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Eco l i n gu ae: ap p r o ach es o n m i n o r i t y l an gu ages an d


m i n o r i t y t ar get gr o u p s
Balle Garcia Magdal ena Theof anell is Ti moleon
Ionescu D. - Enescu L. - Tanur I. Habermann Bir git
Vidinovska Margarit a Pve Anna-Margit h
April 2012
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This book is created as part of the
Gruntdvig project
Ecolinguae: a world of minority
in a globalized Europe
ISBN: 978-960-99789-1-0
Pages 251
Coordinator of the Gruntdvig Project:
Balle Garcia Magdalena
Editor of the book: Theofanellis Timoleon
Balle Garcia Magdalena Pve Anna-Margith
Ionescu D. - Enescu L. -
Tanur I.
Habermann Birgit
Vidinovska Margarita Theofanellis Timoleon
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The size of the letters is
selected intentionally large so
as to be read from the screen.
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Cont ent s
Ecoli nguae: approaches on mi nori t y languages and mi nori t y t arget groups .............................................................. 1
1. Why do we write this book? ................................................................................................................................. 7
2. Prologue .............................................................................................................................................................. 8
3. Why the project Ecolinguae: A world of mi nority diversity in a globalized Europe ? ............................ 10
4. Why this book? ................................................................................................................................................ 14
The Catalan team ................................................................................................................................................ 16
ESTRATGIES DES D UN CENTRE D ENSENYAMENT DADULTS PER A FOMENTAR LS DEL
CATAL.......................................................................................................................................................... 16
The Catalan language in Europe .................................................................................................................... 21
Catalan in Spain and the Balearic Islands ..................................................................................................... 27
The Balearic Islands ........................................................................................................................................ 30
Methodology ................................................................................................................................................... 35
Cepa Son Canals.............................................................................................................................................. 71
Sami team ............................................................................................................................................................ 72
Language Policy .............................................................................................................................................. 79
Language switch ............................................................................................................................................. 80
Sami Language Act ......................................................................................................................................... 80
A common Finno-Sami protolanguage ......................................................................................................... 83
Sami pl ace names ............................................................................................................................................ 85
Current l inguistic situation ............................................................................................................................ 86
Cooking on tradional way .............................................................................................................................. 96
Smij hpadusguovdsj / Sami Education ................................................................................................... 100
Sami joint Nordic co....................................................................................................................................... 111
The Sami institution ....................................................................................................................................... 112
Finni sh team ....................................................................................................................................................... 114
Practise the use of Finnish l anguage i n discussion groups in Lnsimki l ibrary. ..................................... 114
Strategy ........................................................................................................................................................... 115
Activities Idea................................................................................................................................................. 115
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Values ............................................................................................................................................................. 117
Benefits of the project .................................................................................................................................... 118
Why teach in the l ibrary? .............................................................................................................................. 119
The key competences ..................................................................................................................................... 121
History of Finland .......................................................................................................................................... 123
Culture ............................................................................................................................................................ 124
Kalevala .......................................................................................................................................................... 126
Finland and Language Politics: a Short Hi story .......................................................................................... 128
Language Minorities in Finland, Legislation and Statistics ........................................................................ 130
About the Finnish Language ......................................................................................................................... 131
History of Lnsimki library ......................................................................................................................... 133
Finni sh speaker of the l ibrary staff. .............................................................................................................. 137
Vantaa City Library ....................................................................................................................................... 140
Romanian team .................................................................................................................................................. 142
Example of good practice .............................................................................................................................. 142
Romani language ........................................................................................................................................... 146
The language .................................................................................................................................................. 147
History, geography and demography .......................................................................................................... 148
Legal status and official policies ................................................................................................................... 153
Presence and use of the language in various fields ..................................................................................... 154
Education ........................................................................................................................................................ 154
Judicial authorities ......................................................................................................................................... 156
Publ ic authorities and services ...................................................................................................................... 157
Mass media and information technology ..................................................................................................... 158
Arts and Culture ............................................................................................................................................ 158
The business world ........................................................................................................................................ 159
Family and the social use of l anguage .......................................................................................................... 159
Conclusion ...................................................................................................................................................... 160
European Commission .................................................................................................................................. 160
Traditional crafts ............................................................................................................................................ 183
Jean Monnet High school .............................................................................................................................. 199
German team ...................................................................................................................................................... 203
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Sprachpartnerschaften fr Deutschlerner an der LEB ................................................................................. 203
Sorbi an a minority language in Germany ................................................................................................. 204
The Sorbs in Germany ................................................................................................................................... 208
Culture ............................................................................................................................................................ 214
Superstition: ................................................................................................................................................... 214
Religion: .......................................................................................................................................................... 215
Drinks and food: ............................................................................................................................................ 217
Sport: ............................................................................................................................................................... 217
Family life: ...................................................................................................................................................... 218
Customs: ......................................................................................................................................................... 218
Cock cutting: .................................................................................................................................................. 219
Birds Wedding: .............................................................................................................................................. 219
Zampern: ........................................................................................................................................................ 220
Holy days: ...................................................................................................................................................... 220
Language ........................................................................................................................................................ 221
Projects carried out during the GRUNDTVIG- partnership ....................................................................... 229
Key Competences........................................................................................................................................... 241
Lndliche Erwachsenenbi ldung Prignitz- Havelland e. V. ......................................................................... 245
Greek team ......................................................................................................................................................... 248
H ou.+o_q o,.......................................................................................................................................... 248
The description of the Greek project team ................................................................................................... 250
Our activities are the following: .................................................................................................................... 253
Ottoman impacts on LESBOS ISLAND CIVILISATION ............................................................................ 264
Loan words in Greek language ..................................................................................................................... 269
The Roma Peopl e in Greece........................................................................................................................... 275
Credits ............................................................................................................................................................ 281
Teacher Trainer office of Lesvos ................................................................................................................... 282
Our institutions .................................................................................................................................................. 283
Epi logue ............................................................................................................................................................. 293
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1. Why do we write this book?
Thi s book i s a way to di ssemi nate the resul ts of a two year project.
The project i s done usi ng E.U. fundi ng (Grundtvi g LLP). The
partici pati ng organizati ons from each country descri be thei r
experi ence in teachi ng mi nori ty l anguages and share successful
practi ces. The purpose of the book is to share these experi ences
and the ways we found to tackl e them wi th other adul t educators
si nce we al l face si mi l ar probl ems. Thi s di gital manual can al so be
used by language teachers i n general. In thi s project parti ci pate
adul t school s, l i brari es and other organizati ons who work wi th
adul t l earners from Spai n, Sweden, Fi nl and, Germany, Romania
and Greece.
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2. Prologue
Thi s di gi tal manual i s the resul t of si mul taneous research i n the
TEFL fi el d, whi ch has been carri ed out i n very di fferent contexts
rangi ng from l i brari es, secondary school s, adul t educati on school s
and non-profi t and non-governmental organi zati ons i n Finl and,
Sweden, Germany, Romania and Greece. The project i s
coordi nated by the CEPA Son Canal s from Pal ma (Mal l orca).
The approaches presented i n the book have been i mpl emented
duri ng the second year of the Grundtvi g (Li fel ong Learni ng
European) programme. The ai m is to promote l anguage l earni ng
and to i nnovate and i mprove the qual i ty of the teaching of
l anguages i n the i nsti tuti ons i nvol ved as wel l as to devel op tool s
to i mprove ski l l s i n teachi ng minori ty l anguages and teachi ng to
mi nori ty students. An i mportant aspect i s the promoti on of
people s knowl edge about mi nority European languages, often
margi nal i zed and endangered, wi th the assumpti on that there are
sti l l a l ot margi nal ized and mi nori ty languages i n Europe. The
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project has anal yzed and tested European exi sti ng materi al s
concerni ng l earni ng Engl i sh and ICT and the practi ces of these
methodol ogi es have been assessed and di scussed. Each i nstituti on
has chosen si mi l ar practi ces and approaches and has adapted
them to the teachi ng of thei r own l anguages. The material will be
accessi bl e to project instructors and potential students. The first
part of the project consi sts of: a study of the Sorbi ans i n some
areas of Germany; the Roma peopl e i n Romania; the Saami peopl e
in four different states or the Turkish minority on the Greek island
of Lesbos.
Duri ng the second year of the programme, the partners have
devel oped and i mpl emented di gi tal materi al i n the cl assroom and
the material has been assessed. The i nsti tuti ons i nvol ved expect to
use them the foll owing years as the staff i nvol ved in thi s project
bel i eve i n the val ue and i mportance of thi s project and i s pl eased
to contri bute to the study and consol i dati on of mi nori ty and
endangered languages.
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3. Why t he pr oj ect Ecol i nguae: A wor l d of mi nor i ty di ver si ty i n a
gl obal i zed Eur ope?
The partners parti ci pati ng i n thi s programme i ni ti all y thi nk that a
project on mul ti l i nguali sm and di versity of mi nori ty groups i n
Europe may mean a l eap forward i n our communi ti es in terms of
soci al i ncl usi on. Europe i s part of a gl obali zed worl d where the
i di osyncrasy of mi nori ty groups tends to be homogeni zed i n
favour of the hegemony of a few si ngl e majori ty languages and
groups. As far as the l anguage i s concerned, the fact of conti nui ng
to mai ntai n the current amazi ng li ngui sti c di versi ty (there are
around seventy languages i n Europe) demands the effort of
governmental and non-governmental i nsti tuti ons. Europe has
al ready experi enced the l oss of some l anguages such as Tatar i n
the Cri mea and Dal mati an l anguage in the Dal mati a regi on of
Croati a and some are di sappearing l i ke Occi tan. Besi des, others
are seri ousl y endangered l i ke the Saami l anguages. To avoi d the
l oss of thi s l i ngui sti c heri tage, Europeans shoul d fi nd some
supranati onal communi cati on formul ae which wi l l support al l
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these l anguages i n the conti nent, whi ch for pol i ti cal , social or
economi c reasons, fi nd themsel ves i n a di sadvantageous posi ti on
which risks thei r very survival. Unfortunatel y, duri ng the last fi fty
years the number of peopl e who are abl e to tal k i n thei r mother
tongue has been steadi l y decl i ni ng.
Wi th regard to the mi nori ty groups, i n many cases, the threat of
survi val of a language i s associated to the danger of survi val of a
whol e ethni c group whi ch has been di scri mi nated agai nst for
some reason. Thi s i s the case of Pi te Sami l anguage i n Sweden and
Norway; Ume Sami language i n Sweden and Inari Sami l anguage
i n Fi nl and.
Thi s di gital manual i s one of the main outcomes of the project as
the objecti ves and subjects, partners have deal t wi th, are: to
i mprove the qual i ty of adul t teachi ng of l anguages by anal yzi ng
the materi al and methodol ogy of exi sti ng materi al s of EFL. Duri ng
the fi rst year of the programme the partners have intended to
i mprove the i denti fi cati on of teachi ng needs of trai ners who teach
mi nori ty languages i n Europe. Secondl y, to work on the
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promoti on of mi nori ty l anguages and mi nori ty groups, i nvol vi ng
an approach to thei r cul tural i nheri tance so as to mai ntai n the
European l i ngui sti c di versi ty and to fi nd communi cati on formul ae
whi ch do not favour the hegemony of any parti cul ar l anguage and
cul ture. Thi rdly, to foster the knowl edge and protecti on of
mi nori ty groups who for economi c or pol i ti cal reasons fi nd
themsel ves i n a posi ti on of weakness. Thi s threatens thei r survi val
and thei r i ncl usi on i n soci ety. The partnershi p aims to widen
access to adult l earni ng of mi nority languages so as to make the
study of these languages and groups more creati ve and
i nnovati ve. It al so ai ms to provi de attracti veness and access to
i nformal and non-formal adul t educati on by i mpl ementi ng ICT
and e-l earni ng. Fi nal l y, to suppl y val i dati on of non-formal and
i nformal l earni ng and outcomes by meeti ng the di fferent needs of
adul t l earners; the exi sti ng framework pri nci pl es can be appl i ed
to adul t learni ng i n response to the needs of trai ners who want to
teach these languages.
As far as methodol ogy i s concerned, the staff i nvol ved i n the
project has focused on the teaching of the foll owing competences
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i n a hol i sti c and natural way: communi cati on i n forei gn l anguages
and i n our mother tongues as the study of these matters i s the
focus of our partnership. The competence on cultural awareness
and expressi on as every l anguage i n Europe bel ongs to a di fferent
fami l y l i ke the Ural i c famil y ( Finni sh, Saami ), the Al tai c fami l y
(Turki sh), the Slavic fami l y (Bul garian and Macedoni an),
Germani c fami l y (German), Romance fami l y (Catal an and
Romani an) and fi nal l y Romani , the l anguage spoken by many
European Roma peopl e. Hence, a language i s a way to transfer the
cul ture under study. Fi nall y, technol ogy and di gi tal competence i s
an i mportant part of the project as the manual i s goi ng to be a data
base of di gi tal materi al . Moreover the transversal competences
such as i ntercul tural competence and social competence are
i ncl uded. It i s bel i eved that l anguages are a useful tool to get to
know any cul tural i nheri tance. Thus, the cul tural competence
acqui res a speci al i nterest as the fi rst part of the manual i s devoted
to the knowl edge of these mi nori ty groups.
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4. Why t hi s book?
Wi th the project Ecoli nguae: A worl d of mi nori ty di versi ty in a
gl obal ized Europe, al l the partners i ntend to create tool s to
i mprove di gi tal and minori ty l anguage skil l s i n non-formal and
i nformal adul t educati on as the partnershi p i s under the
assumpti on that l earni ng takes pl ace throughout our l i ves. The
ai m i s to promote mi nori ty and mi norized peopl e and languages
i n Europe whi ch are someti mes endangered. Duri ng the fi rst year
of thi s two- year programme, di fferent types of approaches i n the
fi el d of TEFL and the ICT competence have been experi enced and
put i nto practi ce. All the partners have somehow used and
eval uated these tool s. Then, they have adapted these teachi ng
approaches and have put them i nto practi ce to teach mi nori ty
l anguages or to teach an offi cial language to students bel ongi ng to
mi nori ty groups. Thi s materi al has to be accessi bl e not onl y to the
trai ners of the project but al so to al l potential l earners and
teachers. The approaches chosen promote enjoyment i n l earni ng,
wi th a focus on the shari ng of i nnovative and creati ve approaches
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to adul t l earni ng of languages, whi ch range from learni ng
partnershi ps to di scussi on groups. It provides adult education
practi ti oners an opportuni ty for professi onal devel opment and a
refl ecti on on thei r practice. Al so, the fact of teachi ng mi nori ty
l anguages or teaching offi ci al l anguages to mi nori ty groups i n the
partici pant countri es i s a way of bui l di ng i ntercultural bri dges i n a
di verse Europe. The project ai ms to avoi d soci al excl usi on of
mi nori ty communi ti es. The very fi rst part of the manual i s
devoted to the study of mi nori ty groups focusi ng on thei r
si tuati on these days such as the Sorbi ans and the Saami . The
Ecol i nguae project ai ms to promote language sustai nabi l i ty and to
foster the use of best practices in mul ticulturalism. For thi s reason,
the second part i s devoted to the study of some approaches on the
teachi ng of mi nori ty or mi nori zed l anguages such as Catalan,
Sami or Roma language or methodol ogi es of offi ci al l anguages
used to teach to mi nori ty groups such as Russian, Somal i s or
Kurds ci tizens i n Fi nland or i mmi grants i n Germany.
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The Cat al an t eam
ESTRATGIES DES DUN CENTRE DENSENYAMENT DADULTS PER
A FOMENTAR LS DEL CATAL
A comenaments del curs 2011-2012 l a cap de departament de
l l engua catal ana i una part del professorat del centre, amb el
suport de l equi p di recti u, ens vrem proposar fer una campanya
dajut a la normal i tzaci l i ngsti ca, faci l i tant no noms
l ensenyament del catal , que ja es fa a l es aul es, si n tamb l a
cerca d'espai s i moments per a l a prcti ca de l a nostra ll engua.
Partem de la dificultat que troben mol ts dels nostres al umnes,
ubi cats en barri s amb un gran percentatge di mmi graci , per a
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poder parl ar el catal i teni r contacte amb poblaci autctona
arrel ada a l a nostra i l la i conei xedora de l a seva cul tura, tradi ci ons
i pai satge amb connotaci ons etnol gi ques.
Durant el mes de novembre, aprofi tant que el s al umnes dui en
quasi dos mesos de classe i ja es conei xi en, el s professors i mpl icats
vrem presentar l a campanya Activa la l l engua en parel la per
totes l es aul es. Com ja sha expl icat en dal tres ocasi ons aquesta
estratgia consisteix a formar parell es que es comprometin a
trobar-se durant un curs, al menys una hora setmanal (durant 10
sessi ons) per tal de parl ar en catal, duna forma agradabl e i al
ms espontni ament possi bl e.
Al comenament s assegura lassessorament per part de la
professora de fi l ol ogi a catal ana que di ri geix el projecte i que, a
fi nal s daquest curs, en far amb el s vol untari s de l es parel l es una
aval uaci .
Abans de formar-se l es parelles l a di rectora del projecte va
i mparti r als padri ns un curset de sensi bil i tzaci envers l 's de l a
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ll engua, per tal que adquirissi n estratgies per sentir-se segurs
uti l i tzant el catal , al hora que s'expl i caven al guns conceptes
soci ol i ngsti cs basi cs.
PRIMERA TROBADA I ASSIGNACI DE LES PARELLES
Es va fixar un termini als futurs integrants de les parel les perqu
empl enessi n uns ful l s dinscri pci on constava la seva edat i l es
seves afi ci ons. Al cap dunes setmanes ja es comptava amb devers
34 i nscri ts entre padri ns i apadri nats, s a di r, 17 parel l es. El s
pri mers eren catal anoparl ants que vol i en ajudar el s segons, el s
seus apadrinats, a acostar-se a l a l l engua i l a cul tura catal anes.
Veient les fi txes dels futurs membres de l es parell es es va i ntentar
formar-l es en base a edats i afi ni tats i sel s va convocar a una
trobada conjunta per al divendres 2 de desembre al capvespre.
Aquest di a el centre va aprofi tar perqu el s convocats poguessi n
gaudi r duna actuaci del grup de teatre del centre, que compta
amb al guns al umnes que abans eren monol i nges en castell i
que, grci es al teatre, han esdevingut catal anoparl ants. Per tant, la
nostra companyi a dafi ci onats podi a ser un bon referent
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dintegraci a l a nostra comunitat naci onal . Desprs de l obra de
teatre vrem procedir a l assi gnaci de parell es entre els presents i
a fer-ne la presentaci entre el l s. La diada va concl oure amb un
berenar de germanor.
LES SORTIDES DURANT AQUEST PRIMER TRIMESTRE
Com ja sha di t, des del comenament de la campanya es va
val orar que l a i ntegraci li ngsti ca ans acompanyada de l a
i denti ficaci amb l a cul tura i el terri tori identi tari . Ja que tant el
pai satge urb com el rural sn l a material itzaci de la hi stri a i de
l a cul tura, en senti t ampl e, dun pobl e. Per tant, es val or que era
necessari per al s apadri nats, per tamb per al s padri ns, tant per a
formar-l os com per tal di ncenti var-l os, anar organi tzant activi tats
di ns i fora del centre. Aquestes trobades col l ecti ves que sani ran
esdeveni nt tot al l larg del curs a l a vegada que deuen estar
dotades dun sentit identi tari , han de ser atracti ves per a l es
parell es i servi r per a cohesi onar el gran grup.
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Entre l es primeres activitats que ja s han comenat a concretar hi
haur l es caracteritzades com a al ta cul tura: anades al teatre,
exposi ci ons o i ti nerari s hi stricoartsti cs per Pal ma i pobl es. I
tamb nhi haur dal tres ms l l igades a l a cul tura popul ar, al s
ci cl es festi us, amb el seu corresponent gastronmi c, a l es ll egendes
i rondal l es unides a l a toponmi a i al pai satge etc.
PRIMERA SORTIDA DEL GRAN GRUP DEL 15 DE DESEMBRE:
EXCURSI A LLUC
1. Si gni ficat del Santuari de Ll uc des de l es arrel s catal anes de
Mall orca
2. Ll uc i Montserrat: cam del s Mi steri s, reconstrucci de l a
basl i ca, orde del s Sagrats Cors, el s Bl auets
3. Museu de Ll uc: l a hi stria, la cul tura popul ar i el s ll i gams
entre el s Pasos Catal ans mi tjanant el s objectes i la pi nacoteca del
museu.
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4. Jard Botni c: nomencl atura popul ar i cul ta de l es di ferents
pl antes, arbusts i arbres amb els seus usos tradi cional s.
-SEGONA SORTIDA DEL GRAN GRUP DEL 16 DE DESEMBRE:
ANADA AL TEATRE
-Iti nerari gui at per Pal ma per tal de coni xer el nostre patri moni
hi stri c i artsti c. El fil conductor ser l expli caci de l poca
fundaci onal amb la i ncorporaci el 1229 a l a naci catal ana i se
retruc a l a ci vi l i tzaci occi dental .
Tall er de cui na rel aci onat amb el ci cl e de Quaresma i Pascua. Es
desenvol upar al centre i selaboraran una seri e de pl ats,
l ori gen i si gni fi cat del s qual s s'expl icaran al s assi stents.
The Catalan language in Europe
Catalan, the language of more than ten mill ion European citizens,
i s spoken i n four nati on states: Spai n, Andorra, France and Ital y.
Nowadays, i t i s a vi brant l anguage, used i n every possi bl e context.
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However, i n the past, Catal an faced persecuti on i n most of the
countri es where it i s spoken. For example, during the forty years
of Francos Spani sh di ctatorshi p, the use of Catal an was forbi dden
i n offi ci al setti ngs.
Catalan i s the twel fth most frequentl y spoken European language;
i t i s more common than Swedi sh or Dani sh, and i s al most on par
wi th Greek or Portuguese. In a ranki ng of 6,000 worl d l anguages,
Catalan pl aced ei ghty-fourth in vol ume of speakers. Catal an i s
posi ti oned as a co-offi cial l anguage i n three Spani sh autonomous
communi ti es: Catal onia, the Bal eari c Islands and Val enci a. It i s
spoken i n the Ital i an ci ty of Al ghero/l 'Al guer (Sardini a); and i n the
south of France (regi ons of Rossel l o, Vall espi r, Cerdanya, Capci r
and Confl ent). In Andorra, Catal an i s ithe sol e offi ci al language.
Nonethel ess, Catal an lacks offi cial status within the European
Uni on's i nstituti onal framework.
In l'Al guer, Catal an co-exi sts wi th Ital ian and Sardi ni an. Latel y,
due to mass medi a devel opments and economic changes, Catal an
has been l osi ng ground. Catal an i s offered as an extracurri cular
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subject i n school and there are some courses organi zed by the
Uni versity of Sassari and Omnium Cul tural. In the south of
France, Catal an cannot be used i n government admi ni strati on;
furthermore, the French government deni es subsidi es to cultural
associ ati ons because of i ts centrali st l ingui sti c pol i ti cs. The French
Consti tuti on desi gnates French as the Republ i cs onl y offi ci al
l anguage.
Accordi ng to the Euromosai c Study, carri ed out by the European
Commi ssi on, the European Uni on contai ns thi rty-si x so-cal l ed
regi onal or mi nori ty languages , di vi ded i nto fi fty-ni ne li ngui sti c
groups wi th di fferent l evel s of l egal and soci al recogni ti on. In the
EU, more than twenty mi lli on peopl e speak one of these
l anguages, as well as the offi ci al state l anguage. Al most 50% of
these mi nori ty l anguage speakers l i ve i n Spai n; 23% l ive i n France.
The rest l i ve mainl y i n Irel and, Ital y and the Netherl ands. Of the
thi rty-si x l anguages desi gnated as a mi nori ty language , onl y si x
have more than one mil l i on speakers. Basque and Wel sh have
more than hal f a mi l li on speakers, whi l e another si x mi nority
l anguages have more than 125,000 speakers.
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Accordi ng to the European Charter for Regi onal or Mi nori ty
Languages (Strasbourg, 5.XI.1992), the ri ght to use a regi onal or
mi nori ty l anguage i n pri vate and publ i c li fe i s an i nal i enabl e ri ght.
Thi s ri ght i s embodi ed i n the Uni ted Nati ons Internati onal
Covenant on Ci vi l and Pol i ti cal Ri ghts, and i s al so refl ected i n the
spi ri t of the Council of Europe Conventi on for the Protecti on of
Human Ri ghts and Fundamental Freedoms.
In arti cl e #1, the European Charter states:
a regi onal or mi nori ty l anguages means l anguages that are:
i traditi onal l y used wi thi n a gi ven terri tory of a State by
nati onal s of that State who form a group numeri cal l y smal l er than
the rest of the State's populati on; and
i i di fferent from the offi cial l anguage(s) of that State;
i t does not incl ude ei ther di al ects of the offi cial language(s) of the
State or the l anguages of mi grants;
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b terri tory i n whi ch the regi onal or mi nori ty l anguage i s
used means the geographi cal area in whi ch the sai d l anguage i s
the mode of expressi on of a number of peopl e justi fying the
adopti on of the vari ous protective and promoti onal measures
provi ded non-terri tori al l anguages means l anguages used by
nati onal s of the State which di ffer from the l anguage or languages
used by the rest of the State's popul ati on but which, al though
tradi ti onal l y used wi thi n the terri tory of the State, cannot be
i denti fi ed wi th a parti cul ar area thereof.
Catalan has more speakers than any other regi onal or minori ty
l anguage i n the European Uni on; Catal an i s the onl y l anguage
spoken by more than 10 mi l li on peopl e. Yet, for hi stori cal and
pol i ti cal reasons, Catal an i s often i ncl uded i n the mi nori ty
l anguage group. In fact, the actual usage of Catal an, as refl ected i n
i ts demographi cs, juri dical status, soci ol i ngui sti c si tuati on and
l i ngui sti c regulati on, shows a very di fferent real i ty.
Here are a few facts to demonstrate the breadth of Catalan usage:
i t i s one of the few l anguages that has transl ated al l the Greek and
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Lati n classi cs, as wel l as the majori ty of i mportant names i n
sci ence and uni versal l iterature. Catalan al so has a l ong tradi ti on
of publ i shi ng and a fi rst cl ass publ i shi ng i ndustry: over 10,000
ti tl es are pri nted per year, making i t the twenti eth most publ i shed
l anguage i n the worl d. Catal an was, i s, and wi l l remai n, a
l anguage of cul ture.
Catalan i s both a l anguage and cul ture very i nvol ved wi th its
i nternati onal di ffusi on: i t ranks tenth as the l anguage most
frequentl y transl ated. Catalan l iterature i s interested i n a dial ogue
wi th other l anguages and cul tures. Catal an has been a pri me
mover i n usi ng the i nternet to promote l anguage resources. In
2006, a generi c domai n ai med at the Catal an l i ngui sti c and cul tural
communi ty ( .cat ) was created, where users can regi ster domain
names. Catal ans i nternet presence i s much hi gher than i ts
demographic wei ght: there i s a hi gh degree of acti vi ty from
i ndustrial and social sectors. Catal an ranks ei ghth in the number
of bl ogs; fourteenth i n the use of Googl e; and fi fteenth i n the use
of Vi ki pdi a, the Catal an versi on of Wi ki pedi a.
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Al most ten mil l i on people understand Catal an; nearl y ei ght
mi ll i on speak i t; and more than ei ght mil l i on can read i t.
Catalan faces two chal l enges: i t i s consi dered a mi nori ty l anguage
by the European Uni on; and, of even more concern, i t has become
categorized as a mi nority language wi thi n Spai n. Spai n i s a
mul tinati onal state where four di fferent languages co-exi st.
Spani sh i s the offi ci al l anguage throughout the nati on, whi l e
Catalan, Basque and Gal i ci an are onl y offi cial i n the autonomous
regi ons where they ori gi nated. There are other European
l anguages (e.g. Dani sh) that have fewer speakers than Catal an, but
which are not consi dered mi nori ty l anguages. Thi s i s because
these l anguages are the onl y offi cial languages in thei r countri es
and, most i mportantl y, recei ve the ful l endorsement of thei r
respecti ve political systems.
Catalan in Spain and the Balearic Islands
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Wi thi n the nati on state of Spai n, Catal an i s spoken i n three
autonomous regi ons (Catal oni a, Val enci a, the Bal earic Isl ands)
and a porti on of Aragon, known as the Aragon stri p. The majori ty
of Catal ans 10 mi l li on speakers l ive i n Spai n. In the three
aforementi oned autonomous communi ti es, Catal an i s consi dered
the indi genous l anguage, whi l e Spani sh i s a co-offi ci al l anguage.
The 1978 Spani sh Consti tuti on made Spani sh the offi cial state
l anguage; i t sti pul ated that al l Spani sh ci tizens should know
Spani sh and be enti tl ed to use i t. The consti tuti on al so stated that
the other regi onal l anguages (not speci fi ed by name) shoul d al so
have offi ci al status i n thei r respective autonomous communi ti es,
i n accordance wi th the regi ons autonomous statutes. The
consti tuti on states that the weal th of regi onal languages i n Spai n
represents a cul tural heri tage worthy of parti cul ar protecti on and
respect. Accordi ng to Spani sh l egi sl ati on, knowl edge of Spani sh i s
compul sory, whi l e knowl edge of Catalan i s si mpl y opti onal .
In Catal onia, Catal an has had fewer di fficul ti es i n survi vi ng
thanks to a well -off Catal an-speaki ng middl e-class that has voted
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for pol i ti cal parti es that represent i ts economi c and
cul tural /li ngui sti c i nterests. Catal onias rol e i n the defence of
Catalan l anguage and i denti ty has a hi storical explanati on: si nce
1000 A.D., i t has been promoti ng Catal an i denti ty, when the fi rst
i ndependent Catal an ki ngdom formed and gradual l y expanded to
the Bal earic Isl ands and Val enci a duri ng the thi rteenth century.
Hi stori cal l y, Catal an i n Val enci a has faced two probl ems. The fi rst
i s that, for several centuri es, there have been pol i ti ci ans agi tati ng
for l anguage secessi oni sm. They bel i eve that Val encian i s a
di fferent language from Catal an. Secondl y, i n Val enci a (unl i ke the
Bal eari cs), the Church was not a means of cul tural /li ngui sti c
transmi ssi on: Church authori ti es usual l y defended Spani sh
cul ture, to the detri ment of Catalan.
In the Aragon stri p (an area on the Aragon si de of the
Aragon/Catal onia border, extendi ng from the Pyrenees down to
Val encia) Catal an i s offered as an extracurri cular subject i n
secondary educati on. As i t has recentl y been recogni zed as a
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mi nori ty l anguage, i t needs to be protected by the Aragonese
government.
The Balearic Islands
Accordi ng to the Bal earic Isl ands Autonomous Statute (1983),
Catalan i s the l anguage of the Bal earic Isl ands; i t i s the offi ci al
l anguage, together wi th Spani sh, and can be l earnt and used by
everyone. The Autonomous Communi ty of the Bal eari c Isl ands
has excl usive powers in vari ous areas, including the arts, research
and the teaching of Catal an. The forms of Bal earic Catal an are
studi ed and protected wi thout prejudi ce to the uni ty of the
l anguage.
As per the Bal eari c Islands Language Standardi sati on Law (1986),
the Autonomous Communi ty can and must make i t possi bl e to
exerci se ones l anguage ri ghts. The general ai m of the l aw i s to
i ncrease the regul ari zed use of Catalan i n offi ci al areas and for
admi ni strati ve purposes; to ensure the knowl edge and use of
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Catalan as a teachi ng medi um i n the educati on system; to promote
the use of Catalan i n al l medi a forms; and to i ncrease social
awareness about the i mportance of knowi ng and usi ng Catal an.
The l aws vari ous arti cl es deal wi th the fol l owi ng subjects: the
ri ght to know and use Catalan; recourse to l aw courts to protect
l anguage ri ghts; the use of Catal an i n government admi ni strati on,
the judicial system, educati on, the medi a, adverti si ng, social and
cul tural l i fe; pl ace names and si gnposti ng; l anguage trai ning and
recrui tment cri teri a for publ i c servants; the promoti on of language
and cul ture; the pl anni ng and coordi nati on of l anguage
standardi sati on; soci o-li ngui sti c research; the responsi bil i ti es of
the Uni versi ty of the Bal earic Isl ands wi th regards to l anguage
regul ati on, etc.
Catalan i s the offi ci al language for al l l evel s of educati on i n the
Bal eari c Isl ands. Catal an l anguage and l iterature are compul sory
subjects at all l evel s of non-universi ty educati on; it i s taught for
the same number of hours as Spani sh l anguage and l i terature.
Pupi l s must be abl e to use both offi cial languages correctl y by the
end of compul sory school i ng. The autonomous government must
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provi de the resources necessary for teacher language trai ning, and
to ensure that Catal an i s used as a teachi ng medi um. Although
Catalan i s a compul sory subject i n adul t educati on, universi ty
l ecturers and students are enti tl ed to use the l anguage of thei r
choi ce. The Bal eari c government i s responsi bl e for devi si ng
teachi ng materi al s i n Catal an, and to faci l i tate i ts teachi ng.
Wi th regards to the l aw courts, ci ti zens are enti tl ed to address the
members of the judi ci al system i n Catal an. Documents and
proceedi ngs i n Catal an are val i d before the Bal eari c courts.
However, the efficacy of these l aws depends on the governi ng
pol i ti cal party to put them i nto effects. For exampl e, a
controversi al i ssue i s the requi rement that Spani sh-speaki ng ci vi l
servants (e.g. doctors, poli ce officers, etc.) who i mmi grate to the
Bal eari cs acqui re a mastery of Catal an.
The Bal earic Isl ands have a number of cul tural associati ons whi ch
defend, promote and spread Catal an l anguage, cul ture and
i denti ty. These i ncl ude the Obra Cul tural Bal ear (Bal earic Cul tural
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Organi zati on), El Grup Blanquerna (the Bl anquerna Group);
l Institut Ramon Ll ull (the Ramon Ll ul l Insti tute); Joves per l a
l l engua (Youth Defendi ng Language); l Associ aci de l a premsa
de l a part forana (the Regi onal Press Associ ati on); Si ndicat de
trebal ll adors densenyament de l es i l l es (STEI) (the Bal eari c
Teachers Uni on); Jubi l ats per la l l engua (Reti rees Defendi ng
Languge), etc.
Most Bal eari c Isl ands newspapers are publ i shed i n Spani sh,
al though some magazi nes and one newspaper are enti rel y i n
Catalan. These publi cati ons recei ve some assi stance from the
Bal eari c government, in sometimes i n the form of i nsti tuti onal
adverti si ng. There are some radi o stati ons i n Catal an and two
main tel evi si on stati ons that broadcast enti rel y i n Catal an; some
other mi nor l ocal stati ons broadcast partl y i n Catalan.
Accordi ng to a study undertaken by the Bal eari c Isl ands Stati sti cs
Institute, 85,47% of peopl e i n Majorca understand Catalan; 63,37%
can speak i t; 71,48% can read i t and 47,78% can wri te in Catal an.
However, these figures vary considerabl y according to regi on. In
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the capital city of Pal ma more and more peopl e use Spani sh to
communi cate; increasi ngl y, Spani sh i s thei r mother tongue. In
Pal ma 83,08% of peopl e understand Catal an; 55,46% can speak i t;
68,71% can read i t; and 42,73% can wri te i n Catalan. Due to the
i nfl uence of touri sm, the scenari o i s si mil ar i n coastal areas. For
i nstance, i n the north of the i sl and, 87,24% of peopl e understand
Catalan; 73,35% can speak i t; 72,64% can read i t; and 49% can
wri te i n Catal an. On the other hand, i n the Tramontana regi on,
where there i s l ess touri sm and thus l ess i mmi grati on, 99,29% of
peopl e understand Catal an; 82,60% can speak i t; 93,22% can read
i t ; and 69,73% can wri te in Catal an.
In Mi norca the i nfl uence of Spani sh has not been as widespread as
i n Majorca, even i n the l argest towns. In Menorca, 88,99% of
peopl e understand Catal an; 68,50% speak i t; 72,69% can read i t;
and 53,18% can wri te i n Catal an. However, Ei vi ssa i s si mi l ar the
Majorcan coastal areas: 78,51% of peopl e understand Catal an;
59,45% speak i t; 65,03% can read i t and 45,20% can wri te i n
Catalan.
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The Insti tut d'Estudi s Catal ans (IEC: Insti tute of Catal an Studi es)
i s the onl y l i ngui sti c authori ty i n the Bal eari cs where Catal an i s
spoken. The IECs l i ngui stic secti on i s devoted to studyi ng Catal an
l anguage, vocabul ary and grammar rul es.
Methodology
The CEPA Son Canal s l earni ng partnershi ps are based on four
well-known approaches: peer-to-peer tutoring; cooperati ve
l earni ng; the cultural approach; and the communi cati ve approach.
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Peer-to-peer tutori ng i s when students teach other students. Thi s
approach i s usuall y hi ghl y sati sfactory, and has many benefi ts.
Students l earn more when they are the ones to teach the
comprehensi ve aspects of a subject. And there i s a benefi ci al
compl i mentary effect: students experi enci ng di ffi cul ti es benefi t
from the hel p of someone of a si mi lar age or status, who
(fi gurati vel y) speak thei r language , and appear l ess intimi dati ng
than the teacher. A peer tutor uses perti nent vocabul ary and
exampl es that resonate with the student, creati ng effecti ve bri dges
to breach the l earni ng gaps. Addi ti onal l y, the tutor recei ves
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val uabl e rei nforcement from having to prepare and teach a topi c.
Of course, a teacher trained to supervi se peer tutori ng should
moni tor the process.
Whil e l earning partnershi ps consi st of pai r work, they are
i nfl uenced by some of the pri ncipl es of cooperati ve learni ng, i .e.
worki ng i n small teams formed by students wi th di fferent abi l i ty
l evel s. In cooperati ve l earni ng, each team member i s responsi bl e
for hel pi ng teammates l earn, creati ng an atmosphere of
accompl i shment. Cooperative efforts resul t i n parti ci pants
worki ng together for mutual benefi t. The princi pl es of cooperati ve
l earni ng i ncl ude:
-l earning from each other's efforts and knowledge. (Your success
benefi ts me; my success benefi ts you.)
-acknowl edgi ng that al l members share a common fate. (We al l
si nk or swi m together here.)
-all members partici pati ng i n the whol e task. (We cannot do it
wi thout you.) All the members pl ay a necessary rol e i n the
partnershi p.
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The thi rd approach menti oned, i .e. the cul tural approach, deal s
wi th the transmi ssi on of facts about Cul ture and culture. The
cul tural approach transmi ts stati sti cal i nformati on about hi gh
cul ture ( Cul ture wi th a capi tal C ), i .e. i nsti tuti onal structures,
etc. and hi ghbrow materi al deali ng wi th l i terature and the arts.
The cul tural approach al so expl ains popul ar cul ture, focusi ng on
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the customs, habi ts and fol kl ore of everyday l i fe. The assumpti on
i s that by teachi ng a language . . . one i s i nevi tabl y al ready
teachi ng cul ture i mpli ci tl y (McLeod, 1976). A l ot of materi al
rel ated to Culture i s i ncl uded i n the l earni ng partnershi p
conversation gui des. Moreover, the four last sessions are devoted
to vi si ti ng museums, cooki ng l essons, attendi ng pl ays, etc.
Fi nall y, the communi cative approach exposes the students to
some key practi ces. The majori ty of adul t students dont have a
cl ue about appropriate social l anguage, gestures, expressi ons, etc.
They have real di ffi cul ti es i n communi cati ng i n the cul ture of the
target l anguage; they are not l i terate i n what Gartner (1990) cal l s
i nterpersonal i ntell i gence. Most of the students are fami l iar wi th
the Grammar-Transl ati on or the Audi o-l ingual Method from thei r
pri mary or secondary educati on. In many cases, they memori zed
endless li sts of vocabulary and grammar structures. One of the
l earni ng partnershi ps key poi nts i s that i t i s based on real-li fe
vocabul ary si tuati ons. Topics i ncl ude: school , hol i days,
nei ghborhoods, etc. The topi cs are meani ngful because they are
rel ated to the students i mmediate reali ty. The manual provides a
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framework with which to explore these themes: vocabulary,
i di omati c expressi ons, dialogue structures to faci l i tate
communi cati on, etc. The communi cati ve approach i mpli es an
i ncreased obl i gati on tal k; as a resul t, students gai n si gni ficantl y
more confi dence when usi ng the target l anguage. Students
become responsible managers of thei r own l earni ng process. The
ai m i s that students wi l l conti nue to use the target l anguage, even
after the l earni ng programme i s fi ni shed.
The objecti ves of the programme Acti vate Your Insti tuti ons
Language Partnershi ps are:
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To i mprove l i ngui sti c ski l l s, especi al l y speaki ng and l i steni ng.
To l earn from a peer: thi s hel ps create effecti ve bri dges in overcoming
l earni ng gaps. A peer tutor can easi l y gi ve exampl es and uses si mi l ar
l anguage that i s easy for the student to understand.
To i mprove the tutors and students learning skills (sel f-l earning, self-
correcti on).
To start usi ng the acqui red l anguage outsi de of formal contexts, e.g.
duri ng l ei sure ti me.
To i ncrease confi dence and experience worki ng i n groups, creati ng an
atmosphere of achi evement.
To moti vate both the speakers and l earners of a mi nori ty l anguage to
use i t i n non-formal contexts (and not regress back to the domi nant
l anguage).
To have a l arge i mpact on a broad cross-secti on of soci ety (newcomers,
nati ve speakers, i mmi grants).
To promote posi ti ve atti tudes towards mi nori ty and margi nal i sed
l anguages.
To create educati onal tool s to teach minori ty and marginal i zed
l anguages.
To make partici pants open to partici pati ng i n cul tural events
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i nvol vi ng di sadvantaged
soci al groups (i mmi grants,
di sadvantaged youth, etc.)
Who benefits from thi s
di gi tal manual ?
The Setti ng
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Cepa Son Canal s i s an Adul t Educati on School i n Pal ma de Mal l orca
(Bal eri c Isl ands, Spai n) that provi des formal and i nformal educati on as
well as l ong di stance l earni ng. It i s l ocated i n a di sadvantaged area
wi th a l ot of i mmi grants from South Ameri ca, North Afri ca, and
Eastern Europe. Son Canal s organi zes i nformal educational courses
wi th a stress on IT; Engli sh; and Catal an and Spani sh for i mmi grants.
In the past coupl e of years, the school has al so organi zed a l ot of
mul ticul tural acti vi ties (semi nars, workshops and festivals) to
facil i tate the i mmi grants i ntegrati on i nto Bal eari c soci ety and to teach
them Catal an, the l ocal language (which shares offi ci al status wi th
Spani sh). Teachi ng Catal an ensures that i mmi grants wi l l be
l i ngui sti call y prepared for a normal professi onal and social li fe. In the
past, i n order to ensure a European di mensi on to the school , Son
Canal s coordi nated a Grundtvi g partnershi p from 2008 to 2010; thi s
experi ence generated an i nterest i n European educati onal
programmes.
The name of the CEPA Son Canal s Grundtvi g partnershi p i s A
Worl d of Mi nority Di versity in a Gl obal i zed Europe . The partnershi p
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focuses on researchi ng the most sui tabl e methodol ogi es and materi al s
for teachi ng FLs (forei gn l anguages), and creati ng di gi tal materi al
adapted to the teachi ng/l earni ng of mi nori ty l anguages.
The Students
In the l ast fi fteen years, the CEPA Son Canal s students countri es of
ori gi n have changed consi derabl y. Duri ng the earl y years, most
students were Catalan-speakers who fel t proud of thei r l anguage
ri ghts and asserted them.
Gradual l y, there was an i nfl ux of students from mai nl and Spai n, who
came to the Bal earics seeki ng a better li fe. These newcomers arri ved
wi th a settl er mental i ty ; thi s was especi al l y evi dent in Pal ma and
certai n nei ghbourhoods whi ch experi enced considerabl e growth due
to the wave of peni nsular i mmi grants (e.g., the CEPAs
nei ghbourhood). More recentl y, the school has wi tnessed a l arge
amount of South American, Moroccan and Eastern European
i mmi gration. These most recent newcomers behaved differently from
the Spani sh peni nsular i mmi grants. Whil e the Eastern European
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i mmi grants have proved
recepti ve to l earni ng a new
l anguage and cul ture, the
other groups have someti mes
showed xenophobi c and
negati ve atti tudes towards
Catalan. Unfortunatel y, these
negati ve reacti ons have
someti mes revi ved negati ve
atti tudes al ready exi sti ng towards Catalan i n the l ocal popul ati on. One
resul t has been the creati on of new pol itical parties with secessionist
i deol ogi es, advocati ng li ngui sti c imbal ance: language A (Spani sh) for
formal si tuati ons and l anguage B (Catalan) for i nformal si tuati ons.
There i s a l i ngui sti c dichotomy i n Majorca, between Pal ma, the capi tal
ci ty, and the rest of the i sl and. Pal ma (al ong wi th i ts coastal areas)
recei ved a l arge vol ume of i mmi grants due to the devel opment of
touri sm. The vol ume of newcomers was so hi gh that it was very
di ffi cul t to create a cl i mate of Catal an-i mmersi on. Often, i mmi grants
outnumbered the l ocal popul ati on. Thi s resulted i n Catal an speakers
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becomi ng a mi nority in their own terri tory.
CEPA Son Canal s, l ocated i n an i mmi grant
nei ghbourhood, has tri ed to address the i mmi grants
l ack of Catal an l anguage ski l l s. To thi s end, CEPA
Son Canal s has pi oneered a li ngui sti c project (LP)
which makes Catal an the language of
communi cati on i n the teaching and l earni ng
processes. Most of the school s teachers share a Catalan language
i denti ty and support thi s l i ngui sti c project -- essenti al for the effecti ve
fol l ow-through of the project. Son Canal s li ngui stic project enables
the school to organize l anguage l earni ng accordi ng to current l aw, but
i n an autonomous manner. The project al so deal s wi th the curri cul ar
aspects of the di fferent languages present i n the Bal eari cs. Son Canals
l i ngui stic project i s an i mportant part of the school s Educati on Project.
The i nvol vement of Cepa Son Canal s i n European Educati on Projects
has defi ni tel y contri buted to i mprovi ng the teaching quali ty of a
mi nori ty language (i n thi s case, Catal an). Thi s has been very
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i mportant for CEPA Son Canal s. The l anguage tasks have become
i ntegrated i nto the li ngui sti c project. Most of our students need to
i mprove thei r Catal an language ski ll s because Catalan i s the l anguage
of i nstructi on. Furthermore, a good grasp of Catal an ensures that
students can find jobs. In sum, this project has two objecti ves. Firstly,
the project ai ms to enhance language use vi a conversati on l essons.
The second ai m i s to i ntroduce students to the soci o-cul tural aspects of
the l anguage bei ng studi ed. The manual , cooperati vel y desi gned by al l
the project partners, ensures the programme conti nuity: it provi des a
weal th of approaches and cl assroom acti vi ti es.
The Soci ety
The manual on mi nori ty l anguages i s expected to attract the attention
of vari ous stakehol ders, e.g. adul t educati on provi ders, l anguage
school s, NGOs, uni versi ti es, teacher trai ni ng centres, etc. The manual s
area of i nfl uence wil l be extended when these i nsti tuti ons pass i t on to
other enti ti es i n thei r regi on. The web page and promoti onal fl yers
wil l al so contri bute to i ncreased exposure. A major part of the materi al
wi l l be upl oaded on to the web page. Wi th regards to the language
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l earners, the i nsti tuti ons have adapted al ready exi sti ng Engl i sh as a
Forei gn Language (EFL) materi al for teachi ng mi nori ty languages at
the two adul t educati on school s. The Engl i sh and minori ty l anguage
teachers worked together to create the new manual. The mi nori ty
l anguage learners have acqui red l i ngui sti c content as wel l as cul tural
concepts. Thi s manual has been put i nto practice i n adul t educati onal
school s; teacher trai ni ng centres; and al so i n the Fi nni sh l i brary (whi ch
doubl es as a teachi ng centre). The Lapon Centre, whi ch provi des
Saami l essons, will al so forward the manual to other Lap centres in
Fi nl and and Norway. Thi s material has been adapted i n order to show
the actual ethno-l i ngui sti c si tuation i n Europe. Thi s projects i mpact
wi l l conti nue even after the fundi ng i s fi ni shed i n 2013-2014. In CEPA
Son Canal s case, the Activate Your Insti tuti ons Language
Partnershi ps programme wi l l conti nue duri ng the 2012-2013 school
year.
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Key compl eteness
Li ngui sti c competence: the main ai m of
l anguage partnershi ps i s, wi thout a doubt,
to i mprove li ngui sti c skil l s (speaki ng,
l i steni ng), especi al l y speaki ng ski ll s. Most
of the students in our school can
understand Catal an, but when i t comes to
tal ki ng, they dont feel at ease. The
programme: Acti vate Your Insti tuti ons
Language Partnerships focuses pri marily
on speaki ng.
Di gi tal competence: the teachers wi l l provi de the students wi th onl i ne
resources (games,activiti es, etc). There are three or four computers i n
the room where the partnershi ps meets; students can use thi s resource
to check vocabul ary and pronounci ati on. Additonal l y, they can use
the computer to read the newspaper, pl ay games i n the l anguage of
study, etc.
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Soci al and ci vi c competence: peer l earners wi l l expl ore cul tural
aspects, usi ng the conversati on gui de as a starti ng poi nt. The
conversati on gui des deal s wi th many cul tural variabl es, e.g. tradi ti ons,
festi val s, househol d habi ts, i nsti tuti ons, etc. It cl earl y underscores the
strong rel ati onshi p between l anguage and cul ture. Cul ture and
l anguage are ti ghtl y i ntertwi ned. The parti ci pati on of both the tutor
and the tutoree i n the l earni ng partnershi p creates a whol e task.
Cul tural awareness and expressi on: the staff have organi sed di fferent
cul tural outi ngs, vi si ts to museums, pl ays and even a cooki ng cl ass on
traditi onal Easter di shes. Di scussions of cul ture wil l embraces many
subjects. Often, a short conversation l eads to an expl orati on of many
other variabl es, such as social -cultural issues, historical facts, politics,
fol kl ore, etc.
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Learni ng to l earn: the l earni ng partnershi p i nvol ves small teams
formed by students wi th di fferent abi l i ty l evel s. In cooperati ve
l earni ng, each team member i s responsi bl e for contri buti ng to peer
l earni ng; thi s creates an i nti mate atmosphere, i n whi ch parti ci pants
work towards a shared goal. The peer l earners will fill in self-
eval uati on and co-eval uati on questi onnai res after each sessi on; thi s
wil l hel p address any weak aspects of the program, and wil l rei nforce
the strong poi nts.
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Eval uati on Tool s and Cri teri a
Co-eval uati on
As expl ai ned i n the methodol ogy sessi on, the l anguage partnershi p i s
a peer-to-peer task. Both partners parti ci pate i n the conversati on, so
each of them shoul d be i nvol ved i n the eval uati on process. Co-
eval uati on i s a process that i nvol ves two eval uators si mul taneousl y.
Co-eval uati on i s extremel y useful as i t presents two perspectives
duri ng the evaluati on process, si gni fi cantl y i mprovi ng the exerci se.
Thi s parti ci patory eval uati on i nvol ves constant di al ogue during
vari ous stages of the eval uati on. At the end of each sessi on, each pai r
(tutor and tutored person) shoul d compl ete an eval uati on
questi onnai re. It i s advi sabl e to comment some aspects of the
eval uati on but the tutors should be tal kers, not exami ners. They
shoul d hel p the tutored person and moni tor the conversati on. The
eval uati on sheet shoul d be i n simpl e language, so that it i s easy to
answer. Both the tutor and the tutored person answer the same
questi ons:
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Eval uati on sheet (sampl e)
1. Expl ai n bri efl y what the sessi on has been about (outstandi ng
aspects, anecdotes, curi osi ti es etc.)
2. How l ong has the sessi on taken? How many sessi ons do you thi nk
are necessary?
3. Do you think thi s topic and thi s acti vi ty are useful ? Why?
4. What woul d you change? Why?
5. What woul d you add?
6. Has your partner parti ci pated?
7. Does he speak too much? Doesnt he speak at al l ?
8. What woul d you change about your partners partici pati on?
9. Other opinions and suggesti ons:
Sel f- eval uati on
In order to become l i fel ong l earners, adul t students need to l earn the
i mportance of sel f-eval uati on. They can do thi s by fi l li ng out sel f-
eval uati on forms. However, via conversati ons, they al so have to l earn
to overcome shyness or embarrassment that might prevent them from
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speaki ng. When students evaluate themsel ves, they are assessing what
they know, what they do not know, and what they woul d l i ke to
know. They begi n to recogni ze thei r own strengths and weaknesses.
The programme makes use of the si mpl est tool s to encourage self-
assessment: pertinent questions that force both partners to think about
thei r work. Some exampl es of such questi ons i ncl ude:
Eval uati on sheet (sampl e)
1. How much ti me and effort di d you put i nto thi s?
2. What do you thi nk your strengths and weaknesses were i n todays
conversati on?
3. How coul d you i mprove your speaki ng ski l l s?
4. What are the most val uabl e thi ngs you l earned today?
It i s i mportant for staff to anal yze the resul ts of these questi onnaires
for creati ng the sel f-assessment and the co-eval uati on sheets and to
i mprove the programme i n the future. It i s i mportant to show partners
the rel evance of sel f-evluations as part of the improvement process.
One thing partners can do i s to ask the other partner (the tutor and the
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tutored person) for feedback on how the conversati on l esson i s going
and what each partner i s doi ng well and not so well . In thi s way they
can make improvements i n the following sessions.
Fi nal eval uati on
The fi nal eval uati on hel ps to eval uate and assess the programme i n
general (i ncl udi ng the outi ngs and other l ei sure acti vi ties). The
programme wil l conti nue i n foll owi ng years at the school years,
al l owi ng for even more aspects to be i mproved. The resul ts of the fi nal
eval uati on are col l ected i n the l ast secti on entitl ed concl usi ons.
Fi nal eval uati on sheet (tutor)
Do you thi nk the l earner understands and speaks better Catal an?
What have you l earnt about the way of li fe, culture, mental ity, etc. of
your partner s country?
Has the tutored person al ways been prepared to parti ci pate i n
acti vi ti es?
What has your rel ati onshi p wi th the tutored person been l i ke?
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Whi ch outing or l ei sure activi ty di d you l i ked the best?
Do you thi nk the teacher has to be present at al l the sessi ons?
Woul d you change any of the aspects of the sessi ons? (For exampl e,
the conversati on gui des are too long or too short; too speci fi c or too
general , etc. )
Di d you enjoy the experi ence? Woul d you enrol l in thi s programme
agai n?
Fi nal eval uati on sheet (tutored person)
Do you thi nk you speak better Catal an after the i mpl ementati on of the
programme?
Which aspects have you l earnt about the way of l i fe, cul ture,
mental i ty, etc. re: the l anguage under study?
What has your rel ati onshi p wi th the tutored person been l i ke?
Whi ch outing or l ei sure activi ty di d you l i ked the best?
Do you thi nk the teacher has to be present at al l the sessi ons?
Woul d you change any of the aspects of the sessi ons? (For exampl e,
the conversati on gui des are too long or too short; too speci fi c or too
general etc.)
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Di d you enjoy the experi ence? Woul d you enrol l in thi s programme
agai n?
Contents of the programme Acti vate the l anguage partnershi p i n
your school :
The semantic fi elds we have deal t wi th are:
1st SESSION: THE FAMILY
2nd SESSION: THE COUNTRY OF ORIGIN OF THE TUTORED
PERSON
3rd SESSION: OUR SCHOOL/ SECONDARY SCHOOL/ LIBRARY
4th SESSION: YOUR HOME (your house, housework, ani mal s)
5th SESSION: HOBBIES, FREE TIME ACTIVITIES
6th SESSION: DOMESTIC ANIMALS
7th SESSION: DAILY ROUTINES
8th SESSION: YOUR HOLIDAY
9th SESSION: ASSESS THE PROGRAMME: ACTIVATE THE
LANGUAGE PARTNERSHIP IN YOUR SCHOOL.
10th SESSION: SHARING YOUR FREE TIME TOGETHER
1st SESSION: THE FAMILY
VOCABULARY:
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Father, mother, grandfather, grandmother, son, daughter, brother,
si ster, cousi n, grandchi l d, granddaughter, grandson, grandchi l dren,
nephew, ni ece, aunt, uncl e, godfather, godmother, wi fe, husband,
mother-i n-law, father-i n-law, son-in-law, daughter-in-law
QUESTION/ANSWER PROMPS:
EXAMPLES OF QUESTIONS AND SENTENCES:
I HAVE TWO SISTERS, HOW MANY BROTHERS AND SISTERS
HAVE YOU GOT? I HAVE THREE BROTHERS AND A SISTER.
WHAT IS YOUR FATHERS NAME? // MY FATHERS NAME IS
ANTONI.
WHO IS THIS WOMAN? SHE IS MY ELDER SISTER.
IS THIS YOUR GRANDFATHER? NO, HE ISNT. HE IS MY FATHER.
Vocabulary related to the jobs:
Porter, pl umber, cook, sal esperson, engineer, driver, carpenter, nurse,
butcher, fishmonger, baker, shop assistant, doctor, hai rdresser, writer,
secretary, teacher, bri ckl ayer, el ectri cian, fi reman.
QUESTION/ANSWER PROMPS:
WHAT DOES YOUR FATHER DO? WHATS YOUR FATHER JOB?
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HE IS A PAINTER.
WHAT DOES YOUR MOTHER DO? SHE IS A TEACHER. / DOES
SHE WORK? YES, SHE IS A TEACHER.
WHAT DO YOU WANT TO BECOME WHEN BEING OLDER?
WHEN DOES YOUR BROTHER HAVE HOLIDAY?
MY AUNT WORKS FIVE DAYS A WEEK.
In thi s sessi on you can revi se the vocabulary rel ated to the physi cal
descriptions (tall / short, fat/ thin, ugl y/handsome, bl ond/brunette,
wi th pal e compl exi on, bl ue/green/ brown eyes etc. as wel l as
personal i ty descri pti ons ( fri endl y, unfri endl y, ni ce, wel l -natured,
cheerful , sad, soci abl e, tal kati ve, shy, extroverted, tol erant, i ntol erant,
trustworthy, rel i abl e, open-mi nded, sympatheti c, strict.
2nd SESSION: THE COUNTRY OF ORIGIN OF THE TUTOREE
Vocabulary related to lands and oceans and means of transport.
QUESTION/ANSWER PROMPS:
WHERE ARE YOU FROM? / IM FROM MOROCCO.
DO YOU COME FROM CHINA/ NO, I COME FROM JAPAN.
WHAT IS YOU COUNTRY LIKE? HAS IT GOT MOUNTAINS?/
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BEACHES/ RIVERS?
WHAT ARE THE PEOPLE LIKE IN YOUR COUNTRY?
WHERE WERE YOU BORN?..... IN A VILLAGE OR IN A TOWN?
IS THERE A SPECIAL FLORA OR FAUNA? ARE THERE ANIMALS
OR PLANTS DIFFFERENT TO OURS?
WHICH ARE THE TRADITIONAL FEASTS IN YOUR COUNTRY?
WHAT DO YOU MISS OF YOUR COUNTRY?
WHAT IS THE WEATHER LIKE? IS IT SIMILAR TO THE WEATHER
IN MALLORCA/ GERMANY/ FINLAND? DOES IT RAIN A LOT?
WHAT DO YOU LIKE THE BEST IN MALLORCA?
HOW DID YOU SPEND YOUR FREE TIME IN MALLORCA?
WHAT IS THE TYPICAL FOOD IN YOUR COUNTRY? WHICH ARE
THE INGREDIENTS?
HAVE YOU TASTED ANY TYPICAL DISHES IN MAJORCA/
GERMANY/ FINLAND?
3rd SESSION: OUR INSTITUTION
VOCABULARY
Objects: sheet of paper, penci l , paper bi n, bl ackboard, book, pen,
rubber, crayons, school bag, bag, pencil case, pencil sharpener, ruler,
fol der, sci ssors, rubber, chal k, l i ght, tape, brush, notebook, chai r, tabl e,
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wardrobe, door etc.
The facil i ti es: bathroom, toi l et, the yard, the computer room, the
teachers room, secretarys offi ce, conci erge, the headperson room, the
bar, the l i brary, the gym, the staff.
QUESTION/ANSWER PROMPTS
WHATS THIS? ITS A DUSTBIN.
WHERE IS THE STUDENTS TOILET? COME! ITS HERE
WHERE IS THE LIBRARY?
WHERE IS THE CHALK? WHERE CAN I LOOK FOR IT?
CAN YOU LEND ME A PENCIL?
CAN YOU MAKE ME A PHOTOCOPY OF THIS SHEET OF PAPER?
MAY I TALK WITH THE HEADPERSON? / YES, Il l TALK WITH
HIM. THANK YOU/ DONT MENTION IT.
MAY I TALK WITH THE HEAD OF STUDIES?
MAY WE COME IN? YES, SURE
MAY I TAKE THIS BOOK?
HOW WAS YOUR SCHOOL/ YOUR LIBRARY BEFORE?
WHICH SUBJECTS DID YOUN HAVE? WHICH ONE DID YOU
PREFER?
WHICH WAS YOUR TIMETABLE?
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WHAT DO YOU REMEMBER ABOUT YOUR FORMER TEACHERS/
EDUCATORS?
WHAT DO YOU LIKE THE BEST OF OUR SCHOOL/ WHAT THE
LEAST?
4th SESSION: YOUR HOME
Vocabul ary related to the dai l y l i fe i n your house, your pets, the
housework.
QUESTION/ANSWER PROMPTS:
WHAT TYPE OF ANIMAL IS IT? HAS IT GOT A NAME?
HOW IS IT? HAS IT GOT FUR OR FEATHERS? IS IT BIG OR
SMALL? HAS IT GOT WINGS?
IS IT QUIET? IS IT RESTLESS? IS IT AGGRESSIVE? IS IT
AFFECTIONATE?
WHAT DOES HE/ SHE EAT?
HOW LONG HAVE YOU HAD IT?
WOULD YOU LIKE TO HAVE MORE DOMESTIC ANIMALS?
1 Vocabul ary related to pets: canary, dog, cat, hamster, snake, parrot
2. Vocabul ary rel ated to the fol l owi ng chores: l ayi ng the tabl e ( tabl e,
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fork, kni fe, spoon, tabl e cl oth, napki ns, glass ), washi ng up ( water and
soap), maki ng the bed ( sheet, bl anket, cushi on, pi l l ow, pyjamas),
keepi ng the clothes i n the wardrobe (sweater, trousers, shi rt, t-shirt
etc.)
WHICH HOUSEWORK DO YOU DO AT HOME?
HOW DO YOU SHARE THE HOUSEWORK AT HOME?
DO YOU LIKE MAKING THE BED, WASHING UP, CLEANING?
WHICH CHORE DO YOU LIKE THE BEST?
DO YOU TIDY UP YOUR HOUSE?
HOW DO YOU ORGANIZE YOUR ROOM?
5TH SESSION: YOUR HOBBIES
Hobbi es (playi ng footbal l , playi ng basketbal l, wal ki ng, watchi ng TV,
l i steni ng to music etc.) Obvi ousl y the vocabul ary you deal wi th i n thi s
type of sessi ons i s qui te vari ed as i t depends on the hobby chosen.
QUESTION/ANSWER PROMPS:
DO YOU LIKE PRACTISING SPORT?
WHAT DO YOU LIKE DOING IN YOUR FREE TIME?
WHAT DO YOU DO AT THE WEEKENDS?
WHAT DO YOU DO IN THE MORNING/EVENING?
I LOVE GOING/ I DONT LIKE AT ALL GOING TO
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DO YOU LIKE THE MUSIC? WHAT TYPE OF MUSIC DO YOU
LISTEN TO?
DO YOU KNOW ANY MALLORCAN/FINNISH/ GERMAN MUSIC
GROUPS?
HAVE YOU LISTENED TO SONGS IN CATALAN/ GERMAN/
FINNISH?
DO YOU PLAY ANY INSTRUMENTS?
DO YOU LIKE WATCHING THE TELEVISION?
WHAT TYPES OF PROGRAMMES DO YOU WATCH?
WHICH TV CHANNELS DO YOU PREFER?
CAN YOU WATCH AT ANY TIME THE TELEVISION IN YOUR
COUNTRY?
AMONG YOUR FRIENDS AND RELATIVES, IS THERE ANYONE
WHO LIKES SEWING, KNITTING; MAKING PIECES OF
FURNITURE; GARDENING OR LOOKING AFTER ANIMALS?
6TH SESSION: DOMESTIC ANIMALS
Vocabul ary related to animal s: dog, cat, fi sh, canary, chi cken, turtl e,
hamster, goldfi sh, parrot
Parts of the ani mal s body: l eg, mouth, wi ng, peak, tai l , scal es.
Verbs: meowi ng, si ngi ng, fl yi ng, swi mmi ng.
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Objects: cage, fi shbowl, aquari um.
Adjectives: mal e, femal e, bi g, new, fast, tal kati ve, sl ow, qui et, hard,
smal l , heavy, cal med, hai ry, smart.
QUESTION/ANSWER PROMPS:
HAVE YOU GOT PETS AT HOME? HOW ARE THEY?
WHICH ANIMALS ARE THERE IN YOUR COUNTRY? ARE THEY
SACRED FOR YOU?
DID YOU HAVE ANY PETS WHEN YOU LIVED IN YOUR
COUNTRY? WHICH ONES?
HOW DO YOU FEED THE PETS AT HOME?
WHO IS IN CHARGE OF THE PETS? HOW DO YOU SHARE THE
CHORES?
IS THERE A SHOP OF PETS NEAR YOUR HOUSE?
ARE THERE ANIMALS WHO FRIGHTEN YOU?
DO YOU KNOW A STORY/LEGEND/ OR TALE IN WHICH THE
ANIMALS MAY PARTICIPATE. EXPLAIN IT.
DO YOU KNOW THE FOLLOWING IDIOMATIC PHRASES?
TO BE LIKE A FISH OUT OF WATER
TO BE A BIG FISH
WHEN THE CAT IS AWAY THE MICE PLAY
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TO BE AS CUNNING AS A FOX
7TH SESSION: THE DAILY ROUTINE
What do you do every day? You wi l l tal k about your dai l y routi ne.
What you li ke or di sl i ke doi ng.
QUESTION/ANSWER PROMPS:
WHAT IS A WEEK DAY LIKE FOR YOU?
WHAT DO YOU NORMALLY DO IN THE AFTERNOONS? LIST
THE THINGS YOU NORMALLY DO.
EXPLAIN THE TIME YOU NEED TO ARRIVE AT THE
SCHOOL/THE CENTRE. WHICH MEANS OF TRANSPORT DO YOU
NEED?
EXPLAIN WHAT YOU DO EVERY DAY BEFORE COMING TO THE
SCHOOL/ CENTER.
EXPLAIN WHAT YOU DO IN THE CENTER/ SCHOOL
(MEETING SOME FRIENDS, HAVING A COFFEE WITH FRIENDS,
TAKING NOTES ON THE AGENDA.
COMPARE YOUR ACTIVITIES HERE WITH YOUR ACTIVITIES IN
YOUR COUNTRY. WHICH SIMILAR AND DIFFERENT POINTS
CAN YOU SEE?
OF THE FOLLOWING CHORES:
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WHICH ONES DO YOU LIKE AND DISLIKE?
MAKING THE BED IRONING
COOKING TROWING OUT THE
RUBBISH
LAYING THE TABLE TIDYING UP THE ROOM
WASHING UP WATERING THE PLANTS
DOING THE SHOPPING HANGING CLOTHES ON
THE CLOTHES LINE
BUYING CLOTHES MOPPING,
WALKING THE DOG SEWING
SETTING THE WASHING
MASHINE IN MOTION
GARDENING
QUESTION/ANSWER PROMPTS:
DO YOU DEVOTE TIME TO READING, LISTENING TO MUSIC,
MEETING YOUR FRIENDS, SPEAKING WITH YOUR FAMILY?
WHAT DO YOU LIKE DOING AT THEWEEKENDS DIFFERENT TO
WHAT YOU DO DURING THE WEEK?
IF YOU SURF THE NET, WHICH WEBPAGES DO YOU LIKE
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SURFING? DO YOU SEND ANY MAILS? DO YOU USE ANY
SOCIAL NETWORKS?
DO YOU PARTICIPATE IN OUT OF SCHOOL ACTIVITIES? WHICH
ONES? ( DO YOU PRACTISE ANY SPORTS, DO YOU ATTEND
PRIVATE LESSONS)?
IMAGINE AN IDEAL DAY IN YOUR LIFE. EXPLAIN IT.
DO YOU DEVOTE TIME TO READING, LISTENING TO MUSIC,
MEETING YOUR FRIENDS, SPEAKING WITH YOUR FAMILY?
WHAT DO YOU LIKE DOING AT THE WEEKENDS DIFFERENT TO
WHAT YOU DO DURING THE WEEK?
IF YOU SURF THE NET, WHICH WEBPAGES DO YOU LIKE
SURFING? DO YOU SEND ANY MAILS? DO YOU USE ANY
SOCIAL NETWORKS?
DO YOU PARTICIPATE IN OUT OF SCHOOL ACTIVITIES? WHICH
ONES? ( DO YOU PRACTISE ANY SPORTS, DO YOU ATTEND
PRIVATE LESSONS)?
IMAGINE AN IDEAL DAY IN YOUR LIFE. EXPLAIN IT.
CREDITS
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The programme: Activate the l anguage partnershi p i n your school
has been a success thanks to the i nvolvement of a l ot of members of
the staff and because the i dea of creati ng thi s l anguage vol unteering
was the resul t of a real need. The teachers of languages were aware
that the students who l earnt Catal an had to break a barri er to start
produci ng oral l y i n a l anguage. Most of our students fi nd i t very hard
to start speaki ng. By means of handi ng the conversati on gui de at the
very begi nni ng of the project, we provi de the students with
vocabulary and prompts to fol low a conversati on. Not onl y the
students but al so the teachers i nvol ved woul d li ke to conti nue next
year though we wont count on the fundi ng of the Nati onal Agency
Socrates.
The teachers i nvol ved i n the programme: Activate the language
partnershi p i n your school at CEPA Son Canal s are:
Mari a Josep Carrasco: coordi nator of the programme. She has, wi thout
a doubt, invi gorated the acti vi ty a great deal . She has been the
presenter of the offi ci al events of the programme (presentati on,
meeti ngs etc). She has adapted the vocabul ary and promps to our
students. She has sel ected the pai rs after havi ng matched the
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enrol l ment forms of the tutors and the tutored person. She has
moni tored the fi rst sessi ons of the conversati on lessons and has
control l ed the eval uati on.
Mart Gen & Rafel Ol i ver: preparati on of the ITC part of the
programme: creati on of power point, pi cassa
Isabel Pearrubi a: organi zati on of the outi ngs ( Ll uc, Pal ma). She has
organi zed the wal kings and the cul tural vi si ts. She i s the teacher of
Hi story and Art Hi story i n the school and has desi gned the outi ngs
and the i ti nerari es.
Joana Mari a Sans: graphi c desi gner and Engl i sh teacher. She has
desi gned the enrol l ment form used to match the tutors and tutored
students, the poster used to make publ i ci ty of the programme and the
conversati on gui des.
Mai te Vi dal : Catal an teacher and the person i n charge of anal yzi ng the
part concerni ng the context of the l anguage under study.
Sebasti Vi dal : Catal an teacher and the person i n charge of
supervi si ng the part of the manual devoted to the si tuati on of the
Catalan l anguage nowadays.
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Cepa Son Canals
Cepa Son Canal s i s an Adul t Educati on School whi ch provi des formal
and i nformal educati on as well as di stance l earni ng. It i s pl aced i n a
di sadvantaged area wi th a l ot of i mmi grants comi ng from South
Ameri ca, the North of Afri ca, and Eastern European countri es. The
i nstituti on organi zes i nformal educati on courses stressi ng on IT
teachi ng, Engl i sh and Catal an and Spani sh courses for mi grants. In the
past coupl e of years, the school has al so organi zed a l ot of
mul ticul tural acti vi ties: semi nars, workshops and festi val s to favour
thei r i ntegrati on and to teach i mmi grants the Catal an l anguage, the
communi ty l anguage and the offi cial one as well as the Spani sh
l anguage. Teachi ng the l ocal l anguage i s a way to hel p them to be
l i ngui sti call y quali fi ed to carry out a normal professi onal and soci al
l i fe. Regardi ng, the European di mensi on of the school , we have
coordi nated two Grundtvi g partnershi ps from 2008 to 2010 and from
2010 to 2012 and thi s experi ence has awoken our i nterest i n European
educati onal programmes.
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Sami t eam
Davvi smi gi el aoahpahus Smi oahpahus guovddi s Johkamohki s
Davvi smi gi el oahppi t Smi oahpahusguovddi s l eat duodjeoahppi t
mat l ohket smi gi el a beannot di i mmu vahkus, oahppi t mat l ohket
smi gi ela beal l ei ggi ja oahppi t mat l ohkat i nterneaha bokte njeal jdas
oasi barggoi ggi s, dat l ea oahppumggga dsi s.
Dat oahppu vuol ggahuvvo makkr dsi s dat oahppi t l eat.
Smi gi el l al ohket duodjeoahppit modernagi ela gursepl ana bokt.
Vai kko l eat smi gi el agat de oahpahus l ea mggga dsi s. Dat boaht
das go ruola ja norgga skuvlasystema l eaba hui earal ganat dasa mii
guosk smi gi el oahpahussi i vuoddo-ja joatkkaskuvl l as.
Neahttasmi gi el oahpahus l ea hei vehuvvon moderna gi el l a gurseplna
mi el de, oahppi uvvo dan dasi s gos son l ea. Dat oahppi mi i l ga
vuostta gurse uovvo modernagiel a 1 ja 2. Jus l eat l ohkan ovddi t jagi
de dat oahppi uvvo Moderna gi ela 3:t ja 4:at.
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Oahppi neahttagursses gi i l ea eatnigi el at uovvo eatni gi el agursepl ana.
Oahppu uovvu ruola joatkkaskuvl l ad Moderna gi el a ja Eatni giela
gursepl nai d ja dai d mi el de oot oahppi t duodastusai d.
Duodjeoahppi t
Duodjeoahppi t l ohket smi duoji ja smi gi el a. Smi gi elas bargat dan
maid l eat oahpahal lame duoji s, nugo duodjesni i d ja man lhki dai d
geavaha. Dat oahppi t mat l eat ol u l ohkan smi gi el a dahkat
dutkkanproeakta mai d i e dat studeanta vl l jeji t ja dan de l l et
smegi l li i . Das de ohppi t si hke dan guovdd si sdoala mai d dat
Moderna gi el ai d gursepl na gi bi da, nugo ovd kommuni kkauvnna,
receptuvnna, i nteraktuvnna ja produkuvnna.
Dat oahppi t mat l eat easkkl gi t, si s l ea vuoddogi rji man namma l ea
Gul ahal lat ja si i mai ddai barget dan mai d barget duoji s ja oahpahall et
sni i d, ceal kkagi i d jna.
Skuvl a l ea vl ljen uovvot Moderna gi el a gursepl nai d vai kko oahppi
l ea eatni gi el at dani n go dat moderna gi ela gursepl nat addet beal e
uogga eanet go eatni gi el at gursepl ana go ohca universi teaha
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oahppui .
Gi ddusoahppu ja neahttaoahppu
Smi gi el a vl l o gi ddusoahppu ja i nterneahtta oahppu.
Giddusoahppu l ea go oahppi t bohtet skuvl ii oktii mnnui . Oahppi t
geat l ohket i nterneavtta bokte l eat juohke dsi s. Interneahtta oahppu
l ea buorre oahppu daidda ol bui de geat eai shtte l ohkat skuvlabi kki s
go l eat barggus ja l eat guhkki n eret bi kki s gos oahppu fl l u.
Hstal us oahpahi t
Oahpahi tt smi gi ela l ea stuora hstl us mgga dfus, oahppogi rjji i d
vi l va vuohta l ea okta heahtehus. Oahpahusas gal g gvdnat dsi vai
juohke oahppi oao oahpu i eas drbbuid mi elde, muhti mat eai l eat
ol l enge gul l an smi gi ela ja muhti mat fas l eat eatni giel a
sgasteaddjit.Si i eai l eat beassan oahppall i t ja l ohkat i easet
skuvl ai ggi .
Duodjeoahpahusas l eat oahppit mggga dsi s muhtimat l eat l ohkan
smi gi ela oll es dan joatkkaskuvl ai ggi ja l ohkan dan nugo
eatni gi el l an. Dl de l ohket dan Moderna gi el ai d gursepl na mi elde,
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dan bokto si s l ea guokte smmi gi el vdnasa i easet
joatkkaskuvl aduodastusan. Dt oahppi t l eat hi rbmat eahppi t.
Oahpaheaddji n ferte geavahi t vi sot nvccai d ja metodai d ja mai ddai
fuomaahtti t ohpi i d i easet makkar mll e l ea sutnje buoremus
oahppat ja oahpahal lat. Neahtta oahpahusas l ea vddasi t prakti hkalas
oasi bokte oahpahi t das l eat eanet teorehtal a barggut go i i l eat
si ngui n vejol a barggu bokte oahpahi t nugo datoahppit mat l eat
bi kki s. Di gui n shtat bargat juoi da gi edai gun, jehi i d bi edgasii d,
srgut ja mai d mannat ol gun gfestal lat, mannat dvvi rvuorks jna.
Dvvivukorkas l ea l oavddagoahti doppe shtt sgastal l at dego
goahtevi erui d bi rra ja juohke oahppi mui tala makkr vi erut si n
guovl l us l eat. Oahppi t hal bohtet juohke guovl l us smi s, norggas,
suomas, ruolas, davvi - ja l ul l i guovll us.
Boazu l ea dealal s si hke eal ahussan, duodjevnnasii d ja borramuaid
oaut. Muhtin dn gi el l poahpahusas l ea juste boazu. Bohcco
namahusat agi , i vdni, oarvi ja l ihkkama bi rra. Eatnami dd bi rra gos
dat guohto ja vjal da. Oahppit sukkardi t makkar bi epmu sii rahkadi t
bohccos dego bi erggus, si skal dusai n, gccai n, oai vvi s ja nu ai n.
Makkar duodjevnnasi i d oo bohccos dego duol ji , gpmasi i d,
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suonai d ja orvvii d. Oahppi t beasset oahppat njuovvat, ri httet, caggat
dul ji i d, vuol ehasti t gpmasii d, suovastuhtti t bi erggui d, dahkat
gurppi i d. De go l ea ol gobeaivi de l ea suovasbi ergu ja gurpi mai d
beasset bassi t heal l u nal de. Dai nna ohppet dan rbevi rol as
bi epmukul tuvra.
rbevi rol a l uohti , odda mll et smi musi hka ja eara l l ojuvvon
dokumeanttat, gi rjjit
Gul dal i t rbevi rol a l udi i d ja maiddai geahali t bi djat l uodi .
Anal yseret got l uohti l ea dahkkon ja manin eai nu njuol ga dat
dajal dagat l uodi s dadjo. Soami s oahppi l ea i e juoi gi ja oasal asttan dan
stuora gi l vvohal lami s Smi Grand Pri xas guovdageai nnus de lea oall e
stuora resurssan oahpahusas.
Cappagi rjjal avuoda oahpahusas gi edahal lat dai d smi gi rjel li i d
Johan Turi , Paul us Utsi , Ni l s Asl ak Val keap jna. Johan Turi l ea hal
Smi Kal levall a.
Oddasi t l li t geat l l et otna beai vvi dil i bi rra, nuorra ol bmo eall i mi i
l ea mai ddai genre oahpahusas. Oahppi l ohk ja mui tal ala, anal ysere
maid l ea l ohkan ja bukta i eas jurdagii d si hke njl mmal aat ja
l al aat. Oahppi anal ysere man l dje gi rjel l i l ea geavahan gi el a.
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Juohke dsi s oahpahusas l ea ppagi rjal avuoda l ohkun oassi . Easkka
l gi i de l ohka oahpaheaddji ppagi rjalavuoda gi rjji mi i lea hei vol a
dan dssi MP3:ai ja jorgal a ruolagil l ii . Oahppi gul dal a ji etnadagai d
ja oahpahal l a dan bokto i e l ohkat, de sdde i eas l ohkamusa
oahpaheaddji ji etnamei l a bokte ja das de oahpaheaddji add
mhccaga kondtrastii va anal yserema bokte ji etnaoahpa, ceal kaoahpa
ja gi el l aoahpa.
Oahdppi producere l alaat ja njal mmal aat juohke l gn
teavsstai d.
Ohppi i d i easet ruovttosuopman
Oahppi ruovttogi el a-suopman l ea dealal as sami gi el oahpahusas.
Call i n-ja njl mml a gi ell a shtt l eat oall e guhklaga. Das ferte
fuomahahttit oahppi dan njl mmal a- ja l li ngi ela earu.
Oahpaheaddji ferte i e dovdat suopman earui d earenoamai t
dvvi smi gi el asde l ea l kkit fuomaahtti t oahppi su oahppami s dai d
earui d go son gal g oahppat l li t.
Interneahtta
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Interneahtta l ea hui buorre gaskaoapmi das gavdna mat l eat buori t
smi gi el oahpahusi i , dego fi l lmmat, shtt mannat magos geahat
smi tv-oddasi i d, yuo-tubas gvdna mi i dhpahuvva nuorai d-ol bui d
gaskkas mi l mmi s ja mai ddai smi s.
Eal l i lan ol bmot
Eal l i lan ol bmot l eat hi rpmat delal as gl ddut. Ohppii n l ea l o bargo
jearrat i eaase l agamusai n mai d si i di htet duon ja dn ssi s. Go ll et
l al a barggu de gal get bi djat dan geas l eat oon njl mmal a di edu
gl dun.
Dat eal li l an ol bmot mat l eat bi rrasi s l ven dego oahpaheaddji bi vdet
skuvl i i ja si i de mui tal i t mas si s l ea berotupmi ovd boaodl us,
mui tal i t skuvl aiggi bi tta (i nternhtta goahteskuvladiggi ). Di i bma
giddat studeri i me boare skuvl agoahtesajii d Vi kkajvrri s. De l ei
eall i lan ol mmi, Ni l s Vlkeap, gi i i e l ei vzzn dan skuvl l as ja orron
l vdegoadi s skuvl ai ggi , l ei l oahppa geai s 30-l ogus.
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Language Policy
The Sami Parl i aments i ntenti on of di recti on i s to promote, devel op
and preserve the Sami l anguage to a viabl e l anguage for the Sami
soci ety and for Sami sol idari ty. A l i vi ng l anguage i s acti vel y used both
at home and i n offi cial contexts.
The Swedi sh assi mi l ati on peri od
Most of the ol der Sami have never been all owed to l earn to read or
wri te i n thei r own nati ve l anguage i n school . Many can tel l about
puni shments and threats they were vi cti m to under thei r school time,
when the northern popul ati on was to be made Swedi sh . In the
el ementary school one was not all owed to speak Sami duri ng school
ti me. Sami wasnt even a school subject i n the nomadi c school . The
Sami chil dren were not gi ven the opportuni ty to learn to read and
wri te in thei r own language. (The same appl i ed to the Fi nnish-
speaki ng popul ati on i n the Torne Vall ey). Ol der generati ons of Sami
that have Sami as a social l anguage use therefore Swedi sh when they
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read and wri te. When we speak of l iteracy i n Sami contexts, it does not
mean that Sami are il l i terate.
Language switch
The generati on exposed to unpl easant experiences from thei r school
years chose to a greater part to not speak Sami wi th thei r own
chi l dren. As adul ts, many of the 60s and 70s generati ons cannot
speak Sami al though they should be abl e to . They have Sami as a
passive language to a more or less degree. It can be a rather steep
threshol d to reclaim one s language, and many speak of
psychol ogical barri ers . Here there i s a need for great educati on
efforts and a posi ti ve atti tude from the surroundi ng soci ety, both the
Sami and the Swedi sh. The State has a great responsi bi li ty for
hi stori cal events whi ch affect the Sami stil l today.
Sami Language Act
The internati onal law has great si gni fi cance in many ways, even for
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l anguage preservati on. Questi ons about cul tural autonomy, wi th
ri ghts to an own cul ture, l anguage and sel f-determi nati on i n own
matters has been emphasized. An exampl e i s the European Counci l s
conventi on on protecti on for nati onal mi nori ti es and the statute on
mi nori ty l anguage, which has l ed to the Mi nority Language Act i n
Sweden. The present devel opment of the pol i ti cal and i deol ogi cal
rel ati onshi ps speaks for Sami language preservati on, but there is al so
a need for added resources i n order for the Sami Parli ament and other
actors to be abl e to acti vel y work for an i ncreased use of the Sami
l anguage.
Read the summery of the government bi l l that recogni zes, among
others, Sami as a mi nori ty l anguage here.
Change i n atti tude
The Swedi sh peopl es attitudes to mi nori ty languages and parti cularl y
to the Sami are posi ti ve. Thi s i s evident from a questi oner survey
(2001) where more than 80% of the popul ati on feel s i t i s important to
preserve mi nori ty l anguages i n Sweden. 86% feel i t woul d be a shame
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i f the Sami language i n Sweden were to di sappear. The interest for the
l anguage grows i n pace with an i ncreased sel f-esteem and
strengthened i denti ty percepti on wi th the Sami themsel ves. Together
wi th i ncreasi ngl y broad-mi nded mi nori ty pol i cy, a growi ng sel f-
confi dence speaks for new possi bili ti es. A rich di versity of Sami
cul tural expressi ons appear i n an open and obvi ous manner. Increased
mobi li ty and more areas of contact grant new opportuni ti es for a
broadened use of l anguage.
A language wi th deep root
The l anguages i n Europe bel ong to a number of di fferent li ngui sti c
fami l ies. The di stri buti on of the l anguages i s a resul t both of the
mi grati on and settl ement of di fferent groups of peopl e and l anguages,
as well as l ingui sti c changes due to exposure to external or hi gher
i nfl uences. Areas wi th navi gabl e coasts and ri vers have faci l i tated
contact and li ngui sti c exchange. At one ti me the Sami i nhabi ted the
majori ty of Fi nl and and Karel i a. Hi stori cal documents and Sami place
names bear witness to the origi nal area's outer boundaries. Research
i nto l oan words i s a type of l i ngui stic archaeol ogy that can teach us a
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great deal about the contact that di fferent groups of peopl e had wi th
each other.
The Indo-European language fami l y i s the domi nant fami l y i n Europe.
Thi s can i n turn be di vi ded i nto a number of subgroups. The Romance
l anguages (Ital i an, Spani sh, French, etc.) are descendants of Lati n, the
l anguage of the Romans. The mai n Germanic languages are Engl ish
and German. The Scandi navi an l anguages are Northern Germani c
l anguages. Indo-European l anguages are al so spoken i n Western Asi a.
Sami bel ongs to the Fi nno-Ugri c l anguage famil y. Fi nni sh, Estonian,
Li voni an and Hungari an bel ong to the same l anguage fami l y and are
consequentl y related to each other. Vari ous other l anguages wi th
which we are relativel y unfamil iar al so bel ong to the same group, and
are spoken by peopl e as far away as the Ural Mountai ns i n Russi a,
such as Udmurtian, the Mordvi ni c languages, Mari and Komi.
A common Finno-Sami protolanguage
Fi nni sh and Sami probabl y ori gi nate from a common protol anguage,
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earl y Fi nno-Sami . From thi s protol anguage, Fi nni sh and Sami
devel oped i n separate di recti ons around 1000 BC or earl i er. When the
Sami branch changed i nto proto-Sami , the l anguage was relativel y
uni form across the enti re area i nhabited by the Sami 's forefathers. The
subdi vi si on into the vari ous dial ects had probabl y come a fai rl y l ong
way by the 9th century AD, and al l the typi cal features that we now
have i n the vari ous Sami di al ects were probabl y present. The Sami i n
northern Scandi navi a became l i ngui sti cal l y spl i ntered due to the fact
that they were nomads who moved al ong the ri ver vall eys and lake
systems wi th thei r rei ndeer. Southern Sami , on the other hand,
probabl y has a sli ghtl y di fferent hi story. It may have its ori gi ns i n an
earl y mi grati on from the south i nto the Scandi navian peni nsula. The
vari ous Sami groups then met up agai n much later. One pi ece of
evi dence for thi s i s sai d to be the fact that Southern Sami lacks
consonant gradati on, whi ch i s present i n both Fi nni sh and the other
Sami di al ects. (Consonant gradati on i s where a group of consonants
i nsi de a word change between an unstressed and a stressed spel ling,
for exampl e `pm' i n /Spmi / changes to `m' in /smi /.)
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Sami place names
The nati onal borders were drawn up around 250 years ago. Before
then, the Sami popul ati on l i ved across a very extensi ve area wi th no
nati onal boundari es. The fi rst settl ers were dependent on the Sami
peopl e's abi l i ty to survi ve i n nature and the harsh cli mate. Thi s can be
seen for exampl e i n the Sami el ements that have been retai ned i n the
l anguage of those who settl ed there. Fi shermen and farmers of non-
Sami ori gi n appeared rel ati vel y earl y al ong the coastl i ne i n the north
and in the lower ri ver vall eys. From the 17th century onwards, more
and more peopl e dared to settl e i n the Sami regi on. The col oni sati on
was gradually completed thanks to forestry, mi ni ng and the
devel opment of hydroel ectri c power. Even though thi s col oni sati on i s
a recent phenomenon, i t has wi ped out much of northern Sweden's
Sami past. Through l ingui sti c research we are abl e to redi scover the
regi on's earl y hi story. When you l ook at the map, you can see that the
i nl and area i s covered wi th Sami names for towns, mountai ns and
l akes. Pl ace names such as Lul e, Skel l efte and Ume al so have a
Sami ori gi n, although we do not normal l y consi der thi s. In most cases,
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the Swedi sh names for the major ri vers i n northern Sweden refer back
to thei r Sami equi val ents. If the Sami had not been l i vi ng by the coast
when the Swedes arri ved, the waterways woul d natural l y have been
gi ven Swedi sh names. The ri vers are now named i n a way that has
been adjusted to sui t Swedi sh pronunciati on. One exampl e of thi s i s
Skel l efte (Skel l opta i n the 13th century), whi ch derives from the
Southern Sami name Syl dahte. Lul e deri ves from the Lul e Sami
name Lul eju. A fi nal `' (Swedi sh for ri ver or stream) has subsequentl y
been added to these pl ace names.
Current linguistic situation
The current si tuati on of the Sami l anguage i s affected by peopl e
movi ng about i nternal l y and by the domi nance of the majori ty
l anguages duri ng the 20th century. In recent decades, tens of
thousands of new words have entered the Sami l anguage, both l oan
words and new formati ons. Exampl es i ncl ude: si hkkel - bi cycl e,
mni dgrdi - day nursery (l i teral ly "chi l dren's corral ''), di htor -
computer. Languages devel op conti nuousl y i n l i ne wi th soci ety and its
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needs. For obvi ous reasons, al l Sami -speaki ng peopl e are natural l y
bi li ngual . In the countri es where the Sami li ve, school educati on has
al ways been provided from the majori ty l anguages.
http://www.eng.samer.se/servl et/GetDoc?meta_i d=1006
Senast ndrad: 2006-11-14
... Fi nni sh and Sami have probably ori gi nated from the same
l anguage.
... south Sami and north Sami are two di fferent l anguages, even
though rel ated to each other.
... names of towns l i ke Lul e, Skel lefte and Ume have Sami ori gi n.
Language l egi slati on
Language and the l aw
The Sami l anguage has recei ved offi cial recogni ti on i n the Nordi c
countri es through a Sami l anguage l aw. In Fi nl and and Norway, a
Sami l anguage law was i ntroduced i n 1992 (revi sed i n Fi nl and i n
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2003). On 1 Apri l 2000, the Sami language (al l vari eties) was
recogni sed as an offi ci al mi nori ty l anguage i n Sweden.
The Mi nority Languages Act enti tl es Sami peopl e to use Sami i n thei r
contacts wi th the authori ti es and courts wi thi n the `Sami
admi ni strati on area'. The admi ni strati on area covers Arjepl og,
Gll i vare, Jokkmokk and Ki runa muni ci pal i ti es. In practice, thi s
means that Southern Sami i s excl uded, as no Southern Sami
muni ci pal i ti es are i ncl uded i n the admi ni strati on area.
The Mi nori ty Languages Act has not worked particularl y well to date.
Thi s is due to several factors. For example, Sweden's previous
l anguage pol i cy has meant that many Sami cannot speak thei r own
l anguage suffi ci entl y wel l to use i t i n offi cial contexts. Furthermore,
there are not enough peopl e worki ng for the authori ti es who can
speak and wri te Sami . There can al so be unwi l li ngness on the part of
offi cial s to obl i ge Sami peopl e and arrange an i nterpreter, when they
know that the person i n questi on can speak Swedi sh.
Despi te thi s, the fact that Sweden has adopted a law on mi nori ty
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l anguages can be of great i mportance for the future. The fact that a
l anguage i s recogni sed as an offi cial mi nori ty l anguage i s i mportant
when i t comes to rai si ng the status of the l anguage and to justi fyi ng
the preservati on of the language. The admi ni strati on area for Sami i s
expected to be extended so that Southern Sami areas are al so covered.
The Sami dial ects
Whi ch di al ect do these chil dren speak? Northern Sami , at a guess,
goi ng by thei r caps. Photo: Haral dsson, Ajtte Mountai n & Sami
Museum.
Language, di al ect or vari ety?
Is Lul e Sami a separate l anguage or a di al ect? Is Swedi sh a variant of
Dani sh? It's di ffi cul t to know how to determine what i s a l anguage
and what i sn't.
Dependi ng on how you cl assi fy languages and di al ects, there are sai d
to be between 2,000 and 6,000 languages i n the worl d. If we consi der
Swedi sh and Norwegi an to be two di fferent l anguages, then Sami
shoul d al so be subdi vi ded i nto several l anguages. However, as the
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Sami are a rel ati vel y smal l group of peopl e, the deci si on has been
taken to refer to al l the variants of Sami as one Sami l anguage, and to
di vi de the l anguage i nto three main di al ects.
Ni ne di al ects
The three mai n di al ects are i n turn di vi ded i nto ni ne di al ects or
vari eti es, as they are al so referred to by li ngui sts. The mai n Sami
dial ects are: Eastern Sami , Central Sami and Southern Sami .
Li ngui sti c fronti ers not the same as nati onal borders
The fact that the fronti ers for the Sami l i ngui sti c areas do not coi ncide
wi th the nati onal boundari es i s a cl ear si gn that the nati onal borders i n
the north spli ntered the Sami's areas. Eastern Sami dial ects are spoken
on the Kol a Peni nsula i n Russi a; Central Sami dial ects are spoken i n
Fi nl and, Norway and Sweden; Southern Sami dial ects are spoken in
Norway and Sweden. Northern Sami, Lul e Sami and Arjepl og Sami
(bel ongi ng to the mai n Central Sami dial ect), Southern Sami and Ume
Sami (a vari ety wi th li ngui sti c features of both southern and northern
ori gi n) are al l spoken i n Sweden. The boundari es between the
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di fferent vari eti es are not cl earl y defi ned, but rather tend to change
gradual l y.
Northern Sami the largest
Northern Sami has the most speakers, bei ng spoken by an esti mated
15-17,000 peopl e across the enti re Sami area, of whi ch 5-6,000 are i n
Sweden. Northern Sami has al so spread i nto Lul e Sami and Southern
Sami areas as a resul t of the authori ti es' forci bl e rel ocati on of Northern
Sami peopl e to these areas duri ng the 1930s.
Di fficul t to understand each other
One esti mate i s that around 500 peopl e speak Lul e Sami and a simil ar
number speak Southern Sami . The di fferences that exi st mean that a
Sami from one area may have di ffi cul ty understandi ng a Sami from
another area. The di fferences are comparabl e wi th the di fferences
between Swedi sh, Norwegi an and Dani sh. Peopl e who have grown
accustomed to a di fferent dial ect can tal k wi th each other, whi l e others
fi nd i t more di ffi cul t to communi cate. The di fferences between the
vari eti es l ocated furthest away from each other - the Sami l anguage i n
the east and Sami i n the south - are almost as great as the differences
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between Swedi sh and German.
Al l Sami l anguages are cl assi fi ed as endangered l anguages, as the UN
agency UNESCO. A l anguage i s threatened when the speakers
di sappear or turn to speak another language, usuall y a major l anguage
used by a powerful group. Seri ousl y threatened today Lul e and South
Sami . Cri ti cal l y endangered i s Ume and Pite Saami , wi th maybe 10-20
who sti l l speak the l anguage. Accordi ng to UNESCO's Language Atl as
of endangered l anguages i n the worl d.
A l anguage i s threatened when the speakers di sappear or turn to
speak another language, usual l y a major l anguage used by a powerful
group. It i s al so threatened when it i s used i n fewer and fewer context,
the language code i s not used anymore, or the chi l dren can no l onger
l earn the l anguage group. With fewer and fewer are usi ng the l ocal
l anguage, so i s the ri sk that i t wi l l di e out cl earl y.
Around the worl d, mi nori ty popul ati ons li vi ng side by side wi th the
majori ty popul ati ons and the exampl es are numerous where minori ty
popul ati ons are abandoni ng or bei ng forced to abandon thei r
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l anguage. Thi s experi ence wi th other parts of the Sami i ndi genous
people.
The increased gl obal izati on and rapi d urbani zati on affects al l peopl e,
but especial l y vul nerabl e are those associated wi th smal l i ndi genous
peopl es i n the worl d. As i ndustri al i zati on and large-scal e extracti on of
raw materi al s i s changi ng the condi ti ons for a traditi onal way of li fe.
Many are forced to move to citi es to seek new ways to support
themsel ves.
To make thei r own soci ety means bei ng subjected to strong pressure to
speak the domi nant language. Majori ty l anguage i s or i s percei ved as
necessary i n order to take advantage of soci ety, whi l e the nati ve
l anguage is no l onger necessary i n the same way. The possibilities and
reasons to speak thei r own l anguage becomes l ess and fi nall y emerge
more rarefi ed the portabi l i ty of the language to the next generati on.
The threat can al so come from the l eadershi p of thei r country, whi ch
prohi bi ts the use of mi nori ty language. Ambi ent di sparagi ng vi ews on
mi nori ti es may also affect the wil l i ngness to use thei r own l anguage.
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Language's survi val i s threatened then.
The spoken l anguages i n the world i s a treasure. Each l anguage i s part
of the worl d's cul tural heri tage. The l anguages are: a mi rror of each
nati on's uni que vi si on of the worl d. The fact that l anguage exti ncti on
and the di sappearance mean an i rreparabl e l oss of uni que cul tural
knowl edge for many generati ons, i ncl udi ng hi stori cal, spi ri tual and
ecol ogi cal knowl edge whi ch might be necessary not onl y for i ts
speakers, but al so for others. And si nce many li ttl e peopl e have no
wri tten l anguage but are oral soci eti es as language i s al so i mportant as
carri ers of tradi ti ons and i n support of cul tural i denti ty.
Over the past hundred years, a language shi ft process has gone on i n
Sami soci ety. The Sami have l ong l i ved under a strong assi mil ati on
pressure (l i kri ktni ngstryck). Somethi ng that l ed to many Sami now no
l onger can speak or understand the Sami. Instead, the Swede has
become the l anguage that domi nates. When Sami i s spoken, i t i s
pri mari l y i n the home and fami l y, whi l e the rarel y heard and spoken
i n the rest of soci ety and i n publ i c.
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Not all owed to use the Sami language i n school or l earn to read or
wri te i n thei r native l anguage has many Sami experi enced as di ffi cul t.
Meanwhil e, the negative atti tudes that many Sami have met, has
affected many Sami desi re to bl end i nto the majori ty popul ati on.
Many have not wanted to keep the language on to thei r chil dren. The
chi l dren woul d not suffer the same di ffi cul ti es.
The most i mportant thi ng to save a l anguage from dyi ng out i s that
soci ety creates opportuniti es for speakers to speak the language and
teach thei r chil dren. It requi res a nati onal pol i cy that recogni zes and
protects mi nori ty languages and an educati on system that promotes
mother-tongue educati on.
It al so requi res a soci al and pol i ti cal envi ronment, whi ch encourages
mul til i ngual i sm and mi nority language use so that it becomes an asset
to speak such a l anguage. The West has l ong been regarded as an
excepti on mul ti l ingual i sm and monol i ngual i sm as the norm, but
gl obal l y, i t i s actuall y si gni ficantly more common wi th chi l dren who
grow up wi th mul ti pl e l anguages.
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UNESCO i s the Uni ted Nati ons Educati onal , Sci enti fi c and Cultural
Organi zati on. In the mi d-1990s, UNESCO publi shed the first report of
endangered l anguages i n the world. The thi rd came i n February 2009.
Sprkatl asen shows that 2500 of the worl d's 6000 languages are
endangered and that hundreds are al ready exti nct. The number of
endangered l anguages has al so i ncreased dramatical l y because of the
rapi d social and economi c change. Onl y si nce 1950 has 230 languages
have di sappeared. Among Akkalasami ska, spoken on the Kol a
Peni nsula i n Russi a. The l anguage di ed out i n 2003 with the l ast
speaker.
Cooking on tradional way
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Maki ng sausage from i ntesti ne of rei ndeer
Whi sking fl our i nto the bl ood to fi l l i nto i ntestines.
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They are goi ng to boi l marrowbones.
Marrowbones are i n the pot for boi l i ng
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They are cl eavi ng the marrowbones and then it i s ready to eat.
Here i s the food, puddi ngs, marrowbones, sausages of intesti nes.
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When we worked wi th cooki ng we tal ked saami all the ti me.
Marrowbones Addamat
Sausages Mrfi , Guopmol gg, Doggi , Maggebuoi di , Ceaksa
Meat Ci el gi , Ci el gedkti , Gni s, Bi eka
Puddi ngs Guhprat
Broth Bul jong
Make sausages Mrfut
Make puddi ngs Guohpprathtti t
Cl eave Ci eskat
Dri nk broth Juhkat l i ema
Eat Borrat
Take meat from bone Sohpat
Smij hpadusguovdsj / Sami Education
General Sami
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The Sami li ve in four countri es: Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russi a.
The Sami are an i ndi genous people i n the area and have li ved here for
a very l ong ti me. The Sami have thei r own cul ture and l anguage, Sami
l anguage bel ongs to the Fi nno-Ugri c l anguage fami l y. Saami as an
i ndi genous peopl e have over the mil l ennia acqui red a knowl edge of
how they can survi ve i n the area resul ti ng i n a rich Sami l anguages of
i mportant terms such as the natural condi ti ons. The Sami today li ve as
mi nori ty i n most areas ida .. Onl y three muni ci pal i ti es have Sami
majori ty and two of those are i n Norway and one i n Fi nl and. No
muni ci pali ty i n Sweden, the Sami majority. The Sami peopl e are the
vi cti ms of the assi mi l ati on pol i cy of the States and al so hi t hard by
nature expl oi ts such as hydropower expansi ons, mi ni ng and l oggi ng.
The Sami cul ture has been hard-pressed and not so l ong ago i t was
forbi dden for Sami chi l dren to speak thei r own l anguage in school ,
even i nto the 50th century. Thi s has l ed to consequences that we l i ve
wi th today. Several generati ons of Sami peopl e have l ost thei r
l anguage and cul ture and the states of the regi on have a great
responsi bi l i ty to al l ocate resources, and strengthen the ri ghts of the
Sami . Fortunatel y, some progress has been made recentl y on the ri ght
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si de, but much remai ns to be done.
The Sami l anguage i s hi ghl y endangered and Sami chi l dren and
young peopl e l i vi ng i n the Swedi sh soci ety has been a struggl e to
maintai n and devel op thei r tradi ti onal knowl edge. The same i s
rei ndeer herdi ng, the tradi ti onal Sami way of li fe under great pressure
from a large communi ty who wish to use natural resources. Today,
conservati on and touri sm arri ved i n the area which may create
confl i cts when such areas are used for the ski l i fts and other acti vi ti es.
As Northern Europe i s marketed as Europe's last wilderness, we react
and respond that thi s i s ol d cul ti vated l and whi ch has been used for
generations without showing so many signs of this.
Jokkmokk i s central l y l ocated i n the Sami area, i n Lul e Smi area.
Jokkmokk i s very wel l known i n Sweden and al so i n Europe, thanks to
hi s ol d wi nter market i n February. The exposure i n the medi a and
many ti mes it's Sami that are hi ghl i ghted. Jokkmokk has a l arge Sami
popul ati on and an esti mated 30% have Sami background, though not
al l say i n thei r dai l y l i ves that they are Sami . Smij hpadusguovdsj /
Sami Educati on Centre i s l ocated i n Jokkmokk, just because i t counts
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as a strong and natural Sami envi ronment.
Sami school system
Sami chi l dren i n some areas the opportuni ty to go i nto Sami pre-
school. Furthermore, there are fi ve Sami schools among others i n
Jokkmokk wi th teachi ng from preschool to grade six. After the
hgstadet so some school s have i ntegrated Sami educati on wi th the
opportuni ty to read Sami , Sami handi craft and soci ety with a certai n
number of hours per week. At secondary l evel there are two nati onal
recrui tment program on the Swedi sh side of the hi gh school i n
Jokkmokk. Fi rst, a more theoreti cal coll ege preparatory programs, and
one from the fal l 2012 new, more practi cal l y ori ented Sami vocati onal
programs.
After secondary school, many young people to study at Smi j
hpadusguovdsj / Sami Educati on Centre i n Jokkmokk on any of the
courses.
The university has three universities / col leges teaching in Sami topics:
Lul e Uni versi ty of Technol ogy, Ume Universi ty and Uppsal a
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Uni versi ty. Ume Uni versity i s responsi bl e for the Sami language.
Here may be menti oned that there i s a separate Sami Col l ege i n
Guovdageai dnu on the Norwegian si de wi th teacher, journal i st and
l anguage courses. On the Fi nni sh si de i s an educati onal i nsti tuti on
equi val ent Smij hpadusguovdsj / Sami Educati on. They operate at
secondary l evel and has al so appl i ed handi craft and l anguage courses
but also i n other areas.
On the research l evel , Ume Uni versi ty has a research center i n the
form of Vaartoe / Cesam, Centre for Sami Research. Sami Insti tute has
extensive research.
We can see that there i s a Sami l earni ng scheme where Smi j
hpadusguovdsj / Sami Educati on has a natural part. The resources
above al l on the Swedi sh si de has to be sai d i s i nadequate, and such i s
the seri ous shortage of teaching material s and resources to produce
educati onal materi al s. There i s al so l ack of Sami teachers and there i s
great need to document the Sami tradi ti onal knowl edge for the future.
Al though methodol ogy and pedagogy must be devel oped to Sami
educati on can be adapted to best meet thei r goal s. Thi s call s for more
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research from a Sami perspecti ve and Sami needs, ie research on Sami
and not about the Sami .
Many Sami today want to regai n thei r language and strengthened i n
thei r cul ture. It i s very i mportant Sami educati on system.
General informati on on school
Smi j hpadusguovdsj / Sami Educati on Centre i s a Sami educati onal
i nstituti on wi th a l ong hi story. Since i ts i ncepti on i n 1943, the school
wi th what was then cal l ed Sami Fol k Hi gh gave trai ni ngs to the Saami
peopl e. The school has been of great i mportance to the Sami
communi ty. It was the church (the Swedi sh Mi ssi onary Soci ety) who
started school and was princi pal for the fi rst 30 years. The school had
a very central rol e i n the Sami communi ty, the fi rst few decades. Even
can be sai d that the school was a fi rst mother to Sami society. It was at
school i t happened, al l the i mportant Sami meeti ngs. It was founded
Sami organi zati ons, etc. The school i s a good exampl e of how an
educational i nstituti on for adul ts can enhance a mi nori ty and
i ndi genous peopl es by a natural focal poi nt can be created.
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School organization
The school i s organized as a foundati on wi th SSR / Swedi sh Sami
Associ ati on, Same tnam and Jokkmokk Muni ci pal i ty sti ftel sebi l dare.
SSR i s to count as a Sami trade body and Same tnam more as a
cul tural organizati on. Statutes governi ng the activity. The school has a
particular order and have a state subsi dy that di rectl y channel ed to the
school . Smij hpadusguovdsj i s not requi red to have a general line
of sai d second hi gh school s have. Other fundi ng from the school
muni ci pal i ty of Jokkmokk and the County Counci l of Norrbotten. The
school earned a reputati on as a pri vate educati on provi ders wi th state
ai d, and that the school i s student ai d el i gi bil i ty.
The school 's mi ssi on and goals
Our overal l goal i s to best benefi t the Sami cause and we are supposed
to speci fi call y promote the Sami educati onal acti vi ti es. Smi j
hpadusguovdsj can be said to have a dual goal . Fi rst, it shal l give
i ndi vi dual Sami an educati on adapted to thei r needs and desi res and
secondl y, the answer to a general trai ning courses and through
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col l aborati on wi th educati on organizati ons and other i nsti tuti ons to
spread knowl edge about the Sami peopl e to a wi de ci rcl e of peopl e.
Premises
Operati ons are conducted i n thei r modern offi ces and workshops. The
school has i ts own di ni ng room wi th an adequate ki tchen and
dormi tory with room for our students and vi siting scholars.
Students
Students are adul ts over 18. Sami adol escents and adults come from
di verse backgrounds and envi ronments. First, vari ous Sami language
vari eti es, North, Lul e and South Sami. Some are Sami, other passive
language users to beginners. Students come from di fferent geographi c
areas, some from tradi ti onal rensktarhem wi th strong tradi ti ons and
perhaps from urban areas. School can be said to have three objecti ves
of the trai ni ng. Fi rst, strengthen the tradi ti onal knowl edge so that the
Sami cul ture can survi ve. Fi rst, strengthen thei r Sami i denti ty by
stayi ng i n the envi ronment around the school where the majori ty of
pupi l s and staff are Sami . Partl y al so devel op personal l y as i t i s
heal thy for young adul ts to l i ve wi th other young peopl e i n boardi ng
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houses and devel op i n a sti mul ati ng Sami envi ronment. It's l i ke "l eave
home l i ght". The school 's three objecti ves i nteract and are equal l y
i mportant. Even be sai d to strengthen students' i denti ty i s the basi c
object and that they take ownershi p of thei r cul ture so that i t can
survive. Education programs di fferent parts are the best resources.
Students are recrui ted from al l over Spmi , the Sami area from the
Swedi sh, Norwegi an and Fi nni sh si de, a few years al so have students
come from the Russi an Spmi .
School Staff
Al l staff have Sami background and i t creates a safe envi ronment for
Sami students. The Sami peopl e l i ve as a mi nori ty i n most pl aces on
the Swedi sh si de. In some area, the atmosphere between Sami and
non-Sami tense and many young peopl e and adults may defend
themsel ves. At the school , they feel they need to defend themsel ves or
explain themsel ves. They shoul d cl earl y know that there i s a strong
and secure Sami envi ronment whi ch pupi l s devel op and strengthen
them as individual s. School staff and teachers have the rol e of the
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Sami culture bearers and shall transfer Sami val ues and thoughts and
atti tudes. Sami tradi ti onal knowledge has many di mensi ons, not just
one exampl e, knowl edge of the craft, wi th no l anguage ski l l s and
other non-vi sual skil l s, such as thoughts and val ues.
School education today
Today's l onger courses are of 1-2 years. These i ncl ude duodji - Sami
educati on that has been runni ng for al most 40 years. The program has
produced a vari ety of Sami craftsmen of hi gh cali ber and Sami
handi crafts on the Swedi sh si de are very hi gh qual i ty thanks to the
school 's educati on. You can read the wood / horn or l eather / texti l e
speci al i zati on.
The school al so has Sami l anguage courses i n three vari eti es, North,
Lul e and South Sami. The studies are ful l ti me, at a di stance wi th
physi cal meeti ngs at hal f or even onl i ne courses at quarter speed.
The school al so has a herdi ng traini ng with the target group are active
reindeer herders or young people wishing to start up a reindeer
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husbandry enterpri ses.
In the target area, the school has devel oped a basic tradi ti onal Sami
food cul ture, and just now a professi onal devel opment project for
Sami matfretagare.
The school al so has cul tural events and thi s may be especi al l y
menti oned the Jokkmokk wi nter market i n whi ch the school assi gns
al l i ts premi ses to Sami craftsmen and arti sts. For a few days they sel l
a l arge porti on of thei r annual sales and the market i s very i mportant
for them. Thi s hel ps the school wi th i ts premi ses and its servi ces so
that vi si tors can fi nd out and that busi ness can be done.
The school has over the past decade i nvested heavi l y i n devel oping
technol ogy and di stance educati on. The school had for several years, a
separate Sami network "SameNet" whi ch i s now cl osed. The school ,
al ong wi th educati onal radi o i n Sweden has devel oped web-based
teachi ng materi al s as a "Smsta" i n Lul e smi and "Gul ahal an" i n
Northern Sami . These materi al s are free and free to use. See
www.ur.se/samasta/ and www4.ur.se/gul ahalan.
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The rol e of school s today and tomorrow
The school has a very important rol e and there must be a physical
l ocati on where adul t Sami can come and reclai m and strengthen thei r
Sami heri tage. The school woul d be devel oped and strengthened, and
col laborati on with uni versiti es i s seen as a key pl ayer for the future. It
i s grati fying that the school can partici pate in joi nt European projects
focusi ng on the mi nori ty when it benefits us all and that we support
each other. Many condi ti ons are the same and i n such methodol ogy,
we've got to get at each other.
Sami joint Nordic co
It i s natural that the Sami cooperate across nati onal borders. It i s Sami
pol i ti cal cooperati on such as through the Saami Parli amentary
Council . The school has been and i s i nvol ved wi th joi nt Nordi c mai nl y
educati on insti tuti ons i n Norwegi an, Fi nni sh and Russian side. These
i ncl ude the Nordic educati onal projects such as Smsta project
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between Sweden and Norway, Gul ahal an project between Sweden
and Fi nl and and reindeer trai ning between al l four countri es i d et
Sami area. The school i s now looki ng for cooperati on with Sami
Uni versity on the Norwegian si de and had l ast year franchi sed
educati on i n duodji of 30 credi ts i n Jokkmokk.
The Sami institution
The Sami sk utbil dni nqscentrum i s an i nsti tuti on whi ch has organized
courses and i s ai med at the spread of the Saami educati on for adul ts
si nce 1942. Thi s school has had a great i mpact among the members of
the Saami soci ety provi di ng courses to assist this minori ty national
group. It focuses on the teachi ng of Saami l anguage and provides
courses of cul ture, Saami handi craft and Saami traditi ons based on
acti vi ti es l i ke rei ndeer husbandry. They also i mpl ement post-
compul sory secondary educati on i n the Saami l anguage.
As far as the parti ci pati on i n the project i s concerned, they have
approved some approaches i n the EFL cl asses i n secondary school and
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thei r team of Saami teachers have adapted the sel ected approaches for
the teachi ng-l earni ng of the Saami language. Wi th regard to the
cul tural part, they have provided i nformati on and materi al col l ected
from thei r courses (reindeer husbandry, handicrafts, literature etc.).
They have al so kept i n contact with other Saami i nsti tuti ons i n
Norway and Fi nland and they have establ i shed a network to col l ect
i nformati on of l i ngui sti c and cul tural aspects.
Thi s mi nori ty group has l i ved si nce ti me i mmemori al i n an area whi ch
is compri sed of four countri es. A terri tory whi ch spreads from Kola
peni nsula to Russi a, the north of Fi nl and, Norway, the northern
coastl i ne and the i nland and the central part of Sweden. Thi s area i s
cal l ed Laponia but the terri tory where they have al ways been l i vi ng
was ori gi nal l y more extensive. Consequentl y, the number of Saami s
has decreased consi derabl y in the last years.
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Fi nni sh t eam
Practise the use of Finnish language in discussion groups in Lnsimki
library.
Margari ta Vi di novska, Chi ef Li brari an, Lnsi mki Li brary
Grundtvi g i s a li fel ong l earni ng project, whi ch ai ms to create tool s that
can promote di gi tal skil l s, and to encourage mi nori ty students to take
i nformal l earni ng and trai ni ng. The project wi ll focus on sol vi ng the
probl em of soci al excl usi on of mi nori ti es.The i ntenti on i s to hi ghl i ght
the mi ssed mi nori ty of European nati onal i ti es and thei r l anguages,
which i n some cases are at stake.
It i s coordi nated by Cepa Son Canal s Consorti um for Educati on i n
Spai n (Pal ma de Mal l orca, the Catal an l anguage). Other partners are
Greece (minority languages, such as Turki sh), Germany (languages of
mi nori ti es, for exampl e, Russi an), Romani a, Sweden (Sami l anguage),
and Fi nl and. The Fi nni sh project i s represented by the Hakunil a-
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Lnsi mki area l i brari es, and the Fi nni sh coordi nator for the project i s
Margari taVi dinovska.
Strategy
Fi nl and i s an offi cial l y bil i ngual country, i n whi ch more than 100
l anguages are spoken. Wi thin the range of Hel Met li braries, 59 951
peopl e speak a forei gn l anguage (other than Fi nni sh, Swedi sh or Sami )
as thei r mother tongue. In the begi nni ng of 2004 there were 47 000
forei gn nati onal s l i vi ng i n the Hel Met area. The i mmi grant popul ati on
has grown over the l ast 10 years, more than 300%.
The discussion group strategy i s based on the HelMet librari es mission
and mul ti -cul tural l i brary work wi th the i nternati onal pri nci pl es of
IFLA Library Services.
Activities Idea
The Di scussi on group i s a Lnsi mki Li brary i mmi grant customers'
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group. Customers represent a variety of languages and cultures. The
di scussi on group l eader's rol e i s to hel p i mmi grants i n the l earni ng of
the Finni sh l anguage. The tutor al so tell s about the l i brary's provi si on
of forei gn l anguage materi al . The meeting of cul tures creates
opportuni ty for di scussi on.
Hakuni l a and Lnsi mki l i brari es joi ned the Grundtvi g project wi th
the acti vi ti es that each li brary provi des for the i mmi grants. Hakunil a
Li brary offers Internet courses for Russi an speaki ng cli ents and the
l i brary of Lnsi mki organizes hour-l ong l essons i n Conversati on i n
Finnish for forei gners every Fri day. Leading the classes are three
members of the l i brary staff, and once a month a guest tutor from
Hel si nki Deaconess Institute, who works on a vol untary basi s.
Lnsi mki Li brary works i n cooperati on with the Adul t Educati on
Centre i n Vantaa.
Immi grants who use the services of the Centre can appl y for l anguage
and work trai ni ng program for si x months i n the l i brary of Lnsi mki .
In addi ti on to Conversational Finnish for forei gners, the Lnsi mki
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l i brary al so organi zes i ndi vi dual Internet Courses for forei gners and
houses exhi bi ti ons of i mmi grant arti sts li vi ng i n Vantaa. Hakuni l a
li brary organizes internet courses in Russian.
For us i t i s very i mportant to conti nue and to perfect the work we do
wi th i mmi grants. We are tryi ng to vary the l earni ng methods of the
conversati onal Finni sh l essons and make them more practi cal by
havi ng the course outdoors i n the park, i n the shop etc.
There i s a close relationship between tutors and studnts. Tutors use
di fferent ki nds of teachi ng methods. Fof exampl e trai ni ng outdoors,
shopi ng wi th student, studyi ng the use of words i n the natural
envi ronment
Values
In a mul ti cultural , mul ti li ngual envi ronment, we carry out the Hel Met
l i brary val ues, parti cularl y equal i ty and creativity. The forum ai ms to
promote the fol l owi ng val ues:
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- Ethni c equal i ty
- Respect for di versi ty
- Soci al i nteracti on, communi cati on and responsi bil i ty
- Intercul tural i ty and Identi ty
Benefits of the project:
Who benefits?
Thi s project has broadened our col l eagues perspecti ves. We have seen
how under di fferent condi ti ons, the organi zati ons operate i n a
di fferent way, and we have l earned about the trai ni ng methods others
use and what they have achi eved. Al though the other organi zations
parti ci pati ng in thi s project are representatives of Adul t Educati on
Insti tuti ons,we have many thi ngs i n common and we have borrowed
some i deas from thei r experi ence wi th teachi ng and communicati on
wi th i mmi grants.
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Why teach in the library?
Part of the integrati on process for i mmi grants who do not speak the
l anguage i s fi rst to undergo trai ni ng i n centres for adul ts, i n school s or
uni versi ties. Libraries provi de the necessary facili ties and literature, as
well as an opportuni ty for practi cal trai ni ng wi th the hel p of l i brary
staff.
It i s i mportant for forei gners to be acti ve and to engage i n vari ous
forms of trai ni ng provi ded free of charge by the state.
The li brary's functi on i s to be one of the pill ars supporting a live,
mul ti -cul tural communi ty and offeri ng a chance for di al ogue. The
l i brary's work wi l l take i nto account changes i n soci ety, and new types
of servi ces wil l be introduced i n i nnovative ways. All l i brari es serve
the l anguage and cul tural minoriti es. Online servi ces are also being
devel oped to sui t the mi nori ti es. The staff i s recrui ted from many
di fferent ethni c groups and each year the l i brary has a forei gn
l anguage speaker as a trai nee empl oyee. Customers, too, from the
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di fferent ethni c groups are i nvolved i n the producti on of content and
events.
Li brari es today have a di fferent rol e than i n the past. The li brary i s a
cul tural centre and a meeti ng pl ace for i mmi grants. Li brarians assi st i n
the integration of forei gners and their search for jobs. Libraries
provi de a place for trai ni ng together wi th the Adul t Educati on Centre.
After fi ni shi ng one-year trai ni ng program i n the Centre, an i mmi grant
can appl y for a si x-month l anguage practi ce i n a li brary or i n other
workplaces. The requirement i s to be abl e to communi cate and to have
an average l evel of l anguage ski l l s.. After six weeks of l anguage
practi ce, by the deci si on of the l i brarys manager, the trai nee may be
gi ven the opportuni ty to stay on the same job for si x more months.
After thi s peri od of trai ni ng i n the workpl ace, and dependi ng on
hi s/her profi ci ency in the l anguage, every immi grant can appl y for
two years of speci al ty trai ni ng i n l i brarian studi es and get a
permanent job i n the l i brary. The trai nee attends weekl y courses,
presents essays and papers and takes exams. After a two year peri od
of trai ni ng he or she recei ves a quali ficati on and may appl y for a
permanent positi on. Lnsi mki Li brary takes i n one i mmi grant for
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l anguage practi ce trai ni ng every year. The Li brary i s l ocated i n an area
whi ch i s home to many forei gners and they are ki ndl y wel comed by
staff and cl i ents al i ke.
The key competences
Two empl oyees and one vol unteer are currentl y tutori ng i n the
l i brary. The conversati onal Fi nni sh for i mmi grants course i s vol untary
and the students dont recei ve grades for thei r performance. The
course hel ps i mmi grants to absorb the l anguage more quickl y and to
fi nd a job more easi l y.
The mai n objecti ve of the project i s to fami li ari ze organi zati ons wi th
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acti vi ti es that other organizati ons arrange for i mmi grants and to
exchange experi ences and i deas. Thi s we have done through contacts
and workshops i n each country.
Li brari es pl ay an i mportant rol e i n mai ntai ni ng a democrati c soci ety
by provi di ng i ndi vi dual access to numerous and di verse fi el ds of
knowl edge, i deas and opi ni ons. This discussion group provi des i deas
for the i ntegrati on of i mmi grants from countri es outsi de the EU
through the promoti on of an intercul tural non-di scri mi natory model s.
A di scussion forum
takes i nto account the
di versity of the
i mmi grant communi ty,
expanding and
faci li tating accessi bi li ty,
attracting experts from
thei r respecti ve ethni c
communi ti es,
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increasi ng the chances for professi onal and social advancement of
newl y arri ved i mmi grants. The forum creates sustainable relationships
between organi zati ons that work at the trai ni ng and i ntegrati on of
i mmi grants.
History of Finland
Hi story
Fi nl and i s a fai rl y young country, i t has been rul ed by both Sweden
and Russi a and i t gai ned i ndependence from Russi a 1917. Before the
Fi nni sh statesmen gave the decl arati on of i ndependence on December
6th 1917, Fi nl and was rul ed by Russi a but had al most full autonomy.
Fi nland even had i t's own money from 1860 ti l l 2002.
Duri ng the Second Worl d War, Fi nl and fought agai nst troops of Sovi et
Uni on i n two di fferent wars. Fi nl and di d l ose the war but i t survi ved
as an i ndependent country though as a wi nner Sovi et Uni on was abl e
to di ctate i ts terms. For exampl e Finl and was forced to pay reparati ons
to Sovi et Uni on and the last payment was made i n 1952, which was a
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good year to Fi nland i n many other aspects too. Mi ss Armi Kuusel a
was chosen to be Mi ss Universum and Ol ympi c Games were held in
Hel si nki .
Payi ng the reparati ons forced Fi nni sh i ndustry to devel op and
nowadays Fi nl and i s one of the l eadi ng countri es for exampl e i n IT.
Noki a i s a wel l -known and l eading brand i n mobi l e phone busi ness,
connecti ng peopl e as i t says i n adverti sements.
Culture
Fi nl and may not have as many i nternati onal l y recogni sed arti sts and
musi cians, as our nei ghbours but there sti ll are many known Finnish
names out there. Jean Si bel i us was a wel l -known composer of cl assi cal
musi c and i n hi s footsteps other musi ci ans have found thei r way to
fame. Karita Matti l a i s a cel ebrated soprano, Esa-Pekka Sal onen a
conductor. Al so some Fi nni sh pop- and rock bands have some name
i n i nternati onal music busi ness, li ke HIM, Ni ghtwi sh and The Rasmus.
Maybe because of the gl oomy and dark nature of Fi nni sh peopl e, most
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of these bands are not known for thei r cheery l ove songs but for
heavi er metal musi c. For exampl e HIM has named i t music styl e as
l ove metal.
In l i terature one of the bi g names was Mi ka Wal tari , hi s novel "Tthe
Egyptian" has al so been fi l med. Sofi Oksanen i s now one of the most
wel l known names, her novel "Purge" has recei ved numerous awards
i n Fi nl and and abroad.
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Kalevala
The Kal eval a i s a 19th century work of epi c poetry compi l ed by Eli as
Lnnrot from Fi nni sh and Karel i an oral fol kl ore and mythol ogy.
It i s regarded as the nati onal epi c of Fi nland and i s one of the most
si gni fi cant works of Fi nni sh l i terature. The Kal eval a played an
i nstrumental rol e in the devel opment of the Fi nni sh nati onal i denti ty,
the i ntensi fi cati on of Fi nl and's l anguage stri fe and the growi ng sense
of nati onal i ty that ul ti matel y l ed to Fi nland's i ndependence from
Russi a i n 1917.
Sports
Especi all y wi nter sports are i mportant to Fi nns. Fi nl and has cel ebrated
ski i ers li ke Marja-Li i sa Ki rvesniemi and or ski -jumpers l i ke Matti
Nyknen or Janne Ahonen. Al so rall y and Formul a 1 i s cl ose to heart.
Former F1 racer Mi ka Hkki nen and ral l y dri ver Marcus Grnhol m
are l i ke the boys next door to al most every Fi nn.
Bi ts and pi eces
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J.R.R. Tol ki en was i nspi red by Fi nni sh nati onal epos "Kal evala" whi l e
he wrote "The Lord of the Ri ngs".
Estoni a has the same nati onal anthem as Fi nl and. Besi de the l yri cs, the
onl y di fference i s that i n Fi nni sh versi on you repeat the chorus.
In 1918 there was an attempt to establ i sh a monarchy i n Fi nl and.
Prince Fredrick Charl es of Hesse was elected to the throne of Finland
on October 9th 1918 but i n the end supporters of republ i c won.
The monster rock group Lordi won the Eurovi si on song contest i n
2006 wi th 229 poi nts.
Fi nl and i s someti mes cal l ed "Land of the thousand l akes". Beside
l akes, Fi nl and has forests, 78 % of Fi nl and's surface area.
In summer months we have Midni ght Sun, a natural phenomenon
meani ng that the sun won't set. In wi nter months there i s an opposi te
phenomenon, the days are so short that i t feel s that the sun won't ri se
at al l .
Paul a Puusti nen
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Finland and Language Politics: a Short History
Fi nl and and Language Pol i ti cs: a Short Hi story
The recorded hi story of Fi nl and begi ns around 1100-1300 AD, when
the ki ngdom of Sweden took possessi on of the area now known as
Fi nl and, whi ch was at the ti me sti ll l i vi ng i ts Iron Age and had no
central i zed government. For centuri es the l anguage of government i n
Fi nl and was Swedi sh and the school s and uni versi ti es taught onl y i n
Swedi sh and Lati n, di sregardi ng the fact that the majori ty of the
popul ati on spoke Fi nni sh di al ects as thei r mother tongue. However, i n
the 16thcentury Gustav Vasa sei zed the Swedi sh throne and ordered
reformati on of the church to take pl ace. Until then church services had
been conducted mostl y i n Lati n, but now the new i deal was to use the
l anguage of the peopl e i n the teachi ng of rel i gi on. Therefore a Fi nni sh
pri est Mi chael Agri col a took i t upon hi msel f to create Fi nns a wri tten
l anguage, so that Fi nni sh pri ests coul d get hol d of pri nted rel i gi ous
materi al i n Fi nni sh to hel p wi th thei r teaching. Il l i teracy among the
ordi nary peopl e was sti l l common until the l ate 17th century, when i t
became compul sory for the church to teach peopl e to read (but not to
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wri te: some say i t coul d have resul ted i n unwanted appeal s to the
admi ni strati on i f the peasants could wri te).
The fi rst book publ i shed i n Finni sh was Agri col a's Abcki ri a ( The
Al phabet Book ) i n 1543, consi sti ng of both the al phabet and
expl anati ons of fundamental doctri nes of faith, l i ke the Ten
Commandments and the Our Father prayer (the Lord's Prayer, Pater
Noster). Fi ve years later Agricola published the fi rst Finnish
transl ati on of the New Testament. Thi s had a fundamental effect on
Fi nni sh language, and a great number of words coi ned or used by
Agri col a are sti l l i n use today. Before Agri col a there was hardl y any
wri tten materi al i n Finni sh, and Agri col a had to fi gure out how to
spel l words. After Agri cola spelli ng was stil l very diverse for
centuri es: for exampl e the sound "k" coul d be wri tten k, c, or g.
After years of war and pol i ti cal i nstabi l i ty Fi nl and was transferred
under Russi an rul e i n 1809. However, Fi nland was gi ven an autonomy
that enabl ed Fi nland to preserve the Swedi sh i nstead of Russian laws.
In 1860, Fi nland was all owed even i ts own currency. The rul i ng class
was sti l l Swedi sh speaki ng, but by the mi d-1800s Fi nni sh nati onal
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feel i ng had begun to ri se as a resul t of the strengtheni ng of the
nati ons sel f-i mage, through acts l i ke, for exampl e, the publ i shi ng of
the Fi nni sh nati onal epi c Kal eval a. Fi nal l y i n 1861 an act was passed
that rai sed Fi nni sh l i ttl e by l i ttl e to the posi ti on of an offi ci al language
of bureaucracy al ongsi de wi th Swedi sh. After that i t di dn't take l ong
for Fi nni sh to replace Swedi sh as the l anguage of admi ni strati on and
cul ture.
Language Minorities in Finland, Legislation and Statistics
Nowadays Finl and has two nati onal l anguages, Fi nni sh and Swedi sh.
The Fi nni sh consti tuti on acknowl edges al so the ri ght of the Sami to
use thei r own l anguage when deal i ng with the pol ice or other offi ci al s.
The Fi nni sh gypsi es and other mi nori ty groups have the ri ght to
preserve and devel op thei r l anguage. The ri ghts of si gn-language
users and the ri ghts of those who need translati ng and i nterpreti ng
assi stance as a resul t of a handi cap are al so guaranteed i n the
consti tuti on.
In the end of year 2011 there were 5 401 267 inhabi tants i n Fi nland, of
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which 90,0 % had Fi nni sh, 5,4 % Swedi sh, and 0,3 % Sami as thei r
mother tongue. Other l anguage groups consti tuted 4,5 % of the total
popul ati on. The most wi del y spoken forei gn l anguages were Russi an,
Estoni an, Somal i , Engl i sh and Arabi an. 3,4 % of the total popul ati on
l i vi ng i n Fi nl and were forei gn national s.
About the Finnish Language
Fi nni sh i s the everyday l anguage used i n most part of Fi nl and, and
one of the offi ci al l anguages i n the European Uni on. For years i t was
al so the onl y non-Indo-European l anguage spoken i n the EU, unti l
Estoni a and Hungary joi ned the Uni on i n 2004. Fi nni sh, al ong with its
cl ose rel ati ve Estonian and a more di stant rel ati ve Hungari an, bel ongs
to the Fi nno-Ugri c branch of the Ural i an l anguage fami l y. Other
Fi nno-Ugri c l anguages are for exampl e Sami, Mari , Mansi and Khanti .
Approxi matel y 23 mi l li on peopl e speak Fi nno-Ugri c l anguages.
The majori ty of i mmi grants i n Fi nl and speak a non-Fi nno-Ugri c
l anguage as thei r mother tongue. Thi s poses several chall enges i n thei r
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l earni ng of the Fi nni sh language. For exampl e, Fi nni sh nouns have 15
grammati cal cases wi th aggl uti nati ve suffi xes, words have no
grammati cal gender, we use consonant gradati on (exampl es at
http://www.uta.fi /~km56049/fi nnish/di abk.html ), and we have a
negati ve verb that conjugates by the person and by the si ngul ar/pl ural
aspect. Fi nni sh l anguage i s al so ri ch i n compound words that can
someti mes be very l ong and di ffi cul t to understand. Another probl em
common to l earners of Fi nni sh i s how to l earn to di sti ngui sh from each
other words i n whi ch the change i n vowel or consonant l ength
changes al so the meani ng of the word. For exampl e: tuli (fi re) and
tuuli (wind), kukka (a fl ower) and kuka (who). To make
matters stil l more di fficul t, the words may at the same ti me al so have
several meani ngs: "tul i " i s al so the past tense of the verb "to come" i n
the thi rd person si ngul ar ("he/she/i t came"), and "tuul i " by i tsel f means
al so "the wi nd was bl owing".
Annasofi a Kol a-Hagel i n
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History of Lnsimki library
Lnsi mki l i brary had its Grand Opening i n 1978 so we have offered
l i brary servi ces for the peopl e i n thi s area for over 30 years now. We
have approximatel y 6 000 vi sitors per month. Besi des borrowing
books or other material s, peopl e come here to use the computers or
read magazi nes and newspapers. The l i brary's col l ecti on contai ns ca.
20 000 ti tl es, that i s i ncl udi ng books i n mul ti pl e languages - both
fi cti on and non-ficti on, audi o books, magazi nes, DVD's and CD's.
Peopl e are checki ng out ca. 7 000 titl es per month.
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Chi l dren often come to the l i brary just to spend ti me wi th fri ends. We
have a youth center next door and when i t i s open, the door between
l i brary and youth center i s al so open. We have al so created thi s room
for teenagers where they can use computers and read magazines or
books i f they want to. They are supervi sed by us or by the personnel
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of the youth center and the l i brary rul es appl y here.
We are worki ng with school s and day cares i n the area. We teach the
school ki ds how to use the web li brary for l ooki ng for books and other
materi al s and show them how to fi nd the books from shel ves. Al so we
teach the pre-school ers how to use the l i brary and how to handl e
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books at home. Wi th the ki ds at that age, it is more playi ng than reall y
teachi ng. We al so offer story tell i ng ti mes once a month i n Fi nni sh and
when possi ble i n other languages too. For our immi grant patrons we
offer a chance to di scuss i n Fi nni sh. Once a week there i s an open
di scussi on group l ead by a nati ve.
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Finnish speaker of the library staff.
Everyone vi si ting our l i brary i s al so abl e to enjoy the frequentl y
changi ng book di spl ays and al so art exhi bi ti ons. We offer the l i brary
wal l s for our arti sti c patrons i f they wi sh to di splay thei r work i n
publ i c. When possi bl e we invite authors to tell about thei r work and
di scuss with thei r readers.
The Hakunil a - Lnsi mki regional l i brary has very mul ti cul tural
customers. The major i mmi grant groups li vi ng in these areas are
Russi ans, Estonians and Somali. There are also a lot of Asians, Turkish
and Kurdi sh li vi ng here.
There are a l ot of i mmi grants worki ng i n Hel si nki Metropol i tan
l i brari es. They have formed a regi onal group cal l ed Sesam, and there
are representati ves from Vantaa, Hel si nki and Espoo. The mai n goal i s
worki ng wi th i mmi grants. Because there are a l ot of Russi an-speaki ng
li brary workers, they formed a sub group i n 2008 call ed Rusko. Also
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every ci ty have thei r own groups for i mmi grant workers, i n Vantaa i t
i s cal l ed Ki el i kaari (Arch of l anguage).
Paul a Puusti nen
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Vantaa City Library
Vantaa Ci ty Li brary i s part of the Hel Met Li brary, which i s a bi g
regi onal l i brary consi sti ng of the ci ty l i brari es of Espoo, Hel si nki ,
Kauni ai nen and Vantaa, worki ng i n cl ose cooperati on. The resi dents
of the ci ti es of Espoo, Hel si nki , Kauniai nen and Vantaa have the right
to use l i brary servi ces i n any of the ci ti es menti oned above. Li brari es
are open to everyone and the customers are wel come to borrow, to
sojourn, to study, to use appl iances, to read magazi nes and books or to
partici pate i n di fferent events, l iterary eveni ngs and groups (such as
reading groups or di scussi on groups e.g. for i mmi grants). Li brari es
offer free of charge versatile collections, modern appliances and
i nformati on retri eval methods, li brary facil i ti es and the experti se of
staff members.
Vantaa City Li brary has 11 li braries, two bookmobi l es and a hospi tal
l i brary. Hakunil a Di strict Li brary consi sts of two l i brari es: Hakunil a
Li brary and Lnsi mki Li brary. Hakuni l a and Lnsi mki are both
areas wi th l ots of i mmi grants especi al l y from Russi a, Estoni a and
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Somali a, and thi s i s taken i nto account i n desi gni ng the l i brary
servi ces. Di versifi ed coll ections are purchased i n languages that are
most commonl y spoken i n the areas, and the l ibrari es offer servi ces
especiall y for the immigrants, such as computer workshops in Russian
and the Finnish discussion group for i mmi grants.
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Romani an t eam
Example of good practice
The educati onal program "ecol i nguae , desi gned and
devel oped by the CNJM, i s di rected pri mari l y to parents,
adul ts who are i nterested i n understandi ng the curri cul um,
but al so i n modern teachi ng techni ques. The program ai ms
to hel p devel opi ng a common vi si on school -parents on
how students are hel ped to develop i nformati on.
The mai n targeted competence, "basi c ski l l s i n l anguages",
envi saged pri mari l y i n relati onshi p wi th students, can be
found here i n good harmony wi th "the competence to
l earn" and wi th the i nformatics competence .
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Starti ng from the certai nty that a successful educati on, that
wi l l generate real devel opment, i s onl y possi bl e through a
cl osed co-operati on parents- teachers, the course was
desi gned to offer to parents the opportuni ty to l earn what
chi l dren l earn. The ai m i s al so to get i n touch wi th the
modern, i nteracti ve and based on modern technol ogi es
methods.
The course i s designed so as to enabl e a deep debate on the
contents covered i n cl ass, so as to remove any
mi sunderstandi ng on the message of the school and al so to
achi eve a compati bi l i ty wi th school educati on, represented
by teachers.
In the sequences presented duri ng the project
ECol i nguae we tri ed to i l l ustrate how the adul ts-parents
can be i nvol ved i n the promoti on of cl assi cal themes. We
chose the wel l-known "Gypsy market", presented wi th a
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practi cal justi fi cati on, framed natural l y i n the cul tural
el ements of human ci vi l i zati on. It was a presentati on
whi ch can generate exci tement, curi osi ty and desire to
learn.
Hi stori cal data al l ow a deeper understandi ng of human
soci ety devel opment l evel , a l evel whi ch al l owed obtai ni ng
those results and very often thei r appearance caused by
some practi cal needs.
Supporti ng these concepts through i nteracti ve
presentati ons by suggesti ve images, i t generates a more
accurate understandi ng and hel ps to transform parents as
real partners i n educati onal acti vi ti es, trai ni ng of youth.
The course contri butes to the formati on of a strong
partnershi p for a qual i tative educati on.
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In fact, through mother l anguage we have a common
l anguage, a common vi si on to support educati on and to
hel p students becomi ng balanced, safe and confi dent i n
school .
The program has al ready been i mpl emented at Pl oi esti at
CNJM. One l esson was presented at the Grundtvi g project
meeti ng i n Sweeden.
Basi cal l y, our project compri ses a set of ei ght i nteracti ve
l essons wi th parents, once a month .
Thi s partnershi p has created enthusi asm among parents,
the school succeeded i n maki ng the effort to trai n staff and
to respect a system of educati onal val ues.
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Romani language
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The language
Romani [romani hi b] or Romany, i s an Indic (or Indo-Aryan)
l anguage l i ke Sanskrit, Hi ndi , Bengal i whi ch bel ongs to the
Indo-Irani an branch of the Indo-European fami l y. The l anguage
retai ns much of the Indi c morphol ogy, phonol ogy and l exi con,
whi l e i ts syntax has been heavil y i nfl uenced by contact wi th other
l anguages. The di spersal and di fferenti ati on of the Roma si nce
thei r arri val i n Europe brought about a fragmentati on of the
l anguage i nto di sti nct groups (each with di fferent sub-vari eti es),
which are di sti ngui shed from the contact wi th l ocal l anguages:
Northern Romani (best represented by the chal adytka roma, the
Russi an Roma), Central Romani (best represented by the group of
the Hungarian and Sl ovakian Roma, the ungri ke roma), Vl ax (best
represented by the Romanian Roma) and Bal kan Romani (best
represented by the di al ects i n Macedonia). Most Roma i n Europe
use Vl ax wi th Romani an havi ng been the mai n contact
l anguage, si nce the Roma communi ti es i n Romania are the l argest
i n Europe. Although the Roma communi ti es are hi ghl y
di fferentiated, they often use the same term Romanes to refer to
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the l anguage. Unti l the 20th century Romani was essenti all y an
oral l anguage; i t i s now wri tten i n vari ous orthographi es
dependi ng on the host country. Codi fi cati on efforts, however,
have been overwhel mi ngl y regi onal and decentral ized. Successi ve
mi grati on waves of the Roma produced a number of di fferent sub-
ethnic l ayers cohabi ti ng wi thi n the same country, and a di fferent
dialect structure as a consequence; the vari ous Roma groups show
al so a consi derabl e degree of parti cul ari sm. Because Roma arri ved
from the East, they were al so cal l ed Egypti ans or Gypti ans ,
which i s at the ori gi n of the Gypsy , Gi tanos , Gi tanes and
other words that are often consi dered derogatory by the Roma.
The term Roma i s wi del y used, al though the Internati onal
Romani Uni on (fol l owing the recommendati ons of its Language
Commi ssi on) has offi cial l y adopted Rroma to refer to all peopl e of
Roma descent.
History, geography and demography
The presence of the Roma wi thi n the terri tory of present-day
Romani a dates back to the 14th century. The fi rst document
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attesti ng Roma i n Wal l achia dates back to 1385, and refers to the
group as a[i gani (from, athi ganoi a Greek word for "hereti cs", and
the ori gi n of the Romani an term [i gani, whi ch i s synonymous wi th
"Gypsy"). The document, si gned by Pri nce Dan I, gave 40 sl ae
(hamlets or dwell i ngs) of a[i gani to the Ti smana Monastery. Most
Romas l i ved i n sl avery. They were mainl y kept because of thei r
speci fic professions, and were not all owed to l eave the property of
thei r owners (landlords, monasteri es and the pri nci paliti es).
However, there i s some debate over whether the Romani peopl e
came to Wal lachi a and Mol davi a as sl aves or free men (later
ensl aved by the ari stocracy and the l andowni ng boyar el i te). The
sl avery of the Roma i n borderi ng Transyl vani a was found
especial l y i n the fi el ds and areas under the i nfl uence of Wal lachi a
and Mol davia, wi th the earli est record dati ng from around 1400.
Traditi onal l y, Roma slaves were di vi ded i nto three categori es:
those owned by the Hospodars (rul ers i n Wal l achia and
Mol davia), who were given the Romanian name of [i gani
domneti ("Gypsi es bel ongi ng to the l ord"), the [i gani mnsti reti
("Gypsi es bel ongi ng to the monasteri es"), who were the property
of Romani an Orthodox and Greek Orthodox monasteri es, and the
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[i gani boi ereti ("Gypsi es bel onging to the boyars") owned by the
landowners. Each category was di vided into two groups, vtrai
and l i ei ; the former was a sedentary category, whi l e the l atter
was allowed to preserve i ts nomadi sm. The l iei category
compri sed several occupati onal subgroups: the Cl drari ("copper
workers"), Lutari ("string i nstrument players"), Boyash ("spoon
makers"), Ursari ("bear handl ers"), Fi erari ("smi ths"), al l of whi ch
devel oped as disti nct ethnic subgroups. 19th century estimates for
the slave popul ati on are around 150,000-200,000 persons. After
thei r emanci pati on i n 1856, a signi ficant number of Romas l eft
Wal l achia and Mol davi a. In 1886, the number of Romas was
esti mated at around 200,000 or 3.2% of Romani a's popul ati on. In
Bessarabi a (annexed by the Russi an Empi re i n 1812) the Romas
were li berated i n 1861 and many of them mi grated to other
regi ons of the Empi re, whi l e i mportant communi ti es remained i n
Soroca, Otaci and the surroundi ngs of Cetatea Al b, Chi i nu,
I[i . After the uni on wi th Transyl vania (1918), Banat, Bukovi na
and Bessarabia i ncreased the number of ethni c Roma. In the fi rst
census i n i nterwar Romani a i n 1930, 242,656 persons (1.6%) were
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regi stered as Gypsi es [[i gani ]. The i nterwar peri od i s characterized
by a further assi mi l ati on of the Roma popul ati on.
The Roma consti tute a l arge ethni c mi nori ty i n Romania.
Accordi ng to the 2002 census, they number 535,140 peopl e
(approx. 2.5% of the total populati on). In the last century thei r
offi cial numbers vari ed to a great extent. In 1930 they were
242,656; 104,216 i n 1956, 64,197 i n 1966, 227,398 i n 1977, and
401,087 i n 1992. The consi derabl e increase over the last two
censuses must be seen i n the context of a decreasi ng total
popul ati on and an i ncreasi ng openness to decl ari ng onesel f as
Roma. Unoffi ci al sources clai m that there are up to 2.5 mil l i on
Roma i n the country (approx. 11% of the total popul ati on).
However, a l arge number of Romani an Roma mi grated to Western
countri es duri ng the last years, especial l y after Romania's
accessi on to the European Uni on i n 2007. Accordi ng to the 2002
census, Romani i s the mother tongue of 237,570 people, al most all
of them (235,346) Roma: more than hal f (275,466) of those
declaring Roma ethni ci ty have declared Romani an as thei r mother
tongue, and 23,950 Hungari an. The Roma are present i n al l
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regi ons of Romani a, but they are the hi ghest proporti on of the
popul ati on i n the Mure, CIrai , Sl aj and Bi hor counti es.
The compl ex i ssue of who is Roma remai n unresol ved.
Accordi ng to recent research, i n Romania, wi thi n a nati onal l y
representative sampl e of sel f-i denti fi ed Roma, al most hal f (45 per
cent) declare themsel ves as Romani ani sed Roma, members of
groups known as woodworkers [rudari ] or hearth-makers
[vtrai ]. The Roma popul ati on i n Romani a i s young:
approxi matel y 50 per cent are under 24 years ol d, compared to the
same age group i n the popul ati on as a whol e which i s
approxi matel y 25 per cent.
In spi te of thei r growi ng number the Roma has remai ned
Romani a's most social l y and economi cal l y di sadvantaged
mi nori ty, wi th hi gh cri me and i l li teracy l evel s. Accordi ng to a 2009
report of the European Fundamental Ri ghts Agency, however, the
Romani communi ty of Romani a feel s l ess di scri minated than the
Roma mi nori ti es of the other EU countri es.
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Legal status and official policies
The mai n government document addressi ng the situati on of the
Roma i n general i s the Strategy for the Improvement of the
Conditi on of the Roma, adopted i n 2001 and updated i n 2006.
Research has shown that the Strategy i mpl ementati on has been
uneven i n the targeted areas, which i ncl ude educati on. The mai n
probl ems i denti fi ed by the government were: poor parti ci pati on i n
the educati onal system as wel l as earl y school abandonment; the
tendency to create separate classes for Roma chil dren onl y; non-
i nvolvement of the members of Roma communi ti es i n
programmes of school recovery; lack of adequate housi ng and
i nfrastructure; a hi gh number of unempl oyed wi thi n thi s ethnici ty;
an absence of readjustment or re-quali ficati on and vocati onal
courses for Roma. The Nati onal Agency for the Roma (Agen[i a
Na[i onal pentru Romi or ANR in Romanian; Themeski Ajenci ya
l e Romengi i n Romani ) (http://www.anr.gov.ro/) i s an agency of
the Romani an government seeking to i mprove the soci al and
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economi c si tuation of the Roma mi nori ty. An agency for Roma
affai rs was fi rst establ i shed i n February 1997, under the name of
"Nati onal Office for the Roma", as a part of the Department for the
Protecti on of Nati onal Mi nori ti es. In Jul y 2003 the agency was
renamed as the "Offi ce for Roma Affai rs". The current Nati onal
Agency for the Roma was establ i shed i n October 2004, and
became an i ndependent government agency. The ANR i s
headquartered in Bucharest and has regi onal offi ces i n each of the
country's ei ght devel opment regi ons.
Presence and use of the language in various fields
Education
The teachi ng of the Romani l anguage has increased enormousl y i n
recent years: i n 1992-93 Romani was studi ed by onl y 368 Roma
pupi l s. In 2000/2001, accordi ng to the Mi ni stry of Educati on, there
were 200 teachers (both Roma and non-Roma) teaching Romani to
more than 10,000 students. In 2007 there were approx. 26,000
students bei ng taught in Romani as thei r l anguage of i nstructi on:
approx. 120 chi l dren at the pre-school l evel , 18,000 a the pri mary
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school l evel (3 4 hours per week), 6,500 at the secondary school
l evel , 1,500 i n techni cal and vocati onal school s. However, the
Romas educati on l evel s are stil l l ow and show hi gh dropout rates:
i n the peri od 1994-1998 the share of Roma pupi l s not compl eti ng
thei r basic school educati on grew from 36% to 44%, whi l e
i ll iteracy rates were 44% and 59% for Roma men and women
respecti vely. Besi des, the physical separation of Roma settlements
has l ed to the growth of Roma-only school s. The use of Romani i n
educati on i s deemed to be i mportant because of two reasons: 1)
teachers worki ng i n school s wi th a l arge number of Roma pupi l s
report that the knowl edge of the majori ty language (Romani an i n
most cases) i s a potenti al constraint to access to educati on, and 2)
the use of Romani may have a great i mpact on strengtheni ng
Roma i denti ty, the sense of bel ongi ng and chi l drens sel f-esteem
(al though there are di fferent opi ni ons regardi ng thi s i ssue;
rel i ance on Roma l anguages as educati onal i nstruments may be
i neffecti ve and coul d even contri bute to the further i sol ati on of
Roma communi ti es).
page 156 of 294
The trai ni ng of teachers speci al i zed i n Romani l anguage and
cul ture began i n 1990 wi th the establ i shment of three cl asses for
Roma teachers i n Bucharest, Trgu-Mure and Bacu. In 1998 the
Mi ni stry of Nati onal Educati on i ntroduced affi rmati ve measures
for Roma students to access hi gher educati on. Accordi ng to the
Mi ni stry of Educati on and Research, progress has been made i n
strengtheni ng the process of teachi ng Romani i n school s and
consol i dati ng the i nformal network of Romani l anguage teachers.
Today Romani i s taught as a mother tongue, accordi ng to the l egal
provi si ons and as a separate subject, by 480 Roma and non-Roma
teachers (around one fi fth are ethni cal l y Romani an or Hungarian).
Judicial authorities
Art. 11 of Law no. 304/2004 on judi ci al organi zati on detai l s the
provi si ons of the Constituti on on the use of mother tongue and
interpreters i n courts. Under the terms of thi s law, Romanian
ci ti zens bel ongi ng to nati onal minori ti es have the ri ght to express
themselves in their mother tongue i n courts. If one or more parti es
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demand to express themselves in their mother tongues, courts
must ensure the use of a certi fied interpreter or translator free of
charge.
Public authorities and services
In the larger context of Romanias i ntegrati on i n the EU, i n April
2001 the government adopted a strategy for i mproving the
si tuati on of the Roma. In additi on, the Roma populati on has been
granted the ri ght to perform admi ni strati ve functi ons in the l ocal
council s, to parti ci pate i n the admi ssi on exams to enter state hi gh
school s and facul ties on speci all y desi gnated places and to attend
special courses on thei r language and culture. Numerous Roma
pol i ti cal and cul tural associati ons have been founded, wi th the
purpose to i mprove the economi c and educati onal situati on of thi s
mi nori ty. On the other hand, the Roma popul ati on has been
offi ciall y represented within the Romanian Parli ament since 1992.
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Mass media and information technology
There are no data avai l abl e concerni ng the use of mass medi a and
i nformati on technol ogy i n Romani .
Arts and Culture
Romani musi c has had a si gnifi cant i nfl uence on Romanian
cul ture, as most l utari (weddi ng and party musi ci ans) are of
Roma ethni ci ty. Renowned Romanian Roma musicians i ncl ude
Barbu Lutaru, Gri gora Di ni cu, Johnny Rducanu, Dami an
Drghici and Ion Voi cu. In recent years, some Roma arti sts have
started to publ i sh tradi ti onal Roma music i n CDs and DVDs as a
measure of ethni c preservati on. The musi cal genre manel e , a
part of Romanian pop cul ture, i s often sung by Roma si ngers i n
Romani a and has been i nfl uenced i n part by Roma musi c, but
mostl y by Ori ental musi c brought i n Romani a from Turkey duri ng
the 19th century. A subject of controversy, thi s ki nd of musi c i s
consi dered to be l ow-cl ass ki tsch by some peopl e i n Romani a but
enjoyed by others as fun party musi c.
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The business world
There are no data avai labl e concerni ng the use of Romani at the
workpl ace or other busi ness environments.
Family and the social use of language
In general , Roma pupi l s i n school tend not to use Romani the
l anguage bei ng perceived as pertai ni ng to the pri vate sphere and
to fami l y use onl y. There are no rel i abl e data avai labl e on
l anguage use wi thi n the famil y, and the degree of
i ntergenerati onal transmi ssi on of the language cannot be assessed.
Whil e the l ast census data recorded 237,570 Romani speakers
(roughl y 44 per cent of the ethni c Roma), a research conducted i n
2001 found a si gni fi cant di fference, wi th 63% of Romani an Roma
speaki ng Romani at home. Percentages of 50-70% have been al so
i ndi cated by other sources. Withi n tradi ti onal communi ti es, the
chil dren seem to speak onl y Romani . The presti ge of Romani i s
very l ow: thi s i s one of the reasons why onl y hal f of the peopl e
bel ongi ng to thi s mi nori ty can speak the l anguage and why onl y
around 500.000 peopl e admi t to bei ng Roma. 77% of the Romani an
page 160 of 294
nati onal s declare that they do not trust Roma and they
characteri ze them as bei ng mai nl y di rty, thi eves, l azy, backward.
There i s a cli mate of confl i ct wi th the Roma mi nori ty, i n the
opi ni on of 50% of Romani ans (EDRC, 2008).
Conclusion
As for i n other European countri es, the onl y general i zati on whi ch
can be made wi th confi dence i s that Romani speakers are bi - or
mul til i ngual (Jordan 1998), obtai ni ng oral knowl edge of the
majori ty l anguage through i nteracti on outsi de thei r group before
adol escence (Matras 1999).The di fficul ty whi ch the educati on
system has i n provi ding for the Roma i s due to a compl ex
i nteracti on of pol i ti cal, soci o-economi c, i deol ogi cal, cul tural and
i nstituti onal factors whi ch cannot be addressed i n i sol ati on. The
i nterests of the Roma, i ncl udi ng l anguage preservati on through
educati on, are di rectl y connected to thei r ethni c i denti ty and the
representati on of these interests, which can be as di verse as the
communi ti es composi ng the mi nori ty i tsel f.
European Commission
0 7 Fe b r u a r y 2 0 1 2
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In Romani a, Romani s school i ng started and gave precedence to
the formati on of human resources to ensure the Romani language
and hi story of gypsi es. In Romani a we respect and support the
ri ght of mi nori ti es to l earn thei r own l anguage or to study the
hi story and language cl asses mi nori ty. Obvi ousl y, after 1990
gypsi es coul d onl y ai m for the good experi ences of other
mi nori ti es, especial l y consi deri ng that, in the parti cul ar case of
gypsi es, i t was often more l i ke a reconstructi on of i denti ty, i n
rel ati on to l anguage, in compari son wi th other minori ti es, because
i n 1990, the percentage of Romani s pupi l s nati ve speakers of
Romani l anguage was onl y 63%.
3-4 hours weekl y teachi ng experi ence of the mother tongue
Romani and Romani hi story and tradi ti ons have proved benefi cial
for everyone: gypsi es chil dren were once agai n moti vated by thei r
teachers to attend school , the gypsi es school chi l dren won by
i mprovi ng frequency, i ncl udi ng an i mage i n the eyes of the
Romani communi ty, but al so i n appreciati on of the hi gh school
admi ni strati ve forums, the company has won such ci ti zens and
future parents.
page 162 of 294
Percentage, approxi matel y 10% of Romani pupi l s attendi ng the
school i nsurance assumes Romani i dentity of 40 of the 42 counti es,
studyi ng hours of Romani language and hi story wi th a total of 420
teachers. After 1999, Romani nati ve language cl asses and Romani
hi story and traditi on are part of the common core of courses and
optional courses are not covered, except i n special ci rcumstances
and onl y wi th approval of the Mi ni stry.
In cl asses I-XII, the number of hours devoted to the study of
mother tongue i s 3-4 hours per week.
In grades I-IV, nati ve language classes wi ll be taught by teachers
who know students' mother tongue. Master cl ass teachi ng takes
precedence over these hours, i f he i s speaker of the l anguage, and
i f he bel ongs to the communi ty. If the classroom teacher does not
know or does not want to teach thei r nati ve language, the hours
are di stri buted to another owner of the school teacher and
substi tute teachers, speaker of the l anguage. In classes V-VIII i n
hi gh school s and vocati onal school s, l anguage cl asses are taught
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by nati ve teachers or unquali fi ed expert i n the special ty, but i t can
prove the test acts as a master or mother tongue. Learning the
mother tongue for pupi l s bel ongi ng to di fferent nati onal
mi nori ti es who attend school s with tui ti on i n Romani , i s based on
curri cula approved by the mi ni stry, on textbooks devel oped
under authori zati on i n accordance wi th the Mi ni ster. Teachers
have the ri ght to sel ect from textbooks school texts whi ch they
consi der appropri ate at l evel of knowl edge of students,
recommendi ng addi ti onal readi ng for those who can not be
studi ed i n the number of hours provi ded. Assessment of student
l earni ng i s i n accordance with the methodol ogy of the eval uati on.
In cl asses V-XII, the students wi l l gi ve a wri tten exam each
semester.
In terms of the exi stence of a li mi ted number of qual i fi ed teachers
of l anguage, native Romani l anguage cl asses wi l l be provi ded by
Romani hi gh school graduates. The classes V-XII, half the support
of the Romani l anguage i s opti onal .
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Concerni ng the type of teachi ng approach, the one that i s wi del y
used i n teachi ng Romani l anguage i n the one: teacher-student
centered combinati on wi th an accent on the teachi ng centered on
the student;
The students who l earn thi s l anguage come from di fferent soci al
groups;
There are textbooks for teachi ng Romani language two hours
every week and one hour per week they l earn Hi story and
traditions; These two hours are taught as Curriculum at school
deci si on;
There are some programmes that deal wi th teachi ng the l anguage:
1. The second chance
2. School - Reduce frequency for students and for adul ts i n
jai l s( a coll aborati on between the Mi ni stry of Educati on and wi th
Interi or Ministry)
3. Nati onal contest Di versi ty wi th i ntercul tural activi ti es
Concerni ng the eval uati on al l types of assessment are used:
wri tten (tests), oral and projects;
page 165 of 294
The rhythm of learni ng i s medi um, because the frequency i s
reduced. The Absenteei sm i s a bi g probl em but there are the
school mediators who mediate the rel ati on between fami l y and
school ;
The resources used i n teaching the l anguage are the textbooks and
al so the computers (i n 2004 and 2005 i t was organi zed a Project
PHARE whi ch consi sted i n the access to educati on for
di sadvantaged groups;
Contents of the programme Acti vate the l anguage partnershi p
i n our school :
The semanti c fi el ds:
1
st
SESSION: THE FAMILY
2
nd
SESSION: THE COUNTRY OF ORIGIN
3
RD
SESSION: OUR SCHOOL/ SECONDARY SCHOOL/ LIBRARY
4
TH
SESSION: THE HOUSEHOLD SCOPE ( your house,
housework, ani mals)
5
th
SESSION: HOBBIES, FREE TIME ACTIVITIES
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6
TH
SESSION: DOMESTIC ANIMALS
7
TH
SESSION: DAILY ROUTINES
8
TH
SESSION: YOUR HOLIDAY
9
TH
SESSION: ASSESS THE PROGRAMME ACTIVATE THE
LANGUAGE PARTNERSHIP IN YOUR SCHOOL.
10
TH
SESSION: SHARING YOUR FREE TIME TOGETHER
1
st
SESSION: THE FAMILY
VOCABULARY:
Father, mother, grandfather, grandmother, son, daughter, brother,
si ster, cousi n, grandchi l d, granddaughter, grandson,
grandchil dren, nephew, ni ece, aunt, uncl e, godfather, godmother,
wi fe, husband, mother-i n-l aw, father-i n-l aw, son-i n-l aw,
daughter-i n-law
1
st
SESSION: THE FAMILY
Aunt Bi bi
Brother Pral
Cousi n Nebudo
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Daughter ei
Fami l y Fami li ja
Father Dad
Godfather nuno
Grandchil d Tuncavo
Grandfather Papu
Husband Manu
Mother Daj
Parents Mensi
Si ster Pen
Son Chavo
Son-i n-l aw Geamutro
Uncl e Kaku
Wi fe Dzuvel
Al exandra Coada cl asa a XI-a P2
2
nd
SESSION: THE COUNTRY OF ORIGIN
page 168 of 294
The Romani are an ethni c group l i vi ng mostl y i n Europe, who
trace thei r ori gi ns to the Indi an Subconti nent. Romani are wi del y
known i n the Engli sh-speaki ng worl d by the exonym Gypsi es (or
Gi psi es).
They are known col l ecti vel y i n the Romani l anguage as Romane
or Rromane (dependi ng on the di al ect concerned) and al so as
Romany, Romani es, Romani s, Roma or Roms.
Romani are wi del y di spersed, wi th thei r l argest concentrated
popul ati ons i n Europe, especi al l y the Roma of Central and Eastern
Europe and Anatol i a, fol l owed by the Kal e of Iberi a and Southern
France.
The Ameri cas are al so home to l arge numbers of Romani . Thi s i s
especiall y true of Brazi l , to which Kal e were deported by the
government of Portugal duri ng the col onial era;
[18]
i n more recent
mi grati ons, Romani have al so moved to other parts of the New
Worl d.
The Romani l anguage i s di vi ded i nto several dial ects, which add
up to an esti mated number of speakers l arger than two mill i on.
The total number of Romani peopl e i s at l east twice as l arge
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(several ti mes as l arge accordi ng to hi gh esti mates). Many Romani
are nati ve speakers of the l anguage current i n thei r country of
resi dence, or of mi xed l anguages combi ni ng the two.
3
RD
SESSION: OUR SCHOOL/ SECONDARY SCHOOL/
LIBRARY
Jean Monnet Hi gh school - i s a medi um sized, regi onal publ i c hi gh
school i n Pl oi esti , attended by 1620 students.
page 170 of 294
It i s si tuated i n a regi on where the oi l i ndustry used to be the main
economi c i ndustry devel oped i n the area. Due to the recessi on,
many peopl e from the area became unempl oyed. Thus, the
popul ati on was dramatical l y affected by thi s si tuati on and many
parents l eft thei r homes for searchi ng a job abroad. As a
consequence many chi l dren remai ned wi th thei r grandparents
and brothers or si sters. Thi s si tuati on had a negative i mpact upon
thei r school results.
The staff of CNJM, full y aware of the economic situati on i n the
area, i s tryi ng to fi nd the best sol uti ons i n order to hel p thei r
students overcome the present day di ffi cul ti es and rai se the
quali ty in education.
One of the paths taken i s that of el aborati ng a strategy for
i nvol vi ng i t i n European partnershi ps, meant to fi nd answers to
thei r probl ems by col laborati ng wi th school s from other countri es
faced wi th si mi l ar probl ems. The resul ts of the work i n European
partnershi ps were recognized by the Romanian Mini stry of
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Educati on and Research by awardi ng i t the ti tl e of European
School 2004.
The new poli cy of the school i s to i nvolve more and more young
teachers i n such projects i n order to hel p them i mprove thei r
competences and teachi ng techniques wi th a di rect i mpact upon
the qual i ty of educati on and for a better i nserti on on the l abour
market.
Another i ssue i s that of tryi ng to make parents become more
acti ve i n supporti ng the school pol i cy, for the benefi t of thei r
chil dren and for rai si ng the qual i ty i n educati on.
CNJM prepares students duri ng four years of studyi ng i n the
fol l owi ng profi l es: pedagogi cal ski ll s, soci al - sci ences, phil ol ogy
(i ntensive Engl i sh, Spani sh or German) in Romani an. Si nce 2000,
the i nsti tuti on has had al so a secti on, extended from UPG from
Pl oi esti entitl ed The Pedagogy of pre-school and pri mary school
teachi ng . Thi s col l ege teaches future nursery and primary school
teachers, prepari ng them i n Romani an. Between 1990-1995 and
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2001-2004 there exi sted the onl y cl ass of Mol davi an, prepari ng
them to become pri mary school teachers. The natural sci ence
l aboratori es (bi ol ogy, chemi stry and physi cs) are well equi pped.
The teachers are permanentl y i nterested i n rai si ng the theoreti cal
and practi cal knowl edge of thei r students, i ni ti ati ng programmes
wi th school i nside and outsi de of the country.
Thi s i nstitute has competence i n pre-pri mary and pri mary teacher
educati on and basic educati on. It has good experi ence on
col l aborati on wi th teachers i n pri mary, secondary school s from
Prahova County and the regi on as wel l as wi th other i nsti tuti on
from the country and from abroad. As wel l we have good
cooperati on wi th parents communi ty, l ocal authori ti es, social and
envi ronmental NGOs. We are interested i n future cooperation
wi th other school s and i nsti tuti ons from the European countri es
because i t wi l l be a good opportuni ty to adapt and change
mental i ty of our school wi l l partici pate in thi s project, to
contri bute to the di ssemi nati on of experi ences, methodol ogi es and
exampl es of good practi ces. Our websi te wi l l be useful to get more
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experi ences, competences on educati onal fi el d. It wil l recrui t
school s to parti ci pate i n the network acti vi ti es.
4
TH
SESSION: THE HOUSEHOLD SCOPE ( your house,
housework, ani mal s)
Traditons of Rroms
Most ti mes they are marginalized by soci ety, are consi dered
thi eves, are poi nted down the street. Most peopl e are qui ck to
condemn them, but few are those who know hi story, customs,
traditi ons and way of l i fe. They are tradi ti onal Gypsi es who l i ve in
the outski rts of ci ti es, i n nei ghborhoods consi sti ng onl y of rrom
members and ethni c group i s gui ded by speci fic rul es.
Gypsy places
They wal k wi th carts, but have no tents. When it rai ns, they sl eep
i n thei r wagons wi th canopi es. In summer, when the weather i s
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fi ne, they sl eep some i n carts, others - i n the open, and the ol dest -
i n the cart.
In winter, they take each famil y a house, rented from farmers.
Usuall y they stay at the same host that kept them a year ago. Not
wal ked away, went over the vi l l ages where they were known.
From there not di splace anyone.
Moreover, the vi l l agers were wai ti ng on the same ti me every year
to work ... Hardware did work, but processed and brass, which
ti ed carts, horses and oxen shoe, made of bronze caul drons and
need al l the peasant househol d and the fi el ds, or repai red what
was broken.
Women embroi der cl othes for peasants and were hel ped from the
fi el d. The ol d sorcerers. They say that i t real l y did.
Gypsy port
Traditi on says that a marri ed woman must wear a head scarf to
show that. For men there was usual l y a tradi ti onal cl othi ng.Some
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wear hats or bi g mustaches. On special occasi ons, men wear a suit
better, often bri ghtl y col ored.
For women, things are totall y different. Typical gypsy ski rt
weari ng l ong l ayers of ri ch col or, bi g earri ngs, l ong hai r, brai ded
hai r and someti mes a fl ower. Roma tradi ti on says that a woman's
feet shoul d not be seen. In fact, the enti re l ower body of a woman
is considered i mpure. Violati on of this pri nci ple is very serious, so
al ways be worn l ong ski rts. Women usual l y wear jewel ry of great
val ue. In some areas women are known for thei r tradi ti on of
weari ng gol d coi ns, hai r or sewn on cl othi ng.
Gypsies often wear red color, beacuse this is considered l ucky
because I (probabl y due to the anci ent bel i ef that bl ood i s the
source of l ife and vitali ty).
Gypsy weddi ng
Gypsy tradi ti onal weddi ng musi c i s the fi ddl er. It happens often
that the fami l y may not agree with the rel ativel y young, the boy
steal s the bri de, hi de somewhere a few days after announci ng the
page 176 of 294
fami l y where they are. In most cases young peopl e are wel comed
back i nto the fami l y.
But i t happens and cases i n whi ch young parents can not
understand the gi rl 's fami l y to recover. If the boy touched the gi rl
and the doctor fi nds that it i s vi rgi n, fami l i es usual l y arrange each
i nci dent, but i f he touched the gi rl and get the bi ggest di fferences,
the case i s brought before a commi ttee composed of l eaders Rroms
which i s cal l ed Cri sromani (Judi ci al Gypsy).
5
th
SESSION: HOBBIES, FREE TIME ACTIVITIES
Astazi puteti vorbi despre acti vi tatil e de ti mp l i ber,hobbyuril e
voastre(Jocul de fotbal ,Basket,TV-ul ,pl i mbaril e,muzi ca etc.
Desi gur,vocabul arul i ntampi nat i n aceasta sesi une este destul de
vari at,depinzand de hobbyul pe care i l aveti.
Ni ste propozi ti i general e pe care l e puteti di scuta,sunt:
1.Iti place sa practici sport?
2.Ce i ti place sa faci i n ti mpul tau l i ber?
page 177 of 294
3.Ce faci i n weekenduri?
4.Ce faci di mi neata/seara?
5.Imi pl ace sa merg/di spl ace total sa merg l a...
6.Iti pl ace muzi ca?Ce gen de muzi ca ascul ti ?
7.Cunosti vreun grup muzi cal di n Mall orca,Fi nl anda,Germani a?
8.Canti la vreun i nstrument?
9.Iti place sa te ui ti l a tel evizor?
10.Ce fel de emi si uni urmaresti ?
11.Ce canal e TV preferi ?
12.In tara ta,te poti uita la TV mereu?
13.Pri ntre pri eteni i si rudel e tal e,este ci neva caruia i i place sa
coase,sa croseteze,sa confecti oneze el emente de mobi li er,sa
gradi nareasca sau sa ai ba gri ja de animal e?
R A S P U N S U R I L E M E L E L A I N T R E B A R I I N E N G L E Z A
S I I N R O M A N A
1.Yes,I l i ke to practi ce sport, especi al l y vol l eybal l .
page 178 of 294
(Da,i mi place sa practi c sport i n special vol ei ul.)
2.In my free ti me I li ke to li sten to musi c, o hang out wi th my
fri ends and I al so l i ke to si ng.
(In ti mpul meu l i ber i mi pl ace sa ascul t muzi ca,sa ma pli mb cu
pri etenii si de asemenea i mi pl ace sa cant.)
3.Duri ng weekends I fi rst do my homework and projects for the
fol l owi ng week and after I stay wi th my fri ends. On Sunday I to
church.
(Pe parcursul weekendul ui pri ma data i mi fac temel e pentru
saptamana care urmeaza,iat apoi stau cu pri eteni i .Dumi ni ca ma
duc la bi serica.)
4.Duri ng the week, i n the morni ng I wake up at 6 am and prepare
to go to school because the cl asses start at 7:30.In the eveni ng, after
I have my di nner I prepare my homework for the next day and
then I watch TV and l i sten to music.
(In ti mpul saptamanii di mi neata ma trezesc la 6 si ma pregatesc
pentru scoal a pentru ca orel e i ncep la 7:30.Seara dupa ce iau ci na
page 179 of 294
i mi pregatesc temel e pentru zi ua urmatoare si apoi ma ui t l a
tel evi zor si ascul t muzi ca.)
5.I l i ke goi ng i n parks duri ng the eveni ng, because everythi ng i s
cal m .I dont li ke goi ng to the di sco because I can do the same
thi ngs that are done there at home.
(Imi pl ace sa merg i n parcuri seara pentru ca totul este cal m.Nu
i mi pl ace sa merg i n di scoteca pentru ca ceea ce fac acol o pot face
si acasa.)
6.I li ke al l types of musi c, but most f al l I l i ke the cl assi cal one such
Beethoven and Mozart.
(Imi pl ac toate genuri le muzi cal e,dar cel mai mul t muzi ca clasi ca
precum Beethven si Mozart.)
7.No,I dont know any group from that countri es ,but I have heard
some german melodi es.
(Nu,nu cunosc ni ci un grup muzi cal din taril e respecti ve,dar am
auzi t cateva mel odi i i n germana.)
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8.No,I can to pl ay any instrument, but I wi sh I coul d. I di dnt have
the possi bi l i ty to attend cl asses because I have many other
brothers and my parents di dnt have money.
(Nu,nu cant la un i nstrument,dar as fi vrut.Nu am avut
posi bi l i tatea de a invata pentru ca am mai multi frati si pari nti i
mei nu au avut bani.)
9.Yes,I do li ke but not at al l programes, I li ke documentari es and
movies.
(Da,i mi place,dar nu toate programel e,i mi plac
documentarel e,fi l mel e i n special comedi i.)
10.I li ke tal k shows, debates, documentari es .
(Imi pl ac dezbateri l e si documentarel e.)
11.I l i ke Pro TV, Antena 1,Di scovery and MTV.
Imi place Pro TV,Antena 1,Di scovery si MTV.)
12.Yes,i n our country we can watch TV whenever we want t.
(Da,i n tara mea te poti ui ta la TV cand doresti .)
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13.Yes,many of my rel ati ves and fri ends have such occupati ons
,my mother for exampl e l i kes to sew and kni t, al so I have a fri end
who l i kes to knot fri endshi p bracel ets, my grandmother takes care
of the garden and of the ani mal s.
(Da,mul ti di n pri eteni i mei au aceste ocupati i ,mamei mel e de
exempl u i i pl ace sa croseteze,am o pri etena carei a ii pl ace sa faca
bratari di n ate,buni ca mea are gri ja de gradi na si de ani mal e.)
T R A D U C E R E I N R O M A N I
1. Man pl achol man te kel avmange l e bal onoso.
2. Kana si man tempos pl achol man te asunav dil i , te pi ravaman
me amal enta, thai the dil i abav.
3. Kana si savato thai kurko anglal me kerav me temes anar o
kurko chai si t e avel, thai la urma besav me amal enta. Khurkhe
besav me amal enta.
4. Pasa di ves e derani l, me ustiav co sov thai herav so trebui zel
te jau te si kl i av khe i ncepozau e skol a ko efta ti pas. E bel vel pal al
page 182 of 294
ol habe kerav me l ecties anar e scol a anr o dives chai si t e avel ,
di kav i kh fi l mo thai sunav di li a.
5. PLachol man te jav ando parkoi a, e bel vel khe nai zgmoto, na
pl achol man te jav chai u jan buth terni mata thai chai di l iabel pes
zori , che adai ka asti av te kerav l i khere.
6. pl achol man sare di l ia, tha cel mai but e di l ia clasi ko.
7. Na janav ni i kh grupo chai di l iabel anar adal kha thana, tha
asundi om ni ste di l i a anar e chi b e Germani .
8. Na di l iabav ni i kh i nstrumentotha kamavas. Na asti sal i om te
si kl i av khe sasman buth phral a, thai mi dai thai mo dad na sasl en
l ove.
9. Pl achol man, tan a sare programoi a, plachol man ol
documentaria thai ol asamata.
10. Pl achol man ol dezbateri es.
11. Pl achol man..
12. Ande mi tara dasti es the di kes ko tv chana chames
13. Buth amal a mi re kheren adal ca treabes. Me dai a plachol an te
kerel buti anar ol nai a. Si man i kh amal i n khai pl achol an te kherel
bratari es anar ol sui a. Me baba si l an gri ja anar e gradina thai anar
ol ani mal ia.
page 183 of 294
Ruth Opri san-cl asa a XII-a PP
Traditional crafts
Processing metal
The most i mportant occupati on of the rroms, the paradi gm of
traditi onal cul ture, i t was metal , on the one hand inheri ted
endowment si nce anci ent India, on the other hand the assumed
necessi ty of survi val , coveri ng the needs of a pastoral -agri cul tural
economy through complementary type.
What's new masters rroms i s a continuous craft speciali zati on
areas: processing of iron (blacksmithing) with trades: actual
bl acksmith, farri ers, caretari a and hardware (carved i ron), copper
processi ng gol d and si lver processi ng ; Tinning copper vessels.
page 184 of 294
page 185 of 294
Woodworki ng
Rusti c furni ture made by craftsmen speci ali zed i n wood
processing, rroms i s known as Gypsy furni ture, whi ch i s di fferent
from other types of furni ture (joi nery and carpentry) i n that
hi ghl i ght the natural qual i ti es of wood fi ber, l eaving a vi si bl e
object surface .
page 186 of 294
Magi cal practi ce
It i s necessary to di sti ngui sh between magic as occupati on,
practi ced especiall y i n rel ati ons wi th nerromi i , and magic wi thi n
the communi ty, not occupati on, but compl ex form of l i fe i ntri nsic
traditi onal ri tual magi c.
page 187 of 294
Gypsy musi c
Fi ddl er musi c contai ns a l ot of improvi sati on (so far some Roma
musi ci ans chose jazz, i mprovi sati on art) i s spontaneous, ri ch
rhythmi c, mel odi c range, devel op extensive i nterpretati ve
val ences (someti mes i mi tate bi rds si ngi ng), suppl e rhythms shape,
combi ned (the from sweet to passi onate, from the patheti c to
exuberant, from the i mpetuous graceful ), usi ng the change of pace
and extent, syncope (tuna jerky and extended phrase), repeti ti on
and technique Variati ons i n some geographi cal areas (Spai n,
Portugal ) processed i tems taken from the Arabi c rhythm 'fl amenco
si ngi ng "of Andal usi a, i n other areas (Bal kans), combi ne
harmoni ousl y wi th the nati ve musi c pace" fl owers "ori ental styl e,
especial l y Turki sh, l i ke" Manea "and" meterhanea "(Turki sh
ori gi nal songs of l ove, mostl y i nstrumental, often sung, jerky, the
pace of mourni ng), whi ch began to decl i ne i n thei r home area,
si nce the l ate ei ghteenth century, and fi ddl ers have taken over
some elements of style.
page 188 of 294
Roma music, vocal or instrumental, i s part of the arti stic
communi ty events, i t may have ri tual i sti c character (weddi ng
song, mourni ng, etc..) Or nerituali c (l ove song, l ull aby, etc..),
Whil e fi ddl er musi c part of tradi ti onal Roma occupati ons, so come
and bri ng professi onal s bel ong performers, vocal or i nstrumental,
the l ocal fol k musi c.
El ena Si ncu ,cl asa a X a P1
page 189 of 294
6
TH
SESSION: DOMESTIC ANIMALS
Engl eza-Roamna-Romani :
Dog-cai ne-juchec
Cat-pi sica-pi sica
Fi sh-peste-maci o
Canary-canar-canaros
Chi cken-gai na-cai ni
Turtl e-broasca-broasca
Hamster-hamstar-chermuso
Parot-papagal -papagal os
Leg-pi ci or-pi ro
Mouth-gura-mui
Wi ng-ari pa-pac
Peak-ci oc-ciocos
Tail -coada-pori
Meowi ng-mi orlai -emi orlai zel
Si ngi ng-canta-di l eabo
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Fl yi ng-zboara-uri al
Sui mi ng-i noata-i noti el
Cage-cusca-cusca
Fi shbowl -acvari u mic-acvari os ti cnoro
Aquari um-acvari u-acvari os
Mal e-mascul -rom
Female-femela-ciai ori
Bi g-mare-baro
New-nou-nevo
Fast-rapid-i uto
Tal kati ve-vorbaret-jal cescoromui
Sl ow-l ent-covl o
Qui et-l i ni sti t-l i ni sti me
Hard-greu-paro
Smal l -mi c-ti cno
Cal med-cal m-cal mo
Smart-i ntell i gent-i ntel i gento
page 191 of 294
Have you got pets ai home? How are they?
Ai ani mal e acasa?Cum sunt el e ?
Si tut i c ani mal os chere?sar si vo?
Which ani mal s are there i n your country? Are they scared for you?
Ce ani mal e sunt i n orasul tau? El e sunt sacre pentru tine?
So ani mal ea si ande te orasoste?Vo sacra?
Di d you have any pets when you l i ved in your country? Whi ch
ones?
Ai avut al te ani mal e cand l ocui ai i n oras?Care?
E sastut aver ani mal ea cana besesas ano orasos?Cana?
How do you feed the pets at home?
Cum i ntreti i ani mal el e acasa?
Sar ni cheres e ani mal en chere?
Who i s i n charge of the pets? How do you share the chores?
Ci ne are sarci na ani mal el or?Ci ne inparte treaba?
Casesi e sarcina l e ani mal engoro?Con ulavel ebuti?
page 192 of 294
Is there near your house a shop of pets?
Sunt pri n apropri era casei tal e magazi ne cu ani mal e?
Som pasal te chereste magazi noi a animal enta?
Are there ani mal s who fri ghten to?
Acol o sunt ani mal e care te speri e?
Ote si animal ea cai trasavel tut?
Do you know a story, l egend, or tal e i n whi ch the ani mal s may
partici pate? Expl ai n i t.
Sti i vreo poveste,l egenda i n care apar si ani mal e?Expli ca.
Vanes dai c parami si,l egenda cai parti ci pi en o ani mal ea?Torzones.
To be li ke a fi sh out of water.
Urmeaza sa fi e ca un peste di n apa.
Urni el te o vel sari c maci o pani andaro.
To be a bi g fi sh.
O sa fi e un peste mare.
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Otorul i c maci o baro.
When the cat i s away, the mice pl ay.
Cand pi sica e departe,soareci i se joaca.
Cana e pi si ca si dur, chermoso e chel l speche.
To be as cunni ng as a fox.
A fi l a fel de vicl ean ca o vul pe.
O ves a la fel de vi cl eanos sar ic vul pea.
Iri na Stoi ca Cl asa a IX-a P1
8
TH
SESSION: YOUR HOLIDAY
Ai fost recent i n vacanta? Daca da, unde?
Nu.
Were you recentl y on vacati on? If so, where?
No.
Sanas recento ande vacanta?da cai ,semas?
Ni semas ande vacanta.
page 194 of 294
Iti ami ntesti o vacanta petrecuta al aturi de famil i e si pri eteni ?
Da. Imi ami ntesc de ul ti ma vacanta petrecuta cu pari nti i mei l a
munte.
Do you remember a hol i day spent with your fami l y and fri ends?
Yes. I remember the l ast holi day spent wi th my parents i n the
mountai ns.
Anestuca ami ntea cana sanas te pretenenta hai tea famel i asa ande
vacanta?
Samas. Me ami ntea semas me mrodad ai m radei cau mounte.
Ce mi jl oc de transport ai fol osit?
Am mers cu masi na tatal ui meu care este foarte confortabila si
spati oasa.
What transportati on did you use?
I went wi th my fathers car who i s very comfortabl e and spaci ous.
So mi jloc de trasporto fol osi t?
Ghelam l e masinasa l e dadesa mi nro .
Ai mai fol osi t si un al t mi jl oc de transport?
Da. Am mers cu trenul si cu mi crobuzul .
page 195 of 294
Have you ever used another means of transport?
Yes. I went by trai n and bus.
Tu fol osai un al t mijl oc de transport?
Sanas. Me semas l e trenosa e autobuzo.
Povesti ti ce ati facut dumneavoastra i n aceasta cal atori e.
Am vizi tat obiecti vel e turi sti ce di n acel oras, am organizat al aturi
de famili e si pri eteni un picnic la i arba verde si ne-am di strat de
mi nune.
Tel l what you di d on thi s tri p.
I vi si ted the si ghts of that city, I organi zed with famil y and fri ends
pi cni c on the grass and we had a great ti me.
Ce l ocuri si orase noi ai descoperi t?
Cel mai frumos oras vi zi tat de mi ne, care mi -a captat atenti a foarte
mul t prin tradi ti e, cul tura, monumente, ospi tal i tate a fost Cetatea
Si ghi soara.
What pl aces and new ci ti es have you found?
The most beauti ful ci ty I vi si ted, that captured my attenti on so
much by tradi ti on, cul ture, monuments, hospi tali ty was
Si ghi soara Ci tadel.
page 196 of 294
Exi sta di ferente intre orasul tau si cel vizi tat?
Da, exi sta di ferente foarte mari , Cetatea Si ghi soara fi i nd un l oc
pl i n de cul tura si tradi ti e, monumente, etc. i n comparati e cu orasul
meu unde nu se i ntal nesc prea mul te monumente, iar oameni i nu
ti n atat de mul t la tradi ti e.
There are di fferences between your town and the vi si t?
Yes, there are great di fferences, Si ghi soara Ci tadel i s a pl ace full of
cul ture and tradi ti on, monuments, etc.. compared to my town
which do not meet too many monuments, and peopl e do not take
so much from tradi ti on.
So di ferenta si ande oraso chi ro natal y col estar?
Ce acti vi tati s-au desfasurat pe durata vi zi tei ?
Am parti ci pat l a un traseu pentru a cunoaste si i denti fica toate
turnuri l e cetati i , am vizi tat Casa l ui Vl ad Dracul a, am ascultat
sol dati i di n Turnul cu Ceas spunand BUNA ZIUA! i n toate
l i mbil e cunoscute, am facut poze pei sajel or de vi s, am fost la
pi scina de acol o i nvatand cu aceasta ocazi e si sa i nnot, am mers i n
cl ubul ARISTOCRAT.
page 197 of 294
What acti vi ti es took pl ace duri ng the vi si t?
I attended a course to meet and i denti fy al l the towers of the ci ty, I
vi sited the house of Vlad Dracul a, I heard the sol di ers of the Cl ock
Tower sayi ng "Hel l o" i n al l l anguages known, I di d dream
l andscape photos, I was at the pool there l earni ng to swi m on thi s
occasi on, I went to cl ub ari stocrat.
So acti vi tati sames pe durata vi zitei ?
Care sunt acti vi tatil e tal e pe durata vacantei de vara? Este
i mpl i cata si famil i a ta?
Pe durata vacantei de vara i mi vizi tez pri eteni i , merg in vacanta l a
munte, mare cu pari nti i , apoi i n tabere cu pri eteni i , fac sport, merg
l a cumparaturi, ma odi hnesc, ci tesc.
What are your activiti es duri ng the summer? Is i nvol ved your
fami l y as wel l ?
Duri ng the summer I vi si t fri ends, go on vacati on i n the
mountai ns, at great parents, then i n camp wi th fri ends, doi ng
sports, shoppi ng, I rest, read.
Cum i ti petreci Craci unul ?
page 198 of 294
Pe durata zi l ei stau al aturi de fami l i e l uand masa festi va cu ocazi a
nasteri i Domnul ui , asteptand col indatorii si pe Mos Craci un, iar
seara i es cu pri eteni i in cl ub.
How do you spend Chri stmas?
On the day are taki ng festi ve meal wi th fami l y at Chri stmas, carol
si ngers and Santa wai ti ng and eveni ng out wi th fri ends i n the
cl ub.
Sar petreci sm o Craci uno?
Dar Pastel e?
Pastel e i l petrec ci ocni nd oua rosi i cu famil i a si pri eteni i , i ar seara
ma i ntalnesc cu pri etenii .
But Easter?
Easter red eggs cracki ng spend i t wi th famil y and fri ends, and i n
the eveni ng I meet wi th fri ends.
Cri sti na Nae cl asa a XI -a P1
page 199 of 294
Jean Monnet High school
i s a medi um sized, regi onal publ i c hi gh school i n Pl oi esti ,
attended by 1620 students.
It i s si tuated i n a regi on where the oi l i ndustry used to be the main
economi c i ndustry devel oped i n the area. Due to the recessi on,
many peopl e from the area became unempl oyed. Thus, the
popul ati on was dramatical l y affected by thi s si tuati on and many
parents l eft thei r homes i n order to search a job abroad. As a
consequence, many chi l dren remai ned wi th thei r grandparents
and brothers or si sters. Thi s si tuati on had a negative i mpact upon
thei r school results.
The staff of CNJM, full y aware of the economic situati on i n the
area, i s tryi ng to fi nd the best sol uti ons i n order to hel p thei r
students overcome the present day di ffi cul ti es and rai se the
quali ty in education.
One of the paths taken i s that of el aborati ng a strategy for
i nvol vi ng our school i n European partnershi ps, meant to fi nd
page 200 of 294
answers to thei r probl ems by collaborating wi th schools from
other countri es faced with simi lar probl ems. The resul ts of the
work i n European partnershi ps were recognised by the Romanian
Mi ni stry of Educati on and Research by awardi ng i t the ti tl e of
European School 2004.
The new poli cy of the school i s to i nvolve more and more young
teachers i n such projects i n order to hel p them i mprove thei r
competences and teachi ng techniques wi th a di rect i mpact upon
the qual i ty of educati on and for a better i nserti on on the l abour
market.
Another i ssue i s that of tryi ng to make parents become more
acti ve i n supporti ng the school pol i cy, for the benefi t of thei r
chil dren and for rai si ng the qual i ty i n educati on.
CNJM prepares students duri ng four years of studyi ng i n the
fol l owi ng profi l es: pedagogi cal ski ll s, soci al - sci ences, phil ol ogy
(i ntensive Engl i sh, Spani sh or German) in Romani an. Si nce 2000,
the insti tuti on has had a section, extended from UPG from
page 201 of 294
Pl oi esti entitl ed The Pedagogy of pre-school and pri mary school
teachi ng . Thi s col l ege teaches future nursery and primary school
teachers, prepari ng them in Romani an. The natural sci ence
l aboratori es (bi ol ogy, chemi stry and physi cs) are well equi pped.
The teachers are permanentl y i nterested i n rai si ng the theoreti cal
and practi cal knowl edge of thei r students, i ni ti ati ng programmes
wi th school i nside and outsi de of the country.
Thi s i nstitute has competence i n pre-pri mary and pri mary teacher
educati on and basic educati on. It has good experi ence on
col l aborati on wi th teachers i n pri mary, secondary school s from
Prahova County and the regi on as wel l as wi th other i nsti tuti on
from the country and from abroad. As wel l, we have good
cooperati on with the parents communi ty, l ocal authori ti es, soci al
and envi ronmental NGOs. We are i nterested i n future cooperati on
wi th other school s and i nsti tuti ons from the European countri es
because i t wi l l be a good opportuni ty to adapt and change the
mental i ty of our school . We wil l parti ci pate i n thi s project,
contri bute to the di ssemi nati on of experi ences, methodol ogi es and
exampl es of good practi ces. Our websi te wi l l be useful to get more
page 202 of 294
experi ences, competences i n the educati onal fi el d. It wi l l recrui t
school s to parti ci pate i n the network acti vi ti es.
page 203 of 294
Ger man t eam
Sprachpartnerschaften fr Deutschlerner an der LEB
Gemei nsam i n Sprachpartnerschaften
Deutsch mi tei nander reden
Di e LEB bi etet sei t Jahren verschi eden
Kurse fr Deutschl erner an.
Dabei bemht si ch der Verei n ni cht nur
um di e Vermi ttl ung der deutschen
Sprache sondern auch um ei ne mgl i chst
vi el fl ti ge Untersttzung der Mi granten
bei der sozi al en und gesel l schaftl i chen Integrati on i n
Deutschl and.
Ei n Projekt, dass di ese Bemhungen auf beste Wei se mi t dem
Sprachel ernen verknpft i st ei n Projekt, i n dem
page 204 of 294
Sprachpartnerschaften angeregt, vermi ttel t und begl ei tet werden.
Es geht darum Sprachkenntni sse von Deutschl ernern zu
verbessern, wobei besonders Anal phabeten erfahrungsgem di e
grtmgli che Untersttzung benti gen. Freiwillige
Muttersprachl er treffen sich mit Tei lnehmern des Projektes und
tauschen sich zu All tgli chem aus. Themen aus Fami l i e, Beruf und
Frei zei t stehen dabei i m Vordergrund. Der Lerner sol l seine
mndli che Ausdruckswei se verbessern und di e Sprache i m Al l tag
anwenden knnen - Hauptziel i st es, di e kommuni kati ve
Handl ungsfhi gkei t zu verbessern.
Dabei i st es durchaus erwnscht, dass Freundschaften,
Bekanntschaften entstehen, di e ber das Projekt hi nausgehen.
Sei t Januar di eses Jahres konnten wi r erste Erfahrungen sammel n.
Besonders Lerner aus dem Al phabeti sierungskurs errei chen durch
di eses zustzl i che Angebot schnel l er Lernfortschri tte, si nd
moti viert und sehr dankbar fr die zustzl iche Untersttzung.
Sorbian a minority language in Germany
by Susanne Kl i ngbei l and Katri n Kl i ngbei l
page 205 of 294
1. Summary:
Sorbi an i s one of the mi nori ty l anguages i n Germany and bel ongs
to the West Slavic languages. The language has been i n use si nce
the 6th century.
Back then Sorbian was spoken
i n a terri tory whi ch reached out
from the ri vers Oder, Bober and
Kwi sa i n the East (today
Pol and) to the Saal e and El be i n
the West. The Ore Mountai ns
and the Lusati an Hi ghlands
were a natural boundary l i ne i n
the South. In the North Sorbian
settl ement reached up to
Frankfurt/Oder.
page 206 of 294
The historic German name for the Sorbs was Wends.
The Sorbs settl ed i n Germany i n the 7th century but l ost thei r
pol i ti cal i ndependence al ready i n the 10th century. The foll owi ng
i mmi grati on of Franks, Thuri ngi an and Saxons and thei r annexi on
of l and caused the decrease of the Sorbs terri tory.
But nevertheless, the ori ginal size of the Sorbi an terri tory i s well
marked by Sorbi an names of places and towns.
Al though the Sorbi an l anguage was i nfl uenced by i mmi grati on,
wars and a ban on the l anguage i t i s currentl y spoken by
approxi matel y 60, 000 Sorbs i n Germany, li vi ng i n Saxony and i n
Brandenburg.
Thi s bi l i ngual Sorbi an- German settl ement area i s divi ded in 8
admi ni strati ve di stri cts.
Si nce the mi ddl e of the 19th century there have been two l i terary
Sorbi an languages:
Lower Sorbi an (around the ci ty of Cottbus)
page 207 of 294
Upper Sorbi an (around the ci ty of Bautzen)
The Domowi na i s an umbrel la organi sati on of Sorbi an soci eti es i n
Lower and Upper Lusati a. It bands together for exampl e the
Sorbi an School Soci ety, the Sorbi an Associati on of Arti sts, the
sci enti fic soci ety Maci ca Serbska , the Cathol i c Cyri l l -
Methodi cus Associati on, the Sorbi an Sports Cl ub and the Soci ety
of Trade and Ski l l ed Labour.
In Saxony there are 9 Pri mary School s and 6 Hi gh School s where
Sorbi an i s the l anguage of i nstructi on. In Brandenburg there are 6
Sorbi an Primary School s.
Both, Cottbus and Bautzen have a Sorbi an Gymnasi um. In
addi ti on 41 school s offer to l earn Sorbi an at school . There are even
some day care centers (nursery schools) where children can l earn
Sorbi an i n a pl ayful way through communi cati on wi th educated
staff.
page 208 of 294
Sorbi an has got a l ot of dial ects and vari eti es, whi ch are di fferent
on al l l evel s of the l anguage system.
The Sorbs in Germany
Cul ture
Language
Locati on of the popul ati on, tri bal di vi si on, hi story
Name: Upper Sorbs Lower Sorbs
Li vi ng i n : Upper Lusatia
(regi on of Bautzen
Saxony)
Lower Lusati a
( regi on of Cottbus
Brandenburg)
people : 40.000 20.000
Language: Upper Sorbi an Lower Sorbi an
page 209 of 294
The Sorbs started to settl e by the ri vers El be, Spree and Nei sse in
the 6 th century.
page 210 of 294
Then they di vi ded up i nto 2 groups and took thei r names from the
characteri sti cs of the area where they had settl ed. They were
separated from each other by a wide and uni nhabi ted forest range.
Former geographers noted some more small Sorbian tri bes
(Gl omacze Dol omici, Mi lceni , Chutyz, Si tice) but they do not
exi st anymore- onl y the bi g ones survi ved.
Ti me went by and Lusati a, the Sorbi an terri tory became part of
Pol and.
However i t returned back to German rul e before 1031.
Agri cul ture devel oped very rapidl y i n
Lusatia, and i s sti l l very i mportant for
the regi on s economy.
Then col oni zati on by Franki sh, Fl emi sh
and Saxon settl ers i ntensi fi ed. At that
poi nt the Sorbs l ost thei r poli ti cal i ndependence and thei r terri tory
began to decl i ne. 1327 the fi rst prohi bi ti on on usi ng Sorbi an (as
page 211 of 294
l anguage) i n some German ci ti es appeared (Al tenburg, Zwickau,
Lei pzi g). The Thi rty Years War (and Black Death) caused a terri bl e
devastati on i n Lusati a and the Sorbs as a popul ati on decli ned.
Thi s l ed to further German col oni zati on and Germani sati on.
In 1667, a few years further, the Pri nce of Brandenburg ordered
the destructi on of al l Sorbi an printed material s. He wanted onl y
one German cul ture. At the same ti me the evangeli cal church
supported pri nti ng Sorbi an rel i gi ous l i terature (but mai nl y as a
means of fighting counter- reformation).
Ti me went by and more bans on use of Sorbi an l anguage, practi se
of Sorbi an cul ture, appeared. No wonder, emi grati on of Sorbs
i ncreased, mai nl y to Texas and Australi a.
In 1848 the Sorbs si gned a peti ti on to the Saxon Government i n
whi ch they demanded equal i ty for the Sorbi an l anguage wi th the
German one i n churches, courts, school s and governments
departments.
page 212 of 294
In 1871 whol e Lusatia became part of uni ted Germany. The
Wei marer Republ i c guaranteed consti tuti onal mi nori ty ri ghts but
di d not real l y practi se them.
Throughout the Thi rd Rei ch Sorbs were
described as a German tribe who spoke
a Slavi c l anguage. Sorbi an costumes,
cul ture, customs and even l anguage
was sai d to be no i ndi cati on of a non-
German-ori gi n . The Rei ch decl ared
that there were no Sorbs or Lusatians onl y Wendi sh-
speaki ng Germans . They were not accepted as an own
popul ati on. But i t was thei r l uck because bei ng German
meant for them: to be not prosecuted or persecuted.
The Nazi were sure: The Sorbi an cul ture woul d under thi s
oppressi on decl i ne and fi nall y vani sh automatical l y. Young Sorbs
had to go to the army and consequentl y had to fi ght at the front.
The defeat of Nazi Germany changed the Sorbs situati on
consi derabl y.
page 213 of 294
The East German authori ti es tri ed to counteract thi s devel opment
by creati ng a broad range of Sorbi an i nsti tuti ons. Then they were
offi cial l y recogni zed as an ethnic mi nori ty. More than 100 Sorbi an
schools, a Sorbian theatre and several academic i nstitutions were
founded and Sorbi an soci eti es re-establ i shed. The number of
Sorbi an speaki ng peopl e i ncreased rapidl y agai n. But that was not
the happy endi ng of the sorbs-story duri ng the GDR (German
Democratic Republic) because the Sorbs caused the communist-
government pl enty of troubl e, mai nl y because of the hi gh l evel of
rel i gi ous observance and resi stance to nati onal i sati on of
agri cul ture.
But after reuni ficati on of Germany (on the 3 rd October 1990) the
Lusatians made efforts to create an autonomous admi ni strati ve
uni t. Al though Germany supports nati onal minori ti es, nowadays
the Sorbs cl ai m that thei r aspi rati ons are not suffi ci entl y ful fil l ed:
Upper- Lusatia (so the Upper Sorbs) sti ll bel ong to Saxony Lower-
Lusati a (Lower Sorbs) bel ong to Brandenburg. They want to be an
autonomous nati on on own land.
page 214 of 294
To sum i t up: Si nce thei r settl ement i n Lusatia (i n the 6 th century)
the Sorbs had to go through rough ti mes. They were al ways forced
to adapt to German cul ture and were not accepted as an own fol k
wi th own l and. Just because of the reason that they had never
gi ven up (throughout 1400 years) they stil l exi st- or at l east thei r
cul ture survi ved. Now there are about 40.000 60.000 Sorbs
(di ffers from the source) l ivi ng in Germany
Culture
Cul ture i s a word that i ncl udes so many poi nts:
Rel i gi on, l anguage, customs, tradi ti ons, sport, food and dri nks,
fami l y l i fe, everyday li fe, cl othes, hi gh days and hol ydays,
superstition
Superstition:
There i s thi s mi dday- woman whi ch the Sorbs beli eve i n.
Thi s i s actuall y very brutal and horror-fi l m-l i ke. She kil l s (wi th a
reapi ng hook) peopl e, who are out i n the fi el d. She al ways appears
page 215 of 294
between 12 and 1 pm. Thats why you wi l l never see any Sorbs out
i n the fi el d worki ng around the mi dday ti me (because they are
afrai d of the mi dday-woman).
In additi on Sorbs bel i eve i n Aquari us - a synonym for water-gods,
whereby the Aquari us has i n contrast to mermai ds a rather
dangerous reputation. Consequentl y Sorbs are usually not very
keen on goi ng swi mmi ng just for fun. They try to avoi d water-
contact and are pl eased to be on the safe l and.
They strongl y bel i eve that the dragon (i n any appearance) i s a
symbol for l uck and much money
Religion:
Si nce the begi nni ng of the 19th century most of the Sorbs used to
be evangelic (or Protestant).
But the oppressi on of Sorbs duri ng GDR-Ti mes caused a decl i ne i n
cul tural - consci ousness and i denti ty. Then there happened to be a
change (when thi s mi nori ty got ai d agai n) to a more cathol i c
di recti on since 1987 Germany all owed Sorbian church servi ces.
Sorbs are a popul ati on wi th a hi gh l evel of pi ety. Churches are
page 216 of 294
real l y wel l -kept and l ooked after. a l ot of cruci fi xes are to be seen
i n front gardens and on the waysi de i n Lusatia.
Cl othes:
The Sorbs do have tradi ti onal costumes
whi ch el der peopl e wear everyday and the
young ones onl y on Sundays and on hol y
days.
They di ffer from regi on to regi on and are ri ch
i n decorati on, embroi dery and encrusted
wi th pearl s.
These speci fi c costumes are ai med to be a
mean of i denti fi cati on. In addi ti on to the
traditi onal costumes Sorbs designed the so-
cal l ed bl ue-pri nt-art which can be found i n
many Sorbi an househol ds and i s sol d i n Sorbi an handy-craft
shops
page 217 of 294
Drinks and food:
Spreewald-cucumbers (Upper-Lusatia), pyramid cake from
Cottbus, the German weddi ng soup, potatoes boi l ed i n thei r jacket
wi th curd cheese and l i nseed oil , fri ed potatoes wi th bacon and
oni ons, mil l et-seed-mi l ky-porri dge, pancake wi th butter and
ci nnamon.
Sport:
Of course Sorbs do sport any ki nd. There i s the Serbski Sokol
which i s the umbrel l a organi sati on for Sorbi an sport cl ubs.In 2008
the Sorbi an nati onal soccer team took part i n the European
nati onal -mi nori ty tournament (hol d i n Switzerl and).They di d not
wi n but pl ayed qui te wel l .
Spreewald i s a regi on i n Upper-Lusati a, thi s regi on
is famous for i ts i dyll ic ri vers and canoe-touri sm,
one can ei ther rent a canoe or go on a canoeing tri p
wi th a dri ver l i ke i n Veni ce.
page 218 of 294
Family life:
They are attendi ng speci al school s and have bi gger famil i es.
Each fami l y has about 5 chil dren whi ch l eads to a strong
company.
Customs:
Most of the customs arose from the farmer-calendar:
Setti ng up the May-tree (done on the 1st
of May): Men bri ng the tree and fi x i t on
a steal -pol e, women decorate i t wi th 2
fl at ri ngs and col ourful ri bbons. Then
they cel ebrate the spri ng and oncomi ng
harvest whi ch wi l l hopeful l y be ri ch,
and duri ng the ni ght ti me they are not
al l owed to l eave the tree al one because
i f someone from a nei ghbouri ng vil l age
manages to steal the tree or cut i t off
then the affected vi l l age i s not al l owed
page 219 of 294
to do the setti ng up of the May tree for the next 7 years and i t i s
shame for the whol e vi l lage.
Cock cutting:
If there was a good harvest and everythi ng i s done, i t i s ti me for a
ki nd of Thanks-gi vi ng . They choose a harvesti ng-ki ng by a very
i nteresting competi ti on. Men have to ri de a horse and (lap by lap)
they have to try to ri de through a decorated bow with a dead cock
hangi ng downwards. The one who manages to tear off the cocks
head - i s the ki ng. The women can prove thei r ski ll s as wel l and
may became harvesti ng-queen by (for i nstance) egg-carryi ng on a
spoon but thi s i s obvi ousl y not as spectacular as the cock-cutti ng
Birds Wedding:
Hol d on the 25th of January. Thi s
custom i s deri ved from the ti mes before
Chri st: when peopl e gave sacri fi ci al
offeri ng to the natural gods i n order to
i ntroduce a good year and wel l bei ng.
page 220 of 294
Nowadays as bel i evi ng i n natural gods di sappeared parents gi ve
sweets to thei r chi l dren.
The ki ds see i t as a payback from the bi rds, whi ch were fed from
the ki ds throughout the whol e wi nter. Chi l dren consequentl y feed
the bi rds thoroughl y throughout the whol e wi nter every year
Moreover Ki ndergartens (nursery schools) and Pri mary schools
desi gn the whol e day as a bi rds weddi ng. Chi l dren wear bi rd-
costumes, si ng songs and re-pl ay the bi rds-weddi ng.
Zampern:
It i s another custom to get ri d of the wi nter- and evi l demons. On
carnivals Tuesday young peopl e go from door to door and coll ect
money for thei r carnival party. The donator gets a shot (liquor)
and a soft hi t wi th a bi rchs branch (thi s acti on bani shes evi l
spi rits).
Holy days:
Hol y days due to the church-cal endar are very
important for the Sorbs. Easter is the most
page 221 of 294
i mportant one and connected wi th fol l owi ng tradi ti ons
egg-rol l i ng (down a hi l l ) egg-pai nti ng (speci al method wi th wax)
Easter-water (splashi ng, washi ng, dri nking) Easter-bonfi re Easter-
riders (decorated and well -dressed groups of horse-ri ders
announce the resurrecti on of Jesus Chri st by ri ding from vi llage to
vil l age, there i s an offi ci al Easter-ri der-ti me-tabl e every year.
Language
Sorbi an i s a mi nori ty l anguage in Germany and bel ongs to the
Western Sl avic l anguages. Hi stori cal l y Sorbi an i s al so known as
Lusati an or Wendi sh or Slavi c (whi ch i s nowadays unusual
and ki nd of rude because many Sorbs consi der these words to be
offensive).
Lusatia i s now the name of the regi on where Sorbi an i s spoken.
Sorbi an i s cl osel y rel ated to Pol i sh, Czech, Sl ovak and Kashubi an.
There are 2 l i terary l anguages:
page 222 of 294
Upper Sorbi an (Bautzen): spoken by about 40.000 peopl e i n
Saxony.
Lower Sorbi an (Cottbus): spoken by about 20.000 peopl e i n
Brandenburg.
In the home areas of the Sorbs both languages are equal to
German (e.g. bi l i ngual si gns). Sorbi an has got l ots of di al ects and
vari eti es which are di fferent on al l l evel s of the language system.
Language preserves and supports cul ture. If a l anguage of a fol k i s
about to exti nct the culture i s about to exti nct as wel l .
By the end of the 19 th century there were 150.000 acti ve speakers.
Today there are much l ess: 60. 000 peopl e say Yes, I am a Sorb
and understand Sorbi an . But onl y 20.000 peopl e are acti ve
speakers.
Fi rst Sorbi an texts appeared in the 16 th century and were mai nl y
transl ati ons of rel i gi ous texts (Ol d and New testament).So thi s
l anguage has been in exi stence for about 1400 years and there are
many Sorbs who work on i ts further exi stence.
page 223 of 294
What efforts do the Sorbs make i n order to preserve thei r
l anguage?
Fi rst of all there i s thi s umbrel l a
organi sati on of Sorbi an soci eti es i n
general , cal l ed DOMOWINA
(ori gi nated 1912, then forbi dden by the Nazi - regi me and after
Worl d War II re-establ i shed).
Thi s organi sati on i s very i mportant and bands together:
The Sorbi an School Soci ety
The Sorbi an Associati on of Artists
The Sci enti fic Soci et Maci ca Serbska
The Cathol i c Cyri l l -Methodicus Associ ati on
The Sorbi an Sports Cl ub
The Soci ety of Trade and Ski l l ed Labour
The Sorbi an School Soci ety works together
wi th the Wi taj- Project whi ch was founded
page 224 of 294
i n 2001 i n order to revi tal i se Sorbi an. The resul ts up to now are:
In Saxony there are 9 Pri mary school s and 6 Hi gh school s where
Sorbi an i s the l anguage of i nstructi on. In Brandenburg there are 6
Pri mary school s. Both (Cottbus and Bautzen) have a Sorbi an
Grammar school . In addi ti on there are 41 school s whi ch offer
Sorbi an as a Second l anguage at school .
There some day care centres (nursery school s/ Ki ndergartens)
where chi l dren can l earn Sorbi an i n a pl ayful way through
educated staff. One can study Sorbi an cul ture and l anguage at the
Uni versi ty of Lei pzi g, even other German and Internati onal
Uni versiti es offer courses facing this i ssue. They are researchi ng
and teaching thi s language and cul ture. Of course another and
important mean to preserve language are libraries. The Sorbs have
unfortunatel y onl y one l i brary, which i s at the same ti me thei r
Nati onal Li brary.
Moreover, the Sorbs have thei r own newspaper: i n Upper-Sorbi an
- Serbske Nowi ny (means Sorbi an news) and i s publ i shed 5
ti mes a week. Once i n a month a German i ssue of the Serbske
page 225 of 294
Nowi ny i s publ i shed. The Lower-Sorbs have a newspaper call ed
Nowy Casni k . Both newspapers get ai d- payments, because the
amount of readers i s simpl y to l ow.
Another i mportant poi nt to menti on: the Saxony radi o channel
MDR 1 Radi o Sachsen broadcasts approxi matel y 22h i n Upper-
Sorbi an l anguage. They tal k about Sorbi an news and play Sorbi an
(and of course European) songs. The Speci al thi ng i s: They even
have a show for the young Sorbi an generati on, where they tal k
about current sports- or party events and introduce Sorbian
newcomer bands. Thi s youth-show i s hol d by experi enced
Sorbi an radi o hosts and young Sorbi ans who are studyi ng
journali sm.
In Europe such an acknowl edgement/ a concessi on (a youth-radi o-
show that i s hol d for much l ess than 40.000 listeners) i s very
speci al and uni que. Thi s show exi sts since April 1999 and was
expanded up to 2h per week thi s year.
page 226 of 294
On the Internet (l i ve-stream and medi a centre) one can l i sten to
shows having mi ssed. The technical opportuni ti es nowadays offer
a huge and new chance for Sorbs (or mi nori ti es i n general ) to keep
thei r l anguage and cul ture ali ve.
The MDR 1 does not onl y broadcast a
Sorbi an radi o show they hol d a TV-
show as well .
Si nce 1992 they have Wuhl adko . In
addi ti on to that they broadcast the famous and tradi ti onal ki ds
fi l m (cal l ed Sandmnnchen) on Sunday eveni ngs.
To sum i t up: Sorbi an (the mi nori ty language) di ffers that much
from German that we are not at al l abl e to understand what they
are tal ki ng about. Sorbi an has got 2 sub-languages whi ch di ffer
not that much from each other and has (l i ke any other l anguage)
di fferent di al ects and vari eti es.
page 227 of 294
Thi s language i s about to exti nct because l ess and l ess peopl e are
abl e to speak Sorbian. Fortunatel y there are many efforts made in
order to prevent the exti ncti on of that l anguage: Newspapers / TV
/ Radi o / School s/ WITAJ- Project/ umbrel l a-org.
These thi ngs are very i mportant because one day when the
l anguage i s dead - the culture di es as well .
And thats what nobody wants we sti l l want to have an Europe
wi th many di fferent cul tures.
Sources:
http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki /Sorben
http://www.sorben.de/
http://www.sorben.org/
http://www.mdr.de/sorbi sches-
programm/rundfunk/vertei lseite1592.html
http://www.cottbus-und-umgebung.de/a1s0i 96si 0.html
page 228 of 294
http://www.touri smus-sorben.com/de/
http://www.domowi na.sorben.com/i ndex.htm
http://www.serbja.i nfo/wobsah.htm
Peter Kunze: Di e preui sche Sorbenpol i ti k 18151847,
Schriftenreihe des Instituts fr sorbische Vol ksforschung Nr. 52,
VEB Domowi na-Verlag, Bautzen 1978
Di e Sorben/Wenden i n der Ni ederl ausi tz, Domowi na-Verl ag 2000.
ISBN 3-7420-1668-7
Peter Barker: Ki rchenpol i ti k und ethni sche Identi tt. In: Ltopi s.
Band 53, 2006, Heft 1, S. 52 ff., Ludowe nakIadni stwo Domowi na,
Budyi n/Bautzen 2006
Ernst Tscherni k: Di e gegenwrti gen demographi schen,
vol kskundl i chen und sprachl i chen Verhl tni sse i n der
zwei sprachi gen sorbi schen Lausi tz , Sorbi sches Kul turarchi v
XXXII, 22D
page 229 of 294
Projects carried out during the GRUNDTVIG- partnership
by Carol a Schul ze and Katri n Kl i ngbei l
Projects, which are l ow l evel and desi gned especi all y for certai n
l earner groups, take i nto account the mi cro social aspects of the
i ndi vi dual learner as wel l as the macro soci al aspects of the target
l anguage (cul ture, art, pol i ti cs, science and economy). In so far i t
is necessary to address di fferent layers of these aspects whi ch
make up a nati on. Abstract cul tural patterns and pol i ti cal
structures are appl i ed to the real l i fe (the everyday l i fe) of the
common peopl e.
Fol l owi ng projects, carri ed out duri ng the GRUNDTVIG- project,
i l l ustrate thi s:
100 years I nternati onal Womens Day Tracks and Vi si ons
Project pl anni ng:
page 230 of 294
The parti ci pants of the language course wanted to know more
about famous women who left tracks in areas such as poli tics,
sports, arts, cultureThe women should come from all over
Germany or they shoul d be a l ocal women (Rathenow and
surroundi ngs). Furthermore they shoul d have lived in different
eras. They should be sci enti sts, arti sts, fi ghters for women s rights,
expl orers, athl etes, business women
Together we deci ded to expl ore (i nvesti gate further) the l i ves of
two pol i ti ci ans, an athl ete, a bi shop and an arti st. The materi al
col l ected, from books, from the i nternet, intervi ews and face to
face meeti ngs, were compi l ed by the l earners ei ther worki ng wi th
a partner or i n groups.
Proj ect real i sati on:
The outcome of i nvesti gati ng the li ves and the outstandi ng
achi evements of the women were bi ographi es whi ch not onl y
mi rrored thei r l i ves but took i nto account the rel evant soci etal and
poli tical circumstances. The learners arranged posters with texts
and pi ctures and put them on di spl ay. The posters and other
page 231 of 294
materi al were di spl ayed i n an exhi bi ti on i n our school . Duri ng a
project week the language class met German visitors, presented
thei r posters and gui ded through the exhi bi ti on. After the teacher
and some students gave li ttl e presentati on there was a discussion
about the achi evements and the l i ves of the women.
Fol l ow up work concerni ng the project:
In class the group eval uated the project. For l earni ng purpose the
students were ask to present the bi ographi es of the other learners
and to answer questi on regardi ng thei r presentati ons. The teacher
tri ed to interfere as l ess as possible, onl y when the l earners had
page 232 of 294
questi ons or when i t was necessary for understandi ng and for
supporting communicati on. Therefore various methods are used
(scaffol di ng, echo, TPR ).
Typi cal German? Ways to I ntercul tural i ty
Project pl anni ng:
Li ke the project menti oned before thi s project was born out of the
groups i deas. Eati ng and Dri nki ng i s Good for the Body and for
the Soul thi s i s an ol d German sayi ng.
But thi s i s not onl y true for Germany peopl e eat and dri nk all
over the worl d eati ng and dri nki ng i s part of a nati ons cul ture.
From thi s poi nt of vi ew thi s topi c was very conveni ent for getti ng
to know the di fferent culi nary background of the students.
Ordi nary thi ngs often make out the special ness di fferences and
commonali ti es arouse i nterest and moti vate to communi cate
oral l y. Agai n, the mai n ai m i n second language acqui si ti on i s the
abil i ty of communi cati ve i nteracti on.
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The students desi gned a whol e catal ogue of questi on:
Project real i sati on:
On the occasi on of our "i ntercul tural week" the students pl anned
together wi th the teacher how to represent the work of thei r
project. I additi on the German students prepared acti vi ti es so that
the week was used for exchange of i nformati on and vari ous
encounters. In cooperati on wi th the "Opti c Park" and the "Green
Cl assroom" we had a workshop about the German favouri te dri nk
- coffee.
There was a l ecture about the Afri can Conti nent i ncl udi ng many
pi ctures, musi c and typical i tems from Afri can countri es.
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The German and the i nternati onal students spent a whol e day
together (whi ch was pl anned by the l anguage students). Each
student prepared a meal bei ng typi cal for hi s country. Before we
enjoyed the meal every student tal ked about the meal he/she
prepared, customs, manners typi cal for his/her country. And
whil e eati ng together real l y nice and l i vel y di scussi ons goi ng
beyond that gi ven topi c came up.
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Fol l ow up work concerni ng the proj ect:
How do peopl e eat?
How do they cook/prepare meal s?
How, where and when do they eat?
What do peopl e aet for what purpose and reason?
...
Obvi ousl y thi s topic offered a lot of opportuni ti es for vari ous
teachi ng methods. Students worked on thei r own, wi th a partner
or i n a group and devel oped consequentl y all parts of l anguage
competences.
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Duri ng the week after the i ntercul tural week we eval uated al l
acti vi ti es. Whil e doi ng so there came up the i dea to create a smal l
but nice cooki ng book i ncl udi ng all reci pes.
The way to mans heart i s through hi s stomach.
Thi s project accounted for the devel opment of wi l l i ngness to be
open- mi nded and curi ous about other cul tures, thei r customs and
thei r tradi ti ons. Thi s topic seems to be l ow threshol d but has
actual l y effecti ve consequences i n regard to the i ntegrati on of
mi nori ti es, devel opment of tol erance and i ntercul tural
cooperati on.
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Language Partnershi p
Open Your Mi nd - Come Together
Devel op your Speaki ng Ski l l s at l ei sure and l earn about
Cul tural Perspecti ves
Methodol ogy and Obj ecti ves
The abi l i ty of communi cative i nteracti on i s the mai n ai m of second
l anguage acqui si ti on.
In Germany we work wi th German (as a Second Language).
Consequentl y the tutor wi l l be a nati ve German speaker and the
tutoree wil l be a l earner of the German l anguage.
The l earni ng partnershi p Open Your Mi nd - Come Together i n the
LEB Pri gnitz- Havell and e.V. i s based on the communicati ve
approach.
Humans are i nherentl y social beings. Indi vi dual cogni ti ve factors
i n Second Language Acqui si ti on (SLA) cannot be assessed apart
from the l earners social context. Two l evel s of social context can
be di sti ngui shed: micro soci al focus (potenti al effects of
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i mmedi atel y surroundi ng ci rcumstances) and macro soci al focus
(broader cul tural, pol i ti cal & educati onal envi ronment).The core
i ssue i s the devel opment of communi cati ve competence, as
SAVILLE TROIKE (2003) put i t. Communi cati ve competence i s
what a speaker needs to know to communi cate appropri atel y
wi thi n a parti cul ar l anguage communi ty i nvol vi ng grammar (i n a
wi de sense), di scourse, soci olinguisti c components (when to speak
or not, what to say to whom, how to say i t appropri atel y i n any
gi ven situati on). Therefore SLA i s from a soci ol i ngui sti c
perspecti ve embedded i n soci al context. Learni ng i s seen as a
col l aborati ve affai r; l anguage knowl edge i s social l y constructed
through i nteracti on.
Cooperati ve l earni ng and peer to peer tutori ng are strategi es i n
which pai rs or smal l groups (the l anguage partnershi p and the
acti vi ti es are based on pai rs but i n the course of i nteracti on the
pairs act i n small er or larger groups) gain from each other s effort.
Both strategi es are i mpl emented i n the l anguage partnershi p
(regarded as tool s to achi eve understandi ng and devel opment for
each of the partners). They are sel f regulated processes whi ch
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i ncl ude sel f regulated l earni ng characteri zed by sel f-observati on,
sel f-judgment (sel f-eval uati on and sel f-reacti ons (reacti ons to
performance outcomes).
To the extent that one accuratel y refl ects on hi s or her progress
toward a l earni ng goal , and appropri atel y adjusts hi s or her
acti ons to maxi mi ze performance, he or she has effecti vel y sel f-
regul ated.
The Setti ng
The LEB offers vari ous l anguage courses, whi ch di ffer i n
methodol ogy, i n ai m, l ength and requi rements (prerequi si tes):
Integrati on Course
Al phabeti sati on Course
German for Work ( the job )
Ori entati on Course
The Learners
The adul ts who take part i n courses have wi del y di fferent social
backgrounds. They used to work for i nstance as an engi neer or as
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a herdsman for goats. The students are between 18 and 60 years
ol d and 80 per cent of them dont have a job. They come from
di fferent countri es of the worl d such as Nepal , Iran, Paki stan,
Afghani stan, Vi et Nam, Austral ia, East Europe, Sl oveni a, Bosni a
or Czechi a, whi ch means that someti mes there are great
di fferences i n rel i gi on or tradi ti on. Peopl e of di fferent confessi ons
meet and l earn together. At the begi nni ng the communi cati on i s
very l i mi ted because most of the l earners/i mmi grants onl y speak
thei r mother tongue (some Engli sh or another forei gn l anguage).
Thi s il l ustrates how chal l engi ng i t i s to teach a group of l earners
whi ch i s such a patchwork.
By means of a placement test and a teacher/student conversation
the learners are cl assi fied i n different learner groups.
Some ti mes ago there were a lot of Ethni c German Russi ans
attending the courses. Whol e courses were fi ll ed wi th Russi an
students. Back than the school took thi s i nto account and offered a
wi de range of supporti ng measures to meet their needs.
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Key Competences
Li ngui sti c competence:
The abi l i ty of communi cative i nteracti on i s the mai n ai m of second
l anguage acqui siti on. The mai n ai m of these l earning partnershi ps
i s to gai n confi dence i n communi cati ve acti on and i mprove the
l i ngui sti c ski l l s (speaki ng and l i steni ng comprehensi on). The
advantage of the partnershi ps is that the learners are free from
teachers moni tori ng. It i s easier for them to overcome the
i nhi biti on to speak, to try out acqui red vocabul ary, phrases etc.
Soci al and ci vi c competence:
These competences embrace three aspects: personal, interpersonal
and i ntercul tural competence and are bei ng l i nked to personal and
soci al wel l -bei ng.
Ci vi c competence, and parti cul arl y knowl edge of soci al and
pol i ti cal concepts and structures (democracy, justice, equal i ty,
ci ti zenshi p and civil ri ghts) equi ps i ndividual s to engage i n acti ve
and democrati c parti ci pati on.
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Cul tural awareness and expressi on:
The l anguage partnershi ps are connected wi th some di fferent
outi ngs and cross thematic events/presentation. Cultural
competence as the abi l i ty, very much i n the sense of hol i stic
l earni ng and l i vi ng, to engage ones senses for the trai ni ng and
l earni ng process i n a consci ous and del i berate way, to convey
aesthetic sensations, and to use the psycho-soci al functions of
cul ture i n l earni ng processes, for i nstance those of l anguage, art,
musi c, dance or hi story.
Contents of the Language Partnershi p
The content of the meeti ngs (partnershi p) are l i nked to the
course s structure but are handl ed very flexi ble current political
or l ocal events/topics and topics which the i ndividual l earner or
the partners are i nterested i n are pi cked up and deal t wi th duri ng
the meeti ngs. Addi ti onal there are meeti ngs whi ch are cross
thematic and offer an i ntegrated approach to several topi cs. They
gi ve new input and are especi al l y sui tabl e to i ncrease the l earners
moti vati on.
Possible sessi ons (topics) are:
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Hell o Get to know peopl e
How are you? Meeti ng peopl e and tal ki ng
What ti me i s i t? - Dai l y routi nes
What happens? Duri ng the day, CV
Food and Dri nks
How much i s i t? Shoppi ng
Thi s sui ts you Ori entati on i n the shoppi ng mal l
Heal thy and fi t Body and heal th
Wel come Orientati on in town, goi ng by bus, trai n
I work for- job routi ne
Rooms, ki tchen, bathroom Furni ture, fl at
Additi onal materi al Travell i ng, the medi a, l i festyl e, hol i days
The vocabul ary i s rel ated to the topi cs and questi on/answer
prompts as well .
Teacher and tutor are planni ng/di scussi ng the meeti ng i n advance.
If the tutor wants he/she can get some material related to the topic
and some advi ce for focussi ng on certai n phrases/ vocabul ary.
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Pictures
Food/drinks, the Menu conversation
/smal l tal k i n a restaurant
Off we go to the restaurant/pub
Ki tchen stori es Cooki ng, cutl ery, i ngredi ents
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Goi ng shoppi ng. How much i s i t? Ori entati on i n town, traffi c,
bui l di ng si te
Lndliche Erwachsenenbildung Prignitz- Havelland e. V.
Ful l l egal name of the i nsti tuti on: Lndl i che
Erwachsenenbi l dung Pri gni tz- Havell and e. V.
Type of organi sati on: Adul t educati on provi der
Commercial ori entati on: not for profi t
page 246 of 294
The Lndli che Erwachsenenbi l dung PR-HVL e. V. (LEB) was
founded i n 1991 and i s acti ve as educati on and project carri er i n
the rural area i n the north and northwest of Brandenburg, havi ng
seven di fferent l ocati ons. Si nce i ts foundati on the LEB has
devel oped from an educati on carri er, whi ch was onl y acti ve i n the
fi el d of rural educati on for adults. It has now become an educati on
partner wi th vari ous busi ness acti vi ti es. Thi s i s refl ected i n the
wi de range of projects the LEB carri es out. In the educati on sector
thi s i ncl udes basi c educati on for di sadvantaged adul ts, vocati onal
trai ni ng, l anguage courses for i mmi grants, i ntegrati on measures
for i mmi grants and projects i n cooperati on wi th Pri mary- and
Secondary Schools. The learners of the language courses are
i mmi grants from al l over the world but come mainl y from Eastern
European countri es. The LEB al so organi zes regi onal wi de
i ntegrati on language course wi th vocati onal ori entati on especi al l y
for young l earners and singl e mothers. In this partnershi p the staff
and l earners i nterchanged experi ences and materi al s wi th the
other i nsti tuti ons regardi ng the methodol ogy and di dacti c of SLA
(see projects) and parti ci pated activel y i n the desi gn of the second
page 247 of 294
part of the manual , devoted to cul tural aspects of a minori ty
group i n Germany: the Sorbs.
page 248 of 294
Gr eek t eam
H ouppsroyq pd
H oooo u\ooiqoq, +ou oyoo+o, L.iivqo. . +o
o\qo o+i o.v .i_. o.oo .voio.ov (\oyo +ov
io0qiov+ov +q,) ioi o\o o+o oyoo oo, oi ouv.yo+.,
+q,, oou o.v uo_ouv .iovo+ii., y\ooo., o+qv .io_q
+ou o.iou Aiyoiou. `+qv ooo0.io vo u\ooiqoou. +o
oyoo .i\ovq0qio. o. oioo., ooo+qio+q+.,.
A_iio oo_o\q0qio. . +i, oioo.+ii., oo.,
(v+oio\o\io) ou uo_.i o+o vqoi +q, A.oou. M. +i,
.iooo.i, ou .i_o. oo +ou, 0oovou, o. oiooou,
+o.i, ioi +i, .iooo.i, o+q y\oooo oo o\\., y\ooo.,
y.viio+.o. Hoyo+ooiqoo. .ioio.u+ii., ooo+qio+q+.,
. +ou, o0q+., o_o\.iou .vq\iiov ioi .ioio.u+iiou, +ou
.o.ivou Iuvooiou Mu+i\qvq,. T.\o, . ooq +qv
.\oiq +ou o_o\.iou ouv.yo+q +q, Iouovio, . +ou, Ioo
page 249 of 294
oyo+ooiqoo. i\ioyoiiq ovooioqoq ioi
ovo(q+qoq +ou, o+qv .io_q +q, o\q oo+. vo .v+oioou.
+ov +oo (oq, +ou,.
H .\oiq o, o+o oyoo .i_. o\\o 0.+iio oou o,
.ooo. +q ouvo+o+q+o vo ouv.yoo+ou. . .ioio.u+iiou,
o\\ov io+ov, vo ov+o\\oLou. io.., ioi io\., oi+ii., .
o+o_o vo +i, oo0qoou. o. o_o\.io +q, .io_q, .u0uvq,
o,. Mo, .ooo. .ioq, +q ouvo+o+q+o vo oou. +o ouvo+o ioi
+o oouvo+o oq.io +q, .ioio.uoq, o+qv L\\ooo ioi vo
ooo0qoou. o+o \oioio +ov ouvo+o+q+ov +q, 0.oq, ou
io+._ou. vo iovou. ..oo.i,, o+oo.i, ioi ou(q+qo.i,
io+o +i, .ioi..i, o+i, o_o\ii., ovoo.,. Yoo._0qio.
+ou, ouv.yo+., oou +ou, L.voyqoo. o+qv o\q, o+o vqoi
o, o\\o ioi o. o_o\ii., ovoo., +ou vqoiou.
page 250 of 294
The description of the Greek project team
by Ti mol eon Theofanell i s
In Greece, the parti ci pati ng organi zati on i s the Teacher trai ner
offi ce of the North Aegean i sl ands. Teachers worki ng on i sl ands
are, most of the ti mes, newly appoi nted i n the job and,
consequentl y, need gui dance both on pedagogi cal i ssues and on
thei r subjects of speci al izati on. Our job i s to hel p them on thei r
requests a part whi ch i s qui te i mportant, as, duri ng the fi rst years,
teachers often form atti tudes that wi l l accompany them
throughout thei r whole professi onal li fe. Our mai n task is to visit
school s, organi ze and i mpl ement exempl ary teachi ng sessi ons for
students and teachers, attend teachers duri ng thei r teachi ng i n
class, organize semi nars, meeti ngs, workshops and so on, i n order
to achi eve our common goal s.
When we started parti ci pating i n thi s project we carri ed out a
research as far as the current situati on of existence of minori ti es in
Greece (and i n our area, speci fi cal l y) i s concerned. We found, read
and shared thi s i nformati on wi th our partners. Unfortunatel y,
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although mi nori ti es exi st i n our area of responsi bi l i ty, there are no
special schools for them. The minorities consi st of work
i mmi grants, who l earn Greek on a-need-to-know basi s. Some
years ago there were some seminars for them to help them l earn
the Greek l anguage. Nowadays, most of these workers have l eft
Greece due to the economic recessi on. We have al so l ooked at
another possi bl e angl e which was l ocal accents. The coordi nator
di dnt thi nk i t was rel evant for the project, so we had to change
course. The materi al produced on the subject i s posted on the
project web si te. We al so produced materi al on the effects of other
cul tures on the Greek l anguage. Another aspect that we l ooked
was the si tuati on of the Roma i n Greece, but we did i t onl y
through bi bli ographi cal research.
After these we suggested the producti on of acti vi ti es used i n
teachi ng Engl i sh as a forei gn language or other offi cial language
taught i n school s (French, German or Ital ian). Thi s was accepted
and that wi l l be presenti ng i n thi s document.
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We fol l owed the general i deas of the coordi nator insti tuti on. Our
students were a school for adul ts i n the ci ty of Mytil ene. At fi rst,
we wanted to fi nd the l earners i nterests. We di d thi s wi thout
usi ng a questi onnai re but we used a combi nati on of focus group
and brainstormi ng. We separated students randoml y in teams of
four students per team and, gi vi ng them 10 mi nutes, we asked
them to come up with fi ve subjects. We coll ected thi s on the board
and thus we created the questi onnai re and students sel ected three
choi ces from al l the suggested opti ons. Each ti me two groups were
acti ve. The length of the acti vi ti es was short and an acti vi ty
conti nued when the students showed speci al i nterest i n
conti nui ng i t. Not al l the teachers wanted to partici pate, so at
some poi nt we used other partners avai labl e such as NGOs or
other organizati ons such as counsel ing centers.
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Our activities are the following:
1. Tea ti me
At the school for adults i n Mytil ene we spoke about tea ti me i n
England. Students have shown an i nterest on the habi ts of Engli sh
peopl e. We prepared and organi zed a tea party i n the classroom
i nvol ving students i n the preparati on of i t. After the i ntroducti on
made by the teacher (i n whi ch she descri bed the why and how of
the speci fi c routi ne), we actual l y had tea and assortments. We
read i nformati on about the reci pes and the habi ts and we tri ed to
reenact them. It was very i nteresti ng, all the students parti ci pated
-even those who were i nacti ve i n everyday class and wi th general
di stant of other activiti es of the general school li fe. The whol e
si tuati on was li vel y and students l earned whil e enjoyi ng
themsel ves. Words, phrases were learned easil y and remembered
for a l ong ti me after the acti vi ty.
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page 255 of 294
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2. Watch a movi e.
We sel ected a Bri ti sh TV seri es from the You-Tube. The teacher
prepared the essential words (l i ke compani on) used i n the 20
mi nute fi l m. We watched the movi e wi th Engl i sh subti tl es,
di scussed i t wi th some basi c and abstract questi ons to i gni te
conversati on of what i t was about, and then they had to read the
words at home. Duri ng the next cl ass we watched the movi e
agai n. We found that most of the students understood far more
than they di d the fi rst ti me and were abl e to communi cate
effecti vel y on the subject. They were acti vated; they asked and
were taught how to add subti tl es (techni cal ). Some sai d they wi ll
carry on watchi ng i t at home in teams or on thei r own. So thi s
acti vi ty and practi ce was not a oneti me thi ng but a practi ce that
they intend to carry on.
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3. Discuss current i ssues
We sel ected a subject on the news and found appropri ate rel evant
materi al on Engl i sh newspapers, on radi o and i f possi bl e on vi deo.
We formed a contract wi th the students to speak onl y i n Engl i sh.
We read it i n teams of four, where al l read the same pi ece of news.
Then each team presented i t to the others, l i stened to i t on the
radi o or watched a rel evant vi deo. Fi nal l y, there was a debate on i t
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wi th two teams maki ng speci fi c poi nts and tryi ng to oppose each
other. The debate questi ons were formed after di scussi on and 5
maxi mum were given to each team to support thei r vi ew. A
judgi ng team was formed composed by the teacher and two
students. Each one had to gi ve 10 poi nts maxi mum for each
questi on for the support of each questi on. The whol e thi ng was
made theatri cal l i ke a TV show so that students i ndul ge i n i t and
become acti vated. Thi s was a very successful activity, but as i t i s
ti me-consuming, it can be used 3 to 4 ti mes a year and on subjects
that the students are very i nterested i n.
Whil e teachi ng a second l anguage we shal l ai m to achi eve the
abi l i ty to communi cate. That means students shoul d be
encouraged to produce speech not onl y grammati call y correct but
al so appropriate for every si tuation/context. By si tuati on/context
we refer to the pl ace the peopl e are, the connecti ons between them
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and the subject they are tal ki ng about. In every si tuati on di fferent
l evel s of l anguage/speech are used dependi ng on the place and the
subject of the communi cati on taking pl ace. An i mportant aspect of
face to face communi cati on i s that the parti ci pants dont know the
reacti on of the other peopl e i n advance. A communi cati on acti vi ty
shoul d be based on a reason, the more real (authenti c) that reason
i s, the more successful the acti vi ty wil l be.
4. Real li fe acti vi ti es
That i s the reason we based our acti vi ti es on authentic situati ons
our students mi ght face. Mytil ene i s the capi tal of Lesvos, i t has a
port and an ai rport. From spri ng to autumn many touri sts vi si t
our i sl and. It i s very common for informati on especi all y regardi ng
streets and di recti ons to be asked. So, we practiced dial ogues on
aski ng and gi vi ng di recti ons ei ther usi ng a map i n the cl assroom
or goi ng outsi de to make i t more real . Vi sitors usual l y ask
i nformation about the food, so we l earned most of the cooki ng
i ngredi ents and cooki ng i nstructi ons. We tri ed them usi ng
skype with a school we cooperate wi thi n an eTwi nni ng project.
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We di d other acti vi ti es li ke wal ki ng around the town to see
speci fic attracti ons of our town and descri be them to each other, as
i f one was a touri st and the other the l ocal .
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In all the acti vi ti es students l earned whi l e enjoyi ng themselves.
Thank you al l
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To promote these acti vi ti es we created a poster.
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We eval uated the acti vi ti es by di scussi ng thei r resul ts wi th the
students and i f they woul d li ke to repeat them. At some poi nts
they suggested changes whi ch were tri ed and i ncl uded i n the
suggesti ons.
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Ottoman impacts on LESBOS ISLAND CIVILISATION
HISTORICAL ELEMENTS
by Strati s Anagnostou - hi stori an
For centuri es, many nati ons were l i ving under the regi me of
Ottoman Empi re, l i ke the Arabs, Armeni ans, Jews, Africans, Serbs,
Bul gari ans, Romani ans, Greeks. So, the Ottoman Empi re was a
mosai c of many l anguages. The offi cial l anguage was the
Ottoman, which was a mi xed l anguage wi th Turki sh, Arabi c and
Persi an words i n the Arabi c al phabet. Al l the nati ons were l i vi ng
separatel y mai nl y i n vil lages or di stricts. So, each nati on could
devel op hi s own language. But several Chri sti an communi ti es had
to communi cate wi th the offi cial state i n the Ottoman l anguage,
so, they l earned to speak the language fl uentl y. That was the mai n
reason, why a lot of Turkish words inserted the Greek language, a
part of them wi thout al terati ons. For exampl e the Turki sh word
duvar , meani ng wal l , i s used today i n the Greek l anguage as
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duvari and dol ap , meani ng cupboard, i mported in Greek as
dul api .
In the 19
th
century the Bal kan nati ons arrogated thei r
i ndependence. The Greek revol ution began i n 1821 and fi ni shed i n
1830. Thi s year the Greek state was establ i shed. From 1830 si nce
1922 Greece and Turkey were i nvol ved i n three wars. In 1912
duri ng the Bal kan wars our i sland, Lesbos or Myti l ene, was
occupi ed by the Greek naval forces and i n 1923 annexed offi ci al l y
wi th Greece, after the Treaty of Lausanne.
Thi s Treaty enforced the two countri es to exchange the two
mi nori ti es, the Chri sti an mi nority of Turkey and the Musl i m
minori ty of Greece. There were two exceptions: The Christian
mi nori ty of Istanbul , of Imbros Isl and and Tenedos Isl and and the
Musl i m mi nority of West Thrace. So, today i n Greece the onl y
recogni zed mi nori ty i s the Musl i m mi nori ty of West Thrace and
the same of the Dodecanese i sl ands, whi ch annexed i n Greece i n
1947, after Ital ys defeat i n the Worl d War II.
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Myti l ene was al ways a Greek i sland duri ng the anci ent, roman
and medi eval peri od. Duri ng the ottoman peri od (1462 -1912)
Musl i ms were al ways a minori ty. Especial l y i n the last years of the
19
th
century Musl i ms were onl y the 10% of the total popul ati on,
that i s 100.000 Greeks and 10.000 Turks.
For 450 years Greeks and Turks of Myti l ene l i ved together. As the
Ottoman Turki sh language was the offi cial language, a l ot of
words were l ent to the Greek language. Those words remai n si nce
today in our l anguage and especial l y i n vi l lages i di oms. Al most
all the vil lages of Lesbos l ocated in the mai n land, far from the sea
and the communi cati on among them was probl ematic. The onl y
way to communicate was through pathways, so animal s were
used for thi s reason. Thi s i sol ati on l ead to the creati on of many
l ocal i di oms. In these i di oms many Turki sh words survi ve until
today. Ol der peopl e i n the vil l ages speak i n those i di oms. The
offi cial Greek language has expul sed many Turki sh words and
repl aced them by Greek ones. The same tacti c was fol l owed i n the
name of some vi ll ages or areas. So the Musli m vi l lage of Bal ci k has
page 267 of 294
renamed i n Nees Kydoni es, i n honor of a former Greek town i n
the opposi te of Lesbos coast that is cal l ed today Ayval i k .
After the exchange of the popul ations i n 1923 the Turki sh-Musl i m
mi nori ty of Myti l ene was rel ocated i n Turkey and al most 2.000.000
Greek-Chri sti ans who were l i vi ng i n Asi a Mi nor came to Greece
and about 30.000 of them i nhabited i n Myti l ene. So, many Musl i m
monuments i n Greece and especi al l y i n Myti l ene were destroyed
and some mosques were transformed in churches. Many Christian
monuments i n Turkey had the same l uck.
In our vi si t i n Myti l ene and i n some vi l lages we wil l see some
Musli m monuments, mosques, hamams (publ ic baths), schools,
and tradi ti onal wooden ottoman houses. Today many Greek
surnames are Turki sh words, though people perhaps i gnore their
ori gi n.
Many Greeks and Turks, especially young people, desire the
conservati on of the Chri stian monuments of Turkey and the
Musl i m monuments i n Greece. They vi si t the bi rth land of thei r
page 268 of 294
grandfathers, try to create a new rel ati onshi p between the two
countri es. So some Musl i m monuments i n Lesbos are under
reconstructi on and some of them became museums or cul tural
centers.
Our target i s, as teachers, to educate our students to respect our
nei ghbors, thei r l anguage and thei r cul ture.
Turki sh world Greek world
(Lati n and Greek
al phabet)
Meani ng
duvar duvari (v+ouoi) wal l
dol ap dul api (v+ou\oi) cupboard
manav manavi s (ovoq,) greengrocer
bakkal bakali s (oio\q,) grocer
fi sti k fi sti ki (io+iii) peanuts
karpuz karpuzi (ioou(i) Water mel on
pazar pazari (o(oi) Market
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Loan words in Greek language
edi ted by Ari adne Di mi traka
Beyond al l di spute Greek ci vi l izati on, at l east duri ng the l ast
centuries, has got elements from both Eastern and Western
cul tures. Thi s i s a reali ty, which becomes obvi ous i n everyday l i fe
and behavi our of Greek peopl e as wel l as i n Modern Greek Art, i n
rel i gi on and i n a vari ety of other areas of activi ty.
However, substanti ati ng these evi dentl y di sti nct el ements
presupposes apart from research, deep knowledge of the cul tural
el ements comi ng from Western and Eastern ci vi l i zati ons, whi ch i s
not al ways feasi bl e.
One special el ement of cul ture, i n whi ch cul tural borrowi ngs can
be researched /exami ned, i s l anguage. The Greek l anguage has
been spoken by mil li ons of peopl e throughout more than 3
mi ll enni ums. Through thi s peri od speakers of the Greek language
have been in touch either as conquerors, (or) conquered, (or)
page 270 of 294
merchants, (or) i ntell ectuals or mere recipients of di versi ty, with
vari ous ci vi l izati ons both of West and East. So, as a matter of
course, the Greek l anguage was engrafted wi th el ements of the
other l anguages wi th whi ch its speakers have been and are still i n
touch.
Thi s phenomenon i s cal l ed Li ngui sti c borrowi ng. The same name
though, appl i es to the procedure through whi ch one li ngui sti c
el ement goes from the one l anguage to the other. Regardl ess of i ts
name, l i ngui sti c borrowi ng has been a natural way of enri chi ng
l anguage and i s sometimes the basi s for di fferenti ati on of styl e.
Li ngui sti c borrowi ng i nvol ves al l parts of l anguage, that i s
phonol ogi cal , morphol ogi cal , syntactic, semanti c and l exi cal i n
particular.
The Turki sh l anguage l oaned to the Greek a l ot of l i ngui sti c
el ements most of whi ch are today i ntegrated i nto Greek
phonol ogy and morphology.
page 271 of 294
In the fi el d of Phoneti cs there are some phonemes, especi al l y i n
dial ects of modern Greek, l i ke Ponti c Greek and Cappadocian. In
Ponti c Greek, aged speakers of the Greek l anguage mai ntai n the
cl ose back vowel and the cl ose front vowel of the Turki sh
l anguage as wel l as the order of the aspi rated cl ose consonants.
The same vowel phonemes exi st i n the Cappadocian and i n some
Cappadoci an i di oms the vowel harmony i s used.
In the fi el d of Morphol ogy the Turki sh l anguage l oaned to the
Greek certai n suffixes, some of which are still used i n Modern
Greek:
\q, (Turk. li /l i) e.g. oo\q, (sm who has got a l ot of money),
ouo+oio\q, (sm who has got a moustache)
+(q, ( Turk. ci/ ci ) e.g. +.v.i.+(q, (ti nsmi th), +oLi+(q, (taxi
dri ver) iou\ou+(q, (roll seller)
\iii ( Turk. l i k /l ik ) _o+(i\iii (pocket money), oooio\iii
(teachi ng, col l oquial usage), o.oi\iii (presi dency, col l oquial
usage)
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In the fi el d of Syntax, the i nfl uence of the Turki sh language was
al most tri fli ng, obvi ousl y because of the compl etel y di fferent
syntacti c structure of the two l anguages.
What the Greek l anguage borrowed from the Turki sh l anguage
are some phrases, the Greek version of which constitute set
phrases of modern Greek such as:
o(o o+o _.i : get hol d of
T_.+oi o+o i.o\i : come to my mi nd
Ho+qo. ooi:
T.iv. o+q .oq: fal l by the waysi de
ioio +o .\o ou: catch i t
In the fi el d of Vocabul ary Greek l oanwords from the Turki sh
l anguage are numerous. They mainl y bel ong to the fol l owi ng
categories:
cooki ng
cl othi ng & furni ture
objects of everyday use / usage
human
yio\ov+(i: stuffed vi ne l eaves wi thout mi nced meat
page 273 of 294
i.+.,: meatbal l
.(.,: snack
v+ov+ouo,:
ouyo+oo: cream fi ll ed pastry
i.o: kebab
yioio,: col lar
ooo,: sofa, couch
ooo: stove
+o.q: pocket
oyio\i: brazi er
v+iovi: di van, couch
\i+(ovi: cup
+ooioii: li ghter
iooii: cap
+oov+o: bag
iooovo,: brasshat
ovoq,: greengrocer
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ouooiq,: guest
v+oy\oo,:
+ooovo,: shepherd
v+ov+o: nanny
youoou(q,: ji nx
.iq,: drunkard
Last but not l east, a lot of Greek surnames are formed from words
of Turki sh ori gi n, l i ke Ko\o,<kal fa = apprenti ce tai l or,
`..q,<sefer= route, ouoouq,<bodur = small, short
page 275 of 294
The Roma People in Greece
edi ted by Ti mol eon Theofanel l i s
The Roma have l i ved i n the terri tory si nce fourteenth century. The
Romani l anguage of the European Roma carri es the traces of thei r
long sojourn i n Greece within its consi derable Greek vocabulary.
Throughout thei r hi story i n Greece, the Roma were regarded as
"al i ens of Gypsy descent," unti l i n the 1930's fi nal l y, a smal l group
of them, the by then Musl i m Roma, were gi ven Greek ci ti zenshi p.
In the 70's i t was rewarded al l Roma i n Greece. Sti l l , i t i s a very
di fficul t mi ssi on for many Roma to get offi cial documents due to
the hi gh i l li teracy rate. Otherwi se thei r becomi ng offi ci al l y Greek
ci ti zens has not made them more accepted by soci ety. Due to thei r
nomadi c nature of l i vi ng, they are not concentrated i n a speci fi c
geographi cal area, but are di spersed al l over the country. The
majori ty of the Greek Roma i s Orthodox Chri stians who speak the
Romani l anguage i n additi on to Greek.
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The Greek Government esti mates pl ace thei r number between
200,000 and 300,000. The Romani mi nori ty compri se around 3% of
the total Greek popul ati on. The exact number of Roma i n Greece i s
di fficul t to estimate si nce many of them are not regi stered.
The common names Greek peopl e use for the Roma are "tsi ngani"
(from the anci ent athi gganoi , a sect that the Gypsi es were ei ther
confused or connotated with), or, pejorativel y, "yi fti " (from egi ftos,
"Egyptian," al so a mi sunderstandi ng that devel oped when the
Roma who came to Europe were wrongl y bel i eved to have come
from Egypt).
The li vi ng condi ti ons of the di fferent Roma i n Greece vary a l ot.
Usuall y, Roma who have the means to trade wil l have better
condi ti ons, and have settl ed i n houses i n a communi ty al though
they mi ght l eave for work duri ng the summer season and then
stay in tents. Others wi ll be more conti nuousl y on the move, who
have el aborate trucks wi th stoves and wi ndows i n the back, and
ci rcul ate i n larger areas, i nstal l i ng themsel ves for some days to sel l
carpets, cl othes or al i ke on the market, and conti nui ng thei r
page 277 of 294
journey. Al so a few Roma wi l l be found tradi ng horses, doi ng
seasonal work i n the fi elds, and there are some Roma pl ayi ng
musi c, a few bi ndi ng baskets, and some women readi ng the coffee
and the pal m. The ones who are worst off are the Roma who are
referred to as "tent-dwel l i ng Roma," who li ve i n shantytowns
outsi de the towns, wi thout functi oni ng water suppl i es, sewage
systems, toil ets and el ectricity, lacking all basic i nfrastructures.
Thei r homes are barracks buil t from what they have found, on the
bare soi l that i s fl ooded when i t rai ns, and there i s sel dom any
road system. These "settlements" are almost without exception
hi dden well away from the publ i c eye, often si tuated on l ocati ons
di ffi cul t to reach by publ i c transport, and rarel y entered by a non-
Roma (a "bal amo") for other than professional reasons.
page 278 of 294
A barrack bui l t by a central road
Bi nded baskets sol d by Roma peopl e i n Myti l ene market.
page 279 of 294
Moste of the peopl e bel i eve that "they do not want to go to School "
and seem to beli eve that the si tuati on of the Roma is chosen out of
free wi l l , and concl ude that the "refusal " of educati on, work and
way of l i fe were some ki nd of expressi on for "not wanti ng to
partici pate" i n Greek soci ety, and thus experi ence i t as a deep
humi l i ati on of Greek val ues. There have been many efforts to
encourage roma to attend the Greek school system, but i t i s stil l
not successful. The last efforts i n 2010 were better but stil l there is
great i mprovement to be made.
Roma peopl e i n Greece are al so known for the zurna and davul
duos (anal ogous to the shawm and drum partnershi p common i n
Romani musi c) and Izmi r-i nfl uenced koumpanei a music.
Koumpanei a has l ong been popul ar among Greek Roma and Jews.
The Romani peopl e are also known for thei r great ski l l s i n bel l y-
danci ng (Tsi ftetel i ).
Even i f many Roma are bei ng accused of i ll egal activiti es, li ke gun
smuggl i ng and drug traffi cking, there are several exampl es of
page 280 of 294
Romani havi ng excel l ed or currentl y excel l i ng i n Greek stardom.
Some of the most promi nent Roma arti sts:
Manol i s Angel opoul os, a Greek si nger that gai ned the l ove and
respect of hi s col l eagues. Born i n Kaval a to Roma parents,
Aggel opoul os recorded hi s fi rst song i n 1957. Al ways proud of hi s
ori gi n, he gai ned popul ari ty during the 1960s si ngi ng about l ove
but al so topi cs l i ke Greek refugees and exoti c places.
Kostas Hatzi s, a famous gui tar pl ayer and si nger, who has been
recogni zed as a major arti st and i nnovati ve creator of soci al
songs. He l aunched the guitar-voi ce pattern i n Greece as wel l as
ballads carrying social messages.
Hel en (Lavi da) Vi tal i , consi dered one of the most i mportant
femal e voi ces of the past 20 years. She was born i n Athens, wi thi n
a musi cal l y i ncli ned fami l y, and grew up wanderi ng wi th her
parents.
Sources
page 281 of 294
http://en.wi ki pedi a.org/wi ki /Roma_i n_Greece
http://www.domresearchcenter.com/journal /16/greece6.html
http://greece.greekreporter.com/2012/03/19/the-greek-roma-the-soci al -
outcasts-and-the-stars/
http://edu.kl i maka.gr/l ei toyrgi a-sxol ei vn/anakoi nwsei s-l ei turgi a-
schol ei wn/946-eggrafh-schol ei o-pai di a-roma.html
Credits
Special thanks to the Engl i sh teacher Iouli a Mari na Sarantou for
her work, for offering her students and her enthousi asm.
Varvara Hatzogl ou for correcti ng the Engl i sh language and her
acti ve parti ci pati on whenever i t was needed.
page 282 of 294
Teacher Trainer office of Lesvos
Our rol e i s to support teachers i n the subjects they teach and on
pedagogi c i ssues of i nterest. We al so have a pedagogi cal rol e for 7
school s each. Encouragi ng teacher to try new techni ques and
support new l egi sl ati on and new di recti ves comi ng from the
mi ni stry. Apart from that we are open to any questi ons teachers
mi ght have. In order to do that we organi ze semi nars and do
research. We support Wi kipedi a enri chment, European programs
such as eTwi nni ng and other acti ons.
page 283 of 294
Our i nst i t ut i ons
Cepa Son Canal s i s an Adul t Educati on School whi ch provi des
formal and i nformal educati on as well as l ong di stance l earni ng. It
i s l ocated i n a di sadvantaged area wi th a l ot of i mmi grants comi ng
from South Ameri ca, the North of Afri ca, and Eastern European
countri es. The i nsti tuti on organizes i nformal educati onal courses
wi th stress on IT teachi ng, Engli sh, Catal an and Spani sh courses
for mi grants. In the past coupl e of years, the school has al so
organi zed a l ot of mul ti cul tural acti vi ti es: semi nars, workshops
and festival s to favour thei r i ntegrati on and to teach i mmi grants
the Catal an l anguage, the communi ty language and the offi ci al
one as well as the Spani sh l anguage. Teachi ng the l ocal language
i s a way to hel p them to be l i ngui sti call y qual i fi ed to carry out a
normal professi onal and soci al l i fe. Regardi ng, the European
di mensi on of the school , we have coordi nated a Grundtvi g
partnershi p from 2008 to 2010 and thi s experi ence has awoken our
i nterest i n European educati onal programmes.
page 284 of 294
The project coordi nator Magdal ena Bal l e Garci a has a BA i n
Engl i sh language and l i terature. She has taught Engl i sh and
German i n pri mary, secondary and adul t educati on. At present
she i s part of the school board of the CEPA (Centre dEducaci de
Persones Adul tes) Son Canal s in Pal ma, Mal l orca. She has taken
part i n several magazi ne and book arti cl es on TEFL. She i s the
coordi nator of the di dacti c magazi ne APABAL. She has al so
coordi nated di fferent European educati onal projects. She has
experi ence as a traini ng materi al devel oper and curri cul um
desi gner. She i s part of the offi ci al exam commi ssi on for the
proves l l i ures de graduat en secundri a for the Consel l eria
dEducaci del Govern Bal ear. She i s one of the foundi ng
members of APABAL (Associ ati on of Engl i sh Teachers of the
Bal earic Islands) and its publ ic sector representative. She i s co-
author of the book Del conte al portafol i mul ti cultural : un exempl e
de tasca competencial , which was awarded fi rst pri ze for the best
book by The Educati on Counci l of the Bal eari c Isl ands i n
November 2010.She i s co-author and author of other books on
di dactics: Medi a & Mul ti cul tural Educati on and Success i n
Uni versity access for over 25s.
page 285 of 294
The Lndl i che Erwachsenenbi l dung Pri gni tz-Havel l and e.V.
(LEB) was founded i n 1991 and i s active as educati on and project
carri er i n the rural area i n the northwest of Brandenburg and has 7
di fferent l ocati ons. Si nce i ts foundati on the LEB has devel oped
from an educati on carri er, whi ch was onl y acti ve i n fi el d of rural
educati on for adul ts and now has become an educati on partner
wi th vari ous busi ness acti vi ti es. As vari ous as wel l are the projects
to be conti nued, whi ch contai ns i n the educati on sector the
pri mary formati on of di sadvantageous young peopl e, trai ni ng and
l anguage courses, i ntegrati on measures, IT semi nars, vocati onal
traini ng and other semi nars or courses. The l earners of the
l anguage courses are i mmi grants from any East European and
other states. It al so organizes regi onal wi de i ntegrati on language
courses with professi onal ori entati on for young l earners, singl e
mothers and mi nori ty groups such as Russian peopl e. It means
ethnic German i mmi grants and thei r famil i es whi ch mother
tongue is Russian.
page 286 of 294
Vantaa Ci ty Li brary organi zes many acti vi ti es i n connecti on wi th
i mmi grants and minori ty groups. For i nstances, they organi ze
di scussi on cl ubs among i mmi grants (the greatest majori ty of
whom are women) of di fferent nati onal i ti es. They al so organi ze
di scussi on group courses, especially for Russi an and Somali an
speakers. Thei r mai n objecti ve i s for Fi nni sh peopl e to become
fami l iar wi th other cul tures and al so to gi ve an opportuni ty for
other peopl e to get to know about the exi stence of other l anguages
and cul tures. Moreover, they organi ze exhi bi ti ons of pai nti ngs,
books and presentati ons of ethni cal arti sts and ethnical cui si ne.
The ICT courses ai m to mai ntain thei r own culture, as well as
l earni ng about Fi nni sh cul ture and tradi ti ons.
Vi di novska Margarita was a Li brari an at Universi ty Li brary,
Vel i ko Tarnovo Uni versi ty/Bul gari a
Vel i ko Tarnovo Uni versi ty, Rector Secretary /Bul gari a
Transl ati on Offi ce "Intonati on"Acti vi ti es/Fi nl and
Li brari an, Vantaa Ci ty Li brary, Ti kkuri la Li brary, Informati ve
Department
Chi ef Li brarian, Vantaa Ci ty Li brary / Lnsi mki Li brary
page 287 of 294
Transl ati on & Interpretati on acti viti es
Uni on of Translators of Fi nl and, Member
Uni on of Transl ators of Bul gari an, Member
Her Educati on / Trai ni ng i s as fol lows:
1999 Hel sinki Uni versi ty, Facul ty of Phi l ol ogy, Fi nni sh,
Li terature and Culture of Fi nl and Subject, M,A (master of arts);
Second Subject: Sl avoni c Phi l ol ogy
2002 Li brary Informati cs, Uni versity of Oul u/Fi nl and
2005 Pal meni a Centre for Conti nui ng Educati on, Uni versi ty of
Hel si nki
The Sami sk utbi l dni nqscentrum i s an i nstituti on which has
organi zed courses and i s ai med at the spread of the Saami
educati on for adul ts si nce 1942. Thi s school has had a great i mpact
among the members of the Saami soci ety provi ding courses to
assi st thi s mi nori ty nati onal group. It focuses on the teachi ng of
Saami l anguage and provi des courses of cul ture, Saami handi craft
and Saami tradi ti ons based on acti vi ti es l i ke rei ndeer husbandry.
They al so i mpl ement post-compul sory secondary educati on i n the
Saami language. As far as the parti ci pati on i n the project i s
page 288 of 294
concerned, they wi l l approve some approaches i n the EFL cl asses
i n secondary school and thei r team of Saami teachers wi l l adapt
the sel ected approaches for the teachi ng-l earni ng of the Saami
l anguage. Wi th regard to the cul tural part, they are goi ng to
provi de i nformati on and materi al col l ected from thei r courses
(reindeer husbandry, handicrafts, literature etc.). They will also
keep i n contact wi th other Saami i nsti tuti ons i n Norway and
Fi nl and and they wi l l establi sh a network to col l ect i nformati on of
l i ngui sti c and cul tural aspects. This mi nori ty group has li ved si nce
ti me i mmemori al i n an area whi ch i s compri sed of four countri es.
A territory which spreads from Kola peninsula to Russia, the
north of Fi nl and, Norway, the northern coastl i ne and the i nl and
and the central part of Sweden. Thi s area i s cal l ed Laponi a but the
terri tory where they have al ways been li vi ng was ori gi nall y more
extensi ve. Consequentl y, the number of Saami s has decreased
consi derabl y i n the l ast years.
Col egi ul Nati onal Jean Monnet Pl oi esti is one of the most
important publi c school s (pri mary-secondary) in the Prahova
regi on (850.000 i nhabitants), whi ch provi des a source of nati onal
page 289 of 294
l i terature and cul ture as wel l as an i nn-servi ce centre. It provi des
pri mary and secondary l evel educati on to over 1.600 students.
Thi s vocati onal school faces a speci fi c chal l enge i n engagi ng and
moti vati ng these students to l earn i n a wel comi ng and supporti ve
environment. Most of our students are among the first 10% from
the pupi l s of thei r age regardi ng resul ts i n educati onal
competi ti ons. The i nstituti on al so hol ds trai ni ng acti vi ties for
teachers (semi nars, debates) - activi ti es to moti vate al l teachers i n
order to attract them i nto a conti nuous process of l earni ng. Our
school has partnershi ps wi th major cul tural i nsti tuti ons (taki ng
chi l dren to concerts, theatre performances, new book
presentati ons, hol i day camps, educati onal tri ps and so on) to
transform the l earni ng process i nto an enjoyabl e experi ence.
Col egi ul Nati onal Jean Monnet wi shes to devel op activiti es with
students through thi s project as a speci fi c ai m - i n order to be
connected to the l anguage, cul tural mani festati ons and ICT. They
use the nati onal AEL programme (compl ex software devel oped by
the Mi ni stry for Educati on Research and Innovati on) as a teachi ng
aid to prepare the lessons usi ng computers. Thi s project will give
us a chance to get to know the l argest communi ty of Romas
page 290 of 294
(gypsi es) i n Europe, whi ch i s establi shed i n Romania; to get to
know i ts cul tural mani festati ons and oral language and to try to
col l ect some oral records of thi s l anguage whi ch has not been
normali zed. Getti ng to know di fferent mi nori ty groups, especi al l y
those excl uded, i s a way to bui l d intercul tural bri dges. The rol e of
the school i n the project i s to parti ci pate i n speci fic acti vi ti es: the
school representati ves wi l l parti ci pate i n the mobi l i ti es; i n a
trai ni ng event and i n the presentati on of l esson and extra-l esson
acti vi ti es of the l anguage conference i n front of the partners etc.
prof . Dani el a I ONESCU i s a Teacher trainer, member of the staff
of the In Service Teacher Trai ning Center of Prahova county.
Extensi ve worki ng experi ence i n the fi el d i nformati cs and
i nformati on technol ogy: responsi bl e teacher /consul tant for
teachi ng courses ICT and for AEL (e-l earni ng pl atform, compl ex
/compl ete training sol uti on, created for the Romani an educati onal
system). Incl uded in the formati on of new competences for
student-teachers usi ng the ICT i n the cl assroom. Expert for the
access of i nternet educati onal resources for di dacti cal content.
Educati on and Trai ni ng detai l s:
page 291 of 294
2006: Master degree i n Management and strategy for a European
admi ni strati on, Universi ty Petrol yum-Gas, Pl oi esti
2001: Li centi ate i n mathemati cs and i nformati cs, Transi l vania
Uni versity Brasov
The school advi sors of f i ce of North Aegean i s a teacher trai ni ng
center for secondary school teachers. The responsi bil ity of the
members i s to trai n teachers on pedagogical issues and on
di fferent subjects. Each member has a speci fic subject, Physi cs,
Greek, Computer Sci ence, etc. They al so attend and make
presentati ons and conferences both on pedagogi cal i ssues and
based on subjects. Regardi ng the project, they wil l exchange i deas
and i nformati on wi th the rest of thei r partners and i nteract with
them. Apart from that, they wi l l el aborate onl i ne surveys to create
i deas from teachers and trai ners i n general and they wi l l al so l earn
to use the web as an interacti ng tool . They wi ll pl ay an active rol e
i n the defence of mi nori ty l anguages and NGOs related to the
protecti on of mi nori ty groups. They wil l organi ze semi nars,
courses for teachers and supervi se them in thei r lessons, making
comments and suggesti ons about thei r teachi ng.
page 292 of 294
Ti mol eon Theof anel l i s is a teacher trainer for computer sci ence
teachers of the north Aegean sea i sl ands si nce 2004. Before that he
was headmaster of the adul t second chance school of Myti l ene.
Hi s current i nterests li e on the use of web 2.0 tool s, on l ine
teachi ng and l eari ng, Li nux/Ubuntu, freeware and educati onal
uses of them. He has a fi rst degree i n Physi cs (Uni versi ty of
Thessal oni ki ), an M.Sc. i n Computer Sci ence (Uni versi ty of York,
Engl and), an M.Ed. i n School Management (Uni versi ty of the
Aegean, Rhodes) and a Ph.D. i n Bi oInformati cs (Uni versi ty of the
Aegean, Myti l ene).
page 293 of 294
Epi l ogue
Every l anguage i n the worl d i s a val uabl e treasure. Each European l anguage
i s part of the mosai c of a uni que cul tural heri tage. The l anguages are much
more than a code of si gns. They are a mi rror of each nati on's uni que
percepti on of real i ty. The fact that a l anguage exti ncti on and the
di sappearance means an i rreparabl e l oss of our heri tage encourages us to
work hand i n hand . The tool s we present i n thi s manual may be used to
teach the most i nternati onal l anguage i n the worl d but al so l anguages
whi ch count just on oral tradi ti on.
The countri es of the di fferent European teams who have parti ci pated i n thi s
project are i n some cases monol i ngual but for di fferent ci rcumstances
(i mmi grati on, presence of di fferent cul tures on a terri tory, hegemony of
i nternati onal l anguages), need to foster the teachi ng and l earni ng of
mul ti pl e l anguages.
As coordi nator of the project I woul d l i ke to thank al l the teams for the
effort and the ti me devoted to thi s project. Fi nal l y, I woul d l i ke to hi ghl i ght
the great support recei ved by Theofanel l i s Ti mos on the creati on of the
di gi tal book.
page 294 of 294
Balle Garcia Magdalena
This book consists of a description of minorities
in all the participating countries. We describe
the history, the language, the life and the
culture. Finally we suggest of ways to improve
the whole situation of the minorities. Hope it
will help others who share the same problems and
anxieties