergic reactions. Second Revision. or is suspected to involve drug therapy. context and standards. Steps in the drug distribution system include manufacturing. administration. and returns. experience and observations. resulting in professional judgements that take into account knowledge and information. storage. adverse reactions. March 2007). 2005) The Health Care Professional Professionals within the patient’s circle of care. In either case. and that actually or potentially interferes with desired patient outcomes. problems related to dosage. (adapted from Institute for Safe Medications Practices Canada. Second Revision. procurement. Legislation Statutes and regulations made under those statutes. Independent Double Check An independent double check is a process in which a second authorized individual conducts a verification. lack of adherence to drug therapy. 9 National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities (NAPRA) . or the possibility of the patient requiring drug therapy. National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities. March 2007). (Professional Competencies for Pharmacists at Entry to Practice.

Canadian Pharmacy Technician Educators Association. details of current and past medication regimens. and treatment and monitoring plans. Prescription An order given by a practitioner directing that a stated amount of any drug or mixture of drugs specified therein be dispensed for the person named in the order. (National Educational Outcomes for Pharmacy Technician Programs in Canada. research. (Regulations to the Food and Drug Act. Products may include point-of-care home monitoring. ‘client. or another person who has a close personal relationship with the patient and whom that patient has endorsed for this purpose. 1960.Professional Competencies for Canadian Pharmacy Technicians at Entry to Practice September 2007 Patient 3 Any person or authorized agent who is provided a product and/or service that is within the practice of pharmacy. National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities. 2007. previous adverse effects. past medical history. National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities. National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities. intolerances.) Product Any drug product purchased commercially from a pharmaceutical manufacturer or prepared in a pharmacy. Practice Setting Pharmacy technicians work in a wide variety of practice sites including those in community pharmacy and pharmacies in hospitals or other health care institutions such as a long-term care facility. supplies. 4 10 National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities (NAPRA) . Patient Record4 A record that contains patient demographics. (Adapted from Professional Competencies for Pharmacists at Entry to Practice. A patient record may include information such as name and contact information. and medical equipment. and other patient-specific information regarding care that is needed and/or provided. March 2007). the terms ‘patient record’ and ‘patient profile’ are synonymous and preferred use will depend on the jurisdiction or practice setting. Adapted from Professional Competencies for Pharmacists at Entry to Practice. With experience or further education. December 29.) 3 In this document. and ‘customer’ are synonymous and preferred use will depend on the jurisdiction or practice setting. drug delivery devices. Second Revision. laboratory results. caregiver. (Adapted from Professional Competencies for Pharmacists at Entry to Practice. March 2007). and pharmaceutical and third party insurance corporations. Second Revision. In this document. allergies. consulting and family health centres. immunization records. pharmacy technicians may be employed in education. Second Revision. the terms ‘patient’. March 2007. third party insurance. The authorized agent refers to a family member. profile of medications provided.

National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities. 11 National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities (NAPRA) .Professional Competencies for Canadian Pharmacy Technicians at Entry to Practice September 2007 Program Accreditation A pharmacy technician program that is accredited by the Canadian Council for Accreditation of Pharmacy Programs (CCAPP). Second Revision. National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities March 2007). Second Revision. or Accredited by a body recognized by CCAPP. operational and managerial activities aiming to ensure that all products and services reaching the patient are safe. or Determined to be equivalent to a CCAPP accredited program by the Pharmacy Examining Board of Canada (PEBC). (Professional Competencies for Pharmacists at Entry to Practice. or Determined to be equivalent to a CCAPP accredited program by a Provincial Pharmacy Regulatory Authority. effective and acceptable. March 2007). (Adapted from Professional Competencies for Pharmacists at Entry to Practice. Quality Assurance The technical.

3. Ethical. 3. and Package Products for Release. Competency Unit 4. ethical.2 Process the prescription.Professional Competencies for Canadian Pharmacy Technicians at Entry to Practice September 2007 Competency Categories Legal. gathering. 1.1 Select. and outcomes. Professional Collaboration and Team Work Pharmacy technicians work in collaborative relationships within health care teams to optimize patient safety and improve health outcomes.3 Transfer prescription authorizations to another pharmacy provider at the patient’s request.1 Receive a prescription.3 Demonstrate professionalism. and storing prescription and patient information so that this information can be accessed and retrieved readily. entering.1 Meet legal requirements. Competency Units 1. goals.1 Collaborate to meet patient health care needs. 12 National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities (NAPRA . 1. Competency Unit 2. Prepare. Competency Units 3. Drug Distribution: Product Preparation Pharmacy technicians promote safe and effective drug distribution by preparing products in a manner that ensures patient safety through the accuracy and quality of the product. Drug Distribution: Prescription and Patient Information Pharmacy technicians promote safe and effective drug distribution by receiving. and Professional Responsibilities Pharmacy technicians meet legal. and professional responsibilities in the performance of their practice.2 Uphold and act on ethical principle s.

Drug Distribution: System and Inventory Controls Pharmacy technicians collaborate in the management of systems for drug distribution and inventory control to ensure patient safety and the safety. and educate. Management Knowledge and Skills Pharmacy technicians apply management knowledge. Competency Units 8. in compliance with legislation.1 Establish and maintain effective communications. Competency Units 5. where appropriate. Communication and Education Pharmacy technicians communicate effectively with patients. 5. and procedures.2 Manage inventory. 6. and skills. policies.1 Manage the drug distribution system.1 Ensure accuracy and quality of the final product.3 Manage financial elements associated with the processing of prescriptions. 7. 8.2 Provide information and education. and timeliness of the products. Competency Units 7.2 Collaborate with the pharmacist in the release of the product. accuracy. integrity. 8. and other health care team members.2 Manage administrative activities occurring within their practice environment. 7. 5. Competency Units 6. pharmacists.3 Document all aspects of drug distribution activities. quality.1 Manage operations occurring within their practice environment. 13 National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities (NAPRA) . standards.3 Document. in order to promote and support optimal patient care and well-being.Professional Competencies for Canadian Pharmacy Technicians at Entry to Practice September 2007 Drug Distribution: Product Release Pharmacy technicians promote safe and effective drug distribution by releasing and distributing products in a manner that ensures patient safety. principles.

Competency Units 9.Professional Competencies for Canadian Pharmacy Technicians at Entry to Practice September 2007 Quality Assurance Pharmacy technicians collaborate in developing.2 9. and evaluating quality assurance and risk management policies.3 Participate in quality assurance processes. and activities. 14 National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities (NAPRA) . implementing. Contribute to the creation and maintenance of a safe working environment and conditions. Ensure the safety and integrity of pharmaceutical products.1 9. procedures.

illegal.1. Competency Elements 1. and unsafe practices or situations.2 Uphold and act on ethical principles.3 . report. and professional responsibilities in the performance of their practice. omissions.1.1. advocate on behalf of patients. or unprofessional to the appropriate authorities. Compe tency Unit 1. 15 National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities (NAPRA 1. Competency Elements 1. Question. report. ethical.3 1. i.1 Comply with legal requirements including federal and provincial/territorial legislation. and assist in the resolution of potential and actual unsafe. Ethical. identify. i. iv.1. unethical. unethical.2 1. by.2. respect patients’ rights to make their own choices. and Professional Responsibilities Pharmacy technicians meet legal. document the incident and actions taken.2 1.laws. involve patients in decision making. consider patient-specific circumstances.1 Meet legal requirements. and standards applicable to pharmacy practice.Professional Competencies for Canadian Pharmacy Technicians at Entry to Practice September 2007 Competency #1 Legal. ii.2. identify and report conduct that is illegal. iii. and correct errors. Demonstrate personal and professional integrity. ii. or unprofessional actions or situations. Provide prescription and personal health information upon request and where allowed. Comply with applicable federal and provincial/territorial workplace and occupational health and safety legislation.4 Competency Unit 1. 1. Protect patient confidentiality according to applicable federal and provincial/territorial privacy legislation. iii.1 Be accountable to patients.2. policies.

ii. i. show sensitivity to and respect for the patient’s dignity. Engage in continuing professional development. 1.3. Promote understanding of the pharmacy technician role and its relationship to the roles of other health care providers. iii. and abilities.Professional Competencies for Canadian Pharmacy Technicians at Entry to Practice September 2007 i. and abilities.3. Competency Elements 1. Act as a mentor for pharmacy technician students and other pharmacy technicians.3. values and diversity.9 16 National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities (NAPRA) .5 1. and others. iii. Competency Unit 1.8 1. skills.3. iv. incorporate learning into practice.4 1.2 1. Seek out and use appropriate information and/or resources. self. ii.1 Accept responsibility and accountability for own actions and decisions including the safety of patient.3. Demonstrate a commitment to the health system and the role of the pharmacy technician and other health care professionals within it.3 Demonstrate professionalism. practise within personal limits of knowledge. assess own learning needs.3. maintain appropriate professional boundaries.6 1. seek and evaluate learning opportunities to enhance practice.3. Support and participate in the affairs of organizations working to advance the educational and professional interests of pharmacy technicians. iv.3 1.3. Seek guidance from another pharmacy technician or a pharmacist when uncertain about own knowledge. develop a plan to meet learning needs. accept responsibility and accountability for actions and decisions. skills.

1.1.4. determine if referral is necessary ii. Participate in the circle of care to promote patient health and wellness. collaborate with the pharmacist to identify the most appropriate health care provider for referral.1. i. Participate as a team member in organized initiatives for disaster and emergency preparedness. share relevant information. iii.1. recognize and refer situations requiring the knowledge. Refer patients to other health care professionals when required. Cooperate with and show respect for all members of the inter-professional team. contribute to achieving mutually determined goals and objectives. iii. skills. i. Understand.5 2.1. participate in.1 Collabora te to meet patient health care needs. 2.1. Competency Unit 2. and abilities of a pharmacist to the pharmacist. 2. ii. work with other health care providers to achieve the desired health outcomes. Competency Elements 2. and promote patient safety initiatives. Develop collaborative relationships with pharmacists and other health care professionals. and outcomes. 2. support other professionals and accept their support to optimize health outcomes. iv.Professional Competencies for Canadian Pharmacy Technicians at Entry to Practice September 2007 Competency #2 Professional Collaboration and Team Work Pharmacy technicians work in collaborative relationships within health care teams to optimize patient safety and improve health outcomes. 2.3.2. make expertise available to others. iv.6 17 National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities (NAPRA) .1. goals.

household. Imperial. Competency Elements 3.2 Assess the prescription and determine processing priority.2 3. the authenticity of the prescriber’s signature. i. or prescriber when required. health history. 3. Interpret the prescription including abbreviations.3 Competency Unit 3.1 Create and/or maintain a patient record. and storing prescription and patient information so that this information can be easily accessed and retrieved. gather. verify the integrity of the prescription by inspecting each prescription visually for signs of tampering.2. and apothecary. Competency Unit 3. and third party payment information.2 Process the prescription.1. confirmed allergies. and update patient demographics.2.1 Receive a prescription. Assess prescription for clarity. verify the identity and the legitimacy of the prescriber. entering. and symbols including metric.Professional Competencies for Canadian Pharmacy Technicians at Entry to Practice September 2007 Competency #3 Drug Distribution: Prescription and Patient Information Pharmacy technicians promote safe and effective drug distribution by receiving. medication use. gathering. and the source (origin) of the prescription ii. completeness. Consult with the patient. authenticity.1. confirm identity. i.2.3 3. pharmacist.2. Ensure the prescription information is recorded accurately on patient records. Competency Elements 3.1 3.1. numerals. Perform pharmaceutical calculations.4 18 National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities (NAPRA) . 3. and legal requirements. review.

5 Alert the pharmacist to actual and potential drug therapy related problems. Document transfers. Competency Unit 3.3 Transfer prescription authorizations to another pharmacy provider at patients’ requests.3.2 Determine the legality and appropriateness of the request. 19 National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities (NAPRA) .2.1 3.3.Professional Competencies for Canadian Pharmacy Technicians at Entry to Practice September 2007 3. Competency Elements 3.

document the source. expiration dates. pour. mix. sterility of products. iv.1 Select appropriate products/brands. Competency Unit 4. legislative requirements. Package products to maintain integrity. apply knowledge of brand and generic names. Retrieve.1.1. ii. odour. ensure accuracy of the calculations. use clean technique when compounding non-sterile preparations. storage.2 4.1. label according to legislative requirements and established protocols.1. dosages. for example. bar code. and document. and auxiliary and safety labels. and handling conditions for compounded products. and Package Products for Release. identify an appropriate expiration date. policies. or compound products according to established formulations. use aseptic technique when compounding sterile preparations. weigh. for example. count. Prepare. and procedures. Competency Elements 4. iii.1 Select. ii. safety. colour. etc. reconstitute. and dosage form in product selection. i. stability. i. vi.Professional Competencies for Canadian Pharmacy Technicians at Entry to Practice September 2007 Competency #4 Drug Distribution: Product Preparation Pharmacy technicians promote safe and effective drug distribution by preparing products in a manner that ensures patient safety through the accuracy and quality of the product. 20 National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities (NAPRA) 4. determine the suitable environment/conditions. and lot numbers of each ingredient used. iii. stability. or measure commercially available products.4 . ensure the integrity. Prepare non-sterile and sterile products. select package based on quantity. sterility. and patients’ requirements. batch lot. and where applicable. guidelines. iv. handle hazardous drugs safely. determine drug interchangeability based on formulary policies. i. ii. expiry. and formulation procedures and techniques required to prepare or compound products.3 4. calculate amounts for each ingredient required for the compound. v. by checking expiry dates. equipment. vii.

using an independent double check.1.1 Ensure accuracy and quality of the final product. ii.2.2. Competency Unit 5.3 Competency Unit 5. i. Competency Elements 5.1 Verify the product against the prescription and/or formulation information. document actions taken. or authorized person. 5. • a concern has been recognized by the pharmacy technician. • patients have indicated concerns. 21 National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities (NAPRA) .1 Confirm that the pharmacist has reviewed the prescription and the patient record.2 Collaborate with the pharmacist in the release of the product. health care personnel. Release/distribute the checked pharmaceutical product to the right patient.2. Confirm that patients have been provided consultation with the pharmacist when: • the pharmacist is required to counsel or has indicated a concern. Compe tency Element 5.Professional Competencies for Canadian Pharmacy Technicians at Entry to Practice September 2007 Competency #5 Drug Distribution: Product Release Pharmacy technicians promote safe and effective drug distribution by releasing and distribut ing products in a manner that ensures patient safety. Competency Unit 5.3 Document all aspects of drug distribution activities. facility.2 5.

.1 Employ inventory management systems and strategies that incorporate best practice approaches for ensuring patient safety.3 6. set order limits and calculate replenishment orders.Professional Competencies for Canadian Pharmacy Technicians at Entry to Practice September 2007 Competency #6 Drug Distribution: System and Inventory Controls Pharmacy technicians collaborate in the management of systems for drug distribution and inventory control to ensure patient safety and the safety. etc. Recognize and respond to unusual patterns of drug distribution including diversion. Competency Elements 6. Contribute to the implementation and maintenance of safe and effective systems of drug supply and distribution including unit dose. accuracy. ii.1. automated distribution.1. drug misuse.2. 22 National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities (NAPRA) 6. ensure that receipt and storage of all medications complies with legislative requirements and policies and procedures. 6. compliance packaging. Determine and maintain inventory requirements sufficient for patient safety and efficient operations.1. quality.2 .1 6. receive.2 Recognize and respond to individual patient needs.2. Competency Elements 6. . ward stock. iii.2 Manage inventory. Competency Unit 6. and fluctuations in utilization.1. prepare and place orders for stock and supplies from licensed and legitimate pharmaceutical suppliers/sources and in compliance with relevant legislation. Follow distribution policies and procedures. verify.4 Competency Unit 6. acquire. . i. iv. and timeliness of the product. and store stock and supplies purchased and investigate and resolve discrepancies. integrity.1 Manage the drug distribution system.

and complete recalls of products according to legislation and policies and procedures. vi. Complete all documentation pertaining to inventory management including narcotics. 6. dispose of. targeted-controlled. and remove defective.2. i. identify. and any other products as selected.3 Audit inventory and report any discrepancies. report. and hazardous drugs. controlled. unusable products. special access. investigate.2. or return expired. ii. and report any discrepancies to a pharmacist or appropriate authority. reconcile inventory for narcotic.4 6. identify. 6.5 23 National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities (NAPRA) . targeted-controlled substances. controlled. destroy. and recalled products.Professional Competencies for Canadian Pharmacy Technicians at Entry to Practice September 2007 v. unsafe. investigational. Maintain an inventory information system so that the information can be retrieved easily.2.

1. establish and maintain rapport by using effective communication techniques • verbal. conduct interpersonal interactions and manage conflict. ii. where appropriate. ii. Competency Elements 7. pharmacists. • active listening skills. other health care team members. non-verbal. and educate. iv. demonstrate appropriate verbal. • appropriate language/terminology.3 24 National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities (NAPRA) .2 7. and effective writing skills. iii. non-verbal.1 Establish and maintain effective communications .1. and/or written communications. and listening skills iii. iv. respect and empathy when communicating.Professional Competencies for Canadian Pharmacy Technicians at Entry to Practice September 2007 Competency #7 Communication and Education Pharmacy technicians communicate effectively with patients. demonstrate an understanding of the impact that individual differences have on communication. • adapting communication strategies to meet the needs of diversity. display clear. electronic. demonstrate sensitivity. i. Competency Unit 7. and oral communications throughout the practice setting.1.1 Use effective communication skills. in order to promote and support optimal patient care and well-being. Develop professional relationships with patients and health care professionals. in a professional manner. concise. select appropriate communication techniques for use with patients and other health care professionals. demonstrate comprehension and proficiency in written and verbal English or French. Coordinate written. 7. i.

2. and in a timely manner. 25 National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities (NAPRA) . 7. standards.2. Competency Element 7.3. procedures. and procedures. policies. Assess personal abilities to carry out a particular educational plan.4 Competency Unit 7. and actions accurately. and other non-drug measures.1 7. in compliance with legislation. Coordinate or participate in health promotion and education for individuals and groups. Assist patients to select and use drug administration devices.2 Identify and respond to the learning needs of partic ipants.2 Provide information and education.Professional Competencies for Canadian Pharmacy Technicians at Entry to Practice September 2007 Competency Unit 7. diagnostic and monitoring devices. clearly.3 7.2. home health aids.1 Document information.2.3 Document. Competency Elements 7.

and timemanagement skills. Maintain current written manuals. records.4 26 National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities (NAPRA) .2.Professional Competencies for Canadian Pharmacy Technicians at Entry to Practice September 2007 Competency #8 Management Knowledge and Skills Pharmacy technicians apply management knowledge.3 Competency Unit 8.2 Manage administrative activities occurring within their practice environment.1.1 Manage operations occurring within their practice environment. 8. Competency Unit 8. file and store documents according to legal requirements and in a manner where they can be retrieved readily. Organize. Competency Elements 8.2. policies.1 Manage workflow by using effective prioritization.2.2. and procedures. and skills. 8. Prepare reports and documents. Schedule and perform routine equipment maintenance to ensure proper functioning and accuracy.2 8. Supervise personnel so that accepted standards are met.1.2 8. Competency Elements 8.1 8. principles. organizational.3 Use health information systems.1.

and quantity limits. iii. Resolve billing/adjudication issues encountered in the processing of prescriptions. generic substitutions. generic substitutions. verify.2 Initiate billing.3. assist other health care team members in understanding the limitations and exceptions to an organization’s formulary or of a third-party insurance plan coverage of medications and medication devices. apply knowledge of formularies and their policies. and assist in the adjudication for payment. benefit lists. deductible limits. apply knowledge of formularies and their policies. ii. assist patients in understanding the scope. limitations and exceptions to their third-party insurance plan coverage.Professional Competencies for Canadian Pharmacy Technicians at Entry to Practice September 2007 Competency Unit 8. and quantity limits.3. deductible limits. Competency Elements 8. i. 27 National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities (NAPRA) . benefit lists.3 Manage financial elements associated with the processing of prescriptions.1 8.

and integrity of compounding. iv. Competency Elements 9. Competency Unit 9.2 Competency Unit 9. ii.Professional Competencies for Canadian Pharmacy Technicians at Entry to Practice September 2007 Competency #9 Quality Assurance Pharmacy technicians collaborate in developing. functionality. 28 National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities (NAPRA) . light. Contribute to organized initiatives to evaluate and improve the quality and safety of the medication use within the practice environment and the health care system. implementing. and storage equipment. procedures. dispensing. 9.2 Ensure the safety and integrity of pharmaceutical products. iii. and infection control precautions. report and document problems and resolutions. Store and transport pharmaceutical products under the appropriate conditions including temperature. security and package.3 Contribute to the creation and maintenance of a safe working environment and conditions .2. safety. humidity.1. and activities. and evaluating quality assurance and risk management policies. collaborate to assess and resolve problems. 9. acknowledge the problem.1 Ensure the cleanliness.1. sanitation.1 Participate in quality assurance processes.2. i. packaging. Competency Elements 9.1 Identify and respond to actual or potential problems within the drug distribution system.2 Competency Unit 9. participate in the implementation of measures to prevent occurrences or reoccurrences.

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