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This blog intends to provide fuel cell news of India
Thursday, June 23, 2011
ElectroChem Announces New Partnerships to Aid Integration of Fuel Technology and Research in India and South Asia
(PRWEB) June 28, 2007 -- Although fuel cell research has been utilized for decades, recent exposure show fuel cell technology to be a potential leader in the alternative energy revolution. And, ElectroChem, Inc.'s newly announced partnerships with K-PAS Instronic and Phadke Instruments of India will mean that ElectroChem's world class fuel cell test equipment and components will now be more readily available in India and South Asia. President and CEO of ElectroChem, Inc., Dr. Radha Jalan, elaborates, "India is a growing research area that ElectroChem, Inc. has been observing for the past few years. The market is moving forward, and we are happy to have KPAS and Phadke as partners based on their excellent quality and expertise. They will get close to the researchers in the field, and we will be able to assist those researchers in moving the research and technology forward." This integration of fuel technology and research in India and South Asia will be made possible with ElectroChem's more than 300 product offerings for the development and commercialization of fuel cell and hydrogen technologies. Since beginning in 1986, ElectroChem has been providing these many proprietarily manufactured technologies to NASA, DOE, DOD, NSF, and other esteemed government and private organizations. Dr. Sanjeev Phadke of Phadke Instruments is thrilled with the new opportunities presented with the partnership, "We are really excited to be associated with ElectroChem products. ElectroChem is a pioneering company in the field of fuel cell products and known for the quality of their products. The fuel cell market is beginning to grow exponentially in India and as the ElectroChem products will be manufactured in India, this will give a big boost to the fuel cell market in India." T. Sundararajan of K-PAS Instronics is also equally enthused. "It is exciting for us to be an authorized dealer of ElectroChem's high quality electronic fuel cell test equipment. The products will be a great addition to our own product line," he states. Posted by Kuldeep at 2:32 AM 2 comments Email ThisBlogThis!Share to TwitterShare to Facebook Labels: ElectroChem, fuel cell test equipment, Inc., K-PAS Instronics, Phadke Instruments
Wednesday, June 22, 2011
Fuel cell opportunity in India
Drivers, limitations, and opportunities in the fuel cell market in India has been discussed in this article. Fuel cells have been called as the “microchip of the hydrogen age,” this clean renewable energy source is seen as alternative to fossil fuel used in running world‟s
a big chunk of this demand is expected to come from alternative energy sources like small hydro projects. for example Indian power sector has not been able to meet demand-supply gap. fuel cells will be having efficiency in . biomass power. and this gap is expected to increase in foreseeable future (by 2010 it is expected that unmet power demand in India will be around 52 B KWH). biomass gas. As fuel cell emits no harmful gases they are expected to be used in this war against climate change. high tariffs. demand for energy will also grow. Fuel cells are modular and suit well for the captive power generation in industries. It is expected that fuel cells will have an increased share in this renewable energy pie. etc. and high T&D losses. and exemptions from excise tax are offered to promote use of alternative fuels. lower customs duties. sales tax. benefits like tax holidays. Environmental concerns: There has been a concentrated effort around the globe to curb rising levels of pollution so as to control global warming and its possible adverse effect on humanity in large.economy. urban and industrial waste power. Therefore. it will capture a decent share of captive power generation in India. wind energy. share of power generated by renewable energy resources in India was only 8%. The contents of the paper has been provided below and the link to the paper has been provided at the bottom of the article. fuel cells. Why fuel cells are needed: As India‟s economy grows. Energy efficiency: Several studies shows that in comparison to a traditional fossil fuel vehicle having efficiency in the range of 20% (That is. it can be safely assumed that as the fuel cell technology advances. and Indian government has setup a target to increase this percentage to up to 12% by year 2012. Gaurav has written a paper looking at what is the current situation and potential of the fuel cell for an emerging economy like India who is heavily dependent upon imported fossil fuels for running wheels of its economy. only about 20 percent of the thermal-energy content of the fuel is converted into mechanical work). resulting in there improved acceptance and use. Increasing demand for captive power generation among Indian corporate: Power supply in India face several problems like poor quality and reliability of grid supply. Drivers that can help the proliferation of fuel cells in India Increasing importance of renewable energy resources: in 2007.
. company already has a leading position in electric vehicles in India. reportedly has 60% energy efficiency. Limitations with Fuel cells: Cost: Cost is one of the most important problems with commercial production and use of fuel cells. Hydration: Due to the chemistry involved in the electricity generation it is required that hydration level of the system doesn‟t go below specific limits. delivery is expected to be very costly as well as unstable. Tata Energy Research Institute (TERI). requiring huge investment from all the stakeholders involved. A look at the value chain and players reveals that globally and in India players like A and B exists. some of the component pieces are made from highly expensive materials. Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. built in a vehicle with light weight. While A exists in component development and supply B exists across stack development and system development and integration.development of a highly efficient and successful marketable vehicle model . cost. Infrastructure: Fuel required for fuel cells is either pure hydrogen or some other chemical from which it can be produced easily. infrastructure required in generation. Storage and other considerations: A vehicle may need to run several hundred kilometers in a stretch. Only hope for this infrastructure being built is . it is required that it has a robust and safe hydrogen storage system. Indian Institute of Science and Central Glass & Ceramic Research Institute. Several Indian and MNC firms are working on its development. Significant research is being done in this area and solutions are on their way. and Reva Electric Car Company. a concept vehicle from Honda (FCX Concept Vehicle). (BHEL). Having a high pressure hydration system and maintaining seal integrity of the system in itself is not a simple task to achieve. still it is considered a very promising technology. storing. Among these Reva is in most advanced stage of developing fuel cells whom company reportedly plans to use in its range of vehicles. For example there are fuel cells which can be operated on or near room temperature .requires precious metal platinum as catalyst for the reaction to take place. and high safety measures. Opportunity in Indian Market: Though there are several problems with fuel cells being used on a wide scale basis in India. beside a slight impurity in fuel may raise the temperature of the overall fuel cell. Indian Railways. and for such a journey to take place with the help of a fuel cell driven automobile.the range of 65%.which is nowhere in sight as of now. so we require high tolerance material for the cell. Some of the agencies involved in the research and development of fuel cells in India are Ministry of New and Renewable Energy Sources (MNES) and Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC). volume. Durability: Fuel cells which are used in automotive units needs to have specialized materials as frequency of start and stop for a vehicle could be significantly high thus affecting stability and durability of the materials used in it. One very important challenge is to find a cheaper and alternative catalyst for the process.
using ink-jet printing technology. A profit pool analysis should be done for Greenfield operations. At least three million pounds from the Research Councils UK Energy Programme with resources from India through the Department of Science & Technology (DST) has been committed to collaborative research projects addressing this area.com/index.jumping the hurdles limiting polymer fuel-cell performance and commercialisation .will focus on developing solid oxide fuel cells. Mind The Gap .led by Imperial College London and the Centre for Fuel Cell Technology in Chennai. Captive power generation is also expected to drive growth of Indian fuel cell industry: Source: http://knowledgefaber.There is an opportunity to play in different parts of the value chain of the fuel cell industry. durability and reliability of the fuel cell.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=33&Itemid=4 2 Posted by Kuldeep at 3:16 AM 0 comments Email ThisBlogThis!Share to TwitterShare to Facebook Labels: drivers for fuel cell in india. . that operate at much lower temperatures. to address issues such as cost reduction. limitations of fuel cell Joint research between UK and India on fuel cell In September 2010 fuel cells had been identified by India and the UK as an area of significance in providing solutions to the problem of meeting future energy needs. The four projects recommended for funding under the India-UK Collaborative Research Initiative in Fuel Cells are: Jetcell . fuel cells in developing countries.led by Cambridge University and the Non-Ferrous Materials Technology Development Centre in Hyderabad . fuel cell opportunity india.
June 21. given the vast economies of scale in India. thus generating energy from waste. with GDP growth of around 6% per year since the early 1990‟s. Advancing Biogas Use Through Fuel-Flexible SOFCs . when market liberalisations began. The understanding gained from these experiments and the developed model can be used to develop materials that give improved performance or can perform at lower temperatures. newly emerging economies and economies in transition that will increasingly shape the 21st century supply and demand for energy. cutting the cost and robustness of the catalysts in the system and improving overall efficiency.org.g. even relatively modest GDP growth may result in large numbers of people being lifted out of poverty and joining the growing middle-class in India who are fuelling a consumer boom. represents a huge prospective market for fuel cells.led by Keele University and the Indian Institute of Technology in Madras . Jonathan Butler of Fuel Cell Today has published a report in June 2007 on the developments related to fuel cell in India. India-UK funding results Tuesday. As a nation it has a history of technological innovation.dst. This will look to improve the performance of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrodes for converting biogas into electricity. However. this is tempered by a huge gap between the wealthy and the poor. Some analysts have predicted 10-12% growth per year over the next decade. reduced degradation and better tolerance to contaminants in the fuel.html Posted by indiafuelcell at 2:13 AM 0 comments Email ThisBlogThis!Share to TwitterShare to Facebook Labels: Department of Science and Technology.will be modelling accelerated ageing and degradation of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) to serve as a useful tool to understand the degradation mechanism.in/whats_new/whats_new10/cop_rcuk. and peak GDP growth of 8% in 2005-6. with over a billion people. One of the biggest challenges to India‟s continued growth is the development of an .The team is researching into reducing the necessary quality of fuel needed for the fuel cell. there are tens to hundreds of millions of people who can aff ord electrical power: a massive market by any standards. Market overview India has experienced dramatic economic growth over the past decade. Modelling Accelerated Ageing & Degradation of SOFCs .pdf http://www. diesel generators) is out of reach for a large proportion of India‟s population. an energy distribution system that is unreliable and non-pervasive and problems with theft of electricity from the grid. It is one of a number of countries including former Soviet states. Using fuel cells in this way could potentially increase the efficiency of this process significantly compared with the process of thermal conversion employed today.gov. The article is provided in this blog. References: http://www.uk/lps/environmentenergy/item/147100. 2011 Fuel Cells in India: A survey of current developments 2007 Dr.led by the University of St Andrews and the Central Glass & Ceramic Research Institute in Kolkata. India.londonpressservice. fuel cell funding india. Either way. many of whom lack access to reliable power. a track record of technological leap-frogging and a highly skilled and adaptable work force. fuel cell research. Whilst aff ordability of conventional power resources (e. although many suggest more modest rates of 3-5%.
eff ective infrastructure. Power distribution is also a problem for urban India. In addition to buses. Eventually. Indeed.000 are motorbikes and 100. particularly 2. but is still in the developmental stage. which add to urban air pollution. The Indian government plans to build nine 4000 MW coal fi red power plans in the next five years. including taxis.3 million 2-wheelers are sold per month. putting further strain on a system that is already struggling to meet existing demand.000 deaths per year in south east Asia. There has been a concerted effort in some Indian cities to move to less polluting forms of public transport. In 2004. There is a great need for clean. There is currently some discussion as to whether DMFC should be the initial route for India. have been linked to respiratory diseases which are thought to cause 484. Aware of the shortages of supply. Delhi. manufacturer of India‟s fi rst electric car. This gives a total of around 16 million 2-wheelers sold per year in India.000 are bicycles. banned diesel buses from its streets following a Supreme Court ruling in 1998 and now runs its 10. followed by hydrogenfuelled PEM units for transport in the longer term. Ultra Motors. The large potential market for fuel cells in India raises the prospect for significant economies of scale in the commercialisation of fuel cells. although there is no concrete strategy to meet growing demand.g. 500. This project would enable dispensing of neat hydrogen and hydrogen-CNG blends as automotive fuel. A variety of non-conventional energy resources are currently exploited to meet the heating and power needs of rural populations. although this potential has yet to be realised. Most businesses and better-off households have backup diesel generators. A demonstration project for setting up a hydrogen dispensing unit at a fi lling station in New Delhi has been sanctioned between the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy Sources (MNES) and the Indian Oil Corporation. 69% of India‟s population relied on biomass for cooking. the Indian automobile sector has been growing at a rate of 16% each year since 2001.and 3wheeled vehicles. There have been moves by some companies to introduce battery-powered bikes (e. Cities such as Delhi have a history of . wood and cow-dung burning stoves. for instance. and eventually to install fuel cells. The power requirements of bikes and scooters is relatively small and could easily be met by Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFCs) or hydrogen-powered Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells. The Indian Power Ministry estimates that around 40% of power is stolen from the grid by informal and illegal hook-ups to the overhead or underground network. India has a large and growing market for personal transportation. Some of these have severe drawbacks. Delhi plans to move away from CNG to using hydrogen in internal combustion engines. Two issues key to this are provision of reliable distributed power (particularly for remote locations) and energy for transport. and are used during frequent power outages. that power needs to be aff ordable.000 are scooters. Remote power generation is important in India as many rural locations lack regular access to grid power. Around 1. REVA electric car company. who have produced over 100. The lack of reliable electrical power in India has a very real potential to curb future economic growth. These figures are only expected to rise as India‟s economy grows. which ranked as one of the world‟s worst cities for urban air pollution. has a fuel cell version of the REVA-EV at developmental stage. some 3-wheelers and taxis in Delhi already run on CNG and number in the tens to hundreds of thousands. many Indian companies have their own private distributed power supply either for primary or backup power.000-strong fl eet of buses on compressed natural gas (CNG). Many of India‟s cities suff er from severe air pollution caused partly by the large number of mopeds and scooters with ineffi cient and polluting engines.000 units in two years). above all. This is part of a progressive plan to „green‟ all municipal vehicles. Out of these. 750. reliable primary sources of power in rural communities but.
and environmental protection. containing such manufacturing centres as Mumbai.and . The development path outlined in the Roadmap would fulfi l several of the government‟s key objectives. Delivering distributed power is one of the key challenges for the energy sector in India. Indian fuel cell activity The majority of organisations involved with fuel cells in India are R&D orientated. taxis. The Indian military runs a wholly-CNG fl eet of vehicles and there are moves to make all government vehicles run on CNG.CNG blends on a trial basis in existing CNG vehicles is currently in the planning stage. India hopes to „leapfrog‟ conventional technologies by introducing new hydrogen technology in markets such as 2. with the remaining 96% going towards creating an infrastructure for hydrogen production. Of the companies actively engaged with developing fuel cells in India. An investment of 2. transportation and distribution. buses and vans. This will be done by a gradual shift to hydrogen fuel blended into the fuel of existing CNG vehicles starting with 5-10% hydrogen blends and increasing to 30%. around 4% would be for research. but the market is still far from maturation. development and demonstration. and sees the most activity on fuel cells. Organisations involved in fuel cells are mainly grouped around the New Delhi/Maharashtra region. some preliminary activities are ongoing in hydrogen/fuel cell development. India currently struggles in effective power distribution in domestic and agricultural settings as well as some urban areas. storage. In 2004. the Green Initiative for Future Transport and the Green Initiative for Power Generation. again as a preliminary to establishing an all-hydrogen fl eet. The Roadmap was approved by NHEB in early 2006 and identifi ed two major initiatives. New Delhi. This refl ects partly the strength in fuel cell research in some of India‟s leading Institutes of Technology and partly the nature of several companies who are working on fuel cells but have yet to commercialise them.1 million) is envisaged between 2006 and 2020 in order to realise this. Indian railways have plans to build a hydrogen fuel cell powered train. but this appears not to have materialised. most are concentrating on small stationary units. with a smaller number involved with distribution and manufacture.000 MW of aggregate hydrogen power capacity in the country by 2020. A project for the introduction of hydrogen. cars. This will be followed by 100% hydrogen ICE vehicles in the next 10-20 years.The Roadmap envisages that one million hydrogen fuelled vehicles will be on Indian roads by 2020 and there will be 1. Of this. The automotive sector is the next most common application focus of fuel cell manufacturers in India. Karnataka. namely energy independence. using a 500 kW PEM module. India‟s centre for IT and telecommunications. Stationary fuel cells could fill this gap and are being promoted by various government programmes.„leapfrogging‟ in technological innovations: diesel buses were replaced by CNG buses in just 5 years. The fi rst of these aims at developing hydrogen powered internal combustion engine and fuel cell based vehicles ranging from small two and three wheeled vehicles. In both public and personal transport. Maharashtra is India‟s most industrialised state. Uttar Pradesh and Tamil Nadu are home to companies engaged in signifi cant fuel cell development. it was announced that 8 fuel cell buses will be introduced in Delhi as part of a UN Development Programme project. poverty reduction.5 billion rupees (around $6. is also home to several fuel cell companies and R&D organisations. Industrial users have long used conventional sources to supply their own distributed power and are now looking towards fuel cells to provide either stationary backup power or the main source of power in future. rural electrifi cation.
electric and hybrid vehicles and power generation to. Given the ambitious timescale for the introduction of widespread hydrogen technology (less than 13 years). Expertise in production and infrastructure will have to be developed for hydrogen to be used in CNG blends. MNES has an installed capacity of around 7200 MW. biogas and biomass. biological. The Roadmap addresses issues relating to hydrogen production. small hydro. MNES also sponsors a number of emerging and new technologies. and indeed US-based Hydrogen Engine Centre recently shipped a hydrogen fuelled generator to Grasim Industries‟ chloralkali plant in India. The commitment to 1. one of the world‟s few dedicated ministries focusing on alternative energy sources. the Ministry set up a National Hydrogen Energy Board (NHEB). academia and NGOs. the roadmap sets out plans to research hydrogen production from coal gasifi cation. guided by government with support from research organisations. which make up some 81% of the vehicles sold each year in India. one of India‟s biggest companies. seen as key challenges to successful implementation of a hydrogen economy.3-wheeled bikes and auto-rickshaws. The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy Sources (MNES). India hopes to eventually be a regional leader in hydrogen powertrain vehicles. CEO of Tata Group. The Board published a National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap in 2005 which set out an ambitious transition to a hydrogen economy by 2020. A smaller amount is produced as a by-product of the chlor-alkali industry. In 2003. is committed to increasing the use of renewable energy sources both in order to guarantee the country‟s energy security and ensure a more environmentally sustainable energy base. The Ministry has strengths in „conventional‟ renewables such as wind. a loose interpretation of hydrogen technology will probably by used. biomass. around 6% of the installed power generation capacity in the country. MNES estimates that there is a potential of around 80. the Roadmap is an important step in the direction of fuel cells and a hydrogen economy. hydrogen based economy. By adopting established technologies early over short development cycles. From these sources.000 MW of aggregate hydrogen generating capacity by 2020 is likely to include a large proportion of hydrogen used for combustion in conventional thermal power plants. The resulting capacity for hydrogen production and distribution may pave the way for more widespread adoption of hydrogen fuel cells. in particular fuel cells and hydrogen energy. a carbon-free. Nonetheless. nuclear energy. A smaller amount of power will probably come from PEM fuel cells running on direct hydrogen and MCFCs running on natural gas although their widespread introduction will likely be later than 2020. photovoltaic electrolysis of water and other renewable methods. The second strand of the Roadmap aims to develop and demonstrate a hydrogen powered engine/turbine and fuel cell based decentralised power generating system of ~1000 MW aggregate capacity by 2020. solar thermal. ultimately. rather than fuel cell powertrains. The objectives in the Roadmap are deliberately vague. Coal gasifi cation is commercially available and there are plans to set up a pilot . the commitment to 1 million hydrogen fuelled vehicles will probably include a large proportion of vehicles with hydrogen-CNG blends fuelling Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) powertrains. Both of these initiatives will be conducted as a public-private partnership and will be an industry-driven planning process. Most hydrogen in India is currently produced by steam reformation of methane. In order to guarantee energy security and address environmental concerns. NHEB is chaired by Ratan Tata. storage and delivery. This plan envisaged a move away from petroleum based automobiles and power generation at present to bio-fuel and synthetic fuel based vehicles. solar photovoltaics.000 MW of power from renewables.
a sector that employs over 13 million people and contributes 5% of India‟s total GDP. However. nuclear and solar will have to be pursued in parallel together with other energy resources. Therefore. Tata Motors and Mahindra Motors. compactness and cost need to be met if the Roadmap is to achieve its objectives by 2020. storage and end use technologies as alternative energy carrier. A recent Indian government report concluded that no single production technology is likely to meet the requirement of hydrogen for the new and emerging applications in power generation and the transport sector in the near and medium term. such as solar energy (electrolysis. hydrogen technology comes fairly low down the list of priorities for energy. useful life cycle. The biological route for hydrogen production is still in a pre-commercial stage although a demonstration plant has been set up.plant. Metal hydrides with 2. as India currently imports about two-thirds of its requirement of . Several major motor manufactures are said to be entering into partnership with the government on developing hydrogen power. The government believes the sector will continue to grow and account for more than 10% of GDP by 2016. Regarding hydrogen combustion and fuel cell technologies required to fully implement the Roadmap.4% storage are claimed by Indian scientists.and 3. the market for hydrogen and fuel cell vehicles is also expected to grow. all possible production options should be pursued for now. Solid oxide fuel cells for large stationary applications are in the early stages of being developed by the Central Glass and Ceramics Research Institute (CGCRI). especially if the government sticks to NHEB‟s ambitious plans for 1 million hydrogen vehicles by 2020. These manufacturers are actively looking for international partners. the Indian government unveiled a roadmap for the development of the Indian automotive sector.wheel vehicles whilst compressed hydrogen storage tanks are more likely to be used for buses and larger vehicles. India is heavily dependent on imported fossil fuels for meeting its ever-increasing energy demands. Hydrogen production from other renewable sources. Within this context. This is particularly true for the transport sector. In December 2006. photolytic. The Indian Institute of Technology (IIT). a dedicated hydrogen combustion engine is said to be in development. and nuclear and clean coal technology appear to be given more priority. Madras aims for 3-5% storage in light metal hydrides and carbon materials.and 3. including Asok-Leyland. Metal hydride storage currently shows most promise for small 2. Steps recommended for uptake in the Five Year Plan include developing hydrogen production. photo-electrochemical and thermal splitting) is proposed in the Roadmap but is not apparently being worked on at present.wheel vehicles). and various goals. Hydrogen storage is seen as another key challenge. PEM Fuel Cells for stationary applications and automobiles will be bought from commercial manufacturers outside India (refl ected in the proportion of the Roadmap‟s budget set for R&D). Production of hydrogen from nuclearpowered electrolysis has not yet been conducted and is partly dependent on India‟s nuclear programme and continued negotiations with the United States. including effi ciency of storage. Some of the Indian Institutes of Technology have been very active in developing techniques for hydrogen storage. India currently produces 10 million vehicles per year (including 2. A report on the energy R&D working group for the Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-2012) recognises that there is no „silver bullet‟ for solving India‟s energy needs and that clean coal technology. IIT Madras has been experimenting with carbon nanomaterials and has achieved reproducibility of 2% hydrogen storage.
Several research. Their work involves designing. This does not necessarily fulfi l India‟s key objective of security of fuel supply since CNG and hydrogen are still largely derived from imported oil and gas and are also sensitive to variations in global prices. scientifi c and educational institutions. Despite the strong R&D base in Indian universities. The Department of Science and Technology (DST) has established a Centre for Fuel Cell Technology (CFCT) located in Chennai with the specifi c objective of demonstrating and validating commercial applications of PEM fuel cells in collaboration with industry. stacks and systems exist in India. no standard test procedures for fuel cells. In the fi rst 5 months of 2007. developing and testing PEM fuel cell stacks for electrical power and heat production. although eff ective maintenance may still be an issue. synthesising hydrogen absorbing alloys. Much of this research seems to concentrate on the development of hydrogen for combustion.Some of the R&D work sponsored by the MNES includes solar hydrogen production from water. Other materials that are being proposed for development are low cost hydrogen sensors and heat exchangers. India has been supporting a broad-based research. universities and industries are involved in implementing various projects on hydrogen energy technology. storage and use. . Ulimately. The Council for Scientifi c and Industrial Research (CSIR). rather than for fuel cells. R&D. catalysts and electrodes need to be researched. India hopes to produce hydrogen domestically and much R&D has focussed on ways to do this. and DMFCs. bipolar plates. Whether funding will be made available and research in these areas remains to be seen. laboratories. development and demonstration programme on hydrogen production. and this is one service that would currently have to be carried out abroad. and eventually hydrogen. despite the apparent lack of funds available in the sector. In particular membranes. Already several companies in the stationary power and automotive sectors are said to be looking for international collaborations on fuel cells for distributed generation and transport applications. but this is seen as a necessary „path‟ to eventual adoption of fuel cells. high temperature fuel cells (MCFC and SOFC). The Working Group on R&D for the 11th Five Year Plan recently recommended that research should be carried out on system as well as materials development for low temperature fuel cells (alkaline and PEMFC). development of polymer membrane gas fi lters and demonstration of stationary hydrogen generators and hydrogen fuelled agricultural engines. high temperature reversible fuel cells.petroleum products. Fuel cell technology is taught as a subject at several Indian universities (see Key Players) although there is perceived to be a skills shortage. an industrial R&D organisation comprising diff erent institutes including the National Chemical Laboratory (NCL) and the Central Glass & Ceramic Research Institute (CGCRI). Through the MNES. three separate workshops on fuel cells took place in Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs). There is great potential for replacing petrol fuelled vehicles with CNG. there is currently little fuel cell manufacturing expertise. It is likely that fuel cells would be manufactured outside India then imported and sold with local partners. are actively researching PEM and other FC technology and have conducted several successful demonstrations. particularly for fuel cell manufacture and maintenance. manufacturing and commercialisation The last few years has seen considerable research activity in hydrogen and fuel cells in India. To date. CFCT has created 1-10 kW stacks for remote power generation which are expected to be available for commercialisation before the project‟s end in early 2009.
despite what various other reports may recommend. some of which are now being relaxed). Providing distributed and backup power generation are the two big immediate challenges in the stationary power sector. NCL and CECRI have developed a PEM FC stack which they report is set for commercialisation. High cost also remains a barrier to potential customers and the lack of manufacturing expertise in fuel cells means that working fuel cells have largely been restricted to demonstration projects. with energy security and environmental sustainability being two equally important longer term challenges. with the potential for vast economies of scale and a history of technological leapfrogging. one of India‟s leading companies. Cost and durability remain the biggest challenges to successful fuel cell adoption. manufacturing of fuel cell stacks and components.There are plans at the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Madras to develop PEMFC technology for decentralised power generation and automotive applications. Economies of scale are diffi cult to achieve from only a small number of fuel cell systems. The Council for Scientifi c and Industrial Research have a mission project involving a number of laboratories including the National Chemical Laboratory (NCL). India‟s government is committed to renewable energy technology.50% per annum growth compared with 3% for land lines. India has a history of „leapfrogging‟ in technology – mobile phones replaced land lines in parts of India before the land line infrastructure was even built. Bangalore is working on the development of alkaline and DMFCs.. This is refl ected in the allocation of budget by NHEB – the majority of funding goes to commercialisation rather than fundamental research. Cost reductions must be realised in raw materials. . The growth rate of mobiles in India now far exceeds that of land lines . including fuel cells. India has the potential for vast economies of scale if fuel cells fi nd commercial applications in transport and distributed generation . Without a widespread tradition of fuel cell manufacturing in India (unlike in parts of Europe and North America) critical economies of scale have not been realised and it is more likely that an Indian company wishing to use a fuel cell in its products would buy an off -the-shelf fuel cell from abroad. Summary: challenges and opportunities Despite some investment in fuel cell technology and a good amount of expertise among the academic community. such as the National Hydrogen energy roadmap. a new generation of high temperature SOFCs are reported to be under development. Pune. Despite the large amount of R&D going on in Indian research institutes. Despite high profi le objectives. it is more economical to buy critical FC components overseas and import them (despite high import tariff s in India. At the Central Glass and Ceramics Research Institute (CGCRI). the outlook for fuel cells is optimistic in the longer term. although like elsewhere.it is this potential demand that could bring the price of fuel cells down. This has happened with REVA motors who announced in 2005 it would be buying fuel cells for its FC car from Canada‟s Hydrogenics. India may do the same with FCs. The Institute is working on SOFCs and is planning activities in collaboration with Bharat Heavy Electrical Ltd. reliable distributed generation and urban transport. the biggest challenges to fuel cell commercialisation remains aff ordability and the shortage of skills in manufacturing and maintaining fuel cells. However. though the actual reduction in cost will be largely dependent on fuel cell type and application. India remains a relatively small market for fuel cells at present. Karaikudi and others. Central Electrochemical Research Institute (CECRI). price and demand for fuel cells is a chicken-andegg question. not for the novelty of the technology. Indian Institute of Science. but because there is a very real demand for clean.
government sponsored R&D is continuing. Indian companies are beginning to buy fuel cell stacks from established North American and European manufacturers and tailor them to their requirements. efficient forms of power generation in the stationary and transport sectors gives some room for cautious optimism for the Indian fuel cell market. At the same time. there is a huge potential demand for clean forms of micro-generation. Plans for coal gasifi cation and hydrogen production from photovoltaic electrolysis of water are already afoot. The NHEB and MNES also appear committed to investing in a hydrogen infrastructure. hydrogen could come from biomass. Indeed. This will partly depend on the ambitious National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap being implemented fully (although its objectives are unlikely to be met by 2020). hydrogen would have to come from sources other than petroleum. but in the long term. At the same time. already has a history of supporting new and renewable energy resources. India is committed to „energy independence‟ and environmental sustainability. including IT and call centres. There could also be potential for bio-alcohols to be used in fuel cells. the NHEB envisages 1 million hydrogen vehicles by 2020 (largely hydrogen-blend ICE initially. However. For this plan to be fully effective and in keeping with the Indian government‟s goals of reducing its reliance on foreign oil and cutting pollution. India has a unique potential demand for remote and transport power and the economies of scale possible in the Indian market makes means that hydrogen and fuel cells may have a promising future in the long term. largely diesel fuelled at present. All of this has to take place against a backdrop of growing demand for reliable .6 billion by 2050. in the immediate term the Indian government will attempt to meet the growing demand for electricity by building large coal-fi red (and eventually nuclear) power stations. and distribution issues being addressed and the cost of fuel cell technology being brought to within reach of more people. Indian government. long familiar with the insecurity of the grid supply. Industry. state and national level. and the fact that India has a national Ministry committed to this is encouraging. Many companies in the high tech „service‟ industry. production. although little commercial activity has so far resulted from this. There is a huge opportunity for hydrogen to replace oil in transport in the next few decades and help meet the goals of sustainability and energy security. but with increasing numbers of FC vehicles). and generating suffi cient renewable hydrogen or other fuel. The strong government support being given to clean. also have their own uninterrupted power systems. 5 million barrels of oil would be imported by 2030. although culturally this may not be acceptable in all parts of India. storage. The problems facing adoption of fuel cells for mirco-generation remain manufacturing fuel cells that are sufficiently durable and cheap that they are adopted on a widespread basis. Meeting these twin challenges of sustained economic growth and a burgeoning population means that the country will have a huge demand for energy over the next few decades. India imports 2 million barrels of oil per day and under a „business as usual‟ scenario envisaged by the International Energy Agency. including fuel cells. India estimates it needs to sustain economic growth at nearly 10% per year for at least 25 years to end poverty and meet the demands of a population expected to reach 1. rather than build their own systems from scratch.Providing reliable electrical power to meet growing demand is one of the biggest challenges facing India‟s energy sector. has largely invested in private distributed generation systems. at city. Given the problems of air pollution in India and its commitment to environmental sustainability. initially for hydrogen-CNG blends to fuel automobiles in some of the larger cities. India currently struggles to deliver power to the poor and to agriculture – those that need it most.
India‟s biggest engineering company. Hythane could be used as a fuel for vehicles. Bharat Heavy Electrical Ltd (BHEL) is working on developing PAFC and MCFC for distributed power generation and also focuses on preparing catalyst and fuel reformers to be used in fuel cell power plants. although in the long term. The hydrogen produced will mainly go towards providing materials for glass production. It is currently seeking partners for a joint venture. They have demonstrated distributed power systems. and is said to have initiated correspondence with a number of US fuel cell companies. a mix of hydrogen and natural gas. natural gas. butane and . which will come from other forms of energy if hydrogen and fuel cell power is not available at point of need. Eden Energy. Banaras Hindu University (BHU) is carrying out research and development of metal hydride storage methods for hydrogen and the use of hydrogen in internal combustion engines. an Australian producer of hydrogen fuels and equipment agreed to form a joint venture with Larsen & Toubro Ltd (L & T). It is planning to set up dedicated manufacturing facilities for the construction of PEMFC components (bipolarplates. will by late 2008 lead to a 50:50 joint venture for the manufacture in India of Eden‟s entire range of equipment for hydrogen and so-called Hythane. In 2001.) and systems in India. One possible application of this technology is in remote stationary power and backup power for villages. Birla Hitech focuses on the development of clean energy technology products with a particular focus on PEM fuel cells. Chennai. including hydrogen. Mumbai (BARC) is carrying out basic research on anode. propane. the institute started a fi eld trial with 10 motorcycles and added a three-wheeler to the fl eet in 2004. Karaikudi is said to have has developed and tested a MCFC stack. Central Electrochemical Research Institute (CECRI).power. Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd is involved in the development of PAFCs and plans to develop a 50 kW stack. cathode. Gas Authority of India Ltd (GAIL) is interested in promoting fuel cells for applications including industrial and residential power and auxiliary power. Key players engaged in FC development Acme Telepower is a company founded in 2003 which provides power solutions in the telecoms sector and services in the agriculture and environment sectors. It has already forged links with leading R&D agencies and institutions in India. food oil hydrogenation and metal annealing. It claims it could provide the fuel infrastructure in India for a wide range of suitable fuels. The demonstration programme is supported by India‟s Ministry of New and Renewable Energy Sources (MNES). stacks etc. The three-stage accord with Mumbai-based L & T. Bhabha Atomic Research Center. electrolyte and interconnecter materials for SOFC technology in conjunction with Indian Institute of Technology. There is a large requirement for stationary power in the telecoms sector in India and the company is currently looking for collaborations with fuel cell companies.
A methanol reformer was developed and integrated with a fuel cell system by IISc. Indian Institute of Technology (IIT). Indian Institute of Technology. Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd is the second largest automotive manufacturer in India. under a government funded project. This system is to be tested at the IIT Madras (Chennai) for its performance and reliability. Ministry of New and Renewable Energy Sources (MNES) is working with the Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC) and private sector partners in developing fuel cell buses for New Delhi. Indian Railways is currently building a FC powered shunting locomotive using a 500 kW PEM stack and battery bank for research purposes. including fuel cell and hybrid vehicles. Haldia Institute of Technology. producing a wide range of utility. They have developed SOFC anodes and electrolytes and are currently developing a complete SOFC unit of 5-10 kW capacity. Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT) and BHEL. It is also interested in taking part in fuel cell field trials. As part of an R&D project sponsored by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy Sources (MNES). MNES is supporting a number of projects on various aspects of hydrogen energy including . IIT Madras also has advanced studies ongoing on hydrogen storage in carbon nanotubes. light commercial and agricultural vehicles. It claims to be able to store up to 5% hydrogen reliably. No date has yet been set for its unveiling. research on SOFC is being done at IISc and CGCRI. A heat recovery system has been attached to the fuel cell system to utilise waste heat. Chemical Engineering Department based in West Bengal is currently carrying out projects on solar hydrogen production and the development of PEM fuel cells. They have developed one polymer electrolyte fuel cell and are currently developing microbial fuel cells. The company is currently working on alternative fuel technologies for automotive applications. Bangalore and Central Glass & Ceramic Research Institute (CGCRI). Department Metallurgical and Materials Engineering have been working on materials for solid oxide fuel cells since 2003. In addition. although these are at an early stage.methanol. The project aims to optimise the hydrogen-CNG blend for maximum performance and minimum emissions. Madras (Chennai) in collaboration with the Southern Petrochemical Industries Corporation Science Foundation (SPIC-SF) is developing a 250 watt DMFC stack. GAIL seeks to be actively involved in establishing a fuelling infrastructure for fuel cell vehicles in India. Indian Oil Corporation is participating in a project to introduce hydrogen-CNG blends on a trial basis in existing CNG vehicles. which would be used to fuel the vehicles. Work on developing a DMFC is underway at IISc. There are also some projects to produce hydrogen from alternative sources. SPIC-SF has also developed a PEM-based uninterrupted power supply (UPS) system. have developed catalysts and two fuel reformers for producing hydrogen from methanol. Kharagpur. Bangalore. It has a hydrogen dispensing facility at its R&D centre at Faridabad. Kolkata are involved in developing SOFC systems. Indian Institute of Science (IISc). although no fuel cell buses have yet appeared on the streets of New Delhi. Performance tests are being conducted.
Tata Energy Research Institute (TERI). Based in Bangalore. President Abdul Kalam launched REVA‟s fuel cell prototype on Technology Day in July 2004. which can be activated by solar radiation. now Fuel Cell Energy). such as Ballard Power Systems. was sanctioned to the Banaras Hindu University (BHU). In addition.5 kW PAFC stack imported from ERC (Energy Research Corporation. National Chemical Laboratory (NCL) has synthesised proton-conducting membranes using surface functionalisation. However the fuel cell car is in developmental stage and currently precommercial. MNES has funded the import of a 200 kW PAFC system to evaluate its operation. Tata Motors. as the Reva EV is comparatively cheaper in the international market. Work on a MCFC stack is underway at TERI and the Central Electrochemical Research Institute. As part of another R&D project. has said the company needed a partner because it did not have the resources to develop ecologically friendly technology by itself. Modifi cation of Nafi on membranes is being carried out to improve the operating characteristics of these membranes. A project for pilot-scale production of hydrogen by photo catalytic decomposition of water using a semiconductor photo catalyst. who also chairs the National Hydrogen Energy Board. Development of a kW-scale stack is currently underway with the aim of integrating it with a coal gasifier. SPIC-SF is working on PEM fuel cells and has developed FC stacks. The electric vehicles are exported. electrolyte tapes and electrolyte carriers. Reva has been working on fuel cell technologies. distribute and service Plug . it is necessary to develop suitable catalysts. is currently in talks with manufacturers of hybrid engines and fuel cells. TERI has tested the operation of an MCFC monocell on simulated coal gas. The company manufactures India‟s only electric (battery-powered) car – the Reva hatchback. is working on MCFC stack development for power generation and developing manufacturing techniques for electrodes. For commercial production of hydrogen using this technology. Reva (Reva Electric Car Company). SPIC Science Foundation has identifi ed a number of polymers and studied their suitability as an electrolyte in fuel cells. They have also demonstrated a fuel-cell battery hybrid vehicle using a 10 kW PEM power plant. Tata group Chairman. storage and utilisation of hydrogen as fuel. and the Ministry is currently providing funding for this. Work on the polymeric membranes is in progress. Research and development (R&D) projects have been advanced for producing hydrogen using eco-friendly methods and renewable energy sources. TERI has in the past demonstrated the use of digester gas (biogas) for generating electricity from a 2. which are active and durable. portable and transportation purposes. about the possibility of using their technology in future car models.production. Telecommunications Consultants India Ltd (TCIL) has entered into a non-exclusive agreement with US fuel cell manufacturer Plug Power to market. a non-government research organisation. Ratan Tata. It is also involved in designing PEM electrolyser and hydrogen sensors. India‟s third largest maker of passenger cars. Reva is a joint venture between the Maini Group India and AEV of California. Membranes having good proton transport behaviour have been identifi ed for use as electrolytes in batteries and fuel cells. Southern Petrochemical Industries Corporation Science Foundation (SPIC-SF) is engaged in PEMFC technology for applications such as stationary.
Since 2008. amid low levels of economic growth in developed nations. as developed market volumes shrink in 2012. the US has averaged polyethyelene (PE) exports of 2. “This dynamic and the Middle Eastern capacity additions that have come on stream over the same period have significantly added to the base of low-cost product available for export. The emergence of the US as a key player in the chemicals export market on the back of lower domestic gas prices has changed the dynamic of global export flows. with limited impact on the market.com/media/pdf/surveys/2007-India. .Power‟s GenCore product line to government entities and companies requiring telecoms power in India.” it said. as product flows are being redirected towards emerging regions. Fuel Cell Survey Home Subscribe to: Posts (Atom) Followers My report SINGAPORE (ICIS)--Petrochemical markets in Asia are likely to see increasing competition in 2012.fuelcelltoday.pdf Posted by Kuldeep at 2:08 AM 1 comments Email ThisBlogThis!Share to TwitterShare to Facebook Labels: FC Companies. Source: http://www. putting pressure on prices and volumes for high-cost exporters. “However. we would expect to see product rerouted towards growth markets. Strong demand growth and restocking of chemicals over the last two years have also allowed the increased volumes from the Middle East to be absorbed. the research firm said. HSBC Global Research said. according to a report by HSBC Global Research.” it said.5m tonnes/year – four times the average level over 1990-2007.
China will continue to be a major importer of most chemicals as refinery capacity growth fails to catch up with the domestic demand growth for petrochemicals and plastics. with markets such as India. “The emerging nations are not doing so badly. growth numbers are not sufficiently robust to suggest anything approaching a solid recovery in economic activity. Adib said demand recovery will be underpinned by the strong momentum of growth in emerging market economies. such as China and Brazil. including low levels of industry concentration. we expect to see intensifying competition for business in export markets – particularly in Asia. However. . according to HSBC Global Research. Demand for petrochemicals will likely be flat in some sectors.3% with a further 1. limited capacity for innovation and energy efficiency. Leading into 2012.” it said. according to analysts at accounting firm Deloitte. However.” DBS Group Research said in a research report.” Adib said. said Jurong Aromatics Corp CEO Mehdi Adid. to make up for some of the losses we‟re seeing now. will continue to be weighed by the expected slowdown in the world economy in 2012. said analysts at UBS Investment Research. We remain positive on the outlook for China and India. meanwhile. some of the smaller emerging nations – particularly some of the Asian exporters – are doubtless vulnerable to the deteriorating external economic environment. “Although China‟s chemical industry still has some challenges to overcome. China is expected to dominate the global chemical scene with the highest revenue increases on a percent basis.” the research firm said. “The problems are particularly acute in the developed world. the Chinese government‟s 12th Five-Year Plan will play a vital role in advancing the country‟s chemical industry.4% in 2012. the recovery is not expected to mean a full return to the boom years in the petrochemical industry. led by Western industrialised economies as the eurozone continues to struggle with its mounting debts and the US economy remains unstable. Asia‟s income and exports will suffer. he added. even if China has lost some of the momentum it exhibited in 2010. While global growth forecasts remain positive.“As this low-cost base now includes both the US and the Middle East. and slower in others that are directly linked to consumer goods. Brazil and South Korea not lagging far behind. Asian chemical markets. “I hope the 2014-2015 [petrochemical] cycle will be a good strong upward trend.” they added. it said.” HSBC Global Research said. citing a lag time in the effects on consumption during a financial crisis. where we now expect [economic] growth this year of just 1. “If Europe goes into a recession.
supported by lower demand and oil prices. gross integrated margins (GIM) and petrochemical spreads in Asia are expected to fall in 2012. This is also supported by lower demand and oil prices. he said. Due to the highly cyclical nature of the refinery and petrochemical industries and their strong correlation with GDP growth and oil prices. we have seen energy constraints drive China to increase imports at the expense of local production rates. “No wonder GRM is starting to fall and we expect this trend to continue into 2012. The restart of operations at refineries in Japan following the 11 March earthquake and tsunami will weigh on GRMs. with the remainder of shuttered units expected to come back online by the summer of 2012.“In the case of coal-based chemicals polyvinyl chloride [PVC] and methanol. . For urea.” the UBS analysts added. according to Abboud. according to Yousseff Abboud. an analyst at Thailand-based Thanachart Securities. Shell‟s refinery complex in Singapore is expected to return to its normal rate in early 2012.” Abboud added. we see China swinging from being a net exporter to importer. gross refining margins (GRM).