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Fundamentals

of chemistry

The atom Periodic table Lewis Dot Diagrams Electronega;vity Polarity

nomenclature
Atom- basic unit of a chemical element
~10-8 cm in diameter

Element- atom with a specic proper;es that can not be broken down or converted into simpler substances Compound- composed of two or more separate elements Molecule- group of atoms bonded together represen;ng the smallest unit of a compound
Ex: CH4, NO3, SO4

Chemistry of an atom
Electron- nega;vely charged par;cle Proton- posi;vely charged par;cle
Number of protons are what dene an element

Valence electrons- electrons in a molecules outer shell

Hydrogen Atomic number= 1 Helium Atomic number= 2

Lithium Atomic number= 3

Basic chemistry
Atomic number number of protons at molecules nucleus
Denes one element from another Generally similar number of neutrons at nucleus
Atomic number

Atomic mass- Protons + neutrons+ electrons

Bonds
Strongest to weakest
Covalent-strongest bond between molecules
electrons are shared rather than transferred Valence shell wants to complete Examples: N2, H2, CO2, CH4 Haeber- bosch process to crack nitrogen.

Bonds can be in the form of single, double, or triple bonds

bonds
An element can lose or gain electrons
Ion

Ionic bonds- strong bonds; electrons are transferred between elements


Occurs between molecules with excesses and deciencies of electrons in the valence shell - Ex: uoride bonding with calcium
- Ca2+ + 2F1- CaF2 (calcium uoride) - Table salt (NaCl) Na2+ + Cl-

- Various biological and inorganic chemical reac;ons

Lewis Dot structures


Used to represent the bonding rela;onship between various elements First Developed by Gilbert Lewis in 1916 The Atom and the Molecule

Examining Lewis Dot Structures

Electronega;vity
The ability of an element to aaract and retain electrons
Important in discussing reduc;on and oxida;on reac;ons The higher an elements electronega;vity the beaer its ability to aaract and retain electrons Oxygen has highest ENright?

Elemental Electronega;vity

More bonds
Hydrogen bonds- weaker forces between hydrogen molecules (+ charge) and another element (- charge)
This type of chemistry Explains certain aspects of Water in its various phases - Polarity!!

Hydrogen bonds
Cumula;ve bond force from hydrogen bonding responsible for characteris;cs unique to each phase
Responsible for water being less dense as a solid form Responsible for water to exist in vapor at room temperature in gaseous form Random interac;on allows for the con;nuity of water in liquid form

Polarity
Will occur when there is an imbalance of paired electrons Related to eletronega;vity of elements
Electrons are shared however not equally Polar molecules have + and poles
Non-polar and polar Examples: CO2 (nonpolar) and H2O (polar)
Explain with valence shell and covalent bonding

States of maaer
Solids- molecules ;ghtly packed together, considered frozen
Most metals and transi;onal metals With water, solid form is less dense than liquid due to hydrogen bonding and polarity being dominant
Water Density is 0.917 g /cm3

Liquid- molecules less arranged, temperature is higher


Water has highest density in liquid form at ~4 C (39.2 F)
Density is 1.00 g /cm3 Random interac;on of hydrogen bonding

Gas least dense and in vaporous form


Ie noble gases O2, vaporous water Water has a high boiling point due to hydrogen bonding however same force also allows for vapor to exist at room temperature!! H-bonds are at weakest

Some water videos


Freezing dynamics of water
hap://www.youtube.com/watch? v=gmjLXrMaFTg&NR=1

Techno water freeze techno techno hap://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PcoiLAsUvqc Mel;ng of ice structure


hap://www.youtube.com/watch? v=6s0b_keOiOU&feature=related