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To test the population mean, µ when the population variance, σ2, is known. z= x − µo σ n

1. Each year trainees throughout the country sit a test. Over a period of time it has been established that the marks can be modelled by a normal distribution with mean 70 and standard deviation 6. This year it was thought that trainees from a particular country did not perform as well as expected. The marks of a random sample of 25 trainees from the country were scrutinized and it was found that their mean mark was 67.3. Does this provide evidence, at the 5% significance level, that trainees from this country did not perform well as expected?

Ho : µ = 70 (trainees perform as expected) H1 : µ < 70 (trainees did not perform as expected) Reject Ho if z < - 1.645 X ~ N(70, z= 67.3 - 70 62 25 6 2 ) Reject Ho if P( X ≤ 67.3) < 0.05 P( X ≤ 67.3) 67.3 - 70 = P(Z ≤ ) 2 6 25 = P ( Z ≤ −2.25) = 1 − 0.9878 = 0.0122 < 0.05

25

= −2.25 < −1.645

Reject Ho. There is evidence that the trainees from this country did not perform well as expected.

2. The number of canned drinks sold in the canteen is normally distributed with mean 420 and standard deviation 12. As a student you are not

sure whether the claim made is true or not. You therefore selected a sample of 100 days and found that the mean number of canned drinks sold during the 100 days is 423. Is there evidence, at the 5% level of significance, of a change in the mean number of canned drinks sold?

Ho: µ = 420 (the mean number of canned drinks sold has not changed) H1: µ ≠ 420 (the mean number of canned drinks sold has changed) Reject Ho if z < - 1.960 or if z > 1.960 X ~ N(420, z= 423 - 420 12 2 100 12 2 ) Reject Ho if P( X ≥ 423) < 0.025 P( X ≥ 423) 423 - 420 = P(Z ≥ ) 2 12 100 = P ( Z ≥ 2.5) = 1 − 0.9938 = 0.0062

100

= 2.5 > 1.960

< 0.025 Reject Ho. The mean number of cans has sold has changed

3. The management of a large hospital states that the mean age of its patients is 45 years. Records of a random sample of 100 patients give a mean of 48.4 years. Using a population standard deviation of 18 years, test at the 5% significance level whether there is evidence that the mean age of its patients is more than 45 years? State clearly your null and alternative hypotheses.

Ho: µ = 45 (the mean age is 45 years) H1: µ > 45 (the mean age is more than 45 years) Reject Ho if z > 1.645 X ~ N(45, z= 48.4 - 45 18 2 100 18 2 ) Reject Ho if P( X ≥ 48.4) < 0.025 P( X ≥ 48.4) 48.4 - 45 = P(Z ≥ ) 2 18

100

100 = P ( Z ≥ 1.889) = 1 − 0.9759 = 0.0241 < 0.025

= 1.89 > 1.645

Reject Ho. The mean age is more than 45 years.

4. A machine packs flour into bags. A random sample of eleven filled bags were taken and the masses of the bags to the nearest 0.1 g were : 1506.8, 1506.6, 1506.7, 1507.2, 1506.9, 1506.8, 1506.6, 1507.0, 1507.5, 1506.3, 1506.4. Obtain the mean and the variance of this

5.

6.

7.

8.

sample showing your working clearly. Filled bags are supposed to have a mass of 1506.5 g. Assuming that the mass of a bag has normal distribution with variance 0.16 g2, test whether the sample provides significant evidence at the 5% level that the machines produce overweight bags. Solid fuel is packed in sacks which are then weighed on scales. It is known that if the full sacks weigh µ kg the weight recorded by the scales will be normally distributed with mean 35 kg and standard deviation 0.36 kg. A particular full sack was weighed 4 times and the weights recorded were 34.7, 34.4, 35.1 and 34.6 kg. Test whether the sample provides significant evidence at the 5% level that the mean weight has changed. The length of string in the balls of string made by a manufacturer has mean µ m and variance 27.4 m2. The manufacturer claims that µ = 300m. A random sample of 100 balls of string is taken and the sample mean is found to be 299.2 m. Test whether this provide significant evidence, at the 3% level, that the manufacturer is overstating the value of µ. It is claimed that the masses of components produced at a particular workshop are normally distributed with mean mass of 6g and a standard deviation of 0.8 g. If this claim is accepted, at the 5% level, on the basis of the mean mass obtained from a random sample of 50 components, between what values must the mean mass of the 50 components in the sample lie? Mass-produced washers have thicknesses which are normally distributed with mean 3 mm and standard deviation 0.2 mm. During a check on the manufacturing process a random sample of 25 washers is taken from production and the mean thickness is calculated. Find the interval in which the value of the mean thickness must lie in order that the hypothesis that the production mean thickness is 3 mm will not be rejected when the significance level is 5%.

x = 1506.8; s2= 0.109 z = 2.487 > 1.960, P( X ≥ 1506.8) = 0.0065 < 0.05 Reject Ho. The machines produce overweight bags z = 2.487 > 1.960, P( X ≥ 1506.8) = 0.0065 < 0.05 Reject Ho. The machines produce overweight bags z = -1.53 < -1.881; P( X ≤ 299.2) = 0.0633 < 0.03 Accept Ho. The manufacturer is not overstating the value of µ. 5.78 < x < 6.22 2.92 < x < 3.08

Answer

4.

5. 6. 7. 8.

Textbook: Exercise 11a Page 522 - 524 Miscellaneous Exercise 11e Page 554 - 557 To test the population mean, µ when the population variance, σ2 ,is unknown and sample size is large (n ≥ 30).

(In this case the population variance has to be estimated using unbiased estimator of the population variance). z= x − µo ˆ σ n

the

1. A manufacturer claims that the average life of his electric light bulbs is 2000 hours. A random sample of 64 bulbs is tested and the life, x, in hours is recorded. The results obtained are as follows:

∑ x = 127808

∑ ( x − x)

2

= 9694.6

Is there sufficient evidence to indicate that the manufacturer's claim is true at the five percent level?

Ho: µ = 2000 (the manufacturer’s claim is true) H1: µ ≠ 2000 (the manufacturer’s claim is not true) x=

∑ x = 127808 = 1997

11 64

ˆ2 σ =

∑ (x − x ) 2

n −1

=

9694.6 = 153.88 63

Reject Ho if z > 1.960 or z < -1.960 X ~ N(2000, z= 153.88 64 )

1997 - 2000 153.88 64

Reject Ho if P( X ≥ 1997) < 0.025 P( X ≥ 1997) 1997 - 2000 = P(Z ≥ ) 153.88 64 = P ( Z ≥ −1.935) = 1 − 0.9734 = 0.0266 > 0.025

= − 1.93 > − 1.960

Accept Ho. The manufacturer’s claim is true.

2. A certain type of battery for calculators is claimed to last for 12 months, on average. A sample of 100 of these batteries was tested and the following results were obtained: Σx = 1164.2 months, Σx2 = 13911.6 months. Test at the 1% level of significance whether the claim overstates the value of µ .

Ho: µ = 12 (the manufacturer is not overstating the value of µ) H1: µ < 12 (the manufacturer is overstating the value of µ)

x=

∑ x = 1164.2 = 11.642

11 100 1 ∑ x2 − n −1

ˆ2 σ =

( ∑ x) 2 =

n

Reject Ho if z < - 2.326 X ~ N(12, z= 3.616 100 )

1 13911.6 − ( 1164.2 ) 99 100

2

= 3.616

11.642 - 12 3.616 100

Reject Ho if P( X ≤ 11.642) < 0.01 P( X ≥11.642) 11.642 - 12 = P(Z ≤ ) 3.616 100 = P ( Z ≥ −1.883) = 1 − 0.9701 = 0.0299 > 0.01

= − 1.88 > − 2.326

Accept Ho. The manufacturer is not overstating the value of µ.

3. An electronic device is advertised as being able to retain information stored in it for “70 to 90 hours” after power has been switched off. In experiments carried out to test this claim, the retention time, in hours, X, was measured on 250 occasions, and the data obtained is 2 summarized by ∑ (x − 76) = 683 and ∑ ( x − 76) = 26,132 . The population

mean and variance of X are denoted by µ and σ2 respectively. Test the hypothesis that µ = 80 against the alternative hypothesis that µ < 80 using a 5% significance level. Significant

x=

∑ ( x − 76 )

n

+ 76 =

683 + 76 = 78.732 250 2 = 1 26132 − (683) = 97.45 249 250

ˆ2 σ =

2 1 ∑ ( x − 76) 2 − ∑ ( x − 76) n − 1 n

Ho: µ = 80 H1: µ < 80 Reject Ho if z < -1.645 X ~ N(80, 97.45 250 ) = −2.03 z= 78.732 - 80 97.45 250

< −1.645

= P(Z ≤ P( X ≥ 78.732)

78.732 - 80 97.45 250

)

= P ( Z ≤ −2.031) = 1 − 0.9788 = 0.0212 < 0.05 Reject Ho. µ < 80

4. A normal distribution is thought to have a mean of 50. A random sample of 100 gave a mean of 52.6 and a standard deviation of 14.5. Is there evidence that the population mean has increased? Test at the 5% level. 5. A shopkeeper complains that the average weight of chocolate bars of a certain type that he is buying from a wholesaler is less than the stated value of 8.5 g. The shopkeeper weighed 100 bars from a large delivery and found that their weights had a mean of 8.36 g and standard deviation of 0.72 g. Using a 5% significance level, determine whether or not the shopkeeper is justified in his complaint. 6. At an early stage in analyzing the marks scored by the large number of candidates in an examination paper, the Examination Board takes a random sample of 250 candidates and finds that the marks, x, of these candidates give Σ x = 11872, Σ x2 = 646193. Using the figures obtained in this sample, the null hypothesis µ = 49.5 is tested against the alternative hypothesis µ < 49.5 at the α % significance level. Determine the set of values of α for which the null hypothesis is rejected. 7. Salt is packed in bag which the manufacturer claims to contain 35 kg each, on average. A random sample of 80 bags is examined and the mass, x kg, of the contents of each bag is determined. It is found that ∑ (x − 25) = 27.2 and ∑ ( x − 25) 2 = 85.1 . Test at the 10% level whether the manufacturer is understating the average mass of the contents of the bag. Textbook: Exercise 11a Page 522 - 524 Miscellaneous Exercise 11e Page 554 - 557

Answer

2 2 4. x = 52.6 σ 2 = ns = 100(14.5) = 212.37 , ˆ n −1 99 z = 1.784 > 1.645; P( X ≥ 52.6) < 0.05 = 0.0371 < 0.05. Reject Ho. The population mean has increased.

2 2 5. x = 8.36 , σ 2 = ns = 100(0.72) = 0.5236 ˆ n −1 99 z = -1.935 < -1.645; P( X ≤ 8.36) = 0.0265 < 0.05 Reject Ho. The shopkeeper is justified in his complaint. 1 x 11872 ∑ x2 − ( ∑ x) ˆ2 6. x = ∑ = = 47.448 , σ = n −1 n 11 250 2 2 1 = 646193 − ( 11872 ) = 330.99 249 250

Therefore Ho is rejected if α > 4.01% 7. z = 3.103 > 1.282 reject Ho – understating (significant)

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