This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Emotional Labor and Psychological Distress: Testing the Mediatory Role of Work-Family Conflict
Jahanvash Karim CERGAM Institute d’Administration des Entreprises d’Aix-en-Provence Clos Guiot Puyricard – BP 30063 13089 Aix en Provence cedex 2, France E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Tel: 33-643055276 Abstract The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between emotional labor, work-family conflict (WFC) and psychological distress among a sample of employees working in three public sector organizations in Pakistan. Data were collected on a structured questionnaire containing standard scales of deep acting, surface acting, workfamily conflict, and psychological distress. After establishing the psychometric properties of the scales, hypotheses were tested using Partial Least Squares structural equation modeling. Results indicated that both surface acting and deep acting were linked positively to work-family conflict. Surface acting emerged as a most important variable contributing to more than seventy five percent of variance of work-family conflict. Finally, work-family conflict mediated the relationship between emotional labor strategies (i.e. surface acting/deep acting) and psychological distress. Keywords: Emotional Labor, Work-Family Conflict, Mediation
Although study of emotions have long been a topic of interest to psychologists and sociologists (e.g., Clark, 1992; Thoits, 1990) recently organizational behavior researchers have started increasingly recognizing the important role of emotions within the work setting (e.g., Hartel, Zerbe, & Ashkanasy, 2005). One area of emotion research that has received considerable attention within work setting is emotional labor (EL) (e.g., Ashforth & Tomiuk, 2000; Grandey, 2000; Hochschild, 1983). EL is the regulation of emotions for a wage (Hochschild, 1983). EL consists of personal interactions (mainly apart from job descriptions) among employees and between employees and customers that facilitate the effective and smooth operation of the organization (Meier, Mastracci, & Wilson, 2006). Since the conceptualization of EL concept by Hochschild (1983), considerable amount of theoretical and empirical research has been done regarding its conceptualization, antecedents and consequences (e.g., Ashforth & Tomiuk, 2000; Grandey, 2000; Grandey & Brauburger, 2002; Rafaeli & Sutton, 1987; Schaubroeck & Jones, 2000; Zapf, 2002). There is accumulating evidence that EL influences psychological distress within work setting (e.g., Kruml & Geddes, 2000; Totterdell & Holman, 2003). Although this stream of research has contributed substantially to explicating the role of EL in relation to psychological distress, it is not without limitations. For instance, while the role of EL in predicting psychological distress is well established, the mechanism through which EL predicts psychological distress is little researched. One potential construct that can serve as a linking 584
g. WFC. With the increasing trend of “service oriented organizations “ (e. Bowen. depression and psychological distress (e. For instance. There is increasingly scholarly interest in the relationship between work and family life (Eby. 585 . Michel.. Conceptual Framework Emotional Labor In many situations in our daily lives. p. For example. Hochschild (1983) was among the first to examine such phenomenon in the modern work setting and coined the term emotional labor. 2009. Bordeaux. Casper. employees as emotional beings play the key roles and must be instructed by the organization to present themselves according to certain emotional rules. burnout. Michel et al.g. thus providing some empirical cross-cultural validity of EL-psychological distress relationship. Carlson & Kacmar. She defined EL as “the management of feeling to create a publicly observable facial and bodily display to keep up with job requirements. Kinman. Yanchus. 2008. and certain life outcomes (e. & Brinely. Recently. the role of EL has gone beyond the traditional focus on only service provider-client interaction to universally applied phenomenon in the work place (Liu. Frone & Rice. Studying the links between work and family are important because conflict between family and work life has been linked to many undesirable outcomes such as. 1989). (2005) found no significant relationship between SA and WFC.g. 2006). Thus. 7). We also regulate our emotions (displaying particular ones and suppressing others) in response to job-related expectations of appropriate emotional behavior or for a wage. Hochwarter. Frone. & Cooper.. Psychological distress is a serious problem faced by many employees (Tsaousis & Nikolaou. 2005.. there are still several gaps in the existing literature. This study sought to test a model of EL that includes WFC in the EL-Psychological distress relationship in a sample of employees working in public sector organizations. 1999.European Journal of Social Sciences – Volume 11. Siehl. An understanding of the relationship between EL. (2008) found a positive and significant relationship between surface acting (SA) (a form of EL) and WFC. various models have been presented within the work-family literature explicating the mediatory role of work-family construct between work and family domain antecedents. Lance. Eby. in press). & Baltes. Panagopolou. in two different studies conducted on nurses. Kotrba. & Kacmar. whereas Montgomery et al. we often display particular emotions (which may not correspond to the emotions we are actually experiencing) in response to social expectations of appropriate behavior. LeBreton. Lockwood.g. & Harpel. Furthermore. This study adds to the literature by testing the proposed model in the South Asia. more research is clearly required that examines relationship between aspects of EL and WFC in other occupational and cultural settings. Frone et al. where internal clients and coworkers are equally treated as important customer-like constituencies (Witt. 1990. Number 4 (2009) mechanism between EL and psychological health is work-family conflict (WFC) (Montgomery. 1992). Despite this initial stream of research. Perrewé.. stress.. Hence. Montgomery et al. 2009). Montgomery.. Seery.. and psychological distress will help managers to take care of problem of distress in employees. 2005). 1987. Carlson & Perrewé. EL is sold for a wage and therefore has exchange value “(p. The process in which people regulate (and display) their emotions to comply with social norms is referred to as “emotion work “(Hochschild. 2005. 2006. & Drollinger. most of the previous studies relating EL to WFC and psychological distress have been conducted in the West raising the questions about the extent to which these findings are generalizable to the East. Corrigall.118). but none of the reviewed research specifically examined the mediatory role of WFC in the relationship between EL and psychological distress.1992. researchers have started giving attention to the relationship between EL and WFC (e. Seery et al. Frone. & Schneider. For instance. Wildt. & Meenks. 2000. 2009). Panagopolou. 1999). Mitchelson. & Benos. Russell. 2004). Moreover. results concerning the relationship between EL and WFC are somewhat inconsistent. there are times we suppress anger when being cut off by someone in waiting line. 2003.
WFC can be time-based. In other words.. In SA. Employees performing DA are often too identified (preoccupied) with their work roles that they find it difficult to depersonalize and detach themselves from their work roles. when the strain experienced in one role domain intrude or ‘spill over” into the other role. 2002). DA involves changing inner feelings by altering something more than outward appearance. employee hide felt emotions or fake unfelt emotions.. According to Greenhaus and Beutell (1985). be empathetic to their circumstances. Furthermore. Strained –based conflict occurs. In timebased conflict. Ashforth & Humphrey. Furthermore. Hypothesis 1: DA is positively related to WFC.g. which compel employees to replace and suppress their 586 . son. This estrangement between work roles and oneself leads to emotional dissonance (a gap between felt and expressed emotions) and is associated with many negative psychological outcomes (e. 2003). due to this fusion of self and work role. strained based. For example. Employees engaged in DA make an effort to understand people. In other words. Thus. Grandey. a cashier maintains a smile and social demeanor even though internally he might be feeling sad. Hence. Zapf. Finally. employee attempts to deeply modify internal feelings to match the required organizational display rules. behavior-based conflict occurs when the behaviors that are expected or appropriate in one role (family/work) are viewed as inappropriate or dysfunctional when used in other role (family/work). This preoccupation may interfere with their efforts to fulfill the demands of a competing role (Greenhaus & Beutell. and internalize their feelings. 77).g. According to Hochschild (1983).. For example. making it difficult to fulfill the responsibilities of that role. According to Wharton (1999). SA increases emotional dissonance (a gap between felt and expressed emotions) (Grandey. SA is termed as “faking in bad faith “(Rafaeli & Sutton. Hochschild (1983) assert that. 1983). They find it difficult to recover their true feelings (even after the role performance) and hence lose track of when they are acting or not (Hochschild. 2003. performance of EL duties may engender a fusion of self and work roles.g. The relationship between EL and WFC can be traced into behavior-based and strained –based conflict. employees performing EL duties may become estranged from their true feelings. or behavior based. a cashier tries to look concerned by feeling what a demanding customer is experiencing (from within the frame of reference of that particular customer). Number 4 (2009) Researchers proposed that employees perform EL through two types of acting mechanism: surface acting (SA) and deep acting (DA) (e. and is likely to experience conflict between the roles (work role and family role). For example.g.. father. husband). In DA. 1985). The emotional dissonance has important implication for strained –based conflict (when the strain experienced in one role domain intrude or ‘spill over” into the other role).European Journal of Social Sciences – Volume 11. EL and Work-Family Conflict Greenhaus and Beutell (1985) define WFC as. Hence. employee modifies outward displays to be consistent with display rules without shaping inner feelings. authority) may be incompatible with behaviors desired by members within the family domain. “a form of inter-role conflict in which the role pressures from the work and family domains are mutually incompatible in some respect” (p. a person is unable to adjust behavior to comply with the expectations of different roles (e. but negative emotion is being experienced. behavior-based conflict is described as conflict stemming from incompatible behaviors demanded by competing roles. behavioral styles that employees exhibit at work (e. brother. power. 1987). the time demands of one role make it difficult to participate fully in another role. The expression of positive emotion is fitting for the customer-service context. 1993. 2003). high involvement in a role due to DA is predicted to influence WFC. the major reason for emotional dissonance is that the organizational display rules prevent employees from interacting with customers based on spontaneous intuition. SA is also detrimental to organization in a way that employees conform to organizational display rules in order to keep their jobs. Hochschild. but not to help customers or organization (Grandey. 1983). Rafaeli and Sutton (1987) referred to this act as “faking in good faith” because employees’ intent is to seem authentic to the audience.
g.. 1980). 92 participants of the total sample (46 percent) were males and 108 (54 percent) were females. it has been argued that emotional dissonance is the direct outcome of SA. Grandey. 1977). Godshalk. or fatigue at work make it difficult to pursue satisfying nonworking life (Bartolome & Evans. Since SA leads to inauthentic/fake emotional displays. 2002). For example. SA is positively related to WFC. 1999. WFC has been found associated with Burnout (Netemeyer. psychosomatic complaints. 1986). 2005. Research suggests that certain stressful events at work. 1992. 2007. high levels of depersonalization (Kinnunen & Mauno. this study expects that WFC will mediate the relationship between EL and psychological distress. Prior research has found a strong relationship between SA and emotional exhaustion (e. Hypothesis 4b. burnout. This leads to following predictions: Hypothesis 4a. 1992). Michel et al. dysphoria. 2000. There is ample evidence for the negative effects of WFC on psychological factors. and certain outcomes (e. All participants were treated in accordance with the “Ethical principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct” (American Psychological Association. 2002. WFC mediates the relationship between DA and psychological distress. 2009). SA exerts its negative effects through emotional dissonance on other negative psychological outcomes. This scale measures psychological distress in terms of current non-psychotic symptoms in the five symptom areas represented by scales of health concerns. and suicidal ideas. Purohit.. (2006) hypothesized that work family interference (WFI) mediates the relationship between EL (DA and SA) and burnout. & McMurrian... 2007). Montgomery et al. 1998). This leads to following prediction: Hypothesis 3. Ilgen. 1981). 2003. Coefficients alphas for the 587 .. Grandey et al. A given variable functions as a mediator when its inclusion in analysis results in a significant reduction in the relationship between the independent and outcome variable (Baron & Kenny. (2006) hypothesis. & Beutell. WFC mediates the relationship between SA and psychological distress. have a debilitating effect on quality of family life (Jackson & Maslach. WFI was found to partially mediate between SA and both cynicism and psychosomatic complaints but no support was found for the mediatory role of WFI between DA and cynicism and psychosomatic complaints. Boles.Various models have been presented within the work-family literature explicating the mediatory role of work-family construct between work and family domain antecedents. Number 4 (2009) own emotional response by an organizationally sanctioned response. Carlson & Kacmar. and cynicism. Measures Psychological distress. 1996). Pakistan. Emotional exhaustion refers to the depletion of emotional resources and physical energy to such a degree that adequate resources are no longer available to effectively manage the emotions (Maslach & Jackson. 1982) and may cause withdrawal from personal contact at home (Kanter. 2003. Psychological distress was measured by Chan’s (2005) twenty items scale. In line with Montgomery et al. Carlson & Perrewé. 1996). Brotheridge & Grandey. sleep problems. Frone et al. Johnson. WFC is positively related to psychological distress. Method Participants The sample for this study consisted of 200 employees from three public sector organizations situated in province of Balochistan. Administration of the questionnaires was carried out by post graduate students who acted as research assistants and no monetary incentive was provided.10). The mean age for this sample was 31.g. Respondents were requested to rate each symptom statement on a 5-point scale (not at all to extremely) by comparing themselves during the past 2 weeks with their ‘usual selves’.48 years (SD = 8. O’Driscoll.European Journal of Social Sciences – Volume 11. Brotheridge & Lee. This leads to following prediction: Hypothesis 2. psychological distress (Kafetsios. & Hildreth. and psychological well being (Parasuraman. anxiety.
In the present study. “things I want to do at home do not get done because of the demands my job puts on me”. or (2) ten times the largest number of structural paths directed at a particular construct in the inner path model (Barclay. Wende. The measurement model is tested by assessing the validity and reliability of the items and constructs in the model. PLS is far less restrictive in its distributional assumptions and sample size restrictions as compared to covariance-based structural equation modeling. PLS is a latent variable modeling technique that incorporates multiple dependent constructs and explicitly recognizes measurement error. 2005). and Will. Tatham. and suicidal ideas: . According to Henseler. The sample items include. 1999). Moreover. The sample items include. Based on these results. dysphoria: . WFC was measured by five item scale that was developed by Netemeyer et al. I resorted to Partial Least Squares (PLS) path modeling algorithm.Composite reliability (ρc) (Werts. 2006). “I make an effort to actually feel the emotions that I need to display to others”.60. The measurement model relates to the relations between manifest variables (observed items) and latent variables. individual item reliability is assessed by examining the loadings of respective items on their respective latent construct (Hulland. SA was measured by five items adopted from Grandey’s (2003) EL scale.86 respectively). An AVE value greater than 0. The response scale has been seven point Likert-type scale ranging from one (strongly disagree) to seven (strongly agree). Higgins. i. Furthermore. Like covariance based structural equation modeling (CBSEM). Whereas. Specifically.72 and .European Journal of Social Sciences – Volume 11. the coefficient of internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) for this scale was . Work-to-family conflict. Furthermore. these requirements were well met. In this study.5. Composite reliability is preferred over Cronbach’s alpha because it offers a better estimate of variance shared by the respected indicators and because it uses the item loadings obtained within the nomological network (Hair. the application of PLS requires a minimum sample size that is (1) ten times the number of items comprising the most formative constructs. CR = 11. With a sample size of 200 in this study. The higher loadings imply that there is more shared variance between the construct and its measures than error variance. However. I employed SmartPLS (Ringle.. The sample items include. 1974) and Cronbach’s alpha (1951) were used to assess the reliability of scales.57. I employed Fornell and Larcker’s (1981) average variance extracted (AVE) criterion. p < . For assessing the convergent validity1 of constructs. Number 4 (2009) five dimensions were: health concerns: .05). maximum likelihood models are based on assumptions of a specific joint multivariate distribution and independence of the observations (independently and identically distributed. 1995).78. & Joreskog. the SA and DA scales had good internal consistencies (Alphas . & Black. iid). which allows for estimating both measurement model and structural model simultaneously. & Thompson.e. PLS does not impose such requirements on data. 1999). 1994). anxiety: .75. This ensures that only reliable and valid constructs’ measures are used before assessing the nature of relationships in the overall model.89. (1996). “I just pretend to have the emotions I need to display for my job”. Ringle.86. low loadings add very little to the explanatory power of the model while attenuating the estimates of the parameters linking constructs (Hulland. Emotional Labor. and Sinkovics (2009) recommendations PLS model was analyzed and interpreted in two stages: the measurement model and the structural model. Linn. Mardia’s (1970) coefficient of multivariate kurtosis provided by AMOS (Arbuckle. 2006) indicated that the assumption of multivariate normality was not tenable (Mardia’s coefficient = 48. sleep problems: . The response scale has been seven point Likert-type scale ranging from one (strongly disagree) to seven (strongly agree). PLS applies to situations where knowledge about distribution of the latent variables is limited and requires the estimates to be more closely tied to the data compared to covariance structure analysis (Fornell & Cha. In PLS. Anderson.50 indicates that a latent variable is able to explain more than half of the 588 . Design and Analysis Inspection of skewness and kurtosis statistics revealed non normality for most of the items.68. DA was measured by three items adopted from Brotheridge and Lee (1998) EL scale.
The nonparametric bootstrapping procedure (Chin. 1998. 2009). effect sizes were determined by a method identified by Cohen (1988. 2005). respectively. where a higher value represents better path model estimations. the loading of each indicator is expected to be greater than all of its cross-loadings.19 for endogenous latent variables are described as substantial. whereas Q-square less than 0 mean that the model lacks predictive relevance (Fornell & Cha. Structural model specifies relations between latent constructs. In PLS. 1998). f2 values of 0. The PLS structural model is mainly evaluated by R2 of endogenous latent variable Chin (1998). Both statistics are obtained through blindfolding procedure in PLS. The prediction of an MV of an endogenous block j (e. 0. a cross-validated redundancy predicts the omitted data points by constructs that are predictors of the blindfolded construct in the PLS model (Chin. represents an index for validating the PLS model globally. The structural model is tested by estimating the paths between the constructs. 1981). On the other hand. Geiser.410) and adopted by Schroer and Herterl (2009) in PLS path models.. that is. 1974. Each latent variable shares more variance with its own block of indicators than with another latent variable representing a different block of indicators. The evaluation of PLS model is therefore based on prediction oriented measures that are non-parametric (Chin. & Lauro. 1998). 1998). A cross-validated communality H2j is obtained if prediction of the omitted data points in the manifest variables block is made by underlying latent variable (Chin. In the present study.15. 2005). and the procedure is repeated until every data point has been ignored and estimated. effect sizes of single predictors are obtained by comparing the explained amount of variance when a predictor is either included or not included in the model. 1998). In other words. that is. and large effects. 1975).. which is the geometric mean of the average communality (outer measurement model) and the average R2 of endogenous latent variables. Goodness-of-fit (GoF) (Tenanhaus et al. The ignored data part is than estimated using the estimated parameters. Esposito Vinzi.. 2003) using 1000 subsamples was performed to evaluate the statistical significance of each path coefficient and to provide confidence intervals for all parameter estimates. respectively. According to Chin (1998). Goodness of Fit index (GoF) (Tenenhaus. According to cross loading criterion (Chin. GoF is normed between 0 and 1.g. GoF. Omission and estimation of data point for the blindfolded construct depend on the chosen omission distance G (Chin. p. 0. and by using the Stone-Geiser Q-square test for predictive relevance (Stone. Blindfolding procedure (while estimating Q-squares) ignores a part of the data for a particular block during parameter estimation (a block of indicators is the set of measures for a construct). It uses only the measurement model. According to Cohen (1988). the cv-redundancy F2j measures the capacity of the path model to predict the endogenous MVs indirectly from a prediction of their own LV using the related structural relation. which are an indicator of the model’s predictive ability. Number 4 (2009) variance of its indicators on average (Henseler et al. In other words.33. Discriminant validity2 of measurement model was tested through Fornell and Larcker’s (1981) AVE test and cross loadings criterion (Chin. and 0. crossvalidated communality (H2j) and cross-validated redundancy (F2j).European Journal of Social Sciences – Volume 11.. and 0. medium. f2 = (R2incl – R2excl)/ (1 – R2includ). R2 values of 0. 1998). two kinds of Q-squares statistics are estimated. the cvcommunality H2j measures the capacity of the path model to predict the manifest variables (MVs) directly from their own latent variable (LV) by cross-validation. Chatelin.67.35 signify small. Contrary to CBSEM (covariance based structural equation modeling) PLS path modeling does not report any kind of fit indices like TFI. by crossvalidation. 2005) was employed to judge the overall fit of the model. WFC) is carried out using all the 589 . effect size f2 (Cohen. 1988). 1994). The Q-squares statistics measure the predictive relevance of the model by reproducing the observed values by the model itself and its parameter estimates. Davison & Hinkley.02.. In this method. A Q-square greater than 0 means that the model has predictive relevance. RMSEA or CFI (since PLS makes no distributional assumptions for parameter estimation). The prediction of a MV of an endogenous block is carried out using only the MVs of this block (Tenanhaus et al. Evidence of discriminant validity occurs when square root of the variance extracted estimation exceed the correlations between the factors making each pair (Fornell and Larcker. 1998). as looking for a compromise between the performance of the measurement and the structural model. moderate and weak respectively.
nor a standard error for this effect that might permit direct investigation of statistical significance. PD = Psychological distress.86 0.50) on their respective factors which was an indication of indicator reliability. 590 . Number 4 (2009) MVs of the blocks j* (e. 1981).81 0. Mediation analysis was conducted with latent variable scores obtained in PLS analysis and then using these latent variable scores as an input for the SPSS macro provided by Preacher and Hayes (2004).e.75 0... WFC) (Tenanhaus et al.50 0. and DA) (Table 1).89 0.European Journal of Social Sciences – Volume 11. Second.51 DA 0. Results revealed that the variance extracted for all factors exceeded the minimum threshold value of . Composite reliability (ρc) (Werts. SA = Surface acting.λi. and Var (εi) = 1 . SA and DA) related with the explanatory LVs of the dependent LV j (e. and large predictive relevance of certain latent variable. where where λi is the outer factor loading.g. Results Measurement Model The factor loadings from the final PLS measurement models are reported in Figure 1. c α = Cronbach Alpha (Cronbach.91 0. d Average variance extracted (AVE) = (Σ λ2i) / [(Σ λ2i) + Σ Var (εi)]. which was an indication of discriminant validity of four constructs (i. In accordance to effect size (f2). 2009).83a 0. b Composite reliability (ρc) = (Σ λi)2 / [(Σ λi)2 + Σ Var (εi)]. medium. the relative impact of the structural model on the observed measures for latent dependent variable is evaluated by means of q2 (Henseler et al. 2005). & Joreskog.42 0.70 (Nunnally & Bernstein. 2008).83 0.. First. it ignores the central question: Is the indirect effect different from zero? (Preacher & Hayes.76 0.78 WFC = Work-family conflict. and 0..41 0.λi. testing the null hypothesis that indirect effect = 0 requires one fewer hypothesis test. 1951). Table1: Reliability. and Var (εi) = 1 . 2004. Finally. psychological distress.g. in order to test the mediation effect of WFC.34 0.02. WFC. DA = Deep acting.70 PD 0. 1982.50 which was an indication of convergent validity of all scales (Table 1).15.70 0. This index is used for measuring the quality of the path model. 1981). The q2 values of 0. Convergent and Discriminant Validity Correltations 2 3 CRb αc AVEd 1 2 3 4 Note: 1 3 WFC 0. thus indicating the reliability of all scales used in this study (Table 1).35 signify small.87 0. 0. 2008). Preacher & Hayes. and thus type II error in the testing of mediation would be less likely (Preacher & Hayes. where λi is the outer factor loading. 1994). All items loaded significantly (> . That is.. 2004).57 SA 0. Fornell and Larcker’s (1982) test for discriminant validity revealed relatively high variances extracted for each factor compared to the inter-scale correlations.29 0. 1974) and Cronbach’s alpha (1951) values for all scales exceeded the minimum threshold level of .92 0. I employed product of coefficients strategy (Sobel. a square root of AVE.26 0. is the measurement error or the error variance associated with the individual indicator variable(s) for that given factor (Fornell & Larcker. is the measurement error or the error variance associated with the individual indicator variable(s) for that given factor (Fornell & Larcker. thus explaining the endogenous latent variable under evaluation. SA. Linn. causal step approach does not consider the estimate of the indirect effect. Product of coefficients strategy is preferred over Baron and Kenny’s (1986) casual step approach because of two main reasons.88 0.
001. q2 = .47 0. q2 = .33.88. 95% CI: (-.42 8.19). t values and CIs are calculated through bootstrapping routine with 200 cases and 1000 samples.32 0. t = 1. Exogenous variables in the model explained low amounts of variance of WFC (R2 = . q2 = .63 -0.29). t = 4. f2 = (R2incl – R2excl)/ (1 – R2includ). PD = Psychological Distress.11.26 0.63.03 0. 95% CI: (.10. 2005). f2 = . 95% CI: (.15 2. Table 2: Path Coefficients q2 0. the coefficient of the path from SA to psychological distress was insignificant ((β = . as was the coefficient of the path from DA to WFC.01 Note. PD2 = sleep problems.09 0. p > .10 0. f2 = .28).52).03). the WFC was significantly related to psychological distress with medium effect size and low predictive relevance (β = .88 -0.07) (hypothesis 3).02. Structural Model The results shown in Table 2 support hypothesis 1and 2: the coefficient of the path from SA to WFC was significant with low effect size and low predictive relevance (β = .01 Path β t LL 95% CI UL 95%CI f2 WFC -> PD 0. 95% CI: (-. DA = Deep acting.001) – (. SA = Surface acting. f2 = . The value of R2 may be decomposed in terms of the multiple regression coefficients and correlations between the dependent variable and the explanatory ones (Tenanhaus et al.33 4. q2 = .09 0.17 SA -> WFC 0.32) – (.04 0. q2 = (F2j incl – F2j excl)/ (1 – F2j includ). p < .21 0.001 0.29 0.52 0.. p > .07).01 DA -> WFC 0.74 0.05.0001) – (.13 1. f2 = .13. PD1 = Health concerns.02 0.42.01. p < . t = 2.74. PD4 = dysphoria.05.26). t = 1. Number 4 (2009) Figure 1: Structural Model. q2 = .47).01).18) and psychological distress (R2 = .04. Finally.15.01).05. PD3 = anxiety.19 0. as was the coefficient of the path from DA to psychological distress ((β = .09) – (. 95% CI: (.02 DA -> PD 0. p < . PD5 =suicidal ideas.11 SA -> PD 0. WFC = Work-family conflict.European Journal of Social Sciences – Volume 11.009 0. t = 8.17.09. Furthermore.01.21) – (.09 1.07 0. This decomposition allows understanding the contribution of each 591 .01. with small effect size and predictive relevance (β = . f2 = .
64 . where D is the omission distance.001. xj is the independent latent variable. contributing to 75.23 0. SSE is the sum of squares of prediction errors. p < . We may notice that for this model all blocks had high values for cv-communality index H2.27) and between DA and psychological distress (indirect effect = 0.13.52 b Redundancy 0.0.37 Note: a Communality j = 1/p Σ cor2 (Xjh. the 0. WFC emerged as a most important variable contributing to 75 % of the R2 (Table 3).10 .35 . e GoF = (Tenanhaus et al.50 0. However. As can be seen in the Table 5.17.25 -. 2005). Table 4: Communality and Redundancy R2 0. taking into account the measurement model (Tenanhaus et al.14 15.. d CV-redundancy (F2j) = 1 – ΣD = (ΣD SSED) / (ΣD SSOD). SA was the most important variable in the prediction of WFC.14 c GoF 0. The communality index measures the quality of the measurement model for each block (Tenanhaus et al. Table 3: The Explanation of Psychological Distress (R2 = . 2005). It measures the capacity of the path model to predict the endogenous MVs indirectly from a prediction of their own LV using the related structural relation.52 . 95% CI: 0. Yj). regarding cv-redundancy index F2. b 2 H = CV-communality index c Redundancy j = communality j X R2. Xjh = hth MV in jth block..28 a Block WFC PD SA DA Average 0.European Journal of Social Sciences – Volume 11. 1994).78 0.17.001.. for the endogenous variable psychological distress. two separate mediation analysis were conducted (one for each EL strategy) with case values of composite latent variables obtained in the PLS analysis. For this model.12 % (far less than SA). Sobel z = 6.16 F2 .11 . 95% CI: 0. SA EI DA Note: a The blindfolding results (G = 30 blocks) are presented in Table 4.70. WFC and psychological distress had low values. by cross-validation (Tenanhaus et al.70 0. 2005).13 To test Hypothesis 4a and 4b proposing that WFC mediates the effect of EL strategies on psychological distress.63 H2 . 2009). 2005).26 32. and SSO is the sum of squares of observations (Henseler et al.10 . where ßj is the path coefficient. The redundancy index measures the quality of the structural model for each endogenous block. Sobel z = 3. results indicated that model had an acceptable predictive relevance.18 0. WFC mediated the relationship between SA and psychological distress (indirect effect = 0.32 .08 . In sum. Communality 0.19 -.16 % of the R2. These values were well above the threshold level of zero (Fornell and Cha.57 0. The bootstrapped confidence interval and the product of coefficient approach with second order SE estimate (Preacher and Hayes.35 52. 592 . Further. the signs of the indirect effects were consistent with the interpretation that SA and DA increase WFC.0..17) a r Contribution to R2 (%) ßj . p < .. which in turn influences psychological distress. Furthermore. Furthermore. Yj = latent variable. y is the dependent latent variable and. Number 4 (2009) explanatory variable to the prediction of the dependent one. On the contrary. where p = is the total number of MVs in the block.12 0.26 .37 value of GoF index was quite acceptable. DA contribution was only 24. 2004) were used to test the significance of indirect effects in both models.21 .21).
SA increases emotional dissonance (a gap between felt and expressed emotions).16%).g.. Among two EL strategies SA emerged as the most important predictor of WFC contributing to substantial proportion of the variance in the WFC (75. 1997. Kafetsios. Hence. The mediating role of WFC found for both SA and DA provides a new perspective regarding the way that the work can spill-over into non work life and impact psychological distress. the depletion of cognitive and energy resources (while modifying internal states in DA) suggests that emotional demands at work produce strain (Grandey. 1983).g. This is an important finding delineating the important role of WFC in predicting psychological distress.17 0. 593 . evidence has been provided that employees who commonly engage in SA (faking and suppressing emotions) have more WFC conflict. This is the first study (to my knowledge) in any South Asian country’s context to assess the relationship of EL strategies with other variables. This finding is in line with previous research that documented the adverse effects of WFC on psychological distress (Frone et al.. Montgomery et al.10 2 DA -> WFC -> PD 0. Kinman. 2006). both SA and DA impact WFC through emotional exhaustion but SA has more profound impact on WFC than DA’s impact.042 6. 89). WFC.. WFC emerged as a most important variable contributing to 75% of the variance in psychological distress.001 Discussion This study examined the associations amongst EL. Moreover. it is assumed that SA through emotional exhaustion intrude or spill over in the family domain and has debilitating effects on family life. These results were consistent with Grandey’s (2003) assertion that. Moreover. this preoccupation with job role makes it difficult for the employees to comply with their other roles at family. “DA minimizes emotional dissonance by bringing feelings in line with expressions. which in turn leads to emotional exhaustion (a key component of burnout) (Grandey. 2003) that makes it difficult for employees to fulfill family duties and responsibilities. 2006. Proposed hypothesis received considerable support.21 Model Path Indirect effect S.08 Note: Values are calculated through a bootstrapping routine with 200 cases and 1000 samples. Montgomery et al. “selling” feelings for a wage results in alienation from one’s real self (Hochschild. 2005. The results suggest that the direct effect of SA is stronger for WFC as compared to DA’s effect.. In other words.g. In other words.. ** p < . 2007). Number 4 (2009) Table 5: Bootstrap Results for Indirect Effects UL 95 CI 0. as stated in hypothesis 4a and 4b. Although not directly tested in this study.European Journal of Social Sciences – Volume 11. The results of this study confirmed expectation for an inverse relationship between WFC and psychological distress. Montgomery et al. 2008. In terms of first hypothesis. Yanchus et al.. in press).E Sobel z LL 95 CI 1 SA -> WFC -> PD 0.13 0.. 2006. so DA’s relationship with emotional exhaustion should be weaker than the relationship between SA and emotional exhaustion” (p. Montgomery et al. In accordance with previous research findings (e. Seery et al. in press). The mediation results are consistent with the literature denoting the important role of WFC as a mediator (e.. This suggests that employees are more often preoccupied with their roles at work (due to DA) that they lose track of when they are acting (at work) and when they are off the job (at home).70** 0..17** 0. This is an important finding supporting accumulating evidence for the primacy of SA over DA as an important predictor of WFC (e. and psychological distress in a sample of public sector organizations in Pakistan.27 0.. 2009. Yanchus et al.039 3. The findings of this study suggest that the degree of EL undertaken by employees may have negative implications for their psychological well-being that extend beyond their work domain.. The results from the mediation analysis further point to the importance of WFC when examining SA and DA influence on psychological distress. DA was significantly related to WFC. 2003).
(a) Relaxation therapies (e. schedule breaks) that can be sufficient to recover from (emotional) load effects built up at work resulting from high level of emotional work. in press). These intervention strategies include. (e) building empathy between people and groups. According to Fredrickson’s (2000. 1998) suggests that employees build up negative effects on the job.g.. 594 . Number 4 (2009) Implications Effort-Recovery Model (E-R Model: Meijman & Mulder. Future studies should also explore the impact of EL strategies on family-to-work conflict (FWC). Yanchus et al. 2007. suggested many intervention strategies that may help in preventing and treating psychological health related problems. The negative impacts of emotional labor can be minimized by selecting employees with the aim of achieving the best person-job fit. resilience and wellness of people. imagery exercises. Research indicates that SA impacts WFC via negative affectivity (Yanchus et al. muscle exercises..European Journal of Social Sciences – Volume 11. Six. Besides training. Positive affectivity and emotional regulations skills are shown to be negatively related to WFC and psychological distress (Kafetsios. 1983) by providing them adequate resources needed to meet the demands of the job.g. this study only explored the relationship of WFC with EL strategies.. help in building personal strengths. Future research can examine these relationships for jobs that differ in terms of intellectual and interpersonal demands (e. (d) training employees in finding positive meaning in daily life. in press).. Third. Training programs focusing on emotional regulation skills and DA techniques to cope with emotional demands of work and family can help in reducing the deleterious effects of SA (Yanchus et al. Fredrickson’s (2000).. Second. 1). the relationships among these variables might differ depending on the type of job. Five. This does not necessarily give rise to negative consequences for employees’ well-being as long as employees are give adequate time to recover from these effects. The direction of causality (in cross-sectional studies) cannot be established and will have to be examined using longitudinal data. First. p. positive emotions (such as.g. Limitations and Recommendations The findings of this study are subject to several limitations which are common in this type of research. respondents in this study were full-time employees and these findings may not be applicable to part-time employees. Enhancement of positive emotions help in preventing and treating problems such a psychological distress. Engineering). This can help employees from carrying these negative effects from their work to non work life. as well as. it is suggested that intervention strategies should be introduced within work setting that cultivate positive emotions among employees. (c) cognitive therapies. and help in eradicating the hold of negative emotions on an individual’s mind and body. employers can help employees to internalize their roles rather to fake the emotions (Ashforth & Humphrey. sales vs. Based on Fredrickson’s (2001) broaden-and-build model of positive emotions. the results are specific to organizations in one geographical area and may or may not be generalizable to other areas. Fifth. joy and contentment) broaden an individual’s momentary thought –action repertoire. since all measures were self report based measures we cannot avoid the social desirability bias. (b) decreasing the intensity of unpleasant events and increasing the rates of engagement in pleasant activities. Jobs that require substantial amounts of EL (emotional demands) should take into consideration the adequate amount of private time (e.. For instance. applicants who demonstrate a high level of positive affectivity and emotional regulation skills would be considered good job fit for jobs requiring high level of EL strategies. mediation exercises). deeply rooted in negative emotions. the cross-sectional data precludes any inference of causality. in press).
Hillsdale. 2000. Fornell. (Ed. pp. Bowen. B. Casper. D. M. 14. A. Academy of Management Review. “Partial least squares”. Brotheridge.... P.. 1998. & Humphrey. In S. “Work and family research in IO/OB: Content analysis and review of the literature (1980–2002)”. S. T. & Perrewé. CA.. pp. Cambridge University Press. Cohen.)”. & Evans. R. Emotion in organizations (2nd ed. & Lee. A.0 User’s Guide”. Thousand Oaks. Baron.. & Grandey. E.C. Ashforth. D. “Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Codes of Conduct”. & Cha. J. Higgins. NY. 2005. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology. A. Sage. Davison. & Brinely.M. C. “Must success cost so much?”. Ashforth. 52-78). Basil Blackwell: Cambridge. Carlson. J. 25.. L. Harvard Business Review... & Thompson. In Bagozzi. M. vol.T. W. 14. Paper presented at the first conference on emotions in organizational life. & Hinkley. “The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual. Barclay.. R. 2003. 1980.)”. pp. & Kenny. 2003. Academy of Management Review. Technology Studies. M. 26. pp. 2005. pp. 1998. C. A. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 16(2). B. C. “Bootstrap methods and their application (2nd ed.M. 1993. S. A.1173-1182. M. GA. 16(3). 1994. Newbury Park. C.W. Siehl.).H. & Schneider. “The partial least squares approach to structural equation modeling”. 1031–1054. “Review of personality and social psychology: Emotion and social behavior”. strategic. Journal of Management.. S. “The role of social support in the stressor-strain relationship: An examination of work-family conflict”. 295–358). 124–197.. A. 513– 540. pp. W.. R. D. and statistical considerations”. Advanced methods of marketing research (pp.. Amos Development Corporation: Spring House. “On the dimensionality of emotional labor: Development and validation of the emotional labor scale”. “Emotional labor and authenticity: Views from service agents”. pp. Eby. Chin. Chan.European Journal of Social Sciences – Volume 11. High Ability Studies. APA. C. MA. NJ. L. social coping. 1995. Cronbach. 51. 2002. W. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Mahwah. 75-95. A. Carlson. pp..). “The partial least square approach to causal modeling: Personal computer adoption use as illustration”. E. 76(3).. 7-39. “Emotional labor in service roles: The influence of identity”. 1986. pp. Marcoulides(Ed. E. Brotheridgen. J. Journal of Vocational Behavior. (Ed. 365-379. D. Sage. “Work-family conflict in the organization: Do life role values make a difference?”. 2000. R.P. Modern Methods for Business Research (pp. 595 . San Diego. & Kacmar. Lockwood. 2006. pp. Brotheridge. P.E. F. DC Arbuckle. 66. D. Clark. C. “Development and validation of the Emotional Labour Scale”. Fineman (Ed. A.) (pp. 163-178.). NJ. 285-309. Journal of Management. Psychometrika. “Emotional labor and burnout: Comparing two perspectives of people work”. 184-203). L.. “A framework for analyzing customer service orientations in manufacturing”. pp. “Amos 7. J. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Bartolome. Journal of Vocational Behavior. J. L. “Coefficient Alpha and the internal structure of tests”. 2002. 88-115. B.). Washington. 60. 1988. R. 2(2). 1951. New York. C. & Lee. R. M. and psychological distress among Chinese gifted students in Hong Kong”. 137-148. In G. 58(2). 1999. “Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.. D. K. “Emotional Intelligence. A. 297-333. Number 4 (2009) References                      American Psychological Association.V. Bordeaux. 1992. D. & Tomiuk. W. 18(1). 1989.
.. A. M. Albany. “After-effects of job-related stress: Families as victims”. 77. M. S. Russell. Ringle. Lawrence Erlbaum. B. L. State University of New York Press.. 2005. M. 45-53. K. & Sideman. 1987. Frone. M. 143–162)”. pp. “Antecedents and outcomes of work. Hulland. “Is 'service with a smile' enough? Authenticity of positive displays during service encounters”. & Maslach. G. S. Frone. pp. E. “Emotion regulation in the workplace: A new way to conceptualize emotional labor”. A. J. 2003. Kemper (Ed. “Emotions in organizational Behavior”. 2000. Tatham.). W. A. 218-226. 18(1). W. Academy of Management Review. C. 3”. San Francisco.. 20. D. Kanfer (Eds. 63-77. 2009. American Psychological Association. M.. Hochschild. 96(1). J. 8. In T. Journal of Occupational Behavior. Grandey. Tetrick (Eds. pp. H. M. 1992. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. C.). & Ashkanasy. A. Geissser. D. M. pp. “Sources of conflict between work and family roles”.. R. 95-110. NJ. 56. R. Strategic Management Journal. J. CA. 195–204. pp. Available on the World Wide Web: http://journals. 76-88. “Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error”. Emotions in the workplace: Understanding the structure and role of emotions in organizational behavior (pp. 2007.apa. 1985. J. & Beutell.. Y. 596           . A.. G.European Journal of Social Sciences – Volume 11.. 277-320). R. 5. C.. A. 1999. Berkeley. 2003. “The use of partial least squares path modeling in international marketing”... R. L. Journal of the American Statistical Association. Fisk. L. C. N. Anderson. R. 10. & Cooper.org/prevention. E. Johnson. E. R. Academy of Management Journal. “Work-family balance. 2006. & Sinkovics. Fredrickson. Jansen. R. 320-328. 1990. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. M. “The managed heart: Commercialization of human feeling”. “Cultivating positive emotions to optimize health and well-being. A. University of California Press. & R. Hartel. pp.. Zerbe. pp. & Ghauri. J. B.. N. A. R. pp. & Larcker. Jossey-Bass. Lord. “The emotion regulation behind the customer service smile”. A. M. 2001. (Ed. Research agendas in the sociology of emotions (pp. Upper Saddle River.. 46(1). In R. pp. L. Journal of Applied Psychology. L. Journal of Marketing Research. 70. 2000. Frone. Hair. A. pp.). A. F. & Rice. J. 3. 1983. Hochschild. 86-96. R. “Multivariate data analysis”. J. Advances in International Marketing (pp. Number 4 (2009)           Fornell. Grandey. London. DC. R. Target article in Prevention and Treatment. F. 1981. H. 2005. Mattila. Henseler. “When the show must go on: Surface acting and deep acting as determinants of emotional exhaustion and peer-rated service delivery”. “The predictive samples reuse method with applications”. “Work-family conflict: The effect of job on family involvement”. Prentice-Hall. 38-55.family conflict: Testing a model of the work-family interface”. J. “Use of partial least squares (PLS) in strategic management research: a review of four recent studies”. & Black. “Service with a smile: Antecedents and consequences of emotional labor strategies”.. 2002. C. E. pp. J. In J.117-142).. C. N.). N. Bingley. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. Washington. Jackson. American Psychologist. S.. Fredrickson. University of South Florida.. Emerald. Greenhaus. Quick & L. 39-50. P. (eds. A. Klimoski. In Sinkovics. & Brauburger. 260-294). Grandey.W.). Handbook of occupational health psychology (pp. “The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broadenand-build theory of positive emotions”. Grandey. Journal of Occupational Behavior. 65–78. “Ideology and emotion management: A perspective and path for future research”. L.R. 1975. 1982.
M. Journal of Vocational Behavior. & Kacmar. pp. K. Thierry (Eds. 99-113. “Psychological aspects of workload”.) Emotions in the workplace: Research. interrole conflict. K. & W. Y. Panagopolou. Preacher. 1994. McGraw-Hill.. pp. M. pp. pp. Kinman. T... Kotrba. C. J.. pp. 2004. In P. Mitchelson.European Journal of Social Sciences – Volume 11. 199-218. “Antecedents and outcomes of work-family conflict among employed women and men in Finland”. Journal of Health and Organizational Management. Instruments. 51. G. pp. M. G. “Emotional labour and strain in ‘front-line’ service employees. C.. 74..). F. 118-135. Psychology Press. Journal of Managerial Psychology. Biometrika. pp. 4. pp. “Work and family in the United States: A critical review and agenda for research and policy”. Perrewé. and affective experiences”. S. J. 2006.. R. 10 (4). K. New York.. J.. Zerbe. 57. D. Human Relations.. pp. Handbook of work and organizational psychology: Vol. “Dispositional antecedents and consequences of emotional labor at work”. J. 2. J. A. W. Hellenic Journal of Psychology. Journal of Applied Psychology. Mastracci.. 1998. B. D. V. J. Journal of Occupational Behavior.. S. & Beutell. & Computers. R. Hove. 2000. Parasuraman. 36–51. 275-300. E. “Gender and emotional labor in public organizations: An empirical examination o f the link to performance”. 15-35. “Work-family interference. E. “Work-family conflict and its relationship with job satisfaction and psychological distress: The role of affect at work and gender”. 2009. N. S. I.. J. S. theory and practice (pp. 2. & Hildreth. Does mode of delivery matter?”. & Wilson. NewYork. Meier.. & Mauno. P. “Measures of multivariate skewness and kurtosis with applications”. H. S. C. A. M. T. 1977. M. Ilgen. & Benos. & Mulder. “A comparative test of work-family conflict models and critical examination of work-family linkages”. Godshalk. pp... Montgomery. 21. 1996. emotional labor and burnout”. 157-177.              597 . Journal of Vocational Behavior. D. Haertel. Drenth & H. K.. 81. Liu. 1981. S. K. Public Administration Review. 1996.. and psychological well-being”.. E. 24 (2). “Development and validation of workfamily conflict and family-work conflict scales”. 5-33). “Time devoted to job and off-job activities. Journal of Managerial Psychology. & Jackson. 519-530. Work psychology (pp. Russell Sage Foundation. 400410. Kanter. M. 2005. 1970. Westport. L. J. 19. pp. & Bernstein.. “The measurement of experienced burnout”. P. K. B.. 48. O’Driscoll. England. & Hayes. G. Montgomery. 36.. J.. Behavior Research Methods. J. Hochwarter. NY. 177-188). (Eds. S. Boles. & Geddes. 272-279. “Catching fire without burning out: Is there an ideal way to perform emotional labor?” In N. Y. Meijman. J. entrepreneurial career success. CT. 717-731. S. “Psychometric theory (3rd ed. E. pp. R.. 899-909. “SPSS and SAS Procedures for Estimating Indirect Effects in Simple Mediation Models”. Nunnally. Mardia. Kruml. A. Purohit. & Baltes. 2004. LeBreton.. E. Netemeyer. 1992. J. & McMurrian R. Ashkanasy. H. Maslach. 1998. 2006. 12-25. pp.)”. Nov/Dec. Kinnunen. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies.. Journal of Applied Psychology. Panagopolou. M. J. Number 4 (2009)      Kafetsios. K. 2007. L. F. de Wildt. Quorum Books.C. U. pp. A. Michel. 395–408. 2009. A. & Meenks.. J. 77. “Work and family variables. “Emotional labour at work and at home among Greek health-care professionals”.
111-133. J. 2005. Albany.). pp. “Emotional deviance: Research agendas”.). Journal of Vocational Behavior (2009). Media Psychology.. pp. N.. R. Emotional labor in service economy (pp. & Hayes. & Drollinger. “The psychosocial consequences of emotional labor”. Behavior Research Methods. V. 2008. & Sutton. Yanchus. T.). J. Research agendas in the sociology of emotions (pp. & D. Steinberg. 159–205. pp.1016/j. doi:10. M. Sociological methodology (pp. S. Academy of Management Review. Werts. In S. Zapf. San Francisco. Linn. « Antecedents of work place emotional labor dimensions and moderators of their effects on physical symptoms”. 12. E. “Intra class reliability estimates: Testing structural assumptions”.smartpls. Schaubroeck.. pp.. “Job-related emotional labor and its relationship to work-family conflict and facilitation”. A. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. Tenenhaus. Number 4 (2009)                  Preacher. M. Lance.jvb. K. 77–86.European Journal of Social Sciences – Volume 11. “Asymptotic confidence intervals for indirect effects in structural equations models”. 2005. M. Corrigall. GA. E. 1999.001. 12. 1982. 1999. 2002. 2009. 12(1). Totterdell. J. & Jones. L... Stone. “This job is too much: Emotional labor on the job”. In R. L. “Emotion work and psychological wellbeing: A review of the literature and some conceptual considerations”.. 21. pp. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society.G. Sobel. 34(1). Rafaeli. 879-891. K. J. “SmartPLS Version 2. M. Esposito Vinzi.-M. “The impact of emotional labor on work–family outcomes”.2009. “Asymptotic and Resampling Strategies for Assessing and Comparing Indirect Effects in Multiple Mediator Models”. “Cross-validiation choice and assessment of statistical predictions”. D. www. A. 237-268. Witt.de. R. “Expression of emotion as part of the work role”. L. R. 290-312). S. & Will. A. Wende. “Emotion regulation in customer service roles: Testing a model of emotional labor”.. Tsaousis. pp. A.. 21. Wharton. 1987. J. & Holman.. 163-183. 2005. pp. I. pp. F.. 1974. Eby.. 29. Figart (Eds. 23-37. C. Journal of Family and Economic Issues. A. L. Seery. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. T. A. 1974. Jossey-Bass. P.36(2). C. L. Schroer. E. 48(1). C. 2008. “Voluntary engagement in an open web-based encyclopedia: Wikipedians.Y. In T. Atlanta. I. 38-45). Chatelin. & Hertel. Ringle. & Joreskog. G.. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Stress and Health. & Nikolaou. pp.. B. Thoits. Computational Statistics & Data Analysis. 461-477. J. “Exploring the relationship of emotional intelligence with physical and psychological health functioning”. D. P.05.0 M2”. 561. 25–33. 96-120. “PLS path modeling”. L. 1990. 2000. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 598 . 40. (in press). and why they do it”. 8(1). C. & Harpel. Educational and Psychological Measurement. pp. State University of New York Press. Leinhart (Ed. M. Kemper (Ed. 55-73. 2003. 180-203). pp.. & Lauro. Human Resource Management Review.