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Equations and Inequalities

Many applications of mathematics require the solution of equations or inequalities. Define: An algebraic equation in the variable x is a statement that two algebraic expressions in x are equal. Variable- represent the unknown part of the equation. Domain-the set of numbers for which the algebraic equations are defined. Illustration 1. In the following algebraic equations, let x be a real number. x-7 = 0 (1) x² + 12 = 7x (2) x + 5 = 5 + x (3) x/x = 1 (4) For (1) through (3), the domain is R. Because the left side of (4) is not defined if x=0, the domain of (4) is the set of real numbers except zero (0). Define: Solution is a number that made the statement true when replaced to the variable. Solution set is the set of all solutions. Solving is the process of determining the solution set of the equation. Equivalent equations are equations having the same solution. Example 1: 7x-21 = 0

↔

7x=21

; x=3

Note: Replacing it with successions of equivalent equations to obtain an equivalent equation where the solution set is apparent often solves an equation. Properties of real numbers will be applied to replace an equation with its equivalent equation. Illustration 2. 2x - 3 = x + 4 2x – x = 4 + 3 x=7 It is advisable to always check your solution of the equation to see if errors were made in the arithmetic procedures. You can check your solution by replacing it to the original equation.

For illustration 2, does 2(7) - 3 =7 + 4 ? 14 – 3 = 11 7 + 4 = 11 = 11 = 11 Define: Linear Equation is an equation of the form ax + b = 0; where a and b are real numbers and a ≠ 0. To solve linear equation ax + b = 0 for x, subtract b from both sides then divide both sides by a. ax + b = 0 ax + b – b = 0 – b ax=-b ax = -b a a x = -b a The linear equation ax + b = 0 has only one solution Example 2 Find the solution set for the equation 2 x+3 Solution = 5 2x-4 Observe that when x=-3 0r x = 2, one fraction has zero denominator for the given equation. Therefore –3 and 2 are not in the domain of the variable x. The LCD is (x+3)(2x-4). Multiplying both sides with the LCD, we have (x+3)(2x-4) 2 x+3 = 5(x+3)(2x-4) 2x-4

Does 2 -23 + 3

(2x – 4 ) 2 = 5(x+3) 4x – 8 = 5x + 15 4x – 5x = 15 + 8 -x = 23 x = -23 = 5 ? 2(-23) –4

2 -23 + 3

=

2 = -1 -20 10

5 2(-23) –4

=

5 -50

= -1 10

make a conclusion that answer the question being asked.08x = 1456 – 1200 . form an equation. In solving problems. Express other unknown quantities with the chosen variable. Check: . Determine the known quantities and the unknowns.12x + 1200 . 15. Check The perimeter is 2(14 / 5) + 2 (36 / 5) which is equal to 100 / 5 = 20. 2. how much does he have invested at each rate? Solution Let x = amount invest for 12% 15. This is to verify the accuracy of the equation obtained in step 4 as well as the accuracy of the solution set.Applications of Linear Equations In most applications of algebra. It is better to use only one variable. Read the problem carefully so that you can understand it.08(15. From the information derived in the given processes. problems are stated in words known as word problems. 6. Write numerical facts about the variable.000 – x = 15. there is no specific method to be used. Since variable represent number.12 (6400) + . Let x= width of the rectangle in centimeters 4x – 4 = length of the rectangle in centimeters P = x + 4x – 4 + x + 4x – 4 = 20 = 2x + 8x –8 = 20 → 2x + 8x = 20 + 8 10x = 28 x = 14 / 5.12x . It will be helpful if you can relate the problem with previously solved ones. If his annual income from his investment is $1456. Example 1. 4. Relationship between the known and unknown numbers was given in the problem statement.000 – 6400 = 8600 The man has invested $6400 at 12% and $8600 at 8%. 5.04x= 256 x= 6400 . what are the dimensions? Solution We wish to determine the number of centimeters of each dimensions. Solve the equation that you have formulated. Example 2 A man invested part of $15. 1. If a rectangle has length that is 4 centimeters less than four times width and its perimeter is 20 cm.000 –x) = 1456 . Check your results if the conditions of the stated problem wee satisfied.08(8600) = 768 + 688 = 1456 .000 for 12 percent and the rest for 8 percent. From the derived answer. Do not forget to write the proper unit of your answer. 7.08x = 1456 . its definition should indicate this fact. A variable is used to represent the unknowns in the equation you obtained.12(x) + . 4x-4= 36 / 5 The width of the rectangle is 14 / 5 cm and the length is 36 / 5 cm. Here are some steps in solving problems. 3...000 – x = amount invested for 8% equation: .

14(6) .5m/s –4m/s = 13. find their rate. Problems involving uniform motion use the formula st = d where r is the rate of motion. Solution: let r= rate of the faster racer r-4 = rate of the slower racer 185 s= time for the faster racer to cover the track 240 s= time for the slower racer to cover the same track r(185s)= (r-4)240s 185r = 240r –960 55r=960 r≈17.5 km apart? Solution: Let t= total time elapsed for both train to travel Equation d1 + d2 =2. two trains left the station at the same time moving in opposite direction. Example 5 In a subway station.84 -.5 km apart.0 m/s less than the faster racer. the two trains are 2.. If the rate of the slower racer is 4.Mixture Problem A mixture problem can involve mixing solutions containing different percent of a substance in order to obtain a solution containing a certain percent of the substance.5 m/s r-4≈17. Example 3 Determine how many liters of 12% acid solution should be mix with 15% acid solution to obtain 6 liters of a 14% acid solution.15x = . Solution Let x = volume of 12% acid solution 6 – x = volume of the 15% acid solution .9 x= -.5 m/s for the slower racer. how long will it take before they are 2.03x = . If train A has a speed of 11m/s and train B has a speed of 14m/s.12x + .5 m/s and 13. Another kind is mixing commodities of different values to obtain a specific sum of money. .12x + . Example 4 One racer took 3 min and 5 secs to complete a race and another racers requires 4 minutes to complete the same race. t=time and d=distance traveled.84 -.03 x=2 6 –x =6 –2 = 4 Two liters of 12% acid solution has to be mixed with four liters 15% acid solution.9 .15(6-x) = .5 km = 2500m s1 t + s2 t = 2500m (11m/s)(t) + (14m/s)(t) =2500m (11m/s + 14m/s)(t)=2500m t=2500m / 25m/s t-100s After 100 s.5 m/s The rate of the faster racer is 17.06 / -.

Together. His son continued the work and finished it in 5 days. A piece of steel bar 6 meters long is cut into 2 pieces which are in the ratio of 3 to 5. he got sick. Inah and Norma have 2000 pesos. Exercise Problems 1.5 kilometers apart? 7. Malibago invested 6 million in three ventures. Another runner made it for 10 s. how much money does he lost in one of the investments? 9. Car B is moving in the opposite direction with a velocity of –20m/s. Mang Jose can do a piece of work in 30 days. Donna is ½ the age of Marvin. Example 6 Mario can paint their fence in 12 hours while his brother can do the job in 8 hours. of working hours Fractional part of work done 1 / 12 1/8 x + x =1 → x x 2x + 3x = 1 x / 12 x/8 → 5x = 24 → x = 24 / 5 12 8 24 It will take Mario and Joe 24 / 5 hours to paint the fence together. How much does Norma has? 4. A 100 ml solution contains 5% silver. How many days can his son do the work alone? 10. Four years ago. Car A is moving to the left direction with a velocity of 15 m/s. How old is Donna? 6. The sum of the ages of Marvin and Donna is 38. Seven years ago. Ella is twice as old as Allan. The fastest runner in the Olympics took 8. How long will it take if they worked together? Solution Mario Joe Fractional part Of work done per hour No. Norma’s money is 4 times than Inah. Malibago received 14% return for all the investment. After working for 20 days. If Mr. One third of the money is invested with a return of 12%.Work problem -this are the types of problems that deals with specific job to be accomplished in a certain length of time. Another solution of 150 ml has 18 ml silver. What is the difference in the speed of the two runners? 8. Mr. How long is each? 2. One half of the total investment give a return of 17% and the rest has a return of – 5%. How many ml of the 5% silver solution must be added to the 150 ml solution to produce 200ml 7% silver solution? .95 s to cover the 100 m-dash. Two cars left the same place at the same time. 3. How long will it take before they are 3. Find three consecutive even integers whose sum is 72. Ella is thrice as old as Dindo? 5.

250.000 6x= 3.000. The sum of two consecutive even numbers is 50 . She made a profit of 20% for the first venture but lost 5% for the second venture. Find the numbers. If her income from the two ventures is 12% of the total investment. The first stockholder receives twice as much as the second and the second received thrice as much as the third.000 .000) 0. The smaller of two numbers is 13 less than the larger and their sum is 42.000.000.000 25.000 4.000.2x + (-0.05x = 3.000.000.000.2x – 1.500.05)(25.000 – x = 8.000.25x = 4. The profit in a business are shared among three stockholders.250.5 3.000 0.000 x= 17.000.25x = 3.000 0.000 3x = 1. A lottery winner decided to invest 25 million in two business ventures. how much has she invested in each venture? Solution: Let x= amount invested in the first venture 25. how much does each received? Solution: Let x = share of the third stockholder 3x= share of the second stockholder 6x=share of the first stockholder x+ 3x + 6x = 5.250. If the profit for last year is 5 million.000 – x) = 0.12(25.000 x=500. Soltuion: Let x = smaller number x + 13= larger number x + (x + 13 ) =42 2x + 13 = 42 → x = 29 / 2 or 14.000 + 0. what are the numbers? Solution: Let x = first number X + 2 = second number x + (x + 2) = 50 2x + 2 = 50 2x = 50 – 2 = 48 x=24 x + 2= 26 2.000 10x = 5.000.000 – x = amount invested in the second venture 0.5 2x = 42 – 13 =29 x + 13 = 29 / 2 + 13 = (29 + 26)/ 2 = 55/2 or 22.000 + 1.Solved Problems 1.000.

05x 0. the sum of their ages is 44.12)(15) = (0.05 x= 1.05)(15 + x) 1.05 / 0. The sum of the ages of Gie and Jovy 5 years hence is the sum of the ages of Eden and Jovy 4 years ago. What are their ages now? Solution: 4 years ago now 5 years hence Eden 6x 6x + 4 6x + 4 + 5 Gie 3x 3x + 4 3x + 4 + 5 Jovy x x+4 x+4+5 6x + x = (x + 4 + 5) + (3x + 4 + 5) 7x = 4x + 18 7x – 4x =18 3x = 18 → x=6 4 years ago now Eden 6x = 36 6x + 4 = 40 Gie 3x = 18 3x + 4 = 22 Jovy x =6 x + 4 = 10 5 years hence 6x + 4 + 5 = 45 3x + 4 + 5 = 27 x + 4 + 5 = 15 .05 x=21 6.05x = 1.8 = 0.8 – 0.75 = 1. How much water is needed to dilute a 15 liter of solution that is 12% salt so that a 5% salt solution is obtained? Solution: Let x= amount of water to be added (0. how old are they? Solution: Let x= age of Erick 2x=age of Mark (x + 7 ) + ( 2x + 7) = 44 3x + 14 = 44 3x = 30 x = 10 2x = 20 8. Ann is twice as old as Marie. Eden was 2 times as old as Gie and Gie is thrice as old as Jovy. Seven years hence. Ann was 3 times as old as Marie.75 + 0. How old are they? Solution: Let x = age of Marie 7 years ago 3x= age of Ann 7 years ago x + 7=present age of Marie 2(x+7) = present age of Ann x + 7 = 2(x + 7) x + 7 = 2x + 14 x =7 3x=21 7. Four years ago.5. Mark is twice as old as Erick. Seven years ago.

15(0.5x – 0.9. Find the number of minutes each machine needs to produce 500 pads? Solution: Let x = no.15)(0. it will take 40 minutes to produce 500 pads. In a paper factory..425x = 1200 x ≈ 2823. Solutions for system of equations 1. This compound statement leads to two equations.5 10. Elimination by addition .5x) = 1200 x – 0. If they are used together.075x = 1200 0.5x)= price during the inventory sale x . It was again of by 15% during the inventory sale. how much is the original price of the shoes? Solution: Let x= original price x -. . x + y =5 x – y = -1 This is called a system of equations in two variables.5x – (0. machine A can produce 500 pads of paper in a certain number of minutes and machine Bs turn out the same number of pads for twice the time of machine A. of minutes for machine B to produce 500 pads 1 x + 1 = 1 2x 40 =1 40 → x = 60 2+1 2x 3(40) = 2x Lesson 2 SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES The sum of two numbers is 5 and their difference is negative 1. of minutes for machine A to produce 500 pads 2x = no.5x= price during the Christmas sale x – 0.the variable to be eliminated have unlike signs. A pair of rubber shoes is on 50% off during the Christmas season. If Carlo bought the shoes for 1200 during the inventory sales.

How many hats does Maria made? Solution Let x= no. Maria and Ana made 20 hats.Example 1 3x + y = 7 2x – y = 4 5x = 11 x = 11/5 (1) (2) (3) 3(11/5) + y = 7 33/5 + y = 7 y = 7 – 33/5 y = (35 –33)/5 → y = 2/5 2. By subtraction . When Maria sold 7 hats and Ana sold 3 hats. the a<c Properties of < (i) if a<b then a = c < b + c (ii) a < b then a-c < b-c (iii) a < b and c<0. c are real numbers and if a < b and b<c. the two has equal number of hats. a<b a>b a=b If a. exactly one of the following is true.the variable to be eliminated have like signs. b. The sum of two numbers is 98 and their difference is 38. Example 2 8x – 2y = 15 (1) 4(7/4) – 2y = 8 4x – 2y = 8 (2) 7 –2y =8 4x = 7 (3) -2y = 1 x=7/4 (4) y = -1/2 Application 1. Find the numbers. of hats of Maria y= no. then ac > bc . Solution: Let x=1st number y= 2nd number x + y = 98 x – y = 38 2x = 136 x=68 y=30 2. of hats of Ana x + y = 20 x–7=y–3 x–y=7–3 x–y=4 x + y = 20 x–y=4 2x = 24 x = 12 12 + y = 20 y=8 Lesson 3 Inequalities If a and b are real numbers.

Solution: Let x be the least score in the last exam 87 + 94 +73+x < 85 4 254 + x < 340 x < 340 – 254 x < 86 Lesson 4 Quadratic Equation Quadratic equations are equations of the form ax² + bx + c = o where a. The cost of materials for each chair is 40 pesos and sold it for 200 pesos.Illustration a) If x < y. The word quadratic comes from the word quadrate. What must be the least score for the fourth exam so that the average is not lower than 85. In a particular subject has the following scores for the three long exams. 2. 87. Solution by factoring. Solutions to quadratic equations 1. 94 and 73. b) Because –5 < 3. A company engaged in making and selling armchairs has a weekly overhead of 34. then 4x < 4y. At least how many chairs must be made to guarantee a profit? Solution: Let x= number of chairs to be made 200x = total weekly revenue P= profit P = 200x –(34000 + 40x) → P >0 34000 < 200x – 40x 34000 <160x x > 212. then –5(-4) > 3(-4) Example 1. 2. Find the solution set of the inequality 3x – 8 < 7 Solution: 3x – 8 < 7 → 3x < 7 + 8 →3x < 15 →x < 5 Example 2. meaning square or rectangle. Solution by quadratic formula . -5 < 3.000 a week for operational cost. b and c are constants and a≠0. For instance. 3.5 Atleast 213 armchairs must be made weekly. Find the solution set of the inequality 3 < 4x + 7 ≤ 15 Solution: 3 < 4x + 7 → 4x + 7 ≤ 15 3 – 7 < 4x 4x ≤ 15 – 7 -4 < 4x 4x ≤8 -1 <x x ≤2 (-1. Solution by square root. then 4(-5) < 4(3). 2] Application 1.

what is its width? Solution: Let w= width of the path ( in meters) Note: the area of the park minus the area of the garden equals the area of the path (50 + 2w)(30 + 2w) – (50)(30) = 600 1500 +160w + 4w² .4(6)(-10) 2(6) = 11 ± √361 12 = 11 +19 → 11 – 19 12 12 = 5/2 -2/3 Do example b using the same procedure. it takes them 56 minutes. Application 1. It takes a boy 15 min longer to mow the lawn than his sister and if they work together. 50 m long and 30 m wide. How long does it take the boy to mow the lawn? .1500 =600 4w² + 160 w –600 = 0 w² + 40w – 150 = 0 by quadratic equation w = -40 ± √[ (40)² -(4(1)(-150)] 2 = -40 ± √(2200) 2 = -20 ±5√22 = -20 + 5√22 Reject the negative root = 3.→ x = -b ± √(b² .11x –10 =0 x = 11 ± √11² .4ac) 2a Example 1 Find the solution set of the equation a) 6x² = 10 + 11x b) 3x² + 5x + 3 =0 Solution a) 6x² . A park containing a flower garden.45 m 2. If the area of the path is 600m². and a path of uniform width around it.

65(40) = 26 games 26 + x ≥ 0. . what are the numbers? Solution: Let x= 1st digit y= 2nd digit x+y=7 10x + y + 27 = 10y + x 9x –9y = -27 x – y = -3 x+y=7 x – y = -3 2x = 4 x=2 →2+y=7→y=5 The number is 25. In a basketball game. the resulting number has the same digits in reverse order. of games to be won for the last 30 games . team A has 65 % wins out of 40 games.97x – 840 = 0 2x + 15 = 1 x² + 15x 56 by quadratic equation x = 97 ± [(-97)² . If 27 is added into the number.4(1)(840)]1/2 2 =( 97 + 113) / 2 = 210 / 2 x = 105minutes → x + 15 = 120 minutes Solved Problems 1.7(70) 26 + x ≥ 49 x ≥23 2. of minutes needed by the sister to mow the lawn x + 15= no of minutes needed by the boy to mow the lawn 1 x + 1 = 1 56 x + 15 x + x + 15 x(x + 15) = 1 56 → 112x + 840 = x² + 15x → x² . At least how many games should they win for the last 30 games for them to have an overall performance of 70% and above? Solution: Let x = no.Solution: Let x = no.The sum of the digits of a two digits number is 7.

40x =0 x² .y = 8 10 + y = 12 → y = 2 km / hr 2x = 20 → x = 10 km / hr 4. what is the speed of the current? Solution: Let x=speed of the boat y=speed of the current 2(x + y) = 24 3(x . What is the area of each square? Solution: Let x= dimension of the square P= perimeter of the rectangle = x + 5x + x + 5x = 12x 12 x = 372 x = 31 A = x² = 31 = 961 cm² 5. of individual 1200/x= individual contribution (x-4) (1200/x + 10) = 1200 1200 + 10x – 4800/x . If it took him 3 hours in returning. The perimeter of the rectangle is 372 cm. A group of individual decided to contribute for a nursery swing amounting 1200 pesos.y) = 24 →x + y = 12 →x .40 = 1200 1200x + 10x² -4800 – 40x =1200x 10x² . Five squares were joined horizontally to make a rectangle. How many individuals have agreed originally? Solution: Let x= original no.4800 .Pedro runs his boat at a certain speed of an hour downstream and took 2 hours to run a distance of 24 km. Four were not able to pay and each of the rest has to add 10 pesos more.4(1)(-480)] 2 = 4 ± 44 2 x = 48 / 2 = 24 .4x – 480 =0 x= 4 ± √[(-4)² .3.

… 2. 9. 1. … The Nth element of an arithmetic sequence is given by aN = a1 + (N – 1)d .Mathematics Reviewer for Career Service Professional Examination Part II Lesson 1: Sequence A sequence function is a function whose domain is a subset of positive integers. 6. find the sequence function 1. 13. 19. an = 2n if n is odd = 2an-1 for n is even 3. 3. Illustration 3 If aı = 4. an = 2n 2. 16. 10. 2. 5. 64.6. 13. 1. N=8 and an+1 = an + 3 The arithmetic sequence is 4. 7. … Lesson 2 : Arithmetic Progression Arithmetic progression is a sequence in which all elements except the first can be obtained by adding a constant to the preceding element. The recursive formula an-1= 2an + d where an is the last element and d is the common difference.… Illustration 2 Let g be a function defined by g(n)= 1/n n€{1. 7. 8. 16. 7. 14. 3. 2.2. 32.3. A sequence is consists of the elements of a sequence function Illustration 1 Let f be a function defined by f(n) = 2n n €{R} f(1) = 2 → f(2) = 4 The elements of the sequence defined by f are 2. an = n + 2 / n(n + 1) Given the following elements of a sequence. The elements are g(1) =1/1 g(2) = ½ g(3) = 1/3 Exercises Find the elements of the following sequences 1.8.…} The function g is an infinite series function. 22.… 3.4. 5.

aN is an arithmetic sequence with common difference d. Find the thirtieth element of the arithmetic sequence whose first element is 5 and the second element is 9.16.8. find the 10th element. N =49 s49 =49 ( 2 + 98 ) 2 = 2450 Lesson 3 Geometric Sequence and Series A geometric sequence is a sequence whose preceding element after the first can be obtained by multiplying a constant.4. a3 . The fifth term of a sequence is 10 and the 3rd term is 16. Illustration 2 For the sequence 1. Solution aı = 5 a2 = 9 d=4 aN = a1 + (N – 1)d a30 = 5 + (30 – 1)4 = 5 + (29)4 = 121 Example 2. Solution a 1= 2. 4/2=2 8/4=2. A geometric sequence can be defined by giving the values of aı and N and the recursive formula an+1= an r from which every element after the first can be obtained. d = 2 . and SN = a1 + a2 + a3 +… + aN Then sN =N ( a1 + aN ) 2 Example 3 Find the sum of the positive even integers less than 100. Solution: a 5= 10 a3 = 16 d=-3 aı=22 a10 = a1 + (N – 1)d → 22 + (10-1)-3 → 22 +-3 (9) a10 =-7 Theorem If aı. ….Example 1.… we have 2/1 = 2. a2.2. … the common ratio is 2. .36.

This is the so-called fundamental principle. If he enters d1 . d4. e5 ). e4. in how many ways can he do the trip? Solution: 9 ways of going to Manila 8 ways of going to DavaO 9 x 8 = 72 ways Example 6 For the birthday party of Marie. If Jose goes to Manila in one of the planes and decided to return to Manila in a different plane. ice cream and salad? Solution: 3 ways for the cake 4 ways for the ice cream 3 ways for the salad 3x 4 x 3 36 ways to choose . her mother ordered three cakes ( chocolate. chocolate. How many ways can a guess choose from each if he has to take cake. four different ice creams ( rocky road. butter and strawberry). Nine different planes ply from Davao to Manila. find the 5th element. If an act can be done in m ways and after can be done the second time in n ways. -5. macaroni and buko). Solution: aN = a1rN-1 r= 4 / -4√2 = -√2 /2 a5 = (-4√2)(-√2/2)4 =√2 Lesson 4: Fundamental Principle / Counting Principle In how many ways can a man enter and leave the building if there are 6 entrances and 5 exits? Let the entrance be consists of the set (d1 .… a10 r=(-5) / (5/2) = -2 a10 = (5/2)(-29) = 1280 Example 5:Given the geometric progression –4√2. 4. Example 5. e2. then there are (m)(n) ways to perform the act. Hence there are 6 times 5 or 30 ways of entering and leaving the building.Theorem: The Nth element of a geometric sequence is given by aN = a1rN-1 Example 4: Find the 10th element of the geometric sequence where the first element is 5/2 and the second element is –5. e3. coffee and vanilla) and three kinds of salads( fruit. d3. Solution Let a10 be the 10th element. 2 . -2√2. d5 ) and the exits as (e1 . mocha. then 5/2.he can chose any of the exit doors for leaving. d2.

How many ways will the distinct winners emerged? Solution: 10P4 = (10)(9)(8)(7) = 5040 ways Example 7. second third and fourth place. In the above example. A permutation of a set of elements is an arrangement of certain of these elements in a specified manner. 3 boys and 3 girls. There are exactly n factors from n to 1. one will be chosen for the first. so 2P2 = 2! ( 8P8 )( 2P2 ) = (8!)(2!) = (40320)(2) = 80640 ways . Example 6 From the ten finalists in a Mathematics competition. nPn = n! Also nPn = n! (n-n)! and n! nPr = (n-r)! Permutation subject to different restriction Example 8 There are ten chairs in presidential table and there are ten guest to occupy the chairs. read as n factorial. Three are physics and the other are Math. it can be written as 6P6. The rule of finding the value of nPr or nPn may be discovered by applying the fundamental principle. Math/Physics or Physics/Math. The product of n integers from n to 1 or from 1 to n can be written symbolically as n!. For a group of 6. 8 ways for the 1st chair 4 ways for the 7th chair nd 7 ways for the 2 chair 3 ways for the 8th chair 6 ways for the 3rd chair 2 ways for the 9th chair th 5 ways for the 4 chair 1 way for the 10th chair 8P8 = 8! The two guest may exchange position. There are exactly r factors where the rth factor is (n-r+1) nPn = n(n-1)(n-2)…(n-n+1). each different arrangement either has all or a part of the object is called permutation. Given a set of objects.Lesson 5: Permutation There are 720 ways of arranging 6 books in a shelf. In how many different ways can the guest be seated if two special guests must stay at the middle? Solution Assume that guest number 1 and 2 be the special guest to occupy the middle chairs that are also assumed to be chair 5 and 6. in how ways can a boy and girl be seated together? Solution 3P1 x 3P1 (3)(3)=9 ways For nPr = n(n-1)(n-2)…(n-r+1).

2 are chocolate. Example12.Permutation of things some of which are the same The number of permutations of n things where p thing are the same. what is the probability of getting the right answer when you have four choices? Solution: Let m= number of choice=1 N= number of choices = 4 P=¼ . it is written as P = m /n Where m is the number of successful outcome and n is the number of possible outcomes. Solution: i has 3! s has 2! p has 2! Therefore: 8!/ 3! x 2! x 2! = 40320 / (6)(2)(2) = 40320 / 24 = 1680 permutations Example 10 Mother has 6 candies. q things are the same and r things are the same is equal to n! / p! q! r! Example 9 Find the number of permutations for the word Missippi. How many ways can she give these to her 6 grand children? Solution: 6! (2!)(3!)(1!) = 720 / 12 = 60 ways Combination Any group of things that is independent of the order of elements of the group is called a combination. In a multiple-choice question. How many committees of 6 members can be taken from 8 persons? Solution: 8C6 = 8! / (8-6)! 6! =(8 )(7) (2)(1) 56 / 2 = 28 Probability It is known to be the chance of an event to happen. The combination of n things taken r at a time is nCr which is equal to nCr = n! (n-r)!r! Example 11. 3 are mint and the other one is lemon. In mathematical language.

At least how many games should they win for the last 30 games for them to have an overall performance of 70% and above? a)26 b)23 c)28 d)49 12 .500.75 L b) 1.667 d) 8. Four years ago. how much has she invested in the venture where she lost 5%? a) 17. If they are used together.6 min c) 60 min d) 120 min 11.333. In a paper factory.5 d) 4800 10.000 5.000. the sum of their ages is 44. Mark is twice as old as Erick. In a basketball game. The smaller of two numbers is 13 less than the larger and their sum is 42.5 2.The sum of the digits of a two digits number is 7. How old is Jovy? a) 6 b) 10 c) 15 d)18 9. How old is Ann? a) 7 b)14 c)21 d)28 7. Seven years ago. how much does the first stockholder received? a)500. the resulting number has the same digits in reverse order. If her income from the two ventures is 12% of the total investment. It was again of by 15% during the inventory sale. Find the larger number. team A has 65 % wins out of 40 games. how old is Erick? a) 10 b)17 c) 20 d) 27 0 8. If the profit for last year is 5 million. The sum of two consecutive even numbers is 50 .3 min b)26. how much is the original price of the shoes? a) 1600 b) 1846 c)2823. machine A can produce 500 pads of paper in a certain number of minutes and machine Bs turn out the same number of pads for twice the time of machine A. A pair of rubber shoes is on 50% off during the Christmas season. How much water is needed to dilute a 15 liter of solution that is 12% salt so that a 5% salt solution is obtained? a) 0.000 b)13. If Carlo bought the shoes for 1200 during the inventory sales.000.000.333 c)11.666.8L d) 21L 6.5 c)29/2 d)29 3. a) 13 b)14. She made a profit of 20% for the first venture but lost 5% for the second venture. it will take 40 minutes to produce 500 pads.000 c) 1.5 c) 25 d)25. Ann was 3 times as old as Marie. Seven years hence.05L c) 1. The sum of the ages of Gie and Jovy 5 years hence is the sum of the ages of Eden and Jovy 4 years ago.000 b)1. A lottery winner decided to invest 25 million in two business ventures.000 4. The profit in a business are shared among three stockholders.000. The first stockholder receives twice as much as the second and the second received thrice as much as the third. what is the smaller number? a) 24 b) 24. Eden was 2 times as old as Gie and Gie is thrice as old as Jovy. If 27 is added into the number. Find the number of minutes machine A needs to produce 500 pads? a) 13. what is the number? a) 25 b) 36 c) 52 d) 68 .000 d) 3. Ann is twice as old as Marie.Problems 1.

1. 8 d) 1. 6. ¼. 20 18. 1/128 c)1/8. 11.__. Five squares were joined horizontally to make a rectangle. 4. 12 c) 1.13. __ a) 7. 35 b) 28. __ a)6. a) 26. The perimeter of the rectangle is 372 cm. 4 20. 1/64. 11 c)7. 2. 6. 2 . 9. 1.84 cm² c)5533. 8. 5. Pedro runs his boat at a certain speed of an hour downstream and took 2 hours to run a distance of 24 km. If it took him 3 hours in returning. 0. 11. 8. 49 d) 30. __. 3. __.64 b) 1/8. 20. 4. 5. 4. 5. 2. 5. 2. __ a) 4. How many individuals have agreed originally? a) 120 b) 48 c)24 d)20 16) 0. 7.__. 20. 10.5. 30 c) 25. 2. 45 16. 1. 1/16. 36. 27. 1. 8. 1. 11 d) 10.__. What is the area of each square? a) 961 cm² b)1383. 10. 9 19.12 c) 2. 25 c) 4.__. 2. 10 b)6. 3.36 cm² d)8649cm² 15. ½. 3. 9 . 7. __ a)1/16. 1. 4 b) 10. 5 d) 4. 1. __. 1/16. 11. 7.__ a) 25. 25 b) 20.__. 38. what is the speed of the current? a)2 km/ hr b)8 km /hr c) 10 km / hr d) 12 km / hr 14. __. __. 15. __. 1/24 d)1/8. 20. 3. 9 16. 1. 1. 30. __. Four were not able to pay and each of the rest has to add 10 pesos more. 1/32 17. 4.__. A group of individual decided to contribute for a nursery swing amounting 1200 pesos. 9 b) 1. 9 d)7. 1/32.

In how many ways can the letters of failed if l is always on the fourth letter? a) 64 b) 120 c) 240 d) 720 25. Gng. Masinop started saving with 2 pesos and was able to saved weekly twice the amount she saved each preceding week. 20 on the third and so on. If the class is requested to send a delegate of 2 to a national conference. She decided to buy a sewing machine costing 1000 pesos. Six of the cards are the same. A dice has been tossed. Two dice were tossed. Roselyn saved 30 pesos monthly while Joy saved 10 on the first month. From the three finalists. two will be chosen as winners. When will they have the same amount of money? a) July b) August c) September d)October 22. what is the probability that the face with two dots will be out? a) 2 b) 1 c)1/6 d) 1/12 29. There are 22 girls and 18 boys in a class of 40. 15 on the second month. first and second. On what week will her money be enough to buy the machine? a) 8th week b)10th week c)12th week d) 14th week 22.21. what is the probability that seven dots will turn out? a) 1 b) ½ c)1/ 6 d)0 . Four couples went to see a movie. In how many ways can she send the cards? a) 27. Martha bought 12 cards to be sent to her friends. the judges will choose three finalists. In how many ways can eigth boys stand in a line if one boy is always at the end? a) 56 b) 49 c) 5040 d) 40320 24. How many possible outcomes will there be? a) 60 b) 20 c) 30 d) 10 28. What is the probability that each person is sitting next to his/her fiancée? a) ½ b) 1/4 c) 1/8 d)0 30. 1 boy and 1 girl how many pairs can the class choose from? a) 80 b) 40 c) 396 d) 240 23. In how many ways can you arrange the letters of the word passed? a) 32 b) 64 c)360 d) 720 26. Roselyn and Joy started saving money by January.720 b) 576 c) 144 d) 48 27. Out of the five contestants in a painting competition. four are alike and two are identical. The eight people are seated randomly in a row of eight seats.

Mathematics Reviewer For Career Service Professional Eligibility Exam Prepared by: Christopher Jovido Cocal .

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