# H E A T N T H E R M O

Q.1 A steel rod is 4.000 cm in diameter at 30 ºC. A brass ring has an interior diameter of 3.992
cm at 30 ºC. In order that the ring just slides onto the steel rod, the common temperature
of the two should be nearly (o
steel
= 11 × 10
–6
/ºC and o
brass
= 19 × 10
–6
/ºC)
(A) 200 ºC (B) 250 ºC (C*) 280 ºC (D) 400 ºC
[Sol: Final diameters should be same
4(1+11×10
–6
AT) = 3.992 (1+(19×10
–6
)AT)
0.008 = (75.848 – 44) × 10
–6
AT
AT = 251
final temperature should be 280
0
C(C) ]
Q.2 A body of mass 25 kg is dragged on a rough horizontal floor for one hour with a speed
of 2km/h. The coefficient of friction between the body and the surface in contact is 0.5
and half the heat produced is absorbed by the body. If specific heat of body is 0.1 cal g

1
(
0
C)
–1
, then the rise in temperature of body is
(A) 50 K (B) 23.8 K (C) 100 K (D*) 11.9 K
[Sol: |e
friction
| = µMg×
= (0.5) (25) (10) (2000)
= 2.5 × 10
5
J
MSAT =
2
10 5 . 2
5
×
(25000) × (0.1 × 4.2) AT =
2
10 5 . 2
5
×
Q.3 A composite rod made up of two rods AB and BC are joined at B. The rods are of equal length
at room temperature and have equal masses. The coefficient of linear expansion o of AB is
more than that of BC. The composite rod is suspended horizontal by means of a thread at B.
When the rod is heated:
(A) It remains horizontal (B*) It tilts down on the side of AB
(C) It tilts down on the side of BC (D) Its centre of mass does not move
[Sol:
AB ÷ 2d
2
= 2d (1 + o
2
AT) ¬ d
2
= d(1+o
2
AT)
BC ÷ 2d
1
= 2d (1 + o
1
AT) ¬ d
1
= d(1+o
1
AT)
As o
2
> o
1
¬ d
2
> d
1
The system tilts down onside AB
Ans: (B)
H E A T N T H E R M O
Q.4 At 0°C a body emits:
(B) electromagnetic radiation of single wavelength
(C*) electromagnetic radiation of all wave lengths that are emitted by it at room temperature.
(D) electromagnetic radiation of fewer wave lengths than are emitted by it at room temperature.
[Sol: The body emits radiation of all wavelengths at all
temperature only difference being X
m
increases
as T decreases. Ans: (C) ]
Q.5 Figure shows V-T graph of a cyclic process. Which of the following PV graph
represents the same process?

(A) (B) (C*) (D)
[Sol: CA ÷ V = CT ¬ Isobaric process
P
1
= P
0
AB ÷ V = V
0
¬ Isochoric process
¬
T
P
= constt.
¬ P
1
= aP
0
BC ÷ T = aT
0
¬ Isothermal process
¬ PV = constt.
(C)
Q.6 A solid cylindrical copper rod 0.200 m long has one end maintained at a temperature of T
Kelvin. The other end is blackened and exposed to thermal radiation from surrounding walls
maintained at 400 K. The sides of the rod are insulated, so no energy is lost or gained
except at the ends of the rod. When steady state is reached, the temperature of the blackened
end is 200 K. What is the value of T ? Take k = 170 W/mK, Stefan's constant o =
3
17
×10

8
Wm
–2
K
–4
.
[Sol:
) g min co (
Q

=
) leaving (
conduction
Q

(at steady state at the other end at temperature T
1
= 200K)
Room temperature, T
0
= 400 K
¬ oA (T
0
4
– T
1
4
) = KA
l
T T
1
÷
H E A T N T H E R M O
¬ T = T
1

K
o l
(T
0
4
– TT
1
4
)
¬ T = 200 –
170 3
10 17 2 . 0
8
×
× ×
÷
= (400
4
– 200
4
)
¬ T = 200 –
5
8
= 198.4 K ]
Q.7 Two blocks A and B of the same mass are connected to a light spring and placed on a smooth
horizontal surface. B is given velocity v
0
(as shown in the figure) when the spring is in natural
length. In the subsequent motion.
(A*) the maximum velocity of B will be v
0
(B*) as seen from ground, A can move towards right only
(C) the spring will have maximum extension when A and B both stop
(D *) the spring w illbe at natural length again when B is at rest
[Sol. In CM frame the blocks will perform SHM as
 V
CM
is constant hence both will can have maximum velocity v
0
/2 towards right in CM
frame.
(v
B
)
max
= v
0
in ground frame
In CM frame (v
A
)
min
= –v
0
/2
(v
A
)
min
= 0 in ground frame
i.e. A move only in right direction
In CM frame v
B
= v
0
/2 left in the case when spring is at natural length
v
B
= 0 in ground frame at that instant. ]
Q.8 A particle executes SHM along a straight line with mean position at x = 0, period 20 sec and
amplitude 5 cm. The time taken by the particle to go from x = 4 cm to x = – 3 cm can be
(A*) 10 sec (B*) 15 sec (C*) 5 sec (D*) 25 sec
[Sol. B to C ÷ 5 sec
A to D ÷ 15 sec
B to B to C ÷ 25 sec
Q.9 One mole of an ideal gas at pressure P
0
and temperature T
0
volume V
0
is expanded isothermally
to twice its volume and then compressed at constant pressure to (V
0
/2) and the gas is brought
to original state by a process in which P o V (Pressure is directly proportional to volume).
The correct representation of process is
(A) (B) ( C * ) ( D )
H E A T N T H E R M O
[Sol. For isothermal process V
f
= 2V
0
P
f
= P
0
/2
For isobaric process V
f
= V
0
/2, T
f
=
0
0
0
T •
V 2 2
V
×
=
4
T
0
For P · V process
P–V must be straight line
T · V
2
¬ V–T must be parabolic
P
2
· T ¬ P–T must be parabolic
Q.10 A particle executes SHM about a point other than x = 0 as shown in the graph. Find its
amplitude, equilibrium position and angular frequency. [ 1
+ 1 + 3 ]
[Sol. From the graph
Amplitude =
2
) 2 ( 6 ÷ ÷
= 4 m
At = 1 =
e
t
3
2
=
t
t
2
T
·
3
2
=
3
T
T = 3 sec
Equilibrium position; x = 2
Angular frequency =
3
2t
Q.11 What is the temperature of the steel-copper junction in the steady state of the system shown in
the figure. Length of the steel rod = 25 cm, length of the copper rod = 50 cm, temperature of
the furnace = 300 °C, temperature of the other end = 0°C. The area of cross section of the
steel rod is twice that of the copper rod. (Thermal conductivity of steel = 50 J s
–1
m
–1
K
–1
and of copper = 400 J s
–1
m
–1
K
–1
)

H E A T N T H E R M O
[Ans. 100°C]
[Sol.
1
1 1 1
L
) T T ( A k ÷
=
2
2 2 2
L
) T T ( A k ÷
300 – T =
|
|
.
|

\
|
2
1
L
L
|
|
.
|

\
|
1
2
k
k
|
|
.
|

\
|
1
2
A
A
(T – 0)
300 – T = 2T
T = 100°C ]
Q.12 A source of frequency 700 Hz is placed between a man and a wall at the same height of person's
ear. Find the velocity v (assume v << c) of the source with which it should approach the wall
such that person will detect 3 beats per second. [Take velocity of sound = 350 m/s]
[Ans. (3/4) m/s]
[Sol.
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷
÷ v c
c
v c
c
700 = 3
700 × 2vc = 3c
2
– 3v
2
assuming v << c
1400 vc = 3c
2
v =
1400
c 3
=
1400
350 3×
=
4
3
m/s ]
Q.13 One end of a long string of linear mass density 10
–2
kg m
–1
is connected to an electrically
driven tuning fork of frequency 150 Hz. The other end passes over a pulley and is tied to a
pan containing a mass of 90 kg. The pulley end absorbs all the incoming energy so that
reflected waves from this end have negligible amplitude. At t = 0, the left end (fork end) of
the string is at x = 0 has a transverse displacement of 2.5 cm and is moving along positive y-
direction. The amplitude of the wave is 5 cm. Write down the transverse displacement y (in
cm) as function of x (in m) and t (in sec) that describes the wave on the string.
[Ans. y = =
( )
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ t
+ ÷ t
6
x t 300 sin 5
]
[Sol. | = t/6
v = µ / T =
01 . 0
900
= 300 m/s
frequency = 150 Hz
ì = (1/2) m
Then equation will be
y =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
| + |
.
|

\
|
ì
÷ t
x
T
t
2 sin A
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ t
+ |
.
|

\
|
÷ t
6 2
x
t 150 2 sin 5
=
( )
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ t
+ ÷ t
6
x t 300 sin 5
H E A T N T H E R M O
Q.14 A conical pendulum is composed of a mass 100 gm and a massless string of length 50 cm. It
swings with constant angular velocity 5 rad/s as shown in the figure.
(a) What is the angle, u, between the string and the vertical?
(b) What is the angular momentum vector with respect to the pivot at the instant shown in the
diagram?
(c) What is the torque vector with respect to the pivot at the instant shown in the diagram?
[Ans. (a) 37°, (b) 1.5 × 10
–3
) j
ˆ
3 i
ˆ
4 ( +
N-m/s, (c)
j
ˆ
3 . 0
N-m ]
[Sol.(a) Tcosu – mg = 0
Tsinu = r m
2
0
e
tanu =
g
r
2
0
e
=
g
sin
2
0
u e l
cosu =
2
0
g
e l
¬ u = cos
–1
|
|
.
|

\
|
e
2
0
g
l
= 37°
(b)
) k
ˆ
cos – i
ˆ
sin ( r u u = l l

& v = j
ˆ
sin
0
ue l
v m r L
 

× = = ) i
ˆ
cos sin l k
ˆ
sin l ( m
2 2 2
o
u u + u e = ) k
ˆ
sin i
ˆ
(cos sin l m
o
2
u + u u e
= 1.5 × 10
–3
) j
ˆ
3 i
ˆ
4 ( +
N-m/s
(c)
) k
ˆ
( mg r ÷ × = t
 
=
) k
ˆ
mg( ) k
ˆ
cos i
ˆ
sin ( ÷ × u ÷ u l l
=
j
ˆ
sin mg u l
=
j
ˆ
3 . 0
N-m]
Q.15 One mole of an ideal monoatomic gas is enclosed in a chamber at 300 K. The gas undergoes a
process in which pressure is proportional to the volume. At the end of the process, the
volume of the gas is doubled. The change in the internal energy of the gas is [R is gas
constant]
(A) 450 R (B) 700 R (C*) 1350 R (D) data insufficient
[Sol. P · V (given)
PV = nRT gives
V
2
· T ¬
1
2
1
T
V
=
2
2
2
T
V
T
2
=
2
1
1
2
2
V
T V
=
2
1
2
V
T ) v 2 (
= 4T
1
AT = T
2
– T
1
= 3T
1
= 3 × 300 = 900 K
and AU = nC
v
AT = 1 ×
2
3
R × 900 = 1350 R ]
H E A T N T H E R M O
Q.16 A heat engine uses an ideal gas (¸ = 1.40) that undergoes the reversible cycle shown in figure.
Obtain the thermodynamic percentage efficiency of the engine.
[Ans. 24%]
[Sol. v = 1.4 C
V
=
2
R 5
4 . 0
R
=
PROCESS
U A
W Q A
1-2
( )
0
T 9
2
R 5
n
|
.
|

\
|
0
0
nRT
2
45
2-3
( )
0
T 90
2
R 5
n
|
.
|

\
|
90P
o
V
o
315 P
o
V
o
3-4
( )
0
T 90
2
R 5
n |
.
|

\
|
÷
0 – 405 P
o
V
o
4-1
( )
0
T 9
2
R 5
n
|
.
|

\
|
÷
– 9 P
o
V
o
o o
V P
2
63
÷
Total 0 81 P
o
V
o
use P
o
V
o
= nRT
o
efficiency =
24 . 0
5 . 337
81
V P 5 . 22 V P 315
V P 81
o o o o
o o
= =
+
% 24
]
H E A T N T H E R M O
Q.17 Two conducting movable smooth pistons are kept inside a non
conducting, adiabatic container with initial positions as shown. Gas is
present in the three parts A, B & C having initial pressures as shown.
Now the pistons are released and are allowed to attain equilibrium
position slowly. Then the final equilibrium position length of part A
will be
(A) L/8 (B*) L/4 (C) L/6 (D) L/5
[Sol. n =
RT
PV
Final pressure & temperature is same hence volume will be in ratio of number of moles. ]
Q.18 Which of the following statements is/are true in case of specific heat of an ideal gas?
(A*) specific heat of an ideal gas is zero when it undergoes an adiabatic process
(B*) specific heat of an ideal gas is infinite when it undergoes an isothermal process
(C*) the difference between specific heats at constant pressure and constant volume is the
same for all ideal gases
(D) the ratio of specific heats at constant pressure and constant volume is the same for all ideal
gases
Q.19 Monoatomic, diatomic and triatomic gases whose initial volume and pressure are same, each
is compressed till their pressure becomes twice the initial pressure then.
(A*) If the compression is isothermal then their final volumes will be same
(B*) If the compression is adiabatic, then their final volume will be different
(C) If the compression is adiabatic, then triatomic gas will have maximum final volume
(D*) If the compression is adiabatic then monoatomic gas will have maximum final volume
[Sol. ¸
m
> ¸
d
> ¸
t
Isothermal process, PV = constant, which is independent of ¸. So v
final
is same (A)
¸
= constant
¬
¸ ¸
=
2 1 1 1
V ) P 2 ( V P
¸
= ¬
/ 1
1
2
2
V
V
If ¸ is more than V
2
will be more. So, B,D.
Q.20 Which of the following statements is/are correct?
(A*) A real gas approaches perfect gas behaviour at high temperature and low pressure
(B) For ideal gas if gas pressure increases then its temperature must also increase.
(C*) An ideal gas would never condense into the liquid state
(D*) The average translational kinetic energy per molecule at any given temperature is
independent of the type of ideal gas
Q.21 A certain amount of perfect gas undergoes changes in pressure and
volume
(Process PV
N
= C) N and C are constant as shown in figure. During
this change from A to B.
(A) no heat is absorbed by the gas from outside
(B*) positive work is done by the gas
(C*) the temperature of the gas is constant
(D*) the internal energy of the gas remains constant
H E A T N T H E R M O
Q.22 Entries in column I consists of diagrams of thermal conductors. The type of conductor &
direction of heat flows are listed below. Entries in column II consists of the magnitude of rate
of heat flow belonging to any of the entries in column I. If temperature difference in all the
cases is (T
1
– T
2
), then match column
Column I Column II
(A) (P) ) T T ( R k 6
2 1 0
÷ t
(B) (Q)
) T T (
2 n 3
R k
2 1
0
÷
t
l
(C) (R) tk
0
R(T
1
– T
2
)
(D) (S)
) T T (
2 n
R k 4
2 1
0
÷
t
l
[Ans. (A) R; (B) P ; (C) S; (D) Q ]
H E A T N T H E R M O
A calorimeter of mass m contains an equal mass of water in it. The temperature of the water and
calorimeter is t
2
. A block of ice of mass m and temperature t
3
< 0° C is gently dropped into
the calorimeter. Let C
1
, C
2
and C
3
be the specific heats of calorimeter, water and ice
respectively and L be the latent heat of fusion of ice.
Q.23 The whole mixture in the calorimeter becomes ice if
(A) C
1
t
2
+ C
2
t
2
+ L + C
3
t
3
> 0 (B*) C
1
t
2
+ C
2
t
2
+ L + C
3
t
3
< 0
(C) C
1
t
2
+ C
2
t
2
– L + C
3
t
3
> 0 (D) C
1
t
2
+ C
2
t
2
– L – C
3
t
3
< 0
[Sol. For ice t
f
< 0°C, say t
f
= – t
0
Heat lost = Heat gain
¬ ) t t ( mC ) t 0 ( mC mL ) 0 t ( mC ) 0 t ( mC
3 0 3 0 3 2 2 2 1
÷ ÷ = + + + ÷ + ÷
¬
0 3 3 3 2 2 2 1
t C 2 t C L t C t C ÷ = + + +
or 0 t C L t C t C
3 3 2 2 2 1
< + + + ]
Q.24 The whole mixture in the calorimeter becomes water if
(A) (C
1
+ C
2
)t
2
– C
3
t
3
+ L > 0 (B) (C
1
+ C
2
)t
2
+ C
3
t
3
+ L > 0
(C) (C
1
+ C
2
)t
2
– C
3
t
3
– L > 0 (D*) (C
1
+ C
2
)t
2
+ C
3
t
3
– L > 0
[Sol. For water t
f
> 0°C say t
f
= t
0
Heat lost = Heat gain
) 0 t ( mC mL ) t 0 ( mC ) t t ( mC ) t t ( mC
0 2 3 3 0 2 2 0 2 1
÷ + + ÷ = ÷ + ÷
¬
0 2 1 3 3 2 2 1
t ) C 2 C ( L t C t ) C C ( + = ÷ + +
or 0 L t C t ) C C (
3 3 2 2 1
> ÷ + + ]
Q.25 Water equivalent of calorimeter is:
(A) mC
1
(B*)
2
1
C
mC
(C)
1
2
C
mC
(D) none
[Sol. Let water equivalent be m
0

m
0
C
2
= mC
1
¬
2
1
0
C
mC
m =
Q.26 O ne m ole of an ideal m onoatom ic gas is taken from state A to state B through the process P =
2 / 1
T
2
3
. It is found that its temperature increases by 100 K in this process. Now it is taken
from state B to C through a process for which internal energy is related to volume as U =
2 / 1
V
2
1
. Find the total work performed by the gas (in Joule), if it is given that volume at B
is 100 m
3
and at C it is 1600 m
3
.
[Use R = 8.3 J/mol-K]
[Ans. 435]
[Sol. Process A ÷ B
H E A T N T H E R M O
W
AB
=
}
dv P =
}
dv T
2
3
2 / 1
=
}
÷
× dT RT
3
1
T
2
3
2 / 1 2 / 1
On solving, W
AB
= 50 R = 50 × 8.3 = 415 J
Process B ÷ C
U =
2 / 1
V
2
1
RT
2
3
=
2 / 1
V
2
1
¬ 3PV
1/2
= 1
P =
V 3
1
Now W
BC
=
}
dv P = }
1600
100
dv
V 3
1
=
V
3
2
=
] 10 40 [
3
2
÷
=
30
3
2
×
= 20 J
Total W = 415 + 20 = 435 ]
Q.27 n moles of an ideal gas undergoes a process A to B as shown.
Maximum temperature of the gas during the process is
(A)
nR
V P 3
0 0
(B*)
nR
V P 4
0 0
(C)
nR
V P 6
0 0
(D)
nR
V P 9
0 0
[Sol: From graph P = o
o
o
P 4 V
V
P
+ ÷
PV = nRT => T =
nR
PV
T is maximum when PV is maximum.
=>
0 P 4
V
V P 2
V P 4 V
V
P
dV
d
) PV (
dV
d
o
o
o
o
2
o
o
= + ÷ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷ =
=> V = 2V
o
There for T
max
=
nR
PV
(at V = 2V
o
) =
nR
V P 4
o o
(B) ]
Q.28 The order of magnitude of the number of nitrogen molecules in an air bubble of diameter 2 mm
under ordinary conditions (pressure = 1 atm; temperature = 27°C) is:
(A) 10
5
(B) 10
9
(C) 10
13
(D*) 10
17
[Sol: PV = (No/N)RT No= No of molecules.
Solving No = 10
17
]
H E A T N T H E R M O
Q.29 A rod of length l with thermally insulated lateral surface and
cross-section area A consists of a material whose thermal
conductivity varies with temperature as K =
bT a
K
0
+
where
K
0
, a and b are constants. T
1
and T
2
(< T
1
) are the temperature
of two ends of rod. The rate of flow of heat across the rod is
(A)
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
2
1 0
bT a
bT a
b
AK
l
(B)
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
2
1 0
bT a
bT a
b
AK
(C*)
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
2
1 0
bT a
bT a
ln
b
AK
l
(D)
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
2
1 0
aT b
aT b
ln
b
AK
l
[Sol: Q

=
dx
dT
bT a
A K
dx
dT
KA
o
+
÷ = ÷
} }
÷ =
+
¬

0
o
T
T
dx
A K
Q
bT a
dT
2
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
= ¬
2
1 o
bT a
bT a
n
b
AK
Q 

(C) ]
Q.30 We would like to increase the length of a 15cm long copper rod of cross-section 4mm
2
by
1mm. The energy absorbed by the rod if it is heated is E
1
. The energy absorbed by the rod if
it is stretched slowly is E
2
. Then find E
1
/E
2
.
[Various parameters of Copper are: Density = 9 × 10
3
kg/m
3
, Thermal coefficient of linear
expansion = 16 × 10
–6
K
–1
, Young's modulus = 135 × 10
9
Pa, Specific heat = 400 J/kg-K]
[Ans. 500]
[Sol. Temp. is increased by Au then
Al = loAu
¬ Au =
o
A
l
l
E
1
= (µAl)SAu = µAl S
o
A
l
l
when stretched, Stress = Y
l
l A
E
2
=
2
1
|
.
|

\
| A
l
l
Y |
.
|

\
| A
l
l
× AAl =
l
l
2
A ) ( Y
2
A
So,
2
1
E
E
=
A ) Y(
2 S A
2
l l
l l l
A ×
× A µ
=
Y ) (
S 2
l
l
A o
µ
= 500 ]
H E A T N T H E R M O
Q.31 A uniform rod of cross-section area A = 0.20 cm
2
is bent to form a ring.
The length of rod L = 60 cm. Three points on this ring P
1
, P
2
& P
3
are
maintained at temperature 80
0
C, 80
0
C & 110
0
C. Here P
1
P
2
= P
2
P
3
=
P
3
P
1
. The thermal
conductivity of material of rod K = 385 W/m
0
C. Neglect the heat loss
through lateral side. Find the rate of heat flow (in watt) in branch P
3
to P
1
.
[Ans: 1.16 watt]
[Sol:
R
T T
Q
1 3
÷
=

;
KA 3
L
KA
3
L
R = =

L
) T T ( KA 3
Q
1 3
÷
=

60
30 x 10 x 2 . 0 x 385 x 3
Q
4 ÷
= ¬

= 1.16 watt ]
Q.32 An ideal gas has molar heat capacity at constant pressure C
p
= 5R/2. The gas is kept in a
cylindrical vessel fitted with a piston which is free to move. Side walls of the container and
the piston are non conducting. Mass of the frictionless piston is 9 kg. Initial volume of the
gas is 0.0027 m
3
and cross-section area of the piston is 0.09 m
2
. The initial temperature of
the gas is 300 K. Atmospheric pressure P
0
= 1.05 × 10
5
N/m
2
. An amount of 2.5 × 10
4
J of
heat energy is supplied to the gas by a heating coil, then
(A*) Initial pressure of the gas is 1.06 × 10
5
N/m
2
(B) Final temperature of the gas is 1000 K
(C*) Final pressure of the gas is 1.06 × 10
5
N/m
2
(D) Work done by gas is 9.94 × 10
3
J
[Sol: P
i
A = P
0
A + mg ¬ P
i
= P
0
+
A
mg
¬ P
i
= 1.05× 10
5
+
09 . 0
10 9×
¬ P
i
= 1.06× 10
5
N/m
2
Outside pressure = P
0
+
A
mg
remians constant always
Hence the final pressure, P
f
= P
0
+
A
mg
= P
i
always
Hence, the process is isobaric
AQ = nC
p
AT, n =
i
i i
RT
V P
=
300 R
0027 . 0 10 06 . 1
5
× ×
=
R 10
06 . 1 9×
C
P
=
2
R 5
, AQ = 2.5 × 10
4
J
2.5 × 10
4
=
R 10
05 . 1 9×
×
2
5
R AT
¬ AT =
06 . 1 9
10
5
×
K
H E A T N T H E R M O
AW = PAV = nRAT
¬ AW =
R 10
05 . 1 9×
R
06 . 1 9
10
5
×
= 10
4
J
HEnce answer is (A) & (C) ]
Q.33 The time period of a particle executing SHM is T. There is a point P, at a distance x from
the mean position O. When the particle passes P towards OP (moving away from mean
position O), it has speed V then find the time in which it return to P again
(A) T (B*)
|
.
|

\
|
t t
÷
x 2
VT
tan
T
1
(C) Tsin
–1
|
.
|

\
|
x
VT
(D)
|
.
|

\
|
t t
÷
x 2
VT
cot
2
T
1
Q.34 The spring is compressed by a distance a and released. The block again comes to rest when the
spring is elongated by a distance b. During this process
(A) work done by the spring on the block =
2
1
k(a
2
+ b
2
)
(B*) work done by the spring on the block =
2
1
k(a
2
– b
2
)
(C*) coefficient of friction =
mg 2
) b a ( k ÷
(D) coefficient of friction =
mg 2
) b a ( k +
[Sol: Energy equation
2
1
ka
2
= mmg(a + b) +
2
1
kb
2
¬ m =
( )
mg 2
b a k ÷
From A ÷ 0, w
spring
> 0
w
spring
=
2
1
ka
2
From 0 ÷ B, w
spring
< 0
H E A T N T H E R M O
Q.35 One mole of an ideal monoatomic gas undergoes the cyclic
process as
shown. Find out efficiency (in percent) of the cycle.
[Take ln 2 = 0.7] [10]
[Sol. P
0
=
0
0
V 2
RT
[from 1 – 2], C
V
=
2
R 3
, C
P
=
2
R 5
1 – 2,
) 1 (
Q A = nC
P
AT = –
2
5
RTT
0
2 – 3,
) 2 (
Q A = AW = –RTT
0
ln2
3 – 4,
) 3 (
Q A = nC
P
AT =
2
5
RTT
0
4 – 1,
) 4 (
Q A = AW = R(2T
0
)ln2 = 2RTT
0
ln2
AQ
input
= AQ
(3)
+ AQ
(4)
= RT
0
|
.
|

\
|
+ 2 ln 2
2
5
AQ
total
= RT
0
ln2
q =
% 100
Q
Q
Input
Total
×
A
A
=
2 ln 2
2 ln
2
5
×100% =
4 . 1 5 . 2
7 . 0
+
× 100%
¬ q =
39
700
% = 17.95% ]
Q.36 One mole of an ideal gas requires 207 J heat to raise the temperature by 10 K when heated at
constant pressure. If the same gas is heated at constant volume to raise the temperature by 5
K, then the heat required may be
(A*) 62.1 J (B) 124 J (C) 12.4 J (D) 6.2 J
[Sol: C
V
= C
p
– R
required heat = C
V
AT = (C
p
– R) AT
As C
P
=
10
207
J/mol-K
Required heat
~
62.1 J
Q.37 Which of the following graphs correctly shows the change in internal energy of an ideal gas
with pressure for the isobaric, isochoric and isothermal processes.
(A*) (B) (C) (D)
[Sol: Isobaric ¬ P = const. & hence the line normal to pressure U axis.
Similarly, isothermal will be normal to x axis
Isochoric ¬ V = const.
¬ P o T & hence the straight line passing through origin. ]
H E A T N T H E R M O
Q.38 A black body radiates maximum energy around the wavelength ì
0
. If the temperature of the
black body is changed so that it radiates maximum energy around the wavelength 2ì
0
, the
ratio of final to initial power radiated by it will be
(A) 1/2 (B) 2 (C*) 1/16 (D) 16
[Sol: From wein’s displacement law
ì
0
T
1
= 2ì
0
T
2
¬ T
2
=
2
1
T
as P o T
4
P
2
=
1
4
2
1
P
|
.
|

\
|
=
16
1
P
]
Q.39 The figure shows a system of spherical shell of inner radii r
1
2
and kept at temperatures T
1
and T
2
, respectively. The radial rate of flow
of heat in a substance is proportional to
(A*)
( )
1 2
2 1
r r
r r
÷
(B) (r
2
– r
1
)
(C)
( )
1 2
1 2
r r
r r ÷
(D)
|
|
.
|

\
|
1
2
ln
r
r
[Sol: effective thermal resistance = }
2
1
2
4
1
r
r
r
dr
K 
=
2 1
1 2
4 r Kr
r r

÷
Heat current o
resistance thermal
1
]
Q.40 n
1
mole of a monatomic gas is mixed with n
2
mole of diatomic gas such that ¸
mixture
= 1.5. Then
(A) n
1
= 3n
2
(B) n
2
= 2n
1
(C*) n
1
= n
2
(D) none of these
[Sol: ¸
mix
= 1 +
( ) mix V
C
R
as ¸
mix
= 1.5,
( ) mix V
C = 2R
Hence, 2R =
2 1
2 1
2 1
n n
C n C n
V V
+
+
=
( ) ( )
2 1
2
5
2 2
3
1
n n
R n R n
+
+
¬ 4n
1
+ 4n
2
= 3n
1
+ 5n
2
¬ n
1
= n
2
]
Q.41 A ideal gas is heated isobarically from temperature T
1
to T
2
as shown in the
V–T diagram. Which of the following statement must be correct.
(A) Heat must be rejected from gas.
(B) work must be done on the gas by surrounding
(C) First law of thermodynamics must hold for process a to b
(D*) Gas must leak from vessel
H E A T N T H E R M O
Q.42 If there are no heat loss, the heat released by the condensation of x gram of steam at 100
0
C
into water at 100
0
C can be used to convert y gram of ice at 0
0
C into water at 100
0
C. Then
the ratio of y : x is nearly [Given L
f
= 80 cal/gm and L
v
= 540 cal/gm]
(A) 1 : 1 (B) 2 : 1 (C*) 3 : 1 (D) 2.5 : 1
[Sol: Heat released from condensation of x gm of steam at 100
0
C to water at 100
0
C
= xL
V
Heat required for y gm of ice at 0
0
C to be converted to water at 100
0
C
= yL
f
+ (100)yS
w
As, xL
V
= yL
f
+ (100)yS
w
we get, y/x = 3 ]
Q.43 Three identical metal rods A, B and C are placed end to end and a temperature difference is
maintained between the free ends of A and C. If the thermal conductivity of B (K
B
) is twice
that of C (K
C
) and half that of A (K
A
), then the effective thermal conductivity of the system
will be
(A) K
A
/7 (B*) 6K
B
/7 (C) 6K
A
/7 (D) none
[Sol: R
eq
= R
1
+ R
2
+ R
3
=
A K
L
A K
L
A K
L
C B A
+ +
= (
¸
(

¸

+ +
C B A
K
L
K
L
K
L
A
L
= (
¸
(

¸

B
K A
L
2
7
[as K
A
= 2K
B
; K
C
= K
B/2
]
But, R
eq
=
A K
L
eq
3
[as length of combined rod = 3L]
Hence, K
eq
=
7
6
B
K
]
Q.44 A wall has two layer A and B each made of different material, both the layers have the same
thickness. The thermal conductivity of the material A is twice that of B. Under steady state
the temperature difference across the wall B is 36
0
C. The temperature difference across the
wall A is
(A) 6
0
C (B) 12
0
C (C*) 18
0
C (D) 24
0
C
[Sol: temperature difference across wall A
=
B
r
T T
0 2
÷
=
A
r
T T
1 2
÷
= ( )
1 2
T T ÷ =
( )
0 2
T T
r
r
B
A
÷
=
36
2
1
×
= 18
0
C ]
H E A T N T H E R M O
Q.45 Two isochoric cooling process AB and CD are shown in P-V diagram for the same gas. In
which case heat lost will be more.
(A) AB (B) same in both cases (C*) CD (D) can't say
[Sol: AQ = Au + w
As 'w' (work done) is zero [Volume is constant] in both cases, AQ would would depend on Au
Au
·
AT (for a given gas)
and AT
·
VVAP
As, AP is same in both cases but V (volume) is more in CD, more heat would be lost in process
CD.]
Q.46 PV versus T graph of equal masses of H
2
, He and CO
2
is shown in figure. Choose the correct
alternative
(A*) 3 corresponds to H
2
, 2 to He and 1 to CO
2
(B) 1 corresponds to He, 2 to H
2
and 3 to CO
2
(C) 1 corresponds to He, 3 to H
2
and 2 to CO
2
(D) 1 corresponds to CO
2
, 2 to H
2
and 3 to He
[Sol: The slope i.e.
M T
PV 1
·
(M = Molar mass)
as
2 2
H He CO
M M M > >
Slope of graph for H
2
> slope of graph for He > slope of graph for CO
2
Q.47 A beaker contains 200 g of water. The water equivalent of beaker is 20 gm. The initial
temperature of water in the beaker is 20°C. If 440 g of hot water at 92°C is poured in, then
the final temperature, will be nearest to: (neglect heat loss)
(A) 58°C (B*) 68°C (C) 73°C (D) none
[Sol: Loss of heat by 440 gm of hot water as it comes down from 92
0
C to some temperature,
say T = 440 [92 – T]
Gain of heat by (water + beaker) = 220 (T – 20
0
) equating loss of heat to gain of heat, we get
T = 68
0
C ]
Q.48 Two different isotherms representing the relationship between pressure
P and volume V at a same temperature of the same ideal gas are
shown for masses m
1
and m
2
of the gas respectively in the figure given, then:
(A) m
1
> m
2
(B) m
1
= m
2

(C*) m
1
< m
2
(D) All of the above are possible
[Sol: PV = nRT
2
2
1
1
n
P
n
P
=
But P
1
< P
2
, hence n
1
< n
2
or m
1
< m
2
(C) ]
H E A T N T H E R M O
Q.49 The molar heat capacity C for an ideal gas going through a given process is given by C = a/T,
where ‘a’ is a constant. If ¸ = C
p
/ C
v
, the work done by one mole of gas during heating from
T
0
to q T
0
through the given process will be
(A)
a
1
lnq (B*) a lnq–
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ ¸
÷ q
1
1
RTT
0
(C) a lnq – (¸ –1) RT
0
(D) None of these
[Sol:
ndT
dw
ndT
dV
ndT
dQ
+ =
¬ C = C
v
+
ndT
dw
¬
T
a
– C
v
=
ndT
dw
¬
ndT C
T
a
dw
v
} }
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
w = an lnT –
0
0
2T
T
v
nC
(n = 1)
= alnq – C
v
(h – 1) T
0
= alnq –
( )
( ) 1
1
÷
÷
r
R 
T T
0
(B) ]
Q.50 Two moles of O
2
|
.
|

\
|
= ¸
5
7
at temperature TT
0
and 3 moles of CO
2
|
.
|

\
|
= ¸
3
4
at temperature 2T
0
are allowed to mix together in a closed adiabatic vessel. The resulting mixture finally comes
in thermal equilibrium. Then,
(A*) final temperature of the mixture is
14
T 23
0
(B) final temperature of the mixture is
19
T 31
0
(C) adiabatic exponent (¸) of the mixture formed is
5
14
(D*) adiabatic exponent (¸) of the mixture formed is
14
19
[Sol: dW and dQ = 0 hence dV = 0
1
1 v
C n (T – TT
0
) =
2
2 v
C n (2T
0
– T) ¸
1
= 7/5
2
1
1
÷ 
R
(T – TT
0
) = 3
1
2
÷ 
R
(2T
0
– T) ¸
2
= 4/3
Final temperature T =
14
23
0
T
1
2 1
÷
+

n n
=
1
1
1
÷ 
n
+
1
2
2
÷ 
n
H E A T N T H E R M O
solving ¸ =
14
19
(A,D) ]
Q.51 An ideal gas can be expanded from an initial state to a certain volume through two different
processes : (a) PV
2
= K and (b) P = KV
2
, where K is a positive constant. Then, choose the
correct option from the following.
(A) Final temperature in (a) will be greater than in (b).
(B*) Final temperature in (b) will be greater than in (a).
(C) Work done by the gas in both the processes would be equal.
(D) Total heat given to the gas in (a) is greater than in (b).
[Sol: P =
v
RT

v
RT
· v
2
= K ¬ RTv = K for (a)
v
RT
= Kv
2
¬ RT = Kv
3
for (b)
Hence B]
Q.52 The potential energy of a particle of mass 0.1 kg, moving along the x-axis, is given by U = 5x
(x – 4)J, where x is in metres. It can be concluded that :
(A) the particle is acted upon by a constant force.
(B*) the speed of the particle is maximum at x = 2 m.
(C*) the particle executes simple harmonic motion
(D*) the period of oscillation of the particle is t/5 s.
[Sol: u = 5x
2
– 20 x
F =
dx
dv
÷
= – (10x – 20)
F = 20 – 10 x a = 200 – 100x
SHM (since F o x)
F = 0 at mean position i.e. x = 2 T =

 2
e
2
is coefficient of x
i.e. 100 T =
10
2
=
5

s ]
Q.53 In an adiabatic expansion of air (¸ = 7/5) the volume increases by 5%. Then, the percentage
change in pressure is approximately
(A) + 7% (B) + 3% (C) – 5% (D*) – 7%
[Sol:
05 . 0 =
V
dV
PV
r
= C
P · r V
r – 1
+ V
r
·
dV
dP
= 0
dV
dP
=
V
rP

P
dP
= –r
V
dV
= 1.4 × 0.05 = – 0.07 = –7 % (D)