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Impact on Delivering Software Products and Services
1 © Kaizania (PTY).Ltd. 2009 - The Changing World of Work
Introduction The pace of change. i. change in all respects. usually in the same town or village In some respects. is increasing every day. A craftsman did not need a manager or project manager to tell him what tasks to perform on a daily basis to produce valued goods. the world of work. or revolutions. the last of which is still in progress: Craft Production Mass Production Flexible Production We will look at each of these era’s and see how the practice of Project Management evolved as it was simultaneously influenced by. If one needed a pair of shoes one went to a cobbler.The Changing World of Work .e. changed? Is best practice of the last 20 years still best practice today? How are these changes in turn impacting the world of computing and software? To answer these questions. deliver products and services. trade. The characteristics of craftsmanship are: Complete goods are produced by individuals Every good that is produced is unique. over the last 300 years. The cobbler made exact measurements of each of your feet and subsequently produced shoes made for you. society and all other aspects of human life are evolving more rapidly than ever before. 2009 . and supporting. Craft Production History Before the Industrial and Mass Production revolutions the overwhelming majority of human effort was directed to small scale agriculture. All non-agricultural goods were produced by craftsmen. goods of the time were of a better quality than today.Ltd. products. we must start our journey hundreds of years ago… The Three Eras of Work The manner in which humanity produces goods and services for consumption in the market place has undergone three major changes. financial markets. technology. and only for you. Industry. How has the way in which humanity works. or shoemaker. crafted from scratch and made to measure Skill is obtained and passed on through many years of apprenticeship Goods are purchased and consumed close to where they were produced. 2 © Kaizania (PTY).
The principal characteristics of this era of work are: intensified division of labour perfect inter-changeability of parts in the goods produced individual craftsmanship replaced to a large extent through: o craft knowledge being systematically collected o operations simplified into constituent parts and specified in great detail o work stations for executing serialized. There were essentially no project management related or any management related activities outside the conduct of war and civil engineering.The Changing World of Work .) to build products for mass consumption (buildings. with single companies owning and delivering entire product value chains 3 © Kaizania (PTY). labourers) have been working together using standard parts (clay bricks. Sorensen and others at the Ford Motor company from 1920-1945. 2009 .Ltd. masons. culminated in the development of Mass Production techniques. simple steps to produce and assemble parts o simplification and standardisation of tasks o front-line workers rigidly supervised and expected to complete their tasks with no deviation or input into the process long production runs and large quantity of outputs that are homogeneous vertical integration of industries. granite blocks etc. electricity distribution. electrical motors etc. bridges). established during the next era of human work. The experience gained and lessons learnt during developments such as: the re-organization of the Prussian army through the 19th century by von Clausewitz and von Moltke the building of the transcontinental US railway network and the associated organizational structures that evolved the industrialisation of production formed a basis for the principles of general management. as led by Henry Ford. where for many centuries groups of people (master builders. roads. Mass Production History The advancements in precision engineering. as well as project management.Influence on Project Management The exception to this era of craftsmanship is civil engineering.
Dependency management. PERT charts. are formalisations of the methods used on an informal basis by those that brought about the mass production revolution. Taylor. Managing work in Software Engineering With the advent and growth of computing between the 1950’s-1980’s. Critical Path Methods (CPM) etc. raw materials etc.The Changing World of Work . H. Gannt. CPM etc. Gantt charts. older industries such as mass production and civil engineering. PERT. Influence on Work Management and Execution The tools and characteristics of the project management profession that developed during this period are Work breakdown structures. Emerson. established the management practices of the next 50 years. review progress. adjust plan test Find/train individuals to execute the constituent tasks Business analysts System Architects 4 © Kaizania (PTY).) Before and during the changes brought about at Ford Motor company individuals such as F. H. inventory.Ltd. 2009 . The principles underlying these methods are very similar to what was done by Henry Ford and associates: Take a large problem Reduce it to its constituent elements Determine dependencies Estimate the duration of each Plan and/or build the production line Find/train individuals to execute the constituent tasks Control execution and maximise throughput Gantt. Frank & Lillian Gilbreth etc. large management structures to manage 1000’s of workers and the increasing volume of information to be tracked (accounts. How did the thinking behind a mass production factory line influence thinking in software engineering? Phased production lines and dependencies: what must be built how must it be built building it refining it gather requirements designs/tasks/dependencies/project plans code. engineers and project managers learnt from other.
can be moved around the globe at the speed of light. process control and civil engineering. execute. CAD/CAM/CNC State of the art in computing and automation is culminating in the fast growing industries of Computer Aided Design. retrieval and processing of vast amounts of information. Developers Testers Somehow most of what influenced how software projects were run. Applying the project management methods for well understood industries and technologies to software projects suffer from the following fundamental flaws: Requirements are not 100% known upfront Technical Design is not 100% known upfront Much of what was learnt during this era of work could be successfully applied to software development. contracts etc. Vast amounts of numbers can be processed almost instantly to design. efficient manufacturing. Money.The Changing World of Work . Computer Aided Manufacturing and Computer Numerical Control machines. Factory line automation The majority of the small repetitive tasks executed in Henry Ford’s typical production line have been automated through the use of robots and other machinery. cheaply. A design is created in a computer and is 5 © Kaizania (PTY). not the highly inventive product development phase that precedes high volume. orders. Flexible Production History The search for more efficient methods of producing goods and services continued. designs.Ltd. and are still run today. though some of what was applied was not effective in the software industry. was based only on manufacturing. control and report on any level of production. 2009 . Technology yet again played a significant role in changing the way work is performed: Computing The advent of computing enabled the efficient and distributed storage.
The Changing World of Work . Edwards Deming.Ltd. Influence on Management The activity of management. the almost counter-intuitive realisation that increased quality leads to increased productivity leads to reduced cost. 6 © Kaizania (PTY). Shigeo Shingo. containerization. The principal characteristics of the current Flexible Production era of work are: Shortened product development and replacement cycles Small-batch production Mass customisation Just in Time delivery Vertical disintegration moving to strategic partnerships Rise of the service and white-collar worker Multi-skilled. Toyota etc. notion and understanding of quality is the underpinning for most of these developments. Transport Improvement in transport technologies such as wide-bodied cargo jets. Quality An expanded. and more correct. Every activity that is not of value to the customer is waste. Every activity is investigated on a repeating basis to make sure it is of highest quality. with the goal of delivering the highest possible customer value. as summarised by Deming’s formula: In other words. has been adapted to better suit this fast moving world by people such W. and subsequently organizations. self co-ordinating teams Continuous improvement or Kaizen Lean manufacturing The world where 1000’s of workers execute small repetitive tasks as determined by centralised engineering and project management departments is gone. Taiichi Ohno and others at companies such as Motorola. and subsequently of low quality as measured by the above formula.then fed into an automated production system where one or more computer controlled machines build the product. road networks and high speed rail have reduced the time and cost of circulating raw materials and finished products around the world. 2009 . These technologies have impacted almost every aspect of the modern world.
overlapping development phases Cross functional and continuously learning teams leading to multifunctional teams and team members Subtle control and leadership as opposed to command and control To a large extent. Influence on Product Development Shortening product cycles and the resulting pressure to innovate has impacted how new products are developed. serial approach where various teams work in sequenced isolation. Theory of Constraints etc. Humanity producing goods and services through: 7 © Kaizania (PTY). Instead of a phased. the era of Flexible production is a combination of the elements of the era of Craftsmanship and the era of Mass Production. Doing. Lean.Continuous improvement The process of uncovering non-value add activities and improving quality is a repeating cycle of Planning. Checking and Acting.The Changing World of Work . in what is known as the Deming cycle. modern product development is characterised by: Product Vision and broad goals – not detailed upfront design Self-organizing project teams Iterative.Ltd. 2009 . The work done by many over the period from 1950 to today has resulted in the modern management and manufacturing movements of Six sigma.
Martin.The Changing World of Work . Arie van Bennekum. Signatories: Kent Beck. embrace and expand upon the principles will thrive in the modern world. Dave Thomas Impact of Agile on Project Management 8 © Kaizania (PTY). highly skilled teams of craftsmen working together using the powerful array of tools provided by the increasing automation of computation and production The world is still very much in the midst of the Flexible Production era.Ltd.Jeff De Luca. Martin Fowler. Ron Jeffries. Brian Marick. self organising. Jeff Sutherland. Ward Cunningham. Jeff Sutherland DSDM – UK DSDM Consortium Rational Unified Process – I. Jim Highsmith. Steve Mellor. Those firms and institutions that adopt. 2009 . Booch Lean Software Development – R. Andrew Hunt. such as: Extreme Programming – Kent Beck Scrum – Ken Schwaber. Ken Schwaber. we value the items on the left more. Alistair Cockburn. Peter Coad During 2001 the leaders in these movements came together and created the Agile Manifesto to summarize and jointly promote the adoption of Flexible Production era practices. James Grenning. Jon Kern. Software Product Development impact How does software product development as practised during the Mass Production era compare to software product development suitable to the era of Flexible Production? From 1990-2001 various participants in the computing industry were influenced by the Flexible Production era developments in the non-computing world. Mike Beedle. Robert C. Charette. values and principles in the software development industry: The Agile Manifesto We value: Individuals and interactions over processes and tools Working software over comprehensive documentation Customer collaboration over contract negotiation Responding to change over following a plan That is. G. Various frameworks and methodologies were developed in isolation. Jacobson. M&T Poppendieck Crystal methodologies – Alistair Cockburn Feature driven development . while there is value in the items on the right.
flexible requirements Automated build. adapt. team satisfaction on achieving goals Feature breakdown structures Release and Iteration Planning Constant adaptive planning Facilitate. lead Ranked product backlog Software craftsmanship Release plans Fixed iterations of cost and duration. staff – thinkers separated from doers Division of labour Exhaustive Requirements gathering Routine. release Quantity emphasized over quality Geared toward efficiency and repeatability Centrally planned and gathered requirements.The Changing World of Work . knowledge work Goal driven. 2009 . systems and order Commitments Lead 9 © Kaizania (PTY).Software product development must accept and adapt to the fact that: Software Product development is repeated invention Perfectly planned invention is not possible The differences between non-Agile management and development and Agile management and development are many. inspect. monitor. systems and order Commands Manage and control Flexible Production Era Mix of top-down control and selforganizing teams Manager-as-coordinator Workers as thinkers/implementers Thinkers as doers Accepted responsibility / volunteerism Product Vision. control Change control Predictable software engineering Gantt charts Inflexible requirements. test. manage. Release planning.Ltd. Agile practices and principles: Mass Production Era Top-down control Manager as thinker Workers as implementers Line vs. and is challenging in terms of change management. significant. purpose. Just in Time Requirements Dynamic. physical work Task driven Work breakdown structures Detail project plan development Predictive long term detail planning Direct. meaning. flexible cost/duration Manual build. test. take time to implement and assimilate. release Quality emphasized over quantity Geared toward adaptation and reliability Emergent requirements. A comparison of non-Agile vs.
lessons learned. rebuilt. redesigned. repeated All teams work together closely – all learning from each other As the project progresses the casing. What happens next? Teams working together closely. led by a hands-on. screen and software are improving and working together – to be combined eventually into a first working prototype – tested. discussed. lessons learned. discarded. and not on flash memory Design vision Nothing much yet – we just know it must be easy to use. keyboard. 2009 . redone. discussed. Consumer Goods Design and Development The product development phase of the consumer product industry is characterised by: Product Vision We want to build the world’s best. lessons learned. repeated Core technology prototypes are built. In summary: an iterative process 10 © Kaizania (PTY). hardware. discussed. sexy and appeal to the upwardly mobile. do the following: Drawings are made.Ltd. lessons learned. most user friendly MP3 player ever allowing a customer to store all their music on the device Technical vision The player will store music on a hard disk. repeated Paper/clay/plastic models are built. repeated. redone. discarded. tested.The Changing World of Work .Thought Experiment Consumer Goods Product Leader vs. passionate Chief Engineer. Traditional Software Project Management The following thought experiment comparing how some of the best performing companies in the Flexible Production Era execute work in comparison to how some of the worst software projects are being run will help to illustrate the fundamental differences.
software and how all these will work together documents are written capturing in detail what was agreed in meetings documents are circulated. Then over a period of many months: meetings are conducted to discuss all aspects of the product in detail – casing. 2009 . then the much more rigid.The Changing World of Work . keyboard. The result: Work start Product released Success? : February 2001 : October 2001 : World beater Software development applied to the consumer industry? What would the above process look like if it was managed in the way large software projects have been managed over the last three decades? It starts with the same Product Vision. technical core. screen. more meetings are had to discuss disagreements repeat until every aspect of the product has been captured on paper and agreed All that remains now is to build it… 11 © Kaizania (PTY). involving all key elements and people all components integrated regularly tested lessons learnt repeat Once the product has been fully developed.Ltd. variance and fault intolerant mass manufacturing process begins.
morale disappeared. Law suits…?? Software Product Development Future? Are Agile techniques correct and non-Agile techniques such as Prince2. 2009 . since power consumption of the newly developed disk …… Change control board overwhelmed. since the casing had to be changed to fit the battery inside it. somehow smaller than he expected. since the battery life was shorter than expected. Find an internal or external engineering team Force them to tell you exactly how long it will take to build each component and get it all working together to hand over to manufacturing for mass production Create project plans showing exactly what each person will be doing every day over the coming months as the product is built Some possible next events The product manager sees the first casing that an engineer accidently let slip out – it does not feel right in his hands.Ltd. Hmmm. The screen does not fit in the casing properly. PMBok incorrect? Will Agile techniques replace all others over time? 12 © Kaizania (PTY). blame game. Tension.The Changing World of Work .
co.Ltd. PMBok.za Tel: +27 12 991 0269 www. processes change. 2009 . The reasons why Prince2. Change is never easy. Software Product Development must adapt to best support the way in which work is done. PMBok.za Arrie van der Dussen Manager: Agile Business arrie.NO. Agile is the embodiment of the Flexible Production era values. Agile requires significant change in many respects. Reaping the benefit of Agile methods Kaizania assists companies in making the transition from Mass Production era based working to Flexible Production era working through training and coaching. For more information please contact Kaizania at: Email: agile@kaizania. people change.co. principles and practices as applied to software development and project management. not at all. Invention Summary The world changes.co. best practice changes. repeating tasks Known durations. change is never fast. We are in the Flexible Production era. Upgrades. Please allow us to help you produce greater value at higher quality with lower cost.bisschoff@kaizania. Unknown solutions Suitable for Software development. known solutions Suitable for Infrastructure rollouts.vddussen@kaizania.Kaizania lionel. That which has gone before was the best that could be done at the time. Data centre moves etc. but we owe it to ourselves to adapt and be the best. Different techniques apply to different projects and situations.The Changing World of Work .za 13 © Kaizania (PTY). Where we are and where we are going is an ongoing refinement and improvement of what we have learnt in the past. CMMi Well understood problem domains Standard. Agile Unclear problem domains Non-standard.za Lionel Bisschoff CEO .kaizania. Product Development. Gantt charts and other techniques were suitable to the management of certain types of work are just as applicable today as in the past. non-repeating tasks Unknown durations. What we have learnt though is that they are not applicable to all types of work.co. Prince2.