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of chemistry

The atom Periodic table Lewis Dot Diagrams Electronega;vity Polarity

Atom- basic unit of a chemical element
~10-8 cm in diameter

Element- atom with a specic proper;es that can not be broken down or converted into simpler substances Compound- composed of two or more separate elements Molecule- group of atoms bonded together represen;ng the smallest unit of a compound
Ex: CH4, NO3, SO4

Chemistry of an atom
Electron- nega;vely charged par;cle Proton- posi;vely charged par;cle
Number of protons are what dene an element

Valence electrons- electrons in a molecules outer shell

Hydrogen Atomic number= 1 Helium Atomic number= 2

Lithium Atomic number= 3

Basic chemistry
Atomic number number of protons at molecules nucleus
Denes one element from another Generally similar number of neutrons at nucleus
Atomic number

Atomic mass- Protons + neutrons+ electrons

Strongest to weakest
Covalent-strongest bond between molecules
electrons are shared rather than transferred Valence shell wants to complete Examples: N2, H2, CO2, CH4 Haeber- bosch process to crack nitrogen.

Bonds can be in the form of single, double, or triple bonds

An element can lose or gain electrons

Ionic bonds- strong bonds; electrons are transferred between elements

Occurs between molecules with excesses and deciencies of electrons in the valence shell - Ex: uoride bonding with calcium
- Ca2+ + 2F1- CaF2 (calcium uoride) - Table salt (NaCl) Na2+ + Cl-

- Various biological and inorganic chemical reac;ons

Lewis Dot structures

Used to represent the bonding rela;onship between various elements First Developed by Gilbert Lewis in 1916 The Atom and the Molecule

Examining Lewis Dot Structures

The ability of an element to aaract and retain electrons
Important in discussing reduc;on and oxida;on reac;ons The higher an elements electronega;vity the beaer its ability to aaract and retain electrons Oxygen has highest ENright?

Elemental Electronega;vity

More bonds
Hydrogen bonds- weaker forces between hydrogen molecules (+ charge) and another element (- charge)
This type of chemistry Explains certain aspects of Water in its various phases - Polarity!!

Hydrogen bonds
Cumula;ve bond force from hydrogen bonding responsible for characteris;cs unique to each phase
Responsible for water being less dense as a solid form Responsible for water to exist in vapor at room temperature in gaseous form Random interac;on allows for the con;nuity of water in liquid form

Will occur when there is an imbalance of paired electrons Related to eletronega;vity of elements
Electrons are shared however not equally Polar molecules have + and poles
Non-polar and polar Examples: CO2 (nonpolar) and H2O (polar)
Explain with valence shell and covalent bonding

States of maaer
Solids- molecules ;ghtly packed together, considered frozen
Most metals and transi;onal metals With water, solid form is less dense than liquid due to hydrogen bonding and polarity being dominant
Water Density is 0.917 g /cm3

Liquid- molecules less arranged, temperature is higher

Water has highest density in liquid form at ~4 C (39.2 F)
Density is 1.00 g /cm3 Random interac;on of hydrogen bonding

Gas least dense and in vaporous form

Ie noble gases O2, vaporous water Water has a high boiling point due to hydrogen bonding however same force also allows for vapor to exist at room temperature!! H-bonds are at weakest

Some water videos

Freezing dynamics of water
hap:// v=gmjLXrMaFTg&NR=1

Techno water freeze techno techno hap:// Mel;ng of ice structure

hap:// v=6s0b_keOiOU&feature=related