Havighurst’s Developmental Tasks

Robert Havighurst believed that learning is basic to life and that people continue to learn throughout life and so he described growth and development occurring through six stages in which there are six to ten tasks to be learned. He described developmental task as a “task which arises at or about a certain period in life of an individual, successful achievement of which leads to his happiness and to success with later tasks, which failure leads to unhappiness in the individual, disapproval by society, and difficulty with the later tasks. He identifies three sources of developmental tasks (Havighurst, 1972)

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Tasks that arise from physical maturation. Tasks that from personal sources. Tasks that have their source in the pressures of society.

STAGE Middle childhood (6-12 years old)

CENTRAL TASK Learning physical skills necessary for ordinary games


JUSTIFICATION She said that she doesn’t prefer playing sports and most of the times play video games and surfing the net but she said that she was able to learn physical skills and play ball games such as volleyball before she was diagnosed. Furthermore, her sister added that she was still able to meet this task considering that she used to participate in sport activities before she was diagnosed.

Building a wholesome attitude toward oneself


She said as a child, her parents taught her well in taking care of her body, cleanliness, the importance of her safety and protecting herself. Although she knows for a certain fact that she is physically weak, she said she was still able to enjoy activities such as interacting with her friends and family. Her parents as well as her older sister also explained to her things that she needs to know about the sudden changes in her body such as experiencing her first menstruation.

Learning to get along with agemates MET

Before she had been diagnosed with the said illness, she used to get along with her classmates and often times play with them. But right now, she said that her playmates are her cousins and her older sister. Most of her cousins are older than her but she said that she has no one to be with except them.

Learning an appropriate sex role MET She said that she was able to do things that girls are expected to. Like learning how to do household chores. She was able to see how women are expected to know things such as learning how to cook and clean the house.

Developing fundamental skills in reading, MET

She said she was able to develop these fundamental skills since she started going to school at the age of 4, and adds that although

Erikson’s Psychosocial Development Theory Erik H. Erikson adapted and expanded Freud’s theory of development to include the entire life span, believing that people continue to develop throughout life. Erikson’s theory proposes that life is a sequence of developmental stages. Each developmental stages has tasks that needs to be accomplished. The resolution can be described as partial, complete or unsuccessful. He believed that a if a person has achieves more success at each developmental stage, the healthier the personality of the individual. Identity versus confusion is the fifth stage of Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development. This stage occurs during adolescence between the ages of approximately 12 to 18. Teens need to develop a sense of self and personal identity. During adolescence, children are exploring their independence and developing a sense of self. As they make the transition from childhood to adulthood, teens may begin to feel confused or insecure about themselves and how they fit in to society. As they seek to establish a sense of self, teens may experiment with different roles, activities and behaviors. According to Erikson, this is important to the process of forming a strong identity and developing a sense of direction in life. Those who receive proper encouragement and reinforcement through personal exploration will emerge from this stage with a strong sense of self and a feeling of independence and control. Those who remain unsure of their beliefs and desires will insecure and confused about themselves and the future. Teens need to develop a sense of self and personal identity. Success leads to an ability to stay true to yourself, while failure leads to role confusion and a weak sense of self.

STAGE Adolescence (12-18 years old)

CENTRAL TASK Identity Versus Confusion


JUSTIFICATION Before she was diagnosed and eventually admitted to the hospital, she said, she used to have her own group of friends who are the same age as her. But after the incident, most of time she said that she’s either spending time in the hospital or resting at home that eventually leads her to get along more with her cousins and her older sister. Furthermore, her older sister added that she’s naturally the shy type that’s why she’s the type to only have a small group of friends. She said that as she grows up, she doesn’t feel that she have insecurities about herself since her parents are always able to shower her with the love and attention that she needs and admits that most of the times she still depends on her parents. When asked about her goals and aspirations in life, she said there’s none and thinks that she’ll go along with what is happening in her life at the moment.

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