N10-004

CERTIFICACIÓN DE NETWORK PLUS

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Contents
Articles
Network Plus Certification Introduction Objectives Technologies Common Protocols Common Ports Addressing Formats Addressing Methods Routing Protocols Routing Properties Wireless Cables Connectors Physical Topologies Wiring Standards Wide Area Networks Local Area Networks Logical Topologies Wiring Distribution Common Devices Specialized Devices Advanced Switching Wireless OSI Model Documentation Types Documentation Implementation Performance Monitoring Performance Optimization Troubleshooting Methodology Connectivity Issues Command Line Tools Software Tools Hardware Tools Security Devices 1 2 3 16 16 17 18 19 20 21 21 22 28 31 33 36 38 41 42 44 49 50 50 50 51 51 52 52 53 54 55 56 56 59

Firewalling Access Security User Authentication Device Security Threat Mitigation Memory Aids

60 61 62 63 64 65

References
Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 66 67

Article Licenses
License 69

comptia. basic design principles. describe networking technologies. and other corporations such as Novell. The CompTIA Network+ and A+ exams can be applied together toward the Microsoft Certified Systems Administrator (MCSA) program. install. operate and configure basic network infrastructure. The Network+ certification is an internationally recognized validation of the technical knowledge required of foundation-level IT network practitioners. The Network+ certification ensures that the successful candidate has the important knowledge and skills necessary to manage. troubleshoot. Book contents • Introduction • Exam Objectives • • • • • • • Domain 1: Network Technologies Domain 2: Network Media and Topologies Domain 3: Network Devices Domain 4: Network Management Domain 5: Network Tools Domain 6: Network Security Appendix A: Memory Aids Resources Related Wikibooks • • • • • A+ Certification CCNA Certification Communication Networks FOSS: Network Infrastructure and Security Wireless Home Network Basics External links • Official CompTIA Network+ Certification Site [1] References [1] http:/ / certification.Network Plus Certification 1 Network Plus Certification This wikibook discusses the information necessary to obtain the CompTIA Network+ certification. and adhere to wiring standards and use testing tools. org/ network/ . maintain. Cisco and HP also recognize CompTIA Network+ as part of their certification tracks. Although not a prerequisite. it is recommended that CompTIA Network+ candidates have at least nine months of experience in network support or administration or adequate academic training. along with a CompTIA A+ certification.

as well as know what to do in a given situation. In fact. Network Devices . The COMPTIA website has more details. you should pass. Two. a study guide with a collection of links to articles in Wikipedia and the most relevant information summarized for each concept. Basically. and have knowledge of the standards used for communication within a network and between networks. but gaining in popularity. but rather a few introductory pages and. and troubleshoot network problems as they arise. and for those who took it before January 1st. but that doesn't really mean what you think it means: some questions are worth more than others. more importantly. The test is available in English. which should be plenty if you are fully prepared. if you know your hardware and software. Minimum passing score is 720 on a scale of 100-900. but expanded with more information and explanation.) It has 100 multiple-choice "situational and identification" questions. and how a network can be implemented via wireless technologies. but the only prerequisite for taking the exam is paying the exam fee ($240 US). It's recommended by CompTIA that you already have an A+ Certification under your belt and at least nine months networking experience. it never expires. While the A+ certification is definitely an industry standard and a prerequisite for many jobs. German. a network administrator of a local area network. Structure of this Wikibook This "book" is not a "book" per se. Exam overview The objectives of the Network+ exam are broken down into 6 categories: Network Technologies Understand the protocols used over a network and the ports they use. Having an A+ and Network+ Certification should mean that you are fully capable of being an on-site technical support person. You are given 90 minutes to take the exam. a person interested in this "book" is one that wants to take and pass the Network+ Exam. A Network+ Certified tech should be able to make recommendations for installing or expanding a network. or a valuable asset to an enterprise-level networking team. say.Introduction 2 Introduction The Network+ Exam is just one exam. Japanese and Korean. but not exactly be running it. allowing them to quickly review concepts just before the exam or delve into the details of anything not immediately familiar. the addressing systems used on a network. document and perform preventative maintenance on a network. understand the various manners in which a network can be physically laid out. Scope of this Wikibook The scope of this book is to provide a solid foundation for network administration. and this method may be better suited to them than a traditional book. and match its scope. the finished product should look like the official CompTIA Network+ exam objectives. The reason for this is twofold: there is no need to "re-invent the wheel" when there are so many great articles that serve the purpose of explaining. 2011. the OSI model. (Those taking the test after that date must either retake it at a set interval or submit proof of their continuing education in networking. The goals of the Network+ Certification is to ensure that employers hire people who will not need to be trained in network fundamentals before being hired. It should include all of the information that is needed to pass the CompTIA Network+ Exam. Network Media and Topologies Identify cables and connectors used to network computers together. the Network+ is less so.

other examples of technologies. software. 3 Objectives Domain Network Technologies Network Media and Topologies Network Devices Network Management Network Tools Network Security Total % of Examination 20% 20% 17% 20% 12% 11% 100% These objectives are up to date for the 2009 edition of the CompTIA Network+ exam. describe networking technologies. and configuration. the need for proper network documentation. basic design principles. the process of troubleshooting network problems. maintain. operate and configure basic network infrastructure. Note: The bulleted lists below each objective are not exhaustive lists. installation. testing. or tasks pertaining to each objective may also be included on the exam. The Network+ certification ensures that the successful candidate has the important knowledge and skills necessary to manage. Network Management Understand the different conceptual layers in the networking model. The table to the right lists the domains measured by this examination and the extent to which they are represented. troubleshoot. The skills and knowledge measured by this examination were derived from an industry-wide job task analysis and validated through an industry-wide global survey in Q2 2008.Introduction Differentiate between the various devices used on a network and understand their function. Network Security Know what hardware devices. and adhere to wiring standards and use testing tools. processes. and policies will ensure the security of the data and devices on a network and be aware of the corresponding threats they are designed to guard against. software. Have deeper knowledge of the functions of a switch and the factors to consider when setting up a wireless network. and hardware tools available for installation. Have knowledge of the methods users can use to securely access a network and how their identities can be verified before granting access in the first place. . install. The results of this survey were used in weighing the domains and ensuring that the weighting is representative of the relative importance of the content. Even though they are not included in this document. Network Tools Be aware of the command line. and the options for increasing network performance. and troubleshooting networks. Network+ exams are based on these objectives.

SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) 53 .NTP (Network Time Protocol) 143 .HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) UDP (User Datagram Protocol) ports: • 53 .20% Explain the function of common networking protocols: Objective 1.VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) .2 TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) ports: • • • • • • • • • • • 20 .DNS (Domain Name System) • 67 .POP3 (Post Office Protocol version 3) 123 .BOOTPS/DHCP (Bootstrap Protocol/Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) • 69 .TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) .DNS (Domain Name System) 80 .SSH (Secure Shell) 23 .Objectives 4 Network Technologies .FTP (File Transfer Protocol) 22 .VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) SNMP2/3 (Simple Network Management Protocol version 2 or 3) SSH (Secure Shell) TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) suite Telnet TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) TLS (Transport Layer Security) UDP (User Datagram Protocol) Identify commonly used TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol) default ports: Objective 1.Telnet 25 .1 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) DNS (Domain Name System) FTP (File Transfer Protocol) HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) IMAP4 (Internet Message Access Protocol version 4) NTP (Network Time Protocol) POP3 (Post Office Protocol version 3) RTP (Real-time Transport Protocol) .IMAP4 (Internet Message Access Protocol version 4) 443 .FTP (File Transfer Protocol) 21 .HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) 110 .

g.4 Addressing Technologies: • • • • Subnetting Classful vs.static. CIDR (Classless Inter-Domain Routing).5 Link state: • OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) • IS-IS (Intermediate System . Supernetting NAT (Network Address Translation) PAT (Port Address Translation) • SNAT (Static Network Address Translation) • Public vs. dynamic APIPA (Automatic Private Internet Protocol Addressing) Addressing schemes: • Unicast • Multicast • Broadcast Identify common IPv4 (Internet Protocol version 4) and IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6) routing protocols: Objective 1.SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) 5 Identify the following address formats: Objective 1.3 • IPv4 (Internet Protocol version 4) • IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6) • MAC (Media Access Control) addressing Given a scenario.Objectives • 161 .e. private • DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) . evaluate the proper use of the following addressing technologies and addressing schemes: Objective 1.Intermediate System) Distance vector: • RIP (Routing Information Protocol) • RIPv2 (Routing Information Protocol version 2) • BGP (Border Gateway Protocol) Hybrid: • EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol) . classless .

EMI (Electromagnetic Interference) Frequency .7 802. Non-plenum Properties: • • • • • Transmission speeds Distance Duplex Noise immunity .20% Categorize standard cable types and their properties: Objective 2.Objectives 6 Explain the purpose and properties of routing: Objective 1. and 6 STP (Shielded Twisted Pair).11 a/b/g/n: • • • • Speeds Distance Channels Frequency Authentication and encryption: • • • • WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial In User Service) TKIP (Temporal Key Integrity Protocol) Network Media and Topologies . UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) Multimode fiber.1 Type: • • • • Category 3. 5. EGP (Exterior Gateway Protocol) Static vs.6 • • • • • IGP (Interior Gateway Protocol) vs. dynamic Next hop Understanding routing tables and how they pertain to path selection Explain convergence (steady state) Compare the characteristics of wireless communication standards: Objective 1. 5e. single-mode fiber Coaxial • RG-59 • RG-6 • Serial • Plenum vs.security.

differentiate and implement appropriate wiring standards: Objective 2.2 • • • • • • • RJ-11 (Registered Jack 11) RJ-45 (Registered Jack 45) BNC (Bayonet Neill-Concelman) SC (Subscriber Connector or Standard Connector or Siemon Connector) ST (Straight Tip) LC (Local Connector) RS-232 (Recommended Standard 232) Identify common physical network topologies: Objective 2.5 Type: • • • • • • • • • • Frame relay E1/T1 (E-Carrier Level 1/T-Carrier Level 1) E3/T3 (E-Carrier Level 3/T-Carrier Level 3) ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) SDSL (Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line) VDSL (Very High Bitrate Digital Subscriber Line) Cable modem Satellite OC-x (Optical Carrier) Wireless • ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) • SONET (Synchronous Optical Networking) • MPLS (Multiprotocol Label Switching) .4 • • • • • 568A 568B Straight vs.3 • Star • Mesh • Bus • • • • Ring Point to point Point to multipoint Hybrid Given a scenario.Objectives 7 Identify common connector types: Objective 2. crossover Rollover Loopback Categorize WAN technology types and properties: Objective 2.

6 Types: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Ethernet 10BaseT 100BaseTX 100BaseFX 1000BaseT 1000BaseX 10GBaseT 10GBaseSR 10GBaseLR 10GBaseER 10GBaseSW 10GBaseLW 10GBaseEW Properties: • • • • • • CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) Broadcast Collision Bonding Speed Distance Explain common logical network topologies and their characteristics: Objective 2.Objectives • • • • ISDN BRI (Integrated Services Digital Network Basic Rate Interface) ISDN PRI (Integrated Services Digital Network Primary Rate Interface) POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service) PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) 8 Properties: • • • • • Circuit switch Packet switch Speed Transmission media Distance Categorize LAN technology types and properties: Objective 2.7 • • • • Peer to peer Client/server VPN (Virtual Private Network) VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) .

Objectives 9 Install components of wiring distribution: Objective 2.17% Install. configure.8 • • • • • • • • • • • • • Vertical and horizontal cross connects Patch panels 66 block 110 block MDFs (Main Distribution Frames) IDFs (Intermediate Distribution Frames) 25 pair 100 pair Demarc Demarc extension Smart jack Verify wiring installation Verify wiring termination Network Devices .2 • • • • • • • Multilayer switch Content switch IDS/IPS (Intrusion Detection System/Intrusion Prevention System) Load balancer Multifunction network devices DNS (Domain Name System) server Bandwidth shaper • Proxy server • CSU/DSU (Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit) . and differentiate between common network devices: Objective 3.1 • • • • • • • • • • • Hub Repeater Modem NIC (Network Interface Card) Media converters Basic switch Bridge Wireless access point Basic router Basic firewall Basic DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) server Identify the functions of specialized network devices: Objective 3.

4 • Install client • Access point placement • Install access point • Configure appropriate encryption • Configure channels and frequencies • Set ESSID (Enhanced Service Set Identifier) and beacon • Verify installation Network Management . 3. procedures. 7.2 • • • • • Wiring schematics Physical and logical network diagrams Baselines Policies.3 • • • • • • PoE (Power over Ethernet) Spanning tree VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) Trunking Port mirroring Port authentication Implement a basic wireless network: Objective 3. 2. 6. 4.Objectives 10 Explain the advanced features of a switch: Objective 3.1 1. 5.20% Explain the function of each layer of the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) model: Objective 4. and configurations Regulations . Physical Data Link Network Transport Session Presentation Application Identify types of configuration management documentation: Objective 4.

policies and procedures. implement the following network troubleshooting methodology: Objective 4. history logs. physical and logical network diagrams. and configurations to network devices and infrastructure • Update wiring schematics. baselines. 6. 4. evaluate the network based on configuration management documentation: Objective 4.4 • Network monitoring utilities (e.5 Methods: • • • • • • QoS (Quality of Service) Traffic shaping Load balancing High availability Caching engines Fault tolerance Reasons: • Latency sensitivity • High bandwidth applications • VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) • Video applications • Uptime Given a scenario. 3. 2. event logs Explain different methods and rationales for network performance optimization: Objective 4. 9.3 • Compare wiring schematics. 7. packet sniffers. 8.identify symptoms and problems Identify the affected areas of the network Determine if anything has changed Establish the most probable cause Determine if escalation is necessary Create an action plan and solution identifying potential effects Implement and test the solution Identify the results and effects of the solution Document the solution and the entire process . and job logs as needed Conduct network monitoring to identify performance and connectivity issues using the following: Objective 4.Objectives 11 Given a scenario.6 1. load testing.g. connectivity software. Information gathering . throughput testers) • System logs. 5. physical and logical network diagrams. configurations.

Objectives 12 Given a scenario.11 a/b/g/n) Distance Bounce Incorrect antenna placement .7 Physical issues: • • • • • • • Crosstalk Near End crosstalk Attenuation Collisions Shorts Open impedance mismatch (echo) Interference Logical issues: • • • • • • • Port speed Port duplex mismatch Incorrect VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) Incorrect IP (Internet Protocol) address Wrong gateway Wrong DNS (Domain Name System) server Wrong subnet mask Issues that should be identified but escalated: • • • • • Switching loop Routing loop Route problems Proxy arp Broadcast storms Wireless issues: • • • • • • • • • Interference (bleed. troubleshoot common connectivity issues and select an appropriate solution: Objective 4. environmental factors) Incorrect encryption Incorrect channel Incorrect frequency ESSID (Enhanced Service Set Identifier) mismatch Standard mismatch (802.

3 • • • • • • • • • • • • • Cable testers Protocol analyzer Certifiers TDR (Time-domain Reflectometer) OTDR (Optical Time-domain Reflectometer) Multimeter Toner probe Butt set Punch down tool Cable stripper Snips Voltage event recorder Temperature monitor .12% Given a scenario.1 • • • • • • • • • • traceroute ipconfig ifconfig ping arping arp nslookup hostname dig mtr • route • nbtstat • netstat Explain the purpose of network scanners: Objective 5. select the appropriate command line interface tool and interpret the output to verify functionality: Objective 5.2 • • • • Packet sniffers Intrusion detection software Intrusion prevention software Port scanners Given a scenario. utilize the appropriate hardware tools: Objective 5.Objectives 13 Network Tools .

3 • ACL (Access Control List) • MAC (Media Access Control) filtering • IP (Internet Protocol) address filtering • Tunneling and encryption • SSL VPN (Secure Sockets Layer Virtual Private Network) • VPN (Virtual Private Network) • L2TP (Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol) • PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) • IPSEC (Internet Protocol Security) • Remote access • • • • • • RAS (Remote Access Service) RDP (Remote Desktop Protocol) PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet) PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) VNC (Virtual Network Computing) ICA (Independent Computing Architecture) .2 • • • • • • Application layer vs. network layer Stateful vs. stateless Scanning services Content filtering Signature identification Zones Explain the methods of network access security: Objective 6.Objectives 14 Network Security .1 • • • • • Network-based firewall Host-based firewall IDS (Intrusion Detection System) IPS (Intrusion Prevention System) VPN (Virtual Private Network) concentrator Explain common features of a firewall: Objective 6.11% Explain the function of hardware and software security devices: Objective 6.

HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure). SFTP (Secure File Transfer Protocol).4 • PKI (Public Key Infrastructure) • Kerberos • AAA (Authentication. and Accounting) • RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial In User Service) • TACACS+ (Terminal Access Control Access Control System+) • Network access control • 802. Authorization.Objectives 15 Explain methods of user authentication: Objective 6. SNMPv3 (Simple Network Management Protocol version 3). SCP (Secure Copy Protocol) • Telnet. RSH (Remote Shell). RCP (Remote Copy Protocol). HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol).6 Security threats: • • • • • • • • DoS (Denial of Service) Viruses Worms Attackers Man in the middle Smurf Rogue access points Social engineering (phishing) Mitigation techniques: • Policies and procedures • User training • Patches and updates .5 • Physical security • Restricting local and remote access • Secure methods vs. SNMPv1/2 (Simple Network Management Protocol version 1 or 2) Identify common security threats and mitigation techniques: Objective 6. unsecure methods • SSH (Secure Shell). FTP (File Transfer Protocol).1x • CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol) • MS-CHAP (Microsoft Handshake Authentication Protocol) • EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) Explain issues that affect device security: Objective 6.

and what to do next Termination of the session and or connection. At the top of the hierarchy. a protocol is a convention or standard that controls or enables the connection. or the existence of the other endpoint or node Handshaking (dynamically setting parameters of a communications channel) Negotiation of various connection characteristics How to start and end a message How to format a message What to do with corrupted or improperly formatted messages (error correction) How to detect unexpected loss of the connection. and the Application Layer. From lowest to highest.1: Common Protocols Objective 1. Protocols may be implemented by hardware. a protocol can be defined as the rules governing the syntax. communication. The TCP/IP model consists of four layers. See the below sections for details on each protocol. Each layer solves a set of problems involving the transmission of data. the Internet Layer. TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) suite The Internet Protocol Suite (commonly known as TCP/IP) is the set of communications protocols used for the Internet and other similar networks. The Internet Protocol Suite. and provides a well-defined service to the upper layer protocols based on using services from some lower layers. At the lowest level. Upper layers are logically closer to the user and deal with more abstract data. semantics. . may be viewed as a set of layers.5: Routing Protocols Objective 1.1: Explain the function of common networking protocols In computing.3: Addressing Formats Objective 1. a protocol defines the behavior of a hardware connection. or a combination of the two.2: Common Ports Objective 1.6: Routing Properties Objective 1. OSI's Application Layer.7: Wireless Common Protocols Objective 1. • • • • • • • Objective 1. The following table provides some examples of the protocols grouped in their respective layers.4: Addressing Methods Objective 1. like many protocol suites. The Internet Layer is usually directly mapped to the OSI's Network Layer. and synchronization of communication. The mapping results in the TCP/IP Link Layer corresponding to the OSI Data Link and Physical layers in terms of functionality. most specify one or more of the following properties: • • • • • • • • Detection of the underlying physical connection (wired or wireless). relying on lower layer protocols to translate data into forms that can eventually be physically transmitted. While protocols can vary greatly in purpose and sophistication. In its simplest form. Some have attempted to map the Internet Protocol model onto the seven-layer OSI Model. these are the Link Layer. and Session Layer are collapsed into TCP/IP's Application Layer. the Transport Layer. software.Technologies 16 Technologies The Network Technologies Domain consists of 20% of the CompTIA Network+ exam. and data transfer between computing endpoints. Presentation Layer. the Transport Layer is always mapped directly into the OSI Layer 4 of the same name.

RTP TCP. TLS/SSL. SSH. IMAP4. SNMP. Telnet. IPv6).1: Common Protocols for information on the protocols that communicate using these ports. ICMP. POP3.Common Protocols 17 Application Transport Internet Link DNS. IGMP ARP Common Ports Objective 1. HTTP. TFTP. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) ports Port 20 21 22 23 25 53 80 110 123 143 443 Protocol FTP (File Transfer Protocol) FTP (File Transfer Protocol) SSH (Secure Shell) Telnet SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) DNS (Domain Name System) HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) POP3 (Post Office Protocol version 3) NTP (Network Time Protocol) IMAP4 (Internet Message Access Protocol version 4) HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) UDP (User Datagram Protocol) ports Port 53 67 69 161 DNS (Domain Name System) BOOTPS/DHCP (Bootstrap Protocol/Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) Protocol . SMTP. FTP. UDP IP (IPv4. SIP.2: Identify commonly used TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol) default ports See Objective 1.

IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6) An illustration of an IP address (version 6). in both dot-decimal notation and binary.Addressing Formats 18 Addressing Formats Objective 1. .3: Identify the following address formats IPv4 (Internet Protocol version 4) An illustration of an IP address (version 4). in hexadecimal and binary.

4: Given a scenario. evaluate the proper use of the following addressing technologies and addressing schemes Addressing Technologies Subnetting Addressing schemes .Addressing Formats 19 MAC (Media Access Control) addressing Addressing Methods Objective 1.

Addressing Methods

20

Addressing Schemes

Unicast

Multicast

Broadcast

Routing Protocols
Objective 1.5: Identify common IPv4 (Internet Protocol version 4) and IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6) routing protocols

Link state Distance vector Hybrid

Routing Properties

21

Routing Properties
Objective 1.6: Explain the purpose and properties of routing

Wireless
Objective 1.7: Compare the characteristics of wireless communication standards

IEEE 802.11
802.11a Speed Distance Channels Frequency 802.11b 802.11g 802.11n 600 Mbit/s

54 Mbit/s 11 Mbit/s 54 Mbit/s

35 meters 38 meters 100 meters 300 meters 24 5 GHz 11 2.4 GHz 11 2.4 GHz 24 2.4/5 GHz

Authentication and encryption
WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access)
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA and WPA2) is a class of systems to secure wireless (Wi-Fi) computer networks. It was created in response to several serious weaknesses researchers had found in the previous system, Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP). WPA implements the majority of the IEEE 802.11i standard, and was intended as an intermediate measure to take the place of WEP while 802.11i was prepared. WPA is designed to work with all wireless network interface cards, but not necessarily with first generation wireless access points. WPA2 implements the full standard, but will not work with some older network cards. Both provide good security, with two significant issues: 1) Either WPA or WPA2 must be enabled and chosen in preference to WEP. WEP is usually presented as the first security choice in most installation instructions. 2) In the "Personal" mode, the most likely choice for homes and small offices, a passphrase is required that, for full security, must be longer than the typical 6 to 8 character passwords users are taught to employ.

Wireless

22

WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy)
Wired Equivalent Privacy or Wireless Encryption Protocol (WEP) is a scheme to secure IEEE 802.11 wireless networks. It is part of the IEEE 802.11 wireless networking standard. Because wireless networks broadcast messages using radio, they are susceptible to eavesdropping. WEP was intended to provide confidentiality comparable to that of a traditional wired network. Several serious weaknesses were identified by cryptanalysts; a WEP connection can be cracked with readily available software in one minute or less. WEP was superseded by Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) in 2003, followed by the full IEEE 802.11i standard (also known as WPA2) in 2004. Despite its weaknesses, WEP provides a level of security that may deter casual snooping.

RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial In User Service)
Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS) is an AAA (authentication, authorization and accounting) protocol for applications such as network access or IP mobility. It is intended to work in both local and roaming situations. See Objective 6.4: User Authentication for more information.

Roaming using a proxy RADIUS AAA server.

Cables
Objective 2.1: Categorize standard cable types and their properties

Category 3
Part of a family of copper cabling standards defined jointly by the Electronic Industries Alliance and the Telecommunications Industry Association. Category 3 was a popular cabling format among computer network administrators in the early 1990s, but fell out of popularity in favor of the very similar, but higher performing, Category 5 standard. Cat 3 is currently still in use in two-line telephone systems, and can easily be adapted to run Voice over Internet Protocol (as long as a dedicated local area network for the telephones is created). • Transmission speed: up to 10 Mbit/s • Distance: 100 meters • Duplex (two-way communication): Full if point-to-point (see Objective 2.3) • Noise immunity: Good if STP (Shielded Twisted Pair), Poor if UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) - see below

• • • • • Transmission speed: up to 10 Gbit/s Distance: 100 meters Duplex: Full if point-to-point (see Objective 2. Poor if UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) . Category 5e cable is an enhanced version of Category 5 that adds specifications for far end crosstalk.see below Frequency: 100 MHz Category 5e Part of a family of copper cabling standards defined jointly by the Electronic Industries Alliance and the Telecommunications Industry Association.3) Noise immunity: Good if STP (Shielded Twisted Pair).see below Frequency: 250 MHz (500 MHz for Category 6a) . Poor if UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) .see below Frequency: 350 MHz Category 6 Part of a family of copper cabling standards defined jointly by the Electronic Industries Alliance and the Telecommunications Industry Association. • • • • • Transmission speed: up to 100 Mbit/s Distance: 100 meters Duplex: Full if point-to-point (see Objective 2. Poor if UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) . Category 6 features more stringent specifications for crosstalk and system noise than Category 5e.3) Noise immunity: Good if STP (Shielded Twisted Pair). This use of balanced lines helps preserve a high signal-to-noise ratio despite interference from both external sources and other pairs (this latter form of interference is called crosstalk). Category 5 cable includes four twisted pairs in a single cable jacket.Cables • Frequency: 16 MHz 23 Category 5 Part of a family of copper cabling standards defined jointly by the Electronic Industries Alliance and the Telecommunications Industry Association.3) Noise immunity: Good if STP (Shielded Twisted Pair). • • • • • Transmission speed: up to 1000 Mbit/s (also known as 1 Gbit/s) Distance: 100 meters Duplex: Full if point-to-point (see Objective 2.

Cables 24 UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) Eight copper wires twisted into four color-coded pairs and then wound inside a jacket to reduce crosstalk. STP cable format . Unshielded Twisted Pair UTP cable format STP (Shielded Twisted Pair) Eight copper wires twisted into four color-coded pairs and then wound inside a shield of wire mesh to prevent electromagnetic interference.

More than one signal can be transmitted at a time by bouncing the light off of the walls of the core because of the size of its core. as the tolerances required over shorter distances allow for the use of plastic. Distance 100 Mbit/s 2 kilometers 1 Gbit/s 10 Gbit/s 550 meters 300 meters • Duplex: Full (one fiber each direction) • Noise immunity: not susceptible to electromagnetic interference . greater than 10 microns.Cables 25 Shielded Twisted Pair Multimode fiber In fiber-optic communication. such as within a building or on a campus. a multimode fiber is a type of optical fiber mostly used for communication over shorter distances. The shorter distance also allows for the use of a laser or a less expensive LED (light emitting diode) as the source of light traveling through the fiber. Speed The propagation of light through a multi-mode optical fiber. It can be made of glass or plastic.

Its core measures 8-10 microns and allows for less dispersion of light than multimode fiber. A: outer plastic sheath B: copper braid shield C: inner dielectric insulator D: copper core .8 m). RG-59 coaxial cable is commonly packed-in with consumer equipment. Jacket: 400 µm dia. a single-mode optical fiber (SMF) is an optical fiber designed to carry only a single ray of light (mode) over a great distance. However. Cladding: 125 µm dia. Its high-frequency losses are too great to allow its use over long distances. given the short lengths provided (usually 4-6 feet / 1. RG-6 (see below) is used instead. A section of RG-59 cable with its end stripped. such as VCRs or digital cable/satellite receivers.2-1.Cables 26 Single-mode fiber In fiber-optic communication. It requires the use of a laser in order to reach long distances at high speeds. Buffer: 250 µm dia. 3. 1. this is generally sufficient for its typical use. often used for low-power video signal connections. • • • • Transmission speed: up to 10 Gbit/s Distance: 40 kilometers Duplex: Full (one fiber each direction) Noise immunity: not susceptible to electromagnetic interference The structure of a typical single-mode fiber. in these applications. Coaxial cable RG-59 RG-59 is a specific type of coaxial cable. 4. Core: 8 µm diameter 2. Manufacturers tend to include only RG-59 cables because of its low cost (when compared to RG-6).

and RG-6 type cables have become the standard for CATV. . The most commonly-recognized variety of RG-6 is cable television(CATV) distribution coax. Serial cable A serial cable is a cable that can be used to transfer information between two devices using serial communication. The plenum space is typically used to house the communication cables for the building's computer and telephone network. used to route cable television signals to and within homes. often using the RS-232 standard. Space between the structural ceiling and the dropped ceiling or under a raised floor is typically considered plenum. The fire requirements on riser cable are not as strict. Thus. by providing pathways for either communication. The plenum is the space that can facilitate air circulation for heating Serial Cables are typically used for RS-232 and air conditioning systems. mostly replacing the smaller RG-59. but other connectors are used. Plenum vs. but riser cable cannot replace plenum cable in plenum spaces. however. plenum cable can always replace riser cable. heated/conditioned or return airflows.Cables 27 RG-6 RG-6 is a common type of coaxial cable used in a wide variety of residential and commercial applications. Cable which is to be run between floors in non-plenum areas is rated as riser cable. Non-plenum Plenum cable is cable that is laid in the plenum spaces of buildings. Serial cables may use connectors with 9 or 25 pins. some drop ceiling designs create a tight seal that does not allow for airflow and therefore may not be considered a plenum air-handling space.

RJ-14 is similar.Connectors 28 Connectors Objective 2.2: Identify common connector types RJ-11 (Registered Jack 11) RJ-11 is a physical interface often used for terminating telephone wires. position 1 2 3 4 5 6 RJ25 pin 1 2 3 4 5 6 RJ14 pin RJ11 pin Pair 3 T/R T T R T R R ± + + – + – – Cat 5e/6 colors white/green white/orange blue white/blue orange green Colors white/green white/orange blue/white white/blue orange/white green/white Old colors orange black red green yellow blue 1 2 3 4 1 2 2 1 1 2 3 RJ-45 (Registered Jack 45) The 8 Position 8 Contact (8P8C) (often incorrectly called RJ-45) plugs and sockets are most regularly used as an Ethernet connector. The telephone line cord and its plug are more often a true RJ-11 with only two conductors. It is probably the most familiar of the registered jacks. but for two lines. 8P8C connectors are typically used to terminate twisted pair cable. . being used for single line Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS) telephone jacks in most homes across the world. and RJ-25 is for three lines.

. although many consumer electronics devices with RCA jacks can be used with BNC-only commercial video equipment via a simple adapter.Connectors 29 BNC (Bayonet Neill-Concelman) The BNC (Bayonet Neill-Concelman) connector is a very common type of connector used for terminating coaxial cable. amateur radio antenna connections. It is an alternative to the RCA connector when used for composite video on commercial video devices. aviation electronics (avionics) and many other types of electronic test equipment. The BNC connector is used for RF signal connections. SC (Subscriber Connector or Standard Connector) A fiber-optic connector with a push-pull mechanism to allow locking in place while still being simple to insert and remove. for analog and digital video signals.

LC (Local Connector or Lucent Connector) Developed by Lucent.Connectors 30 ST (Straight Tip) A fiber-optic connector with a socket that is locked in place with a bayonet lock. It is used in Telco environments. and has since been made an official standard. ST was the first de-facto standard for fiber-optic cabling. It looks like a smaller version of the SC connector. .

• Cons: In a given collision domain (a hub-based network segment). such as in a physical star/logical ring topology. like a map. Common wired standards of today. easy setup and maintenance. 100BaseTX • Pros: Cheap. Usually. the physical and logical topology is the same. reliable. and the logical topology is the way the information flows on the network. giving rise to collisions and security concerns. but sometimes they can differ.3: Identify common physical network topologies A topology is basically a way to organize the network. • Used with: 10BaseT. and fault tolerant. Star Network where all nodes are connected to a centralized point (Hub or switch). It is commonly used in computer serial ports. all nodes receive the same signal.Connectors 31 RS-232 (Recommended Standard 232) RS-232 (Recommended Standard 232) is a standard for serial binary data signals connecting between DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) and DCE (Data Circuit-terminating Equipment). Physical Topologies Objective 2. The physical topology is the way you physically lay out the network. Star network layout .

• Cons: Complicated. including the Internet. Bus network layout Ring Network in the form of a ring. if one node fails. Difficult to troubleshoot. With some router protocols. terminated on both ends. the entire network goes down. • Pros: Best fault tolerance available. where the packets (tokens) move to the next node in the ring. Only one node has the token at any one time.Physical Topologies 32 Mesh Mesh networks differ from other networks in that the different parts can all connect to each other via multiple hops. • Used with: FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) and Token Ring • Pros: Low signal degeneration. whole network goes down. Difficult to find a problem segment. expensive. the network is known as fully connected. If one node fails. linear sequence of nodes. Since only one node can pass the token at any one time. • Cons: More expensive than the common *BaseT of today. • Cons: Expensive. the network still runs. Cables need to be terminated on both ends with terminating devices. traveling packets automatically find the quickest path to take in the network. Like Ring-based networks. • Used with: 10BASE5 (Thicknet). Now considered obsolete. If all nodes in a mesh network are connected to every other node in the network. Ring network layout . Mesh network layout Bus Network in straight. 10BASE2 (Thinnet) • Pros: Good for small networks. This allows for rerouting around broken paths by taking an alternate path to the destination. If one node fails. given the meshed routes. • Used with: WANs (Wide Area Networks). and difficult to set up. This is usually a logical token ring with a physical star topology. Dual-ring implementations provide redundancy and makes failures less likely. it inherently reduces collisions significantly.

Cables that are terminated with differing standards on each end will not function normally. a tree network connected to a tree network is still a tree network. A hybrid topology is always produced when two different basic network topologies are connected. This topology is seen in ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) and Frame Relay links.25 networks when used as links for a network layer protocol like IP (Internet Protocol). • A Star Bus network consists of two or more star topologies connected using a bus trunk (the bus trunk serves as the network's backbone). as well as X. etc. Two common examples for Hybrid network are: star ring network and star bus network • A Star Ring network consists of two or more star topologies connected using a MAU (Media Access Unit) as a centralized hub.Physical Topologies 33 Point-to-point A switch provides a series of point-to-point circuits. These assignments define the pinout. T568A and T568B Wiring Pin 568A Pair 568B Pair Wire 568A Color 568B Color Pins on plug face (socket is reversed) .. ring. or order of connections.g.). bus. star. Point-to-multipoint A hub provides a point-to-multipoint (or simply multipoint) circuit which divides the total bandwidth supplied by the hub among each connected client node.4: Given a scenario. For example. Hybrid Hybrid networks use a combination of any two or more topologies in such a way that the resulting network does not exhibit one of the standard topologies (e. Category 5 and Category 6 unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cables. which allows each client node to have a dedicated circuit and the added advantage of having full duplex connections. such as Category 3. for wires in RJ-45 eight-pin modular connector plugs and sockets. T568B T568A and T568B are two definitions of pin/pair assignments for eight-conductor twisted-pair cabling. but two star networks connected together exhibit a hybrid network topology. Wiring Standards Objective 2. via microsegmentation. differentiate and implement appropriate wiring standards T568A vs.

. This requires that the transmit pair of each device be connected to the receive pair of the device on the other end. . a crossover cable may be envisioned as a cable with one connector following 568A and the other 568B. When an end device is connected to a switch or hub. One terminal device may be connected directly to another without the Modular crossover adapter use of a switch or hub. Since 10BASE-T and 100BASE-TX use pairs 2 and 3.g. but in that case the crossover must be done externally in the cable. A standard straight through cable is used for this purpose where each pin of the connector on one end is connected to the corresponding pin on the other connector. Such a cable will work for 10BASE-T or 100BASE-TX. This is a crossover cable. requires the other two pairs (1 and 4) to be swapped and also requires the solid/striped within each of those two pairs to be swapped. crossover The 10BASE-T and 100BASE-TX Ethernet standards use one wire pair for transmission in each direction.Wiring Standards 34 3 2 tip white/green stripe white/orange stripe 1 2 3 2 ring green solid orange solid 3 2 3 tip white/orange stripe white/green stripe 4 1 1 ring blue solid blue solid 5 1 1 tip white/blue stripe white/blue stripe 6 2 3 ring orange solid green solid 7 4 4 tip white/brown stripe white/brown stripe 8 4 4 ring brown solid brown solid Straight vs. this crossover is done internally in the switch or hub. these two pairs must be swapped in the cable. which uses all four pairs. This can also be accomplished by using a straight through cable in series with a modular crossover adapter. 1000BASET (Gigabit crossover). two hubs) as the internal crossovers cancel each other out. Because the only difference between the 568A and 568B pin/pair assignments are that pairs 2 and 3 are swapped. A crossover cable must also be used to connect two internally crossed devices (e.

but which is fully integrated into the computer system's internal network infrastructure. . It may be used by network client software on a computer to communicate with server software on the same computer. a computer running a web server can point a web browser to the loopback address to access that computer's own web site. as if the wire had been rolled over and you were viewing it from the other side. Loopback The term loopback is generally used to describe methods or procedures of routing electronic signals. Likewise. All TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) implementations support a loopback device. pinging the loopback interface is a basic test of the functionality of the IP (Internet Protocol) stack in the operating system. This is primarily intended as a means of testing the transmission infrastructure. This cable is typically flat (and has a light blue color) to help distinguish it from other types of network cabling. It gets the name rollover because the pinouts on one end are reversed from the other. For example. or other flows of items. digital data streams. which is a virtual network interface implemented in software only and not connected to any hardware. A loopback interface has several uses. Any traffic that a computer program sends to the loopback interface is immediately received on the same interface. This works without any actual network connection–so it is useful for testing services without exposing them to security risks from remote network access. from their originating facility quickly back to the same source entity without intentional processing or modification.Wiring Standards 35 Gigabit crossover Pin 1 Connection 1 pair 2 Connection 2 pair 3 white/orange stripe white/green stripe 2 2 3 orange solid 3 3 2 white/green stripe 4 1 4 blue solid 5 1 4 white/blue stripe 6 3 2 green solid 7 4 1 white/brown stripe blue solid 8 4 1 brown solid white/blue stripe orange solid brown solid white/brown stripe white/orange stripe green solid Connection 1 Connection 2 Pins on plug face (jack is reversed) Rollover A rollover cable (also known as Cisco console cable) is a type of null modem cable that is most commonly used to connect a computer terminal to a router's console port.

the network provides a PVC (Permanent Virtual Circuit). A WAN can be any scope. which offers bandwidth at 128 kbit/s. Note: This is just for simplicity's sake. used between Local Area Networks over a Wide Area Network.Wide Area Networks 36 Wide Area Networks Objective 2. but when it is in a group of buildings in the same geographical location.5: Categorize WAN technology types and properties You can connect more than one Local Area Network (see Objective 2. Network providers commonly implement frame relay for voice and data as an encapsulation technique. or Metropolitan Area Network. Many companies who have multiple buildings may connect them together to form a WAN. Frame relay In the context of computer networking. • Speed: Frame relay complements and provides a mid-range service between basic rate ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network).520 Mbit/s to 622. The frame-relay network handles the transmission over a frequently-changing path transparent to all end-users. like communication standards. it is called a MAN. Technically. called frames. A basic frame relay network The designers of frame relay aimed at a telecommunication service for cost-efficient data transmission for intermittent traffic between local area networks and between end-points in a wide area network. It is a message forwarding "relay race" like system in which data packets. which means that the customer sees a continuous. it is sometimes called a CAN. dedicated connection without having to pay for a full-time leased line. but these differences are beyond the scope of the Network+ Exam. frame relay consists of an efficient data transmission technique used to send digital information. such as an entire city. This speeds up overall data transmission. a CAN. Each end-user gets a private line (or leased line) to a frame-relay node. are passed from one or many start-points to one or many destinations via a series of intermediate node points.6) together with a router to form a Wide Area Network (WAN). • Packet switched . or Campus Area Network. which operates in somewhat similar fashion to frame relay but at speeds from 155. For most services. while the service provider figures out the route each frame travels to its destination and can charge based on usage. and ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode). Frame relay relays packets at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) model rather than at the network layer (layer 3). like a local government may have. there are more differences than just size and scope between a MAN. If it spans a larger geographic area. and a WAN. Frame relay puts data in variable-size units called "frames" and leaves any necessary error correction (such as retransmission of data) up to the end points.080 Mbit/s.

048 Mbit/s (E1) and 1. 160/120 Mbit/s (DOCSIS v3. along with DSL technology. has enabled broadband Internet access in many countries. • Speed: 38. The proliferation of cable modems.0 Mbit/s (DOCSIS v1.736 Mbit/s (T3) ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) • Speed: 8. 40/30 Mbit/s (DOCSIS v2. 802.252 Mbit/s (OC-3072) Wireless Network where all nodes communicate via radio waves directly to each other (ad-hoc mode).0/10.84 Mbit/s (OC-1) .0).0) Satellite • Speed: 16/1 Mbit/s OC-x (Optical Carrier) • Speed: 51.11a. 300 Mbit/s (802.159.11n) .024 Mbit/s SDSL (Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line) • Speed: 1.0/1.11b).11g).0).368 Mbit/s (E3) and 44. or to a router (infrastructure mode): • Distance: 30 meters • Speed: 11 Mbit/s (802. Bandwidth of business cable modem service typically range from 3 Mbit/s up to 30 Mbit/s or more.544 Mbit/s (T1) E3/T3 (E-Carrier Level 3/T-Carrier Level 3) • Speed: 34. The upstream bandwidth on residential cable modem service usually ranges from 384 kbit/s to 6 Mbit/s or more.544 Mbit/s VDSL (Very High Bitrate Digital Subscriber Line) • Speed: 100 Mbit/s Cable modem The term cable Internet access refers to the delivery of Internet service over this infrastructure.Wide Area Networks 37 E1/T1 (E-Carrier Level 1/T-Carrier Level 1) • Speed: 2. 54 Mbit/s (802.

The common cable providing the communication channel was likened to the ether and it was from this reference that the name "Ethernet" was derived. or to be technical.048 Mbit/s (E1-based). is a term which describes the voice-grade telephone service that remains the basic form of residential and small business service connection to the telephone network in most parts of the world. Ethernet evolved into the complex networking technology that today underlies most LANs. The coaxial cable was replaced with point-to-point links connected by Ethernet hubs . VoIP.3. along with the fiber optic versions for site backbones. etc. 1. all connected together using a topology and the cables that connect the nodes. Ethernet was originally based on the idea of computers communicating over a shared coaxial cable acting as a broadcast transmission medium.520 Mbit/s to 622.544 Mbit/s (T1-based) POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service) Plain old telephone service. From this early and comparatively simple concept. It defines a number of wiring and signaling standards for the Physical Layer of the OSI networking model. The name comes from the physical concept of the ether. it does provide greater reliability than other telephony systems (mobile phone. the Network Interface Cards). PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) • Circuit switched Local Area Networks Objective 2.6: Categorize LAN technology types and properties A LAN. is a small network of computers. or POTS. It has been in use from around 1980[1] to the present. such as the fact that it is much easier to detect collisions in a cable broadcast system than a radio broadcast. through means of network access at the Media Access Control (MAC) /Data Link Layer. The methods used show some similarities to radio systems.). is the most widespread wired LAN technology. or Local Area Network. and a common addressing format.Wide Area Networks 38 ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) • Speed: 155.080 Mbit/s • Packet switched ISDN BRI (Integrated Services Digital Network Basic Rate Interface) • Speed: 144 Kbit/s ISDN PRI (Integrated Services Digital Network Primary Rate Interface) • Speed: 2. Ethernet is standardized as IEEE 802. Ethernet Ethernet is a family of frame-based computer networking technologies for local area networks (LANs). low bandwidth and no mobile capabilities. usually in the same building. and ARCNET. The combination of the twisted pair versions of Ethernet for connecting end systems to the network. They consist of several nodes (the PCs. largely replacing competing LAN standards such as token ring. While POTS provides limited features. although there are fundamental differences. FDDI.

each Ethernet station is given a single 48-bit MAC address. either to avoid an address change when an adapter is replaced. the ever-decreasing cost of the hardware needed to support it. or to use locally administered addresses. but this can be overridden. StarLAN was the first step in the evolution of Ethernet from a coaxial cable bus to a hub-managed. including the older Ethernet technologies. all generations of Ethernet (excluding early experimental versions) share the same frame formats (and hence the same interface for higher layers). which is used to specify both the destination and the source of each data packet. The advent of twisted-pair wiring dramatically lowered installation costs relative to competing technologies. and can be readily interconnected. Above the physical layer. Network interface cards (NICs) or chips normally do not accept packets addressed to other Ethernet stations. Adapters generally come programmed with a globally unique address. Despite the significant changes in Ethernet from a thick coaxial cable bus running at 10 Mbit/s to point-to-point links running at 1 Gbit/s and beyond. and the reduced panel space needed by twisted pair Ethernet. eliminating the need for installation of a separate network card. most manufacturers now build the functionality of an Ethernet card directly into PC motherboards. Due to the ubiquity of Ethernet. Ethernet stations communicate by sending each other data packets. and enable point-to-point management and troubleshooting.Local Area Networks and/or switches to reduce installation costs. As with other IEEE 802 LANs. blocks of data that are individually sent and delivered. 39 10BaseT • Speed: 10 Mbit/s • Medium: Category 3 twisted-pair copper cable • Distance: 100 meters 100BaseTX • Speed: 100 Mbit/s • Medium: Category 5 twisted-pair copper cable • Distance: 100 meters 100BaseFX • Speed: 100 Mbit/s • Medium: Multimode optical fiber • Distance: 2 kilometers 1000BaseT • Speed: 1000 Mbit/s (also known as 1 Gbit/s) • Medium: Category 5e twisted-pair copper cable • Distance: 100 meters . increase reliability. twisted-pair network.

It uses the same type of fiber and supports the same distances as 10GBaseSR. It uses the same types of fiber and supports the same distance as 10GBaseLR.953 Gbit/s.Local Area Networks 40 1000BaseX • Speed: 1000 Mbit/s (also known as 1 Gbit/s) • Medium: Multimode optical fiber. Single-mode optical fiber • Distance: 550 meters (Multimode). • Speed: 10 Gbit/s • Medium: Multimode optical fiber • Distance: 26 meters. 82 meters. 2 kilometers (Single-mode) 10GBaseT • Speed: 10 Gbit/s • Medium: Category 6 twisted-pair copper cable • Distance: 100 meters 10GBaseSR/10GBaseSW "Short range" 10GBaseSW is designed to interoperate with OC-192 (Optical Carrier) SONET (Synchronous Optical Networking) equipment using a light-weight SONET frame running at 9.953 Gbit/s. 300 meters. • Speed: 10 Gbit/s • Medium: Single-mode optical fiber • Distance: 40 kilometers . It uses the same type of fiber and supports the same distance as 10GBaseER.953 Gbit/s. depending on cable type 10GBaseLR/10GBaseLW "Long range" 10GBaseLW is designed to interoperate with OC-192 (Optical Carrier) SONET (Synchronous Optical Networking) equipment using a light-weight SONET frame running at 9. • Speed: 10 Gbit/s • Medium: Single-mode optical fiber • Distance: 10 kilometers 10GBaseER/10GBaseEW "Extended range" 10GBaseEW is designed to interoperate with OC-192 (Optical Carrier) SONET (Synchronous Optical Networking) equipment using a light-weight SONET frame running at 9.

but sometimes they can differ. Client/server Client-server describes the relationship between two computer programs in which one program. . makes a service request to another. The balance is returned to the bank database client. P2P networks are typically used for connecting end users via largely decentralized connections. a web browser is a client program at the user computer that may access information at any web server in the world. is also passed using P2P technology. model of network arrangement differs from the client/server model (see below) where communication is usually to and from a central server. A server based network. the client program. the physical and logical topology is the same. a web browser client program in your computer forwards your request to a web server program at the bank. video. data or anything in digital format is very common. This A peer-to-peer based network. For example. Usually. which in turn serves it back to the web browser client in your personal computer. are based on the client-server model. like a map. the server program. and the logical topology is the way the information flows on the network. Peer to peer A peer-to-peer (P2P) computer network uses diverse connectivity between participants in a network and the cumulative bandwidth of network participants rather than conventional centralized resources where a relatively low number of servers provide the core value to a service or application. To check your bank account from your computer. such as in a physical star/logical ring topology. The physical topology is the way you physically lay out the network. Standard networked functions such as email exchange. which displays the information for you. such as telephony traffic. and real time data. Sharing content files containing audio.7: Explain common logical network topologies and their characteristics A topology is basically a way to organize the network. Such networks are useful for many purposes.Logical Topologies 41 Logical Topologies Objective 2. A pure P2P network does not have the notion of clients or servers but only equal peer nodes that simultaneously function as both "clients" and "servers" to the other nodes on the network. web access and database access. That program may in turn forward the request to its own database client program that sends a request to a database server at another bank computer to retrieve your account balance. and the servers react to and satisfy these requests. A typical example of a file transfer that is not P2P is an FTP (File Transfer Protocol) server where the client and server programs are quite distinct: the clients initiate the download/uploads.

See Objective 3. Most business applications being written today use the client-server model. database servers. email clients. Wiring Distribution Objective 2. 42 VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) A virtual LAN. Network reconfiguration can be done through software instead of physically relocating devices. application servers. among others.3: Advanced Switching for more information on the functions of VLANs. is a group of hosts with a common set of requirements that communicate as if they were attached to the same broadcast domain. and online chat clients. A VLAN has the same attributes as a physical Local Area Network.. Specific types of servers include web servers. Telnet. regardless of their physical location. . mail servers. but it allows for end stations to be grouped together even if they are not located on the same network switch.8: Install components of wiring distribution 66 block A 66 block has a maximum 16 MHz Category 3 signaling compatibility. FTP (File Transfer Protocol) servers. file servers. Specific types of clients include web browsers. SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol). So do the Internet's main application protocols.Logical Topologies The client-server model has become one of the central ideas of network computing. commonly known as a VLAN. and print servers. A 66 punch block. such as HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol). and DNS (Domain Name System).

. MDFs (Main Distribution Frames) Unshielded twisted pair (copper) and optical fiber distribution frame.Wiring Distribution 43 110 block A 110 block a maximum 100 MHz Category 5 signaling compatibility. An 110 punch block.

. Due to their design. if a network is connected using hubs.Wiring Distribution 44 25 pair This is a cable from a telephone company's lines containing 25 twisted pairs that is then punched down into a 66 block (see above). configure. 100 pair This is a cable from a telephone company's lines containing 100 twisted pairs that is then punched down into a 110 block (see above).1: Install. Hubs flood incoming packets to all ports all the time. they increase the chances for collisions. If a user has packet sniffing software. For this reason. 50 conductors. 25-pair. Hubs make it easy to "spy" on users on the same LAN as you. Network switches Hub Hubs connect computers together in a star topology network. they can extract data from the network and potentially decode it and use it. Units which are the last receiver or generate data are called hosts or data terminal equipment. Hubs operate in the physical layer of the OSI model and have no intelligence. and differentiate between common network devices Computer networking devices are units that mediate data in a computer network and are also called network equipment. Hubs pose a security risk since all packets are flooded to all ports all the time. the chances of a collision increases linearly with the number of computers (assuming equal bandwidth use). Common Devices Objective 3.

or onto the other side of an obstruction. twisted pair.Common Devices 45 Repeater A repeater is an electronic device that receives a signal and retransmits it at a higher level and/or higher power. so that the signal can cover longer distances without degradation. normally measured in bits per second. or "bps". and are important in interconnecting fiber optic cabling-based systems with existing copper-based. media converters are useful in connecting multiple LANs to form one large "campus area network" that spans over a limited geographic area. Most motherboards today come equipped with a network interface card in the form of a controller. T1/E1. Because repeaters work with the actual physical signal. Media converters Media converters are simple networking devices that make it possible to connect two dissimilar media types such as twisted pair with fiber optic cabling. and once received on the other side. . serial. and do not attempt to interpret the data being transmitted. NIC (Network Interface Card) A network interface card is a computer hardware component designed to allow computers to communicate over a computer network. as well as multiple cabling types such as coaxial. eliminating the need for a standalone card. A wireless repeater. multimode and single-mode fiber optics. T3/E3. or network connection. Ethernet. they operate on the physical layer. structured cabling systems. media converters can extend the reach of the LAN over single-mode fiber up to 130 kilometers with 1550 nm optics. the first layer of the OSI model. with the hardware built into the board itself. As local networks are primarily copper-based. It allows users to connect to each other either by using cables or wirelessly. It is both an OSI layer 1 (physical layer) and layer 2 (data link layer) device. Modem Modem (from modulator-demodulator) is a device that turns the digital 1s and 0s of a personal computer into sounds that can be transmitted over the telephone lines of Plain Old Telephone Systems (POTS). converts those sounds back into a form used by a USB. When expanding the reach of a Local Area Network to span multiple locations. as it provides physical access to a networking medium and provides a low-level addressing system through the use of MAC addresses. They were introduced to the industry nearly two decades ago. Media converters support many different data communication protocols including Ethernet. Modems are generally classified by the amount of data they can send in a given time.

The switch simply watches the incoming packets and memorizes the MAC address and port a packet arrives on. A switch creates separate collision domains for each physical connection. but with some intelligence. the bridge will flood the frame just like a hub does. Bridging is often inaccurately called switching. it will flood the packet out all connected ports. switches provide a central connection between two or more computers on a network.Common Devices 46 Basic switch Switches are often confused with bridges because they also operate at the data link layer of the OSI model. Otherwise. Bridge Bridges can be identified by the fact that they operate at the data link layer of the OSI model. A bridge simply watches the incoming frame and memorizes the MAC address and port a frame arrives on. . a switch forwards data only to the port on which the destination system is connected. A switch will only create separate broadcast domains if separate VLANs (Virtual Local Area Networks) are assigned to different ports on the switch. They use a database of MAC addresses to determine where computers are located and very efficiently send frames only where they need to go. a broadcast received on one port will be flooded out all ports except the one it came in on. The database is created dynamically as computers communicate on the network. rather than forwarding data to all the connected ports. It uses this information to locate a computer if a packet comes in that must be forwarded to it. The database is created dynamically as computers communicate on the network. If a packet arrives with a destination computer that the switch does not have an address for in its MAC address table. They use a database of MAC addresses to determine where computers are located and very efficiently send packets only where they need to go. Similar to a hub. Bridges have intelligence and can "bridge" two of their ports together at very high speed. They provide traffic control for packets. If a frame arrives at the bridge and the bridge does not know where to send it.

the WAP functions as a gateway for clients to access the wired network. router. where wireless clients can connect to the Internet without regard for the particular networks to which they have attached for the moment. while moving around. they must understand layer 3 addressing. Bluetooth or related standards. and can relay data between the wireless devices (such as computers or printers) and wired devices on the network. Routers operate in two different planes: the control plane. The concept has become common in large cities. A router will divide a broadcast domain by not forwarding broadcasts on one connected network to another connected network. Home networks generally have only one WAP to connect all the computers in a home. A collection of connected Hot Spots can be referred to as a lily-pad network. creating an intra-city communication network without the need of wired networks. . Within the range of the WAPs.. meaning converged devices that include a WAP. such as TCP/IP. A typical corporate use involves attaching several WAPs to a wired network and then providing wireless access to the office Local Area Network.Common Devices 47 Wireless access point A wireless access point (WAP or AP) is a device that allows wireless communication devices to connect to a wireless network using Wi-Fi. where a combination of coffeehouses. In this instance.. and often an Ethernet switch in the same device. libraries. which is responsible for the actual process of sending a packet received on a logical interface to an outbound logical interface. Basic router Routers operate at the network layer of the OSI model and efficiently route information between Local Area Networks. as well as privately owned open access points. in which the router learns the outgoing interface that is most appropriate for forwarding specific packets to specific destinations. Many also converge a broadband modem. In places where most homes have their own WAP within range of the neighbors' WAP. it's possible for technically savvy people to turn off their encryption and set up a wireless community network. the wireless end user has a full network connection with the benefit of mobility. Since routers operate in the third layer. The WAP usually connects to a wired network. A Hot Spot is a common public application of WAPs. and the forwarding plane. allow clients to stay more or less continuously connected to the Internet. Most are wireless routers. the network layer.

the domain name. deny. which examines each message and blocks those that do not meet the specified security criteria. and so forth. All messages entering or leaving the Local Area Network pass through the firewall. a lease (the length of time for which the allocation is valid). The DHCP server manages a pool of IP addresses and information about client configuration parameters such as the default gateway. or a combination of both.Common Devices 48 Basic firewall A firewall is a part of a computer system or network that is designed to block unauthorized access while permitting outward communication. Standard security practices dictate a "default-deny" firewall ruleset. and other IP configuration parameters. Firewalls can be implemented in both hardware and software. Without proper configuration. a firewall can often become worthless. decrypt. in which the only network connections which are allowed are the ones that have been explicitly allowed. encrypt. the DHCP client sends a broadcast query requesting necessary information from a DHCP server. other servers such as time servers. the DNS (Domain Name System) servers. Upon receipt of a valid request the server will assign the computer an IP address. It is also a device or set of devices configured to permit. Basic DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) server When a DHCP-configured client (be it a computer or any other network-aware device) connects to a network. The query is typically initiated immediately after booting and must be completed before the client can initiate IP-based communication with other hosts. . or proxy all computer traffic between different security domains based upon a set of rules and other criteria. such as the subnet mask and the default gateway. Firewalls are frequently used to prevent unauthorized Internet users from accessing private networks connected to the Internet.

for example. mainly through a network.2: Identify the functions of specialized network devices IDS/IPS (Intrusion Detection System/Intrusion Prevention System) An Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is software and/or hardware designed to detect unwanted attempts at accessing. Network-based IPS. to prohibit access to non-business-related sites or to restrict Internet access to groups that do not need it. Intrusion prevention technology is considered by some to be an extension of intrusion detection (IDS) technology. CSU/DSU (Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit) . among other things. When an attack is detected. An Intrusion Prevention System is a network security device that monitors network and/or system activities for malicious or unwanted behavior and can react. a proxy server acts as a point of contact between a private network and a public network such as the Internet. and worms). All the requests for Internet access that are made by a client on a network are executed by the proxy server. in real-time. An intrusion detection system is used to detect several types of malicious behaviors that can compromise the security and trust of a computer system. Proxy server A proxy server is a server that makes Internet connections on behalf of the client PCs. This includes network attacks against vulnerable services. This is used by organizations to monitor the use employees make of the Internet. will operate in-line to monitor all network traffic for malicious code or attacks . as it records the requests made along with the time and duration of those requests. unauthorized logins and access to sensitive files. and/or disabling of computer systems. such as the Internet. Using a proxy improves the control administrators have over the network because proxies can be configured. In other words. data driven attacks on applications. trojan horses.Specialized Devices 49 Specialized Devices Objective 3. Also the overall performance of the network is increased due to the proxy's ability to cache the pages that users view the most. Another advantage is the record keeping capabilities of the proxy server. and malware (viruses. it can drop the offending packets while still allowing all other traffic to pass. host based attacks such as privilege escalation. manipulating. to block or prevent those activities.

are the Application. Data Link 1. and Physical Layers. Data Link. A layer is a collection of conceptually similar functions that provide services to the layer above it and receives service from the layer below it. Transport 3. It is therefore often referred to as the OSI Seven Layer Model. For example. from top to bottom. while it calls the next lower layer to send and receive packets that make up the contents of the path.4: Implement a basic wireless network Install access point OSI Model Data unit Host Data layers Layer Function 7. Physical Interhost communication End-to-end connections and reliability Path determination and logical addressing Physical addressing Media. . In its most basic form. signal and binary transmission Objective 4. Network. Application Network process to application 6. Transport. a layer that provides error-free communications across a network provides the path needed by applications above it.Advanced Switching 50 Advanced Switching Objective 3. Session Segment Media Packet layers Frame Bit 4. Session.3: Explain the advanced features of a switch Wireless Objective 3. Presentation.1: Explain the function of each layer of the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) model The Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model (OSI Reference Model or OSI Model) is an abstract description for layered communications and computer network protocol design. Presentation Data representation and encryption 5. it divides network architecture into seven layers which. Reference Appendix A: Memory Aids to assist in the recall of the layers in the correct order. Network 2.

When identifying communication partners. determining resource availability.3: Given a scenario. evaluate the network based on configuration management documentation . This layer interacts with software applications that implement a communicating component. A wiring schematic is used to troubleshoot problems and to make sure that all the connections have been made and that everything is present. Documentation Implementation Objective 4. the application layer must decide whether sufficient network resources for the requested communication exist. It also shows where and how they are connected. which means that both the OSI application layer and the user interact directly with the software application. It assists in the replacement of cabling in case of a short circuit and eases the process of determining where new wires can be installed when additional capacity is needed. Application layer functions typically include identifying communication partners.OSI Model 51 Application The application layer is the OSI layer closest to the end user. the application layer determines the identity and availability of communication partners for an application with data to transmit. all communication between applications requires cooperation that is managed by the application layer. In synchronizing communication. When determining resource availability. Documentation Types Objective 4. and synchronizing communication.2: Identify types of configuration management documentation Wiring schematics Wiring schematics are drawings of where all the wires and circuits are.

5: Explain different methods and rationales for network performance optimization QoS (Quality of Service) Quality of Service (QoS) refers to resource reservation control mechanisms rather than the achieved service quality. or data flows. An alternative to complex QoS control mechanisms is to provide high quality communication by generously over-provisioning a network so that capacity is based on peak traffic load estimates. This approach is simple and economical for networks with predictable and light traffic loads. QoS allows for prioritization of time-sensitive data without the expense of upgrading cabling and equipment. In these cases. Quality of Service guarantees are important if the network capacity is insufficient.2: Software Tools. however. which is often possible for example in video streaming. since these often require fixed bit rate and are delay sensitive. but does not give you sufficient information to identify why it is slow.Performance Monitoring 52 Performance Monitoring Objective 4.4: Conduct network monitoring to identify performance and connectivity issues Network monitoring utilities Packet sniffers See Objective 5. for example in cellular data communication. Note: A throughput tester can help you identify when a network is slow. . online games and IP-TV. On a network. The performance is reasonable for many applications. Logs Performance Optimization Objective 4. especially for real-time streaming multimedia applications such as Voice over Internet Protocol. and in networks where the capacity is a limited resource. the costs of increasing bandwidth can be substantial and over-provisioning is hard to justify. Throughput testers A throughput tester measures the amount of data that can be transferred through a network or processed by a device (such as the amount of data that can be retrieved from disk in a specific period of time). users. In networks typical of enterprises. This might include demanding applications that can compensate for variations in bandwidth and delay with large receive buffers. or to guarantee a certain level of performance to a data flow. a throughput tester sends a specific amount of data through the network and measures the time it takes to transfer that data. Quality of Service is the ability to provide different priority to different applications. Use a throughput tester to validate the bandwidth on your network. arriving at a measure of the actual bandwidth. and to identify when the bandwidth is significantly below what it should be.

Create an action plan and solution identifying potential effects Your plan might include purchases for hardware or equipment that need approval before proceeding. Determine if anything has changed Most often. the actions you have already taken.Troubleshooting Methodology 53 Troubleshooting Methodology Objective 4. . Identify the affected areas of the network Determine how large the problem is. Establish the most probable cause Look for common errors or solutions that can be tried quickly. the actions you have already taken.6: Given a scenario. your plan might involve taking some services offline for a period of time. and recreate the problem. implement the following network troubleshooting methodology These steps should be followed in the order that they appear. problems are caused by new hardware or software or changes to the configuration. ask questions to discover what might have changed that could have caused the problem. In addition. Identifying the affects ahead of time helps you put measures into place to eliminate or reduce any potential negative consequences.identify symptoms and problems Ask the user to describe the problem. Information gathering . and the symptoms that lead you to believe the problem is outside of your area of responsibility. For example. If necessary. Determine if escalation is necessary When forwarding the problem on to someone else. be sure to describe the nature of the problem. Resist the urge to start fixing things at this point. fixes for one client workstation would likely be very different than fixes for an entire network segment. be sure to describe the nature of the problem.When forwarding the problem on to someone else. and the symptoms that lead you to believe the problem is outside of your area of responsibility. check for error messages.

Document the solution and the entire process In the future. Identify the results and effects of the solution Make sure that the solution has fully fixed the problem and has not caused any other problems. devices should default to using half duplex. In a wireless environment. twisted pair cabling can often be used to reduce the effects of crosstalk. you can check your documentation to see what has changed or to help you remember the solution to common problems. one device will try to transmit using full duplex. If necessary. Symptoms of a duplex mismatch include very slow network communications. crosstalk is often distinguishable as pieces of speech or signaling tones leaking from other people's connections. . If the connection is analog.7: Given a scenario. fix the problem. • One device is configured for autonegotiation and the other device is manually configured for full duplex. By default. In this case. while the other will expect half duplex communications. • Autonegotiation does not work correctly on one device. If a duplex method cannot be agreed upon. the signals can be converted to digital form. two different wireless access points that are broadcasting on channels too close together in frequency can reduce the quality of the connection between themselves and wireless users. After you think you have resolved the problem. Alternatively. Logical issues Port duplex mismatch A duplex mismatch occurs when two devices are using different duplex settings.Troubleshooting Methodology 54 Implement and test the solution When side effects have been weighed against the fix and all concerns have been addressed. test the result. which is much less susceptible to crosstalk. In telecommunications. even for half duplex communications. implement additional steps to correct the problem if your first solution did not work. This can occur within the different pairs of wires in a cable and is mitigated by using twisted pair cabling. but normal communications work well below the expected speeds. A duplex mismatch can occur in the following cases: • Both devices are configured to use different duplex settings. Connectivity Issues Objective 4. Ping tests might appear to complete correctly. troubleshoot common connectivity issues and select an appropriate solution Physical issues Crosstalk Crosstalk refers to any phenomenon by which a signal transmitted on one circuit or channel of a transmission system creates an undesired effect in another circuit or channel. devices are configured to use autonegotiation to detect the correct duplex setting to use.

select the appropriate command line interface tool and interpret the output to verify functionality . Issues that should be identified but escalated Wireless issues Command Line Tools Objective 5. Wrong gateway If the gateway is configured incorrectly.Connectivity Issues 55 Incorrect VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) Incorrectly assigning a port to a VLAN might prevent a device from communicating through the switch. local hosts can't access the Internet and they can't access hosts outside the local subnet. remote clients can't access network resources.1: Given a scenario.

3: Given a scenario.2: Explain the purpose of network scanners Hardware Tools Objective 5.Software Tools 56 Software Tools Objective 5. utilize the appropriate hardware tools Cable testers TDR (Time-domain Reflectometer) Signal transmitted and reflected from a discontinuity OTDR (Optical Time-domain Reflectometer) .

Hardware Tools 57 Multimeter Toner probe Punch down tool Cable stripper .

Hardware Tools 58 Snips Voltage event recorder Temperature monitor .

They also regulate and monitor data transfer across the tunnel.1: Explain the function of hardware and software security devices Network-based firewall Network based firewalls – monitor traffic on the entire network segment. and control inbound and outbound traffic as an endpoint or router. Software firewall . Host-based firewall Host based firewalls – is installed on an individual system and monitors and controls inbound and outbound traffic for just that system. Concentrators sit between the VPN client and VPN server.Security Devices 59 Security Devices Objective 6. creating a tunnel authenticating users and encrypting data as it travels. meaning an administrator monitors and controls firewall services from a central location. VPN (Virtual Private Network) concentrator VPN concentrators increase remote access security.

for example. The Internet is not such an environment. and it is therefore suitable only in environments in which you can closely control who uses which MAC address.2: Explain common features of a firewall Application layer vs. Protocol ID Because each packet transmitted with IP has a protocol identifier in it. You might. open port 80 on the firewall to allow Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) requests from users on the Internet to reach the corporate Web server. The following are some of the criteria by which packet filtering can be implemented: IP address By using the IP address as a parameter. you can control the flow. Because they operate above the session layer of the Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) model. A packet-filtering firewall deals with packets at the data-link and network layers of the OSI model. network layer The application layer firewall is the most functional of all the firewall types. based on the source or destination IP address.Firewalling 60 Firewalling Objective 6. you can configure the firewall so that only certain hosts on the internal network are able to access hosts on the Internet. open the HTTP Secure (HTTPS) port. By configuring the firewall to allow certain types of traffic. Application layer firewall systems can implement sophisticated rules and closely control traffic that passes through. you can configure it so that only certain hosts on the Internet are able to gain access to a system on the internal network. but it is possible to configure a firewall to use the hardware-configured MAC address as the determining factor in whether access to the network is granted. Features of these firewalls can include user authentication systems and the capability to control which systems an outside user can access on the internal network. Alternatively. the firewall can allow or deny traffic. MAC address This is perhaps the least used of the packet-filtering methods discussed. This is not a particularly flexible method. they can provide protection against any software-based network traffic that attempts to pass through them. the application layer firewall functionality is implemented through an application. You might also. a firewall can read this value and then determine what kind of packet it is. you specify which protocols you will and will not allow to pass through the firewall. . based on the configuration. port 443. If you are filtering based on protocol ID. to allow access to a secure Web server application. depending on the application. As its name suggests. Port number The TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) suite uses port numbers to identify which service a certain packet is destined for. Network layer filtering through the analysis of packets enables the firewall to examine each packet that passes through it and determine what to do with it. For example. Some also provide bandwidth control mechanisms.

much like a virus filter subscription.3: Explain the methods of network access security ACL (Access Control List) Tunneling and encryption SSL VPN (Secure Sockets Layer Virtual Private Network) o An SSL VPN (Secure Sockets Layer virtual private network) is a form of VPN that can be used with a standard Web browser. The remote user accesses the SSL VPN gateway using any modern Web browser. The administrator instructs the web filter to ban broad classes of content (such as sports. This database is updated weekly by site-wide subscription. JavaScript. pornography. Active X. Requests made to the open Internet must first pass through an outbound proxy filter. An SSL VPN consists of one or more VPN devices to which the user connects by using his Web browser. say.com/definition/SSL-VPN .techtarget. or language filters could dynamically detect unwanted language. In contrast to the traditional Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) VPN. schools. Requests that match a banned URL pattern are rejected immediately. For example. JPEG files could be blocked based on flesh tone matches. the content is then fetched by the proxy. ease of use and granular control for a range of users on a variety of computers. Web filtering proxies are not able to peer inside secure HTTP transactions. an SSL VPN does not require the installation of specialized client software on the end user's computer. gambling. SSL tunnel VPNs require that the Web browser be able to handle active content. through a tunnel that is running under SSL. Assuming the requested URL is acceptable. Those requests will be encrypted. or social networking). This is done with a specialized proxy.Firewalling 61 Content filtering Many workplaces. content filters are only effective against unsophisticated users. The traffic between the Web browser and the SSL VPN device is encrypted with the SSL protocol or its successor. An SSL VPN offers versatility. including applications and protocols that are not Web-based. There are two major types of SSL VPNs: SSL Portal VPN: This type of SSL VPN allows for a single SSL connection to a Web site so the end user can securely access multiple network services. a legitimate access to a financial website. Examples of active content include Java. It's used to give remote users with access to Web applications. A virtual private network (VPN) provides a secure communications mechanism for data and other information transmitted between two endpoints. They will then program their browser to proxy all requests through the web filter to this anonymous proxy. At this point a dynamic filter may be applied on the return path. users wanting to bypass web filtering will typically search the internet for an open and anonymous HTTPS proxy. • SSL Tunnel VPN: This type of SSL VPN allows a Web browser to securely access multiple network services. the Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol. The web filter cannot distinguish these transactions from. • The site is called a portal because it is one door (a single page) that leads to many other resources. Thus. or Flash applications or plug-ins. The web-filtering company provides a database of URL patterns with associated content attributes. accessing resources from many locations. called a content filter. and colleges restrict the web sites and online services that are made available in their buildings. [1] http://searchsecurity. online shopping. As a result. client/server applications and internal network connections. Access Security Objective 6. identifies himself or herself to the gateway using an authentication method supported by the gateway and is then presented with a Web page that acts as the portal to the other services. which allows them to provide functionality that is not accessible to SSL portal VPNs.

CHAP periodically verifies the identity of the client by using a three-way handshake. people. and Accounting) RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial In User Service) Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS) is an AAA (authentication. PKI is an arrangement that associates a public key with a user's identity by means of a certificate authority (CA). This happens at the time of establishing the initial link. and procedures needed to create. Its designers aimed primarily at a client-server model. the user's identity. which allows individuals communicating over an insecure network to prove their identity to one another in a secure manner. which. or under human supervision. techtarget. Authorization. the public key. depending on the level of assurance the binding has. com/ definition/ SSL-VPN User Authentication Objective 6. For each user. manage. The verification is based on a shared secret (such as the client user's password). Kerberos protocol messages are protected against eavesdropping or replay attacks. store. and also a suite of free software published by Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) which implements this protocol. authorization and accounting) protocol for applications such as network access or IP mobility. and their association with each other are made transparent in public key certificates issued by the CA. policies. and it provides mutual authentication — both the user and the server verify each other's identity. The binding is established through the registration and issuance process. The user's identity must be unique for each CA. . Network access control CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol) CHAP is an authentication scheme used by Point to Point Protocol (PPP) servers to validate the identity of remote clients. and may happen again at any time afterward. AAA (Authentication. Kerberos Kerberos is the name of a computer network authentication protocol. distribute. and revoke digital certificates. may be carried out by software at a CA. The PKI role that assures this binding is called the Registration Authority (RA).Access Security 62 Remote access References [1] http:/ / searchsecurity. software.4: Explain methods of user authentication PKI (Public Key Infrastructure) The Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is a set of hardware. It is intended to work in both local and roaming situations.

CHAP. or EAP. In a well designed system. is a universal authentication framework frequently used in wireless networks and Point-to-Point connections. resource. It can be as simple as a locked door or as elaborate as multiple layers of armed security guards and guardhouses. unsecure methods . EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) Extensible Authentication Protocol. Compared with CHAP. There are at least four layers of physical security: • • • • Environmental design Mechanical and electronic access control Intrusion detection Video monitoring The goal is to convince potential attackers that the likely costs of attack exceed the value of making the attack. Device Security Objective 6. Although the EAP protocol is not limited to wireless LANs and can be used for wired LAN authentication. Secure methods vs.5: Explain issues that affect device security Physical security Physical security describes both measures that prevent or deter attackers from accessing a facility. it is most often used in wireless LANs. It is defined by RFC 3748. these features must complement each other. the WPA and WPA2 standard has officially adopted five EAP types as its official authentication mechanisms. MS-CHAP: • provides an authenticator-controlled password change mechanism • provides an authenticator-controlled authentication retry mechanism • defines failure codes returned in the Failure packet message field MS-CHAPv2 provides mutual authentication between peers by piggybacking a peer challenge on the Response packet and an authenticator response on the Success packet.User Authentication 63 MS-CHAP (Microsoft Handshake Authentication Protocol) MS-CHAP is the Microsoft version of the Challenge-handshake authentication protocol. Recently. or information stored on physical media and guidance on how to design structures to resist various hostile acts.

The term "virus" is also commonly but erroneously used to refer to other types of malware. firewalls can effectively prevent users from launching simple flooding type attacks from machines behind the firewall. DVD. Routers may be affected even before the firewall gets the traffic. many viruses attach themselves to executable files that may be part of legitimate programs. firewalls are too deep in the network hierarchy.g. or responds so slowly as to be rendered effectively unavailable. or USB drive.1 also requires knowledge of some of these protocols. However. if there is an attack on port 80 (web service). Some DoS attacks are too complex for today's firewalls. the trend among the attacks is to have legitimate content but bad intent.Device Security 64 Secure Method SSH (Secure Shell) HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) SFTP (Secure File Transfer Protocol) Unsecure Method Telnet and RSH (Remote Shell) HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) FTP (File Transfer Protocol) SNMPv3 (Simple Network Management Protocol version 3) SNMPv1/2 (Simple Network Management Protocol version 1 or 2) SCP (Secure Copy Protocol) RCP (Remote Copy Protocol) Objective 1. for instance because a user sent it over a network or the Internet. such that it cannot respond to legitimate traffic. Intrusion-prevention systems which work on content recognition cannot block behavior based DoS attacks. Firewalls have simple rules such as to allow or deny protocols. temporarily or indefinitely. In order to replicate itself. adware. motives for. and targets of a DoS attack may vary. For this reason. Additionally. e. Nonetheless. A true virus can only spread from one computer to another (in some form of executable code) when its host is taken to the target computer. If a user attempts to launch an infected program.6: Identify common security threats and mitigation techniques Security threats DoS (Denial of Service) A denial-of-service attack (DoS attack) or distributed denial-of-service attack (DDoS attack) is an attempt to make a computer resource unavailable to its intended users. Although the means to carry out. Threat Mitigation Objective 6. or carried it on a removable medium such as a floppy disk. ports or IP addresses. the virus' code may be executed simultaneously. In general terms. . Viruses A computer virus is a computer program that can copy itself and infect a computer without the permission or knowledge of the owner. Intrusion-prevention systems (IPS) are effective if the attacks have signatures associated with them. it generally consists of the concerted efforts of a person or persons to prevent an Internet site or service from functioning efficiently or at all. CD. firewalls cannot prevent that attack because they cannot distinguish good traffic from DoS attack traffic. and spyware programs that do not have the reproductive ability. a virus must be permitted to execute code and write to memory. DoS attacks are implemented by either forcing the targeted computer(s) to reset. or consuming its resources so that it can no longer provide its intended service or obstructing the communication media between the intended users and the victim so that they can no longer communicate adequately. One common method of attack involves saturating the target (victim) machine with external communications requests.

Some old viruses. make sure that the "last modified" date of a host file stays the same when the file is infected by the virus. some viruses employ different kinds of deception. They accomplish this by overwriting unused areas of executable files. 65 Mitigation techniques Memory Aids OSI Model A Priest Saw Two Nuns Doing Push-ups Application Layer Presentation Layer Session Layer Transport Layer Network Layer Data Link Layer Physical Layer Please Do Not Throw Sausage Pizza Away Physical Layer Data Link Layer Network Layer Transport Layer Session Layer Presentation Layer Application Layer Please Do Not Touch Steve's Pet Alligator Physical Layer Data Link Layer Network Layer Transport Layer Session Layer Presentation Layer Application Layer Pew Dead Ninja Turtles Smell Particularly Awful Physical Layer Data Link Layer Network Layer Transport Layer Session Layer Presentation Layer Application Layer All People Seem To Need Data Processing Application Layer Presentation Layer Session Layer Transport Layer Network Layer Data Link Layer Physical Layer All People Should Try New Diet Pepsi Application Layer Presentation Layer Session Layer Transport Layer Network Layer Data Link Layer Physical Layer . These are called cavity viruses. As computers and operating systems grow larger and more complex. however. Defending a computer against viruses may demand that a file system migrate towards detailed and explicit permission for every kind of file access.Threat Mitigation In order to avoid detection by users. Some viruses try to avoid detection by killing the tasks associated with antivirus software before it can detect them. This approach does not fool anti-virus software. especially on the MS-DOS platform. old hiding techniques need to be updated or replaced. Some viruses can infect files without increasing their sizes or damaging the files.

php?oldid=1481133  Contributors: Adrignola Documentation Implementation  Source: http://en.org/w/index. Jomegat.php?oldid=1481143  Contributors: Adrignola Wireless  Source: http://en. QuiteUnusual.org/w/index.org/w/index.php?oldid=1569074  Contributors: Adrignola. 18 anonymous edits Introduction  Source: http://en.php?oldid=1481082  Contributors: Adrignola Device Security  Source: http://en. 4 anonymous edits Firewalling  Source: http://en.wikibooks. Herbythyme.org/w/index.php?oldid=2171278  Contributors: Adrignola. Pmsyyz.wikibooks. 1 anonymous edits Performance Optimization  Source: http://en.wikibooks. 1 anonymous edits Memory Aids  Source: http://en.wikibooks. Tannersf. Reece.org/w/index.wikibooks. Jguk.php?oldid=2054993  Contributors: Adrignola. Vishnuratheesh. Hagindaz.org/w/index.wikibooks.php?oldid=2105652  Contributors: Adrignola.php?oldid=2105524  Contributors: Adrignola.php?oldid=1481097  Contributors: Adrignola Hardware Tools  Source: http://en. Socratesone. 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