SPS Affirmative

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***1AC*** ............................................................................................................................................................. 6 Advantage 1 is U.S. Leadership .............................................................................................................................. 8 Scenario 1 is International Cooperation ................................................................................................................ 10 Scenario 2 is Competitiveness .............................................................................................................................. 13 Scenario 3 is Space Supremacy ............................................................................................................................ 16 Scenario 4 is Readiness and Power Projection ..................................................................................................... 20 Scenario 2 is India ................................................................................................................................................. 22 Advantage 3 is Resource Wars ............................................................................................................................. 25 Scenario 1 is Oil .................................................................................................................................................... 26 Scenario 2 is Water ............................................................................................................................................... 30 Advantage 4 is the Environment ........................................................................................................................... 31 Scenario 1 is Warming .......................................................................................................................................... 31 Scenario 2 is Natural Disasters ............................................................................................................................. 33 Scenario 3 is Ice Age ............................................................................................................................................ 35 Advantage 5 is Tech Spillover .............................................................................................................................. 37 Advantage 6 is the Economy ................................................................................................................................ 38 Advantage 7 is Asteroids ...................................................................................................................................... 40 Solvency................................................................................................................................................................ 41 *****LEADERSHIP***** .................................................................................................................................. 45 SPS Inevitable – k2 Heg ....................................................................................................................................... 46 Impact – Ferguson................................................................................................................................................. 47 ***SPACE SUPREMACY***............................................................................................................................. 48 Inherency – China Rise (1/2) ................................................................................................................................ 49 Inherency – China Rise (2/2) ................................................................................................................................ 50 Inherency – US Decline ........................................................................................................................................ 51 Solvency XTN – Aerospace Primacy (1/2) .......................................................................................................... 52 Solvency XTN – Aerospace Primacy (2/2) .......................................................................................................... 53 Solvency XTN – Aerospace Primacy (3/3) .......................................................................................................... 54 I/L XTN – Aerospace k2 Heg ............................................................................................................................... 55 I/L XTN – Aerospace k2 Conventional Wars....................................................................................................... 56 I/L XTN – Aerospace k2 International Co-op ...................................................................................................... 57 A2 Space Wars ...................................................................................................................................................... 59 A2 Air Force/Army Tradeoff ................................................................................................................................ 60 A2 Hostile Hegemony........................................................................................................................................... 61 A2 – Heg Bad........................................................................................................................................................ 62 ***COMPETITIVENESS*** .............................................................................................................................. 63 Solvency XTN – Tech Leadership ........................................................................................................................ 64 Solvency XTN – Tech Leadership/Civil Programs .............................................................................................. 66 I/L XTN – Competitiveness k2 Heg ..................................................................................................................... 67 Impact Module – Economy................................................................................................................................... 68 ***INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION *** .................................................................................................... 69 Inherency – China ................................................................................................................................................. 70 Solvency XTN – U.S. Soft Power Leadership (1/2) ............................................................................................. 71 Solvency XTN – U.S. Soft Power Leadership (2/2) ............................................................................................. 72 Solvency XTN – International (1/3) ..................................................................................................................... 73 Solvency XTN – International (2/3) ..................................................................................................................... 74

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Solvency XTN – International (3/3) ..................................................................................................................... 75 Solvency XTN– Developing Countries ................................................................................................................ 76 Solvency XTN – European Union ........................................................................................................................ 77 Impact – Space Wars ............................................................................................................................................ 78 Impact – US China Space War ............................................................................................................................. 79 ***INDIA*** ....................................................................................................................................................... 80 Solvency XTN – Bilateral Co-op (1/4) ................................................................................................................. 81 Solvency XTN – Bilateral Co-op (2/4) ................................................................................................................. 82 Solvency XTN – Bilateral Co-op (3/4) ................................................................................................................. 83 Solvency XTN – Bilateral Co-op (4/4) ................................................................................................................. 84 A2 – China Conflict (1/2) ..................................................................................................................................... 85 A2 – China Conflict (2/2) ..................................................................................................................................... 86 Impact Module – Indo-Pak War ........................................................................................................................... 87 ***READINESS***............................................................................................................................................. 89 Solvency XTN – Flexible Deployment (1/3) ........................................................................................................ 90 Solvency XTN – Flexible Deployment (2/3) ........................................................................................................ 91 Solvency XTN – Flexible Deployment (3/3) ........................................................................................................ 92 Solvency XTN – Easy Integration ........................................................................................................................ 93 I/L XTN – Flexibility k2 Heg ............................................................................................................................... 94 *****ENVIRONMENT***** ............................................................................................................................. 95 Solvency - Generic ................................................................................................................................................ 96 Impact – Biodiversity............................................................................................................................................ 97 Impact Module – Acid Rain .................................................................................................................................. 98 Impact – Nuclear Escalation ................................................................................................................................. 99 ***WARMING***............................................................................................................................................. 100 Solvency XTN – CO2 Buildup (1/2) ................................................................................................................... 101 Solvency XTN – CO2 Buildup (2/2) ................................................................................................................... 102 Impact XTN – Extinction (1/2) ........................................................................................................................... 103 Impact XTN – Extinction (2/2) ........................................................................................................................... 104 Impact Magnifier – Feedback Cycle ................................................................................................................... 105 A2 ―No Warming/Threat‖................................................................................................................................... 106 A2 ―Not Anthro‖ ................................................................................................................................................. 107 A2 ―Models Wrong‖ ........................................................................................................................................... 108 ***NATURAL DISASTERS*** ....................................................................................................................... 109 Solvency XTN – Disaster Relief......................................................................................................................... 110 Solvency XTN – Weather Control ...................................................................................................................... 111 ***RESOURCE WARS*** ............................................................................................................................... 112 Inherency – Energy Demands ............................................................................................................................. 113 Solvency XTN – Resource Wars ........................................................................................................................ 114 ***OIL SCENARIO*** ..................................................................................................................................... 115 Inherency – Peak Oil ........................................................................................................................................... 116 Solvency XTN – Energy Independence (Non-Oil Specific)............................................................................... 117 Solvency XTN – Oil Dependence....................................................................................................................... 118 Impact Module – Hegemony .............................................................................................................................. 119 Solvency XTN – Heg .......................................................................................................................................... 120 ***TECHNOLOGY SPILLOVER*** ............................................................................................................... 121

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SPS Affirmative

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Solvency XTN – Key to NASA/NASA Cred (1/2) ............................................................................................ 122 Solvency XTN – Key to NASA/NASA Cred (1/2) ............................................................................................ 123 Solvency XTN – Tech Innovation (1/2) ............................................................................................................. 124 Solvency XTN – Tech Innovation (2/2) ............................................................................................................. 125 Solvency XTN – Fed k2 Tech Innovation .......................................................................................................... 126 Solvency XTN – k2 Other Space Exploration (1/2) ........................................................................................... 127 Solvency XTN – k2 Other Space Exploration (2/2) ........................................................................................... 128 Solvency XTN – k2 Other Satellites (Efficiency) .............................................................................................. 129 Solvency XTN – Fed k2 Tech Innovation .......................................................................................................... 130 Impact Module – Asteroids ................................................................................................................................. 131 Solvency XTN – Asteroids ................................................................................................................................. 132 Impact XTN – Hegemony ................................................................................................................................... 133 Impact XTN – Solves Disasters (Generic).......................................................................................................... 134 Impact Module – Asteroid Mining ..................................................................................................................... 135 Impact Module – Missile Defense ...................................................................................................................... 136 Solvency XTN – Bistatic Radar .......................................................................................................................... 137 Solvency XTN – Kickass Radar ......................................................................................................................... 138 Impact Module – Colonization ........................................................................................................................... 139 Solvency XTN – Colonization ............................................................................................................................ 140 Tech Production – Semiconductors .................................................................................................................... 141 Tech Production – UAVs .................................................................................................................................... 142 Tech Production – Moon Development/Space Debris........................................................................................ 143 Impact Module – Space Based Missile Defense ................................................................................................. 144 *****ECONOMY***** .................................................................................................................................... 145 Solvency XTN – Industry Development............................................................................................................. 146 Solvency XTN – Economic Transition ............................................................................................................... 147 ***ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE*** ............................................................................................................. 148 Disaster Advantage ............................................................................................................................................. 149 Poverty Advantage .............................................................................................................................................. 150 *****Affirmative Extensions***** ................................................................................................................... 159 ***SOLVENCY*** ........................................................................................................................................... 160 Impact Calculus .................................................................................................................................................. 161 Solvency Shield – Generic .................................................................................................................................. 162 NSSO Prodict ...................................................................................................................................................... 163 Dwayne Day Indict ............................................................................................................................................. 164 Federal Action Key – Resources (1/2) ................................................................................................................ 166 Federal Action Key – Resources (1/2) ................................................................................................................ 167 Federal Action Key – Catalyzes Private Sector (1/4) ......................................................................................... 168 Federal Action Key – Catalyzes Private Sector (2/4) ......................................................................................... 169 Federal Action Key – Catalyzes Private Sector (3/4) ......................................................................................... 170 Federal Action Key – Catalyzes Private Sector (4/4) ......................................................................................... 171 A2 – Terrorism .................................................................................................................................................... 172 A2 – No Launch .................................................................................................................................................. 173 A2 – Radiation (1/2) ........................................................................................................................................... 174 A2 – Death Rays ................................................................................................................................................. 175 A2 – Ozone Holes (1/2) ...................................................................................................................................... 176

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SPS Affirmative

DDW 2011

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A2 – Ozone Holes - HAARP .............................................................................................................................. 178 A2 – Long Timeframe (1/3) ................................................................................................................................ 179 A2 – Long Timeframe (2/3) ................................................................................................................................ 180 A2 – Long Timeframe (3/3) ................................................................................................................................ 181 A2 – Too Expensive (1/2) ................................................................................................................................... 182 A2 – Too Expensive (2/2) ................................................................................................................................... 183 A2 – Too Expensive: Economies of Scale (1/3) ................................................................................................. 184 A2 – Too Expensive: Economies of Scale (2/3) ................................................................................................. 185 A2 – Too Expensive: Economies of Scale (3/3) ................................................................................................. 186 A2 – Not Cost Competitive (1/3) ........................................................................................................................ 187 A2 – Not Cost Competitive (2/3) ........................................................................................................................ 188 A2 – Not Cost Competitive (3/3) ........................................................................................................................ 189 A2 – Unstable Energy Supply............................................................................................................................. 190 A2 – Other Alt Energies Better (1/2) .................................................................................................................. 191 A2 – Other Alt Energies Better (2/2) .................................................................................................................. 192 A2 – Nuclear Power Better (1/2) ........................................................................................................................ 193 A2 – Nuclear Power Better (2/2) ........................................................................................................................ 194 A2 – Solar Power Better (1/2) ............................................................................................................................ 195 A2 – Solar Power Better (2/2) ............................................................................................................................ 196 A2 – No Tech (1/7) ............................................................................................................................................. 198 A2 – No Tech (2/7) ............................................................................................................................................. 199 A2 – No Tech (3/7) ............................................................................................................................................. 200 A2 – No Tech (4/7) ............................................................................................................................................. 201 A2 – No Tech (5/7) ............................................................................................................................................. 202 A2 – No Tech (6/7) ............................................................................................................................................. 203 A2 – No Tech (7/7) ............................................................................................................................................. 204 A2 – No Tech: Thin Film (1/2) ........................................................................................................................... 205 A2 – No Tech: Thin Film (2/2) ........................................................................................................................... 206 A2 – Space Debris .............................................................................................................................................. 207 A2 – Inefficient (1/2) .......................................................................................................................................... 208 A2 – Inefficient (1/2) .......................................................................................................................................... 209 A2 – International Perception (1/2) .................................................................................................................... 210 A2 – International Perception (2/2) .................................................................................................................... 211 A2 – PPWT Violation ......................................................................................................................................... 212 A2 – Export Controls/Institutional Barriers ........................................................................................................ 213 A2 – Agent CPs .................................................................................................................................................. 214 A2 – International Actor CPs.............................................................................................................................. 215 A2 – Private/Free Market CPs (1/2) ................................................................................................................... 216 A2 – Private/Free Market CPs (2/2) ................................................................................................................... 217 A2 – Tenant Anchor CP (1/2) ............................................................................................................................. 218 A2 – Tenant Anchor CP (2/2) ............................................................................................................................. 219 A2 – Nuclear Powered Satellites CP .................................................................................................................. 220 A2 – Laser Powered Transmission CP ............................................................................................................... 221 A2 – Kritiks (Generic) ........................................................................................................................................ 222 *****POLITICS***** ....................................................................................................................................... 223 ***PLAN POPULAR*** ................................................................................................................................... 224

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Plan Popular – General ....................................................................................................................................... 225 Plan Popular – Senate ......................................................................................................................................... 227 Plan Popular – Bipartisan.................................................................................................................................... 228 Plan Popular – Castor.......................................................................................................................................... 231 Plan Popular – Lieberman ................................................................................................................................... 232 Plan Popular – Nelson ......................................................................................................................................... 233 Plan Popular – Pelosi .......................................................................................................................................... 234 Plan Popular – Reid ............................................................................................................................................ 235 Plan Popular – Schumer ...................................................................................................................................... 236 Plan Popular – Tea Party..................................................................................................................................... 237 Plan Popular – Solar Lobby ................................................................................................................................ 238 Plan Popular – Pickens Lobby ............................................................................................................................ 239 Plan Popular – A2 Fuel Lobbies ......................................................................................................................... 240 A2 – Flip Flop ..................................................................................................................................................... 241 ***PLAN UNPOPULAR*** ............................................................................................................................. 243 Plan Unpopular – General ................................................................................................................................... 244 Plan Unpopular – Congress ................................................................................................................................ 245 Plan Unpopular – Republicans............................................................................................................................ 246 Plan Unpopular – Partisan .................................................................................................................................. 250 Plan Unpopular – Oil/Fossil Fuel Lobby ............................................................................................................ 251 Plan Unpopular – Coal Lobby ............................................................................................................................ 252 Plan Unpopular – Boehner .................................................................................................................................. 253 Plan Unpopular – McClintock ............................................................................................................................ 257 Plan Unpopular – Pawlenty ................................................................................................................................ 258 Plan Unpopular – Shelby .................................................................................................................................... 259

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National Space Security Office NSS .Concentrated Solar Power (usually not space based) SPG . NASA carried out a study in the 1980‘s to determine its feasibility. but is safer/less concentrated than the same energy in sunlight.National Aeronautics Security Administration NSSO .Space Based Solar Power CSP .Space Solar Power SBSP . Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 6 . The basic premise is that a satellite equipped with huge solar panels is sent into space. but technology at the time was too far behind to actually manufacture the satellites. The tech now exists.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 ***Things to Know*** Relevant Terms/Acronyms: SPS . but the government has yet to begin development or deployment of the satellites. Sunlight is gathered at a much higher efficiency than it would be on Earth. where it remains in orbit.National Space Society GEO – Geosynchronous Earth Orbit LEO – Low Earth Orbit MEO – Middle Earth Orbit The idea of a Solar Powered Satellite was first invented by Peter Glaser in the 1960s.Solar Powered Satellite SSP . The microwaves pass much more efficiently through the atmosphere with almost no loss of energy.Solar Power Grid FOB . Excess solar energy is then converted into microwaves and beamed back to earth to a waiting ―rectenna‖. Someone walking right through the beam would get about as much radiation as someone standing next to a microwave oven. which converts the microwaves back into energy.Forward Operating Base NASA .

SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 ***1AC*** Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 7 .

usually hundreds if not thousands of acres of valuable farmland and all for relatively little power production. http://www. 6/12/ 11. given the technological advancements since then. Many governments claim there simply isn't any money in the budget for launching satellites into space. but we don't. As for adding to the ever-expanding satellite graveyard in Earth's orbit. in the 1960s. That is not the case. short of a platform on the sun. with so many points in its favour..7 billion for NASA. The idea for space-based solar energy has been around since the '60s. So. Instead. Solar power depends on environmental factors beyond human control and that makes investors anxious. these satellites would be a viable alternative fuel source. the solar industry may not even be in the running.edmontonjournal. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 8 . the race is on for cheap alternative fuel sources. cheapest alternative to oil and that may be the source of our downfall. the United States managed to find $426 million for nuclear fusion research and $18. This remains the most controversial aspect of SPSs: the use of microwaves to transmit power from high orbit to the ground. depending on where power was needed most.S.S. most solutions to satellite pollution remain theoretical. Critics often cite the dangers of microwave radiation to humans and wildlife. making SPS power supply only slightly more expensive.9 cents/kWh. why hasn't anyone built one yet? Obviously. given the maintenance due to possible damage to solar panels from solar winds and radiation. This recommendation was ignored. One of the major shortfalls in the design of SPSs is simply in getting the power from point A to point B. we are engaged in a mad dash for the quickest. He is a member of the Order of Canada and is a full member of the International Academy of Astronautics . These figures have been adjusted for inflation. Several workable solutions were proposed in that same report. made in the 1980s. which can make a plant cost as much as $15 billion. putting anything into outer space takes a lot of money. How long an SPS would survive in orbit is anybody's guess. For the sake of the future. which is only slightly more than a cellphone. put the cost of launching an SPS at $5 billion. and direct the transmitted energy to different locations. including solar power. Pauline Balogun is a U of A student who is interested in green technologies for the future. however. In the U. the strength of the radiation from these beams would be equal to the leakage from a standard microwave oven. SPSs have about the most favourable conditions imaginable for solar energy production. Austin Mardon received an honourary doctorate of laws from the University of Alberta on Friday. rather than the tenuous 12-hour maximum that land-based plants have.html//jchen With gas prices on the rise. The report also recommended that NASA develop and invest in SPS technology. these satellites should not be so largely dismissed. ―Solar satellites key to green energy‖.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Advantage 1 is U. Leadership Tech barriers to SPS have been resolved – all that remains is government inaction Edmonton Journal. expediency must take a back seat to longevity and longevity may just be found in outer space. are unreliability and inefficiency. Satellites would be able to gather energy 24 hours a day. but amid a wash of criticism. The most recent projections. These facilities also require areas with high amounts of sunlight. nuclear power costs about 4. scientists proposed solar-powered satellites (SPSs). Still.com/technology/Solar+satellites+green+energy/4933251/story. But these estimates are over two decades old and the numbers likely need to be re-examined. surely governments would have invested in making an SPS power supply more budget-friendly. Governments and investors are rarely willing to devote funding to something that doesn't have quick cash returns. such as wind farms. This is why. A NASA report from 1980 reveals that the major concern with solarpowered satellites was problems with the amplifier on the satellite itself. but the original estimates were made back in the 1970s. The major criticisms against solarpower facilities. and may have since become grossly inaccurate. so that by the 2000s. Nuclear power plants cost a minimum of $3 billion to $6 billion. There is a significant design flaw keeping these satellites from production. or around 8-10 cents/ kWh. We should already have the technology and the infrastructure in place for green energy. a five-per-cent increase from 2009. Earth's orbit sees 144 per cent of the maximum solar energy found on the planet's surface and takes up next to no space in comparison to land-based facilities. when solar technology was in its infancy. not including cost overruns. The projected cost of launching these satellites once ranged from $11 billion to $320 billion. amid an economic crisis. but in 2010.

atmospheric and International Telecommunications Union issues? What safety precautions need to be taken with SPS? How can we transmit the power from place to place safely.html / KX The timing would seem ideal for securing SPS development funding in today's world situation. The questions now about SPS are mainly not if but specifically who. Also to be mentioned is the Japanese plan to spend $21 Billion on space solar power development and the Solaren contract in California with the utility Pacific Gas and Electric to deliver 200 megawatts of electrical energy from space starting in 2016.edu/issue16/shea. electronics. ―Why Has SPS R&D Received So Little Funding?‖ Online Journal of Space Communication. Public and scientific concerns about climate change are growing based on current levels of carbon dioxide. what. if any. Master of Arts in Science Technology and Public Policy with Specialty in Space Policy from the George Washington University. when.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Now is key – SPS is inevitable. mass and durability issues? Which is the best wireless transmission method: lasers or microwaves? Where and how do we best build the receiving stations? What manufacturing techniques are most scalable? Which frequency is best for power beaming considering size. Energy prices are rising at the same time that the demand for energy is increasing. Cap and Trade legislation and renewable energy mandates are being proposed. is solar voltaic or solar thermal the most efficient approach? Which are the best types of solar collectors to use? Which types of solar cells best balance cost.S. agency. will take charge of this issue and invest in space solar power? Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 9 . where and how best? For example.S. will the U. be buying power from space from the Japanese or selling it to Saudi Arabia? Which U. accelerating in the burning of fossil fuels to meet energy requirements. Winter 2010. http://spacejournal. efficiently and economically? When in this century will the cost of energy rise high enough and Moore's law reduce the cost of the technology sufficiently for space solar power to be profitable? Who will control the SPS market? In 2050.ohio. it‘s only a question of who gets there first Karen Cramer Shea.

Some see involvement in space as a luxury that much of the world cannot afford. That there are no show‐ stoppers should in no way imply that an adequate or supportive regime is in place. frequency allocations. Perhaps this worldview fails to see the value in ―teeing up‖ unknown lessons to be learned. This would reduce the general sense of marginalization in many parts of the world. 2002. These will likely involve significant increases in Space Situational Awareness. Philosophy School of Humanities. U. data‐ sharing. April 15. Very likely the construction of a truly adequate regime will take as long as the satellite technology development itself. these facilities could purposely be built around the globe so that vocational training in aerospace technology could also be offered. perhaps making terrorism at least flourish less. and so consideration must be given to beginning work on the construction of such a framework immediately.dtic. 2011 If a non-integrated. Russia. Borrowing from FDR‘s New Deal philosophy.google.com/scholar?start=40&q=unilateral+solar+powered+satellites&hl=en&as_sdt=0. SPS is key to international collaboration in space Schwab.S. India. foreign policy. Space Traffic Control. Military feel needed in the war on terror. Such a regime must address liability. licensing. Professor of Philosophy. indemnity. the Sunsat Energy Council.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA473860&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.14A global mobilization for a common human endeavor via the common language of science and technology. This is the same approach that could be taken when building a system of SSP for the peoples of Earth. ―Space‐ Based Solar Power: As an Opportunity for Strategic Security‖. Japan. Full‐ scale SBSP. both by playing golf and by exploring space.S. characteristically and perhaps instinctively invoked the rhetorically inclusive phrase. the European Space Agency. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld is conscious of making every member of the U. France. National Security Space Office. This idea should be even more true as human capital is developed around the world. and a study of the subject by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) is presently ongoing. and might include some significant similarities to the International Civil Aviation Organization‘s (ICAO) role for facilitating safe international air travel. will require a permissive international regime. There seems to be significant global interest in promoting the peaceful use of space. The interim review did not uncover any hard show‐ stoppers in the international legal or regulatory regime. ―the people of this planet‖ when he attempted to marshal international condemnation Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 10 . There are of course risks in any new relationship. and carbon neutral energy sources. as it relates to outer space need not be seen as naïve or some call for one world government. Director of Humanities and Law Minor. tech transfer. however.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Scenario 1 is International Cooperation SPS has immense international support – US development is a key route to soft power NSSO. these acceptable risks are perhaps worth the effort to make them work. Many nations are actively studying Space‐ Based Solar Power. adding to the human capital in developing countries. the UK. Ronald Reagan for instance. This new environment of international cooperation could and should be constantly verified by UN inspectors to ensure that these new facilities remain true to peaceful purposes.‖ These terms only reinforce the idea that other countries and other cultures have nothing of inherent value to offer the West. orbital slot assignment. 10/10/07. as well as several equatorial nations have all expressed past or present interest in SBSP. decentralized SSP system were to be a truly international effort.S. Canada. that is dedicated to promoting the study and development of SBSP. Making poor people of the world actually feel needed should be a focal point of U. indicating that perhaps an open avenue exists for the United States to exercise ―soft power‖ via the development of SBSP. The peoples of poor nations might be able to find employment in digging the foundations for and in the maintenance of SSP assembly and launch facilities and ground rectennae. It is conceivable that a sense of global mobilization (being part of a common human endeavor) might take hold in an international effort to build thousands of SSP space and ground segments. International conferences such as the United Nations‐ connected UNISPACE III are continually held on the subject and there is even a UN‐ affiliated non‐ governmental organization. he said that the role of serendipity in developing new products increased with the number of separate areas of research and development that were funded. The International Union of Radio Science (URSI) has published at least one document supporting the concept. This approach could start by abandoning ―diplomatic‖ terms such as ―periphery‖ and ―international development. This same logic would also deny golf lessons for inner city youth. http://www. and China.pdf//jchen FINDING: The SBSP Study Group found that no outright policy or legal showstoppers exist to prevent the development of SBSP. http://scholar. perhaps costs for such an effort could be reduced.30&as_ylo=2000. and construction of this new regime is in every way a challenge nearly equal to the construction of the satellite itself. ―The New Viability of Space Solar Power: Global Mobilization for a Common Human Endeavor‖. but in light of the track record of other attempts to maintain international security. assembly and parking orbits. Martin Schwab. sustainable development. and transit corridors. When Rumsfeld was a CEO in the pharmaceutical industry. English Professor School of Humanities. Date accessed June 25.

26 Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 11 .SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 against terrorism during his administration.

policymakers‘ intent to ensure U. For example. and mitigate risks associated with catastrophic domestic launch failures by providing for contingency launch capabilities from foreign nations. commercial satellite sector.S. business. 2009 Atlanta Conference on Science and Innovation Policy. technology.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5367831&tag=1//jchen CONCLUSIONS In this paper. and reinforcing collaboration among other space-faring nations. involve multiple countries partnering to use space for common public global purposes.S. The policy initiatives advanced in Europe for comparable solar power grid project are discussed. experiences with foreign entities in foreign markets could help those entities obtain the requisite approvals to operate U. space expertise. national security relies—competition. positions within various governmental and business forums. Cospas-Sarsat.ieee. As the Booz. national security forces and U.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 SPS prompts international cooperation and scientific dialogue on development Narayanan Komerath.‖ In those respects.S. Moreover. The European TRANS-CP project is cited as a relevant current initiative to develop suitable policy.S. international commercial alliances could help U. access to space after a technical failure or a launch facility calamity. and formulating and agreeing to rules of the road on the expected peaceful behavior in the space domain. and shown to provide an excellent vehicle for global collaboration.S. Georgia Institute of Technology. and intellectual capital and increase U. civil multinational alliances such as the International Space Station and the international search and rescue satellite consortium. and the World Trade Organization. and (3) are a powerful alternative to acquiring other companies because they ―avoid costly accumulation of debt and buildup of balance sheet goodwill. Energy and Security Policies‖. position in partnerships. offering improved space situational awareness. http://ieeexplore. obstacles and issues in bringing space solar power to earth are discussed. While substantial technical challenges remain.pdf ―New opportunities for partnership and collaboration with both international and commercial space actors have the potential to support future national security space activities and enhance U. The special features of the space power grid are presented. partnerships could also help the United States build consensus on important spacerelated issues in bilateral or multilateral organizations such as the United Nations. provide a window of opportunity to bring about Space Solar Power in synergy with the development of clean renewable power on earth. leadership.S. enhancing the U. strategic commercial alliances: (1) provide capabilities to expand quickly service offerings and markets in ways not possible under time and resource constraints. U. http://csis. April 30th. Second. (2) earn a rate of return 50 percent higher than base businesses—―returns more than double as firms gain experience in alliances‖. Third. working with emerging space-faring nations is particularly important because of their growing presence in the marketplace and participation in international organizations. industry‘s market share overseas. economic stability.S. and democracy. First. establishing collective security agreements for space assets.S.org/stamp/stamp. international space cooperation cements US leadership CSIS ―National Security and the Commercial Space Sector‖. the International Telecommunication Union. 2010 CSIS Draft for Comment. including ensuring continued U. ―The Space Power Grid: Synergy Between Space. help promote international cooperation. 10/3/ 2009. allies.S. developing government. and build support for U.org/files/publication/100430_berteau_commercial_space. it is shown that there are viable paths for these challenges. business systems. the purpose. exploring space deterrence and satellite security doctrines. School of Aerospace Engineering. Independently. commercial and military access to space within a cooperative. are seen to be acceptable in many nations. partnerships could allow the United States to demonstrate greater leadership in mitigating those shared risks related to vulnerability of space assets through launch facility and data sharing. Multinational alliances would also signal U. firms access foreign funding. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 12 .S. as well as for the economics and public/ international collaboration needed to make Space Solar Power available to humanity.S. strengthening the competitive position of the U. through the participation of personnel who are cleared at the individual level.‖ Forming alliances and encouraging cooperation with foreign entities could provide several benefits to the United States.S. government satellite systems in other countries. Finally. The present congruence of international interest in renewable energy sources and in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. and through sequestering of technologies particular to the project as done in the European Space Agency‘s projects.S. and professional relationships with people in other countries provides opportunities for the United States to further the principles upon which U. resolve satellite spectrum and coordination issues. Security concerns that appear to pose formidable obstacles are cited as also posing unprecedented opportunities for wel-controlled collaboration between nations. international domain. The public policy initiatives needed for renewable energy. thus providing economic benefits to the United States. Allen & Hamilton 2000 Defense Industry Viewpoint notes. alliances could serve as a bridge to future collaborative efforts between U.S.

is ceding technological leadership—our space program is dying. international crime.harvard. and can even be counterproductive." he said.S.edu/news/opeds/2004/nye_soft_power_csm_042904." said the Boeing Commercial Airplanes chief." Albaugh said. "I think it's going to be a money pit for a lot of them. They will sell that airplane around the world and will take away a lot of the market that's been enjoyed by U. "Right now. and leave. And their government has identified aerospace as an industry that they've targeted. defense contractors. Because of its leading edge in the information revolution and its past investment in military power." He lamented the U. get trained. government's withdrawal from space exploration as the space-shuttle program winds down: "My prediction is that the Chinese will walk on the moon before we launch an American into orbit again in a U. But not all the important types of power come from the barrel of a gun.S. That did not prevent the success of the four-week military campaign.ksg. Scenario 2 is Competitiveness The U. can they be innovative and can they handle the complex systems integration?" When Defense Secretary Robert Gates visited China in January. which requires a lot of cost. ―Boeing's Albaugh worries about 'intellectual disarmament' of U.com/html/businesstechnology/2015304417_albaughside13. public relations.a means of pursuing national interests. Dominic Gates. 6/12/11. the US probably will remain the world's single most powerful country well into the 21st century. attitudes of distrust tend to fester and further reduce its leverage. Soft power is particularly important in dealing with these issues. US MILITARY PRIMACY IS FACT . When America discounts the importance of its attractiveness to other countries." • Defense cuts: "There is no industrial base policy in the Department of Defense other than market forces. he ticked off a list of broad national problems that transcend Boeing: • Brain drain of talented immigrants: "The best and brightest used to come to the United States and stay. The manner with which the US went into Iraq undercut American soft power..html Jim Albaugh is worried about the future of American technological supremacy in the world. I saw it more as an economic threat. but it made others less willing to help in the reconstruction of Iraq and made the American occupation more costly in the hard-power resources of blood and treasure. "The biggest fear I have is what I call the intellectual disarmament of this country. space and aviation companies. Getting the reliability requires a lot of redundancy.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Soft power prevents disease. will be allowed to wither through lack of government funding of new challenges. the trade group for U. NOW. http://seattletimes. "A lot of people saw that as a military threat. "The question is.htm Soft power co-opts people rather than coerces them.nwsource. "Are we going to be the leader in aerospace in another 20 years?" Albaugh is troubled that the nation's lead in aerospace. but transnational issues such as climate change. The Seattle Times." Albaugh said. terrorism and WMD Joseph Nye. 2004. and terrorism cannot be resolved by military force alone." • NASA cuts and private space ventures: "They are trying to commercialize space." he added. In a wide-ranging interview in advance of the global aviation gathering at the Paris Air Show.S. the Boeing Company is the only company in the United States that has a design team working on a new airplane. Harvard." Albaugh said. America's success in coping with the new transnational threats of terrorism and weapons of mass destruction will depend on a deeper understanding of the role of soft power and developing a better balance of hard and soft power in foreign policy. It is a mistake to discount soft power as just a question of image.‖. Hard power is relevant to getting desired outcomes. who is also this year's chairman of the Aerospace Industries Association. p. When US policies lose their legitimacy and credibility in the eyes of others. infectious diseases.S. spacecraft.S." • Competition from China: "The law of large numbers would dictate that they are going to have more smart people than we are going to have. and go back and compete against us. "Now. http://www. The timeframe is now.." Albaugh said. April 29. defense. the best and brightest come to the United States. where military power alone simply cannot produce success. "I didn't. . the Chinese military made a very public test flight of its previously secret J-20 Stealth fighter. It is a form of power . There are no [allnew] airplanes being developed for the Department of Defense probably for the first time in 100 years.SO. It rests on the ability to set the agenda or shape the preferences of others. and ephemeral popularity. it pays a price. WORK ON 'SOFT POWER' OF PERSUASION." Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 13 . Seattle Times aerospace reporter.S. "We still are the leader in aerospace. the fruit of Cold War military and space-race projects.

And even China has made impressive gains in advanced technologies such as lasers. Technological competitiveness is key to American hegemony Adam Segal.pdf FINDING: The SBSP Study Group found that SBSP offers a path to address the concerns over US intellectual competitiveness in math and the physical sciences expressed by the Rising Above the Gathering Storm report by providing a true ―Manhattan or Apollo project for energy.‖ November/December 2004. as the United States is learning. Indian companies are quickly becoming the second-largest producers of application services in the world. Asian governments are improving the quality of their science and ensuring the exploitation of future innovations. http://www. and advanced materials used in semiconductors. joint office to support the Executive Agent for Space and the newly formed Defense Space Council.nss. and managing database and other types of software for clients around the world. The committee expressed it was ―deeply concerned that the scientific and technological building blocks critical to our economic leadership are eroding at a time when many other nations are gathering strength. biotechnology. this technological edge-so long taken for granted-may be slipping. The percentage of patents issued to and science journal articles published by scientists in China.foreignaffairs. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 14 . National Space Security Organization. technological innovation and a significant threat to it. The United States will never be able to prevent rivals from developing new technologies.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 SPS development ensures continued American tech and scientific competitiveness NSSO. Space‐ Based Solar Power As an Opportunity For Strategic Security. it is likely that SBSP would ultimately exceed both the Manhattan and Apollo projects which established significant workforces and helped the US maintain its technical and competitive lead. developing. and preferential policies for science and technology (S&T) personnel. Indeed. Senior Fellow in China Studies at the Council on Foreign Relations.‖ In absolute scale and implications.S. Singapore. Through competitive tax policies. ―Is America Losing Its Edge?. It would require expanded technical education opportunities. the United States must get better at fostering technological entrepreneurship at home. Foreign Affairs. supplying. however.‖ SBSP would require a substantial technical workforce of high‐paying jobs. advantage in the manufacture of computer chips and telecommunications software. and directly support the underlying aims of the American Competitiveness Initiative. South Korea. the globalization of research and development is exerting considerable pressures on the American system. and many other types of manufacturing. it can remain dominant only by continuing to innovate faster than everyone else.org/20041101facomment83601/adam-segal/is-america-losingits-edge. Phase 0 Architecture Feasibility Study. and the most serious challenge is coming from Asia. globalization cuts both ways: it is both a potent catalyst of U. South Korea has rapidly eaten away at the U.S. and Taiwan is rising. to keep its privileged position in the world.html?mode=print Today. aerospace. 10/10/2007. increased investment in research and development (R&D).org/settlement/ssp/library/final-sbsp-interim-assessment-release-01. Although the United States' technical dominance remains solid. But this won't be easy. http://www.

the global paramedic and the planet's fire department. a robust monetary regime. Rather. but a Pax Americana does reduce war's likelihood. along with the growth in the number of democratic states around the world has been the growth of the global economy. maximizes efficiencies and growth. leadership reduced friction among many states that were historical antagonists. drought. Today. de facto. earthquake. The United States is the earth's leading source of positive externalities for the world. November/December.4 As a witness to the failed alternative economic systems. The National Interest. particularly the poorest states in the Third World. Lal is one of the strongest academic proponents of American primacy due to the economic prosperity it provides. the United States.S. Retrenchment proponents seem to think that the current system can be maintained without the current amount of U. 2006.S. such as in Darfur. As country and western great Ral Donner sang: "You don't know what you've got (until you lose it). power. the liberal order created by the United States will end just as assuredly. most notably France and West Germany. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 15 . and benefits defense as well because the size of the economy makes the defense burden manageable. Lal now recognizes that the only way to bring relief to desperately poor countries of the Third World is through the adoption of free market economic policies and globalization. Indeed. The first has been a more peaceful world. power behind it. growing democratization--is directly linked to U. particularly war's worst form: great power wars. which are facilitated through American primacy. it is because they are more open. Perhaps the greatest testament to the benefits of the economic network comes from Deepak Lal. once states are governed democratically. With its allies. typhoon or tsunami. In that they are dead wrong and need to be reminded of one of history's most significant lessons: Appalling things happen when international orders collapse. leadership. In addition. American primacy within the international system causes many positive outcomes for Washington and the world.3 So. U. as John Owen noted on these pages in the Spring 2006 issue. the United States assists the countries in need. Missouri State University.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 US hegemony is key to global stability and growth Bradley A. military has participated in over fifty operations since the end of the Cold War--and most of those missions have been humanitarian in nature. This economic order forces American industries to be competitive. The U. Thayer. Hitler succeeded the order established at Versailles. volcanic eruption. military is the earth's "911 force"--it serves. it is important to note what those good things are. During the Cold War. Everything we think of when we consider the current international order--free trade. democratic states are good for their citizens as well as for advancing the interests of the United States CONTINUES Third. as the world's police. Whenever there is a natural disaster. peace and stability have been great benefits of an era where there was a dominant power-Rome. p. Lexis THROUGHOUT HISTORY. the likelihood of any type of conflict is significantly reduced. a former Indian foreign service diplomat and researcher at the World Bank. the U. flood. and mobility of capital and labor markets.S. Scholars and statesmen have long recognized the irenic effect of power on the anarchic world of international politics.S. who started his career confident in the socialist ideology of post-independence India. respect for international property rights. This is not because democracies do not have clashing interests. South Korea and Japan. Fourth and finally. the United States has labored to create an economically liberal worldwide network characterized by free trade and commerce." Consequently. Without U. Israel and Egypt. more transparent and more likely to want to resolve things amicably in concurrence with U. The Dark Ages followed Rome's collapse. American power gives the United States the ability to spread democracy and other elements of its ideology of liberalism. Economic spin-offs foster the development of military technology. spreading democracy helps maintain U. American primacy helps keep a number of complicated relationships aligned--between Greece and Turkey. India and Pakistan. Wars still occur where Washington's interests are not seriously threatened. Doing so is a source of much good for the countries concerned as well as the United States because. helping to ensure military prowess.S. has been willing to use its power not only to advance its interests but to promote the welfare of people all over the globe. Indeed they do. Britain or the United States today. primacy. power. Abandoning the positions of his youth. in seeking primacy. And so. The economic stability and prosperity that stems from this economic order is a global public good from which all states benefit. in general.S. Indonesia and Australia.S. In addition to ensuring the security of the United States and its allies. This is not to say it fulfills Woodrow Wilson's vision of ending all war. Professor Defense & Strategic Studies. The United States created this network not out of altruism but for the benefit and the economic well-being of America.S. Second. increasing respect for human rights. liberal democracies are more likely to align with the United States and be sympathetic to the American worldview.

S. space assets.S. where their ratio of workers to retirees will shrink substantially (the result of their one-child policy).S. the margin of U. the PLA has every incentive to develop options for offensive operations against weak points in U. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 16 . advantages in space should increase over time. China's growing economic and military power.S. space assets.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Scenario 3 is Space Supremacy The space dominance gap is closing. May 11. nor should we be stricken with fear. and each appreciates the other's military capabilities.S. and other nations are interested in ASAT as well. be unwise to ignore both these developments. Is it any wonder that the PLA would want the capability to interrupt these rivers of information and services that our space assets provide? This information allows our military decision-making. United States Institute of space //ZY The Chinese Challenge This hearing is timely. our weapons. quickly growing economy and supported by a government with full appreciation for the roles that space-enabled information and information warfare play in modern conflict. The PLA certainly wants to be able to greatly weaken U. vital advantages across the spectrum of potential conflict. Dale Bumpers (D-AR). China is also pursuing other programs that have important ASAT implications. coupled with our advances in brilliant weaponry. however. and Chinese strategic interests in East Asia are not foreordained to lead to conflict. we should not treat it as a given. In the more than four years since China destroyed an aging weather satellite.S. and vulnerabilities.S. such as India and Russia. From 1995 to 1999. While we should guard against a worst case.S. Both China and the United States are fortunate that neither country is the enemy of the other. We should not be surprised by this. MacDonald was a professional staff member on the House Armed Services Committee and was national security adviser to Sen.China has come too far to want to place their substantial economic achievements at risk unless they faced an extraordinary threat to their national security. it has proceeded to deploy more. These PLA efforts are funded by a vigorous. As the current inferior military power. MacDonald holds a BSE from Princeton in aerospace engineering and two master's degrees from Princeton— one in aerospace engineering and a second in public and international affairs. it is easy to assume the worst about Chinese intentions. force effectiveness. PLA officers have noted the great U. However. each has much to lose if this happens. which are public knowledge. just as our military establishment should develop options against weak points in Chinese defenses. where he led the Interagency START Policy Working Group and served on the U. China seeks to be able to prevail militarily at some point in the future should conflict come. demonstrating not only an anti-satellite (ASAT) capability but the potential for strategic ballistic missile defense capability as well. Just recently.China is rapidly rising to challenge the United States and create international conflict Bruce W. military posture. other space-enabled information. advantage seems likely to diminish as China increases its space capabilities and space exploitation. He also worked for the State Department as a nuclear weapons expert in the Bureau of Political-Military Affairs. is a consultant in technology and national security management and is currently senior director to the Congressional Commission on the Strategic Posture of the United States. Earlier.S.-China conflict. cannot be ruled out. and the military and civilian leadership that commanded them. space-derived weather and electronic intelligence. have provided the United States with unprecedented and unequaled global conventional military capabilities. Testimony before the US-China Economic and Security Review commission on The Implications of China‘s Military and Civil Space Programs.S. military power in wartime. though unlikely. and satellite communications in executing the strike against Osama bin Laden's compound in Pakistan. MacDonald. and one of rising urgency.. and the PLA will reap both the military advantages and vulnerabilities of greater space capabilities. that U. We would. and especially our warfighters to be far more effective than in the past. special forces. but they see the United States as militarily superior to them and thus would be unlikely to consciously provoke any military conflict. most notably over Taiwan. The PLA and U.S.S. In the face of this growing Chinese military space challenge. START delegation in Geneva.S. and more advanced. dependence upon space assets and capabilities and the way they multiply U. These "space-enabled information services" lie at the heart of U. China faces serious demographic realities over the next couple of decades. In addition. 2011. coupled with friction points in the relationship. This brilliantly successful operation was built on a firm foundation of information in which space played a vital role in creating. which further underscores China's need for stability and continued economic growth for years to come. China also has additional needs.S. they saw how U. U. and I believe the PLA could do so within a decade using its kinetic kill and other AS AT weapons if it chose to deploy them in large numbers. heavily depended upon satellite photographs. This strategic space situation is troubling. I do not believe China or the PLA is spoiling for a fight with the United States . armed forces both would be derelict in their duties if they did not have contingency plans for such a conflict. military superiority. Though absolute U. and other developments that are of a classified nature. GPS. military space capabilities as well. The Peoples' Liberation Army (PLA) appears to recognize what most thoughtful observers of national security also recognize. he was assistant director for national security at the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy as well as senior director for science and technology on the National Security Council staff. and thus pose a serious threat to U. suggest that a future U.

necessary for developing and supporting future launch capabilities to revitalize U. National Space Security Organization. aerospace leadership can only be achieved through investments in our future. recognizing that government must assist industry by providing insight into its long‐term research programs. Space‐ Based Solar Power As an Opportunity For Strategic Security. commerce and exploration. and that government must commit to increased and sustained investment and must facilitate private investment in our national aerospace sector. which stated: The United States must maintain its preeminence in aerospace research and innovation to be the global aerospace leader in the 21st century. secure.‖ An SBSP program would be a powerful expression of this imperative. The report called on government and the investment community must become more sensitive to commercial opportunities and problems in space. travel. space launch infrastructure. This can only be achieved through proactive government policies and sustained public investments in long‐term research and RDT&E infrastructure that will result in new breakthrough aerospace capabilities. and suggested the establishment of national technology demonstration goals. our ―national jewel‖ which has enhanced our security. the United States must overcome the obstacles that jeopardize its ability to sustain leadership in space. Phase 0 Architecture Feasibility Study.S. NSSO. http://www. wealth.15 . and therefore. It concluded that. manufacture and maintain advanced systems and potentially provide expanded capability to the warfighter. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 17 . At the same time. joint office to support the Executive Agent for Space and the newly formed Defense Space Council. The Commission concluded that the nation will have to be a space‐faring nation in order to be the global leader in the 21st century—that our freedom.S. and create an environment that fosters innovation and provide the incentives necessary to encourage risk taking and rapid introduction of new products and services. aerospace sector has been living off the research investments made primarily for defense during the Cold War…Government policies and investments in long‐term research have not kept pace with the changing world. Recognizing the new realities of a highly dynamic. industry competitiveness. national and global perspective. the U. develop.S. national security and procurement policies represent some of the most burdensome restrictions affecting U. Our nation does not have bold national aerospace technology goals to focus and sustain federal research and related infrastructure investments. as well as provide Incentives to Commercial Space. Private‐public partnerships were also to be encouraged.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Infrastructure and tech advances of SPS provide a framework to ensure the US remains the aerospace leader. Over the last several decades.S. mobility. noting that U. It suggested an increase in public funding for long term research and supporting infrastructure and an acceleration of transition of government research to the aerospace sector. economic benefit and scientific discovery. and the federal government needs to lead the effort. and quality of life will depend on it. ―America must exploit and explore space to assure national and planetary security. workforce. including our industrial base. recommended that the United States boldly pioneer new frontiers in aerospace technology.S. it needs to invest in long‐term enabling research and related RDT&E infrastructure. and lifestyle. long term research and national infrastructure. 10/10/2007.org/settlement/ssp/library/final-sbsp-interim-assessment-release-01. vital capabilities in our defense industrial base will be lost. and implement other initiatives that strengthen transnational partnerships to enhance national security. and significantly increase in the investment in basic aerospace research to increase opportunities to gain experience in the workforce by enabling breakthrough aerospace capabilities through continuous development of new experimental systems with or without a requirement for production. The Aerospace Commission recognized that Global U. establish national aerospace technology demonstration goals. and so recommended a fenced amount of research and development budget. The nation needs to capitalize on these opportunities. which included reducing the cost and time to space by 50%. A top priority was increased investment in basic aerospace research which fosters an efficient. the report noted that the federal government is dysfunctional when addressing 21st century issues from a long term.nss. Specifically. Such experimentation was deemed to be essential to sustain the critical skills to conceive. It also noted that without constant vigilance and investment. competitive and global marketplace. and safe aerospace transportation system. They explicitly recommended hat the United States create a space imperative and that NASA and DoD need to make the investments .pdf FINDING: The SBSP Study Group found that SBSP directly addresses the concerns of the Presidential Aerospace Commission which called on the US to become a true spacefaring civilization and to pay closer attention to our aerospace technical and industrial base. and industry needs to provide to government on its research priorities. An SBSP program as outlined in this report is remarkably consonant with the findings of this commission. It urged the federal government must remove unnecessary barriers to international sales of defense products.

it loses the great power status and then must align itself with another great power for protection. Eventually. and comets. Within a little more than a decade after the Wright Brothers' first flights. potentially. Americans broke free of Great Britain by forming an alliance with France—another great power of the day that was willing to expend its treasure to help Americans gain freedom (and without requiring a formal. entirely new physics-based energy sources. and security reach across the planet. obviously. A spacefaring nation will have the spacefaring logistics infrastructure to enable its citizens and private enterprises to access and make use of the resources of space. so has the potential for the pace of change of great power status. but extraterrestrial material resources from. provided the logistics mobility to forge new political alliances. Several of Waltz's great power criteria will be influenced by a great power becoming spacefaring: Territory: A spacefaring nation will in the mid-term have access to the entire Earth-Moon system followed by the entire central solar system. the Moon.net/2007/06/03/6--why-the-next-president-should-start-america-on-the-path-tobecoming-a-true-spacefaring-nation. most recently. permanent alliance with France!). entered the war in 1917. asteroids. America must act to sustain its great power status.) A "global leader" is a great nation. increased population. to become spacefaring to preserve its great power status in the 21st century? Great power status is achieved through competition between nations. a great nation's power projection capabilities beyond its contiguous land borders to enable it to access the entire planet. This conclusion is an extension of the fact that many great nations have depended on their seafaring and. The U. zero-gravity. (Note: We don't think of these as traditional raw material resources today. and quality of life will depend on it. A spacefaring great power will reach across the solar system just as today's great power's have economic. nontraditional resources in space—vacuum. Military strength: A spacefaring nation will have the technologies and spacefaring logistics infrastructure necessary to enable its military to: (1) exploit space to better provide for national security. A great power that succeeds in this competition adds to its power while a great power that does not compete or does so ineffectively or by choice. Economic capability: Economic capability arises from human enterprise applied to extracting wealth (either material or intellectual) from accessing resources. In the longer term. Because there is no great power protector nation waiting in the wings to assure America's freedom. and. http://spacefaringamerica. mobility. ―Why the next president should start America on the path to becoming a true spacefaring nation‖. As the pace of science and technology advancement has increased. "invented" powered flight in 1903. added military power.S. the U.S. When the U. but neither was the ocean bottom viewed as a significant source of energy resources only a century ago.S.aspx Why is being a great power important to the United States? The reason is quite fundamental and clearly evident from the events of the 20th century. and. 6-3-2007. In the Revolutionary War." (Note: this was the Aerospace Commission's conclusion and not from the national security-focused Space Commission. A nation whose citizens wish to remain free either establishes strong political and military alliances with a great power willing to protect their freedom or. Why is it important for the U. in the mid-term. in two dimensions. seafaring/air-fairing extended territory. 24/365 solar energy.S. What role does becoming a true spacefaring nation play in great power status? Recall.S.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Aerospace dominance is key to American primacy and prevents great power war Mike Snead. air forces at a significant disadvantage Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 18 . this access will grow to the entire solar system. senior member at the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.. While the U. This competition is often based on advancing science and technology and applying these advancements to enabling new operational capabilities. air-faring capabilities to sustain their great power status. becomes a great power. provided access to new and different resources. Resource endowment: A spacefaring nation will have access to traditional. In looking at Waltz's five great power criteria. (2) protect and defend the spacefaring nation's space enterprises and its citizens living and working in space. as a great power today. it was forced to rely on French-built aircraft. a decade later leadership in this area had shifted to Europe. the Aerospace Commission's conclusion: "The Commission concludes that the nation will have to be a space-faring nation to be the global leader in the 21st century—our freedom. and. political.S. spacefaring will enable great nations to extend their power in three dimensions into space. (4) use its military space capabilities to support human and robotic scientific discovery and exploration. found itself in a similar situation where its choice to diminish national investment in aeronautics during the 1920's and 1930's—you may recall that this was the era of General Billy Mitchell and his famous efforts to promote military air power—placed U. the great powers of Europe were introducing aeronautics into major land warfare through the creation of air forces. from SA Blog 4. as the European great powers were on the verge of beginning another major European war. absent such a protector. Twenty years later. increased economic strength through trade.) A spacefaring nation will also have access to new. (5) use the development of advanced military capabilities to "prime the technology pump" for further commercial technology and capability advancements—particularly with respect to spacefaring logistics. While seafaring and air-fairing extend. repaid this moral debt to France in World War I and II and accepted the great power protector role with many other countries. (3) protect the Earth and the Moon from impact by significant asteroids and comets. president and founder of the Spacefaring Institute LLC and an aerospace engineering consultant. becomes comparatively less powerful. unlimited.

Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 19 . however. as may occur in the Taiwan Strait. (c) the possible unavailability of naval assets in close proximity. electronic warfare (EW).S. This is an advantage that the next presidential administration should exercise.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 compared to those of Germany and Japan. This argument is justified by the fact that several sub-regions of the continent still harbor the potential for full-scale conventional war. Air Force planners to prudently plan for regional contingencies in nontraditional areas of interest. and Michael D. The Korean peninsula. in enhancing its great power strengths through expanded national space power may result in a reoccurrence of the rapid emergence of new or the rapid growth of current great powers to the point that they are capable of effectively challenging the U. The second key implication derived from the analysis of trends in Asia suggests that air and space power will function as a vital rapid reaction force in a breaking crisis. Air Force. particularly in the context of surprise contingencies. China. Air Force in Asia. and both China and India will acquire long-range cruise missiles during the time frames examined in this report. bombers. In other areas of Asia. and Russia—are already speaking of plans for developing spacefaring capabilities.S. Air Force assets could also be called upon for operations in some of these other areas. Land and sea forces increasingly needed capable air forces to survive and generally needed air superiority to prevail. the Indian subcontinent. Swaine. retains a commanding aerospace technological lead over these nations. In some of these areas such as Korea and the Persian Gulf. because many of the regional contingencies will involve large. and high operating tempos to sustain continual operations until the political objectives are secured. 1998 The first key implication derived from the analysis of trends in Asia suggests that American air and space power will continue to remain critical for conventional and unconventional deterrence in Asia. the Spratlys. A strong effort by the U. as is the case in Korea. These platforms can exploit speed. a delay by the U. sources of conflict in the 21st century. and the South China Sea. Mindful of this trend. today. in South Asia. may yield a generation or longer lead in space.org. and (d) the heavy payload that can be carried by U. suppression of enemy air defense (SEAD). and the Indian subcontinent are already arenas of WMD proliferation. With the great power advantages of becoming spacefaring expected to be comparable to those derived from becoming air-faring in the 1920's and 1930's. or Pakistan. as in China. or on the Korean peninsula.S. Myanmar. Myanmar. Space primacy deters multiple nuclear conflicts in Asia Ashley J.S. the United States has no treaty obligations requiring it to commit the use of its military forces. India. because naval and air power will of necessity be the primary instruments constituting the American response.S. U. most of which are built around large land armies. it would behoove U. The third involves cases of prolonged domestic instability that may have either spillover or contagion effects. Current guidance tasks the Air Force to prepare for two major regional conflicts that could break out in the Persian Gulf and on the Korean peninsula.S. reach. China-Taiwan. a capability unmatched by any other country or service. Indonesia. the South China Sea. starting in 2009 with the new presidential administration. But as past experience has shown. chapter 3. In addition to conventional combat.S. In almost all these cases. James Mulvenon. (b) the diverse range of operational platforms available to the U. The first involves the politico-military collapse of a key regional actor. Indonesia.S. conventional forces. While emergent nuclear capabilities continue to receive the most public attention. This potential is most conspicuously on the Korean peninsula and to a lesser degree. The second involves acute politicalmilitary crises that have a potential for rapid escalation. Air Force platforms. Such responses would be necessitated by three general classes of contingencies. Many great powers—China. American policymakers have regularly displayed the disconcerting habit of discovering strategic interests in parts of the world previously neglected after conflicts have already broken out. India will acquire the capability to produce ICBM-class delivery vehicles. Chung Min Lee.S. such as the Indian subcontinent. as might occur in the case of North Korea. or North Korea. China already targets the continental United States with ballistic missiles. Yet. chemical and biological warfare threats will progressively become future problems. Southeast Asia. This was crucial because military air power was quickly emerging as the "game changer" for conventional warfare. and Myanmar. not just through prudent increases in military strength but also through the other areas of great power competition discussed above. combat support platforms such as AWACS and J-STARS and tankers— are relevant in the Asia-Pacific region. US airpower would be at the forefront of an American politico-military response because (a) of the vast distances on the Asian continent. the United States has clear treaty obligations and therefore has preplanned the use of air power should contingencies arise. the U. fairly modern. The entire range of warfighting capability—fighters. Courtney Purrington. the demands of unconventional deterrence will increasingly confront the U. The delivery systems in the region are increasing in range and diversity. IndiaPakistan and the Persian Gulf. North Korea can threaten northeast Asia with existing Scud-class theater ballistic missiles. Tellis et al. to become a true spacefaring nation. availible via the rand website @ rand. the Persian Gulf.

Return of History‖ Policy Review (http://www. Democratic and Republican. or it could simply make them more catastrophic. increasingly. and destructiveness. however. the other nations would settle disputes as great and lesser powers have done in the past: sometimes through diplomacy and accommodation but often through confrontation and wars of varying scope. the Middle East. or something as exotic as cellulosic ethanol from waste products. If the military really wants to be able to operate for long periods of time without using vulnerable supply lines it will have to find a new way to get liquid fuel to its forward operating forces. The trick is. too. For instance. Nationalism in all its forms is back. Bangladesh and Indonesia are both Muslim states whose access to the oceans have helped them adapt to the modern world. http://www. They either happily or grudgingly allow the United States Navy to be the guarantor of international waterways and trade routes. Even as it maintains its position as the predominant global power. and since the end of the Cold War. In the longer run Pakistan‘s closure of the Khyber Pass supply route justifies investment in SSP as a technology that landlocked nations can use to avoid the pressures and threats that they now have to live with. but with SSP it becomes much easier. and the Caucasus. and given enough time and effort. the Western Hemisphere. and so is international competition for power. until recently. honor. there is the United States itself.org/publications/policyreview/8552512. Even when the United States engages in a war.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Scenario 4 is Readiness and Power Projection SPS is key – provides the only sustainable power source to the military Taylor Dinerman. Imagine how different history would be if the Afghans had had a ―Polish Corridor‖ and their own port. One of the primary justifications for the project was the potential of the system to provide power from space for remote military bases. of international access to markets and raw materials such as oil.html#n10)] Finally. and with Russia in Eastern Europe. with Iran in the Middle East and Central Asia. it would not. nations such as Afghanistan are all too vulnerable to machinations from their neighbors. liberal and conservative. intensity. They profess indifference to the world and claim they just want to be left alone even as they seek daily to shape the behavior of billions of people around the globe. What is needed is a portable system that can be transported in standard containers and set up anywhere there are the resources needed to make fuel. influence. the United States did not retract but expanded its influence eastward across Europe and into the Middle East. This can be done even before space solar power is available. Were the United States to diminish its influence in the regions where it is currently the strongest power. they are remarkably slow to withdraw from it until they believe they have substantially transformed it in their own image. and status. senior editor at the Hudson Institute‘s New York branch and co-author of the forthcoming Towards a Theory of Spacepower: Selected Essays. and though Americans are loath to acknowledge it. from National Defense University Press. As a matter of national policy stretching back across numerous administrations. such that other nations cannot compete with it even in their home waters. Nations would Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 20 . Without access to the sea. The United States. Afghanistan has coal and natural gas that could be turned into liquid fuels with the right technology. The jostling for status and influence among these ambitious nations and would-be nations is a second defining feature of the new post-Cold War international system. ―Space solar power and the Khyber Pass‖. it is also engaged in hegemonic competitions in these regions with China in East and Central Asia. This was its goal after the Second World War. the problem could be solved. Electrical power is only part of the story. Senior Associate at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. the United States is the dominant naval power everywhere. is more of a traditional than a postmodern power. it is able to play its role as guardian of the waterways. Once having entered a region. 11/24/ 2008. One novel aspect of such a multipolar world is that most of these powers would possess nuclear weapons. but by combining space solar power with some of the innovative alternative fuels and fuel manufacturing systems that are now in the pipeline. if it ever went away. Central Asia. That could make wars between them less likely. 1‖ and are equally loath to relinquish it. It is easy but also dangerous to underestimate the role the United States plays in providing a measure of stability in the world even as it also disrupts stability. Americans have insisted on preserving regional predominance in East Asia. beginning with the first Bush administration and continuing through the Clinton years. In a more genuinely multipolar world. of course.com/article/1255/1 Last year the National Security Space Office released its initial report on space solar power (SSP). The Space Review. whether for practical or idealistic reasons.hoover. 2007. Their access to the world economy might have changed their culture in positive ways. American predominance prevents these rivalries from intensifying — its regional as well as its global predominance. Strong forward deployment prevents multiple scenarios for nuclear conflict – prefer it to all other alternatives Robert Kagan. This may mean something as easy as making methanol from sugar cane or making jet fuel from natural gas. they generally prefer their global place as ―No. and now. ―End of Dreams. to have enough raw energy available so that it is possible to transform whatever is available into liquid fuel. Central Asia. Central Asia. Europe.thespacereview. This may seem impossible at first glance. and the Caucasus.

could draw in other great powers. But that‘s not the way it works. of course. Such conflicts may be unavoidable no matter what policies the United States pursues. China. In Europe. of the kind used in World War i and other major conflicts. regional conflicts involving the large powers may erupt. with different rules and norms reflecting the interests of the powerful states that would have a hand in shaping it. or Iran. which neither a sudden end to the conflict between Israel and the Palestinians nor an immediate American withdrawal from Iraq would change. War could erupt between China and Taiwan and draw in both the United States and Japan. would produce its own kind of order. would disrupt trade flows in a way that is now impossible. if only to secure their interests. A different configuration of power. This is especially true in East Asia. Would that international order be an improvement? Perhaps for Beijing and Moscow it would. The international order we know today reflects the distribution of power in the world since World War ii. that would not be possible without renewing the danger of world war. but even today Europe‘s stability depends on the guarantee. Conflict between India and Pakistan remains possible. War could erupt between Russia and Georgia. In a genuinely multipolar world. Such order as exists in the world rests not only on the goodwill of peoples but also on American power. independent. It is doubtful that any American administration would voluntarily take actions that could shift the balance of power in the Middle East further toward Russia. Although some realist theorists seem to imagine that the disappearance of the Soviet Union put an end to the possibility of confrontation between Russia and the West. obviate the need to come to Israel ‘s aid if its security became threatened. That is certainly the view of most of China‘s neighbors. It only adds a new and more threatening dimension to the competition. however distant and one hopes unnecessary. It could tempt Russia to an even more overbearing and potentially forceful approach to unruly nations on its periphery. owes its founding to American power. The current order. that great geopolitical miracle. Armed embargos. which seeks gradually to supplant the United States as the dominant power in the region. 18 And one could also expect the more powerful states of the region. paired with the American commitment to protect strategic oil supplies for most of the world. But even China. A diminution of American influence would not be followed by a diminution of other external influences. These. faces the dilemma that an American withdrawal could unleash an ambitious. But they are more likely to erupt if the United States weakens or withdraws from its positions of regional dominance. People who believe greater equality among nations would be preferable to the present American predominance often succumb to a basic logical fallacy. nationalist Japan. The rise of Islamic fundamentalism doesn‘t change this. stability. One could expect deeper involvement by both China and Russia.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 compete for naval dominance at least in their own regions and possibly beyond. But it is doubtful that it would suit the tastes of enlightenment liberals in the United States and Europe. That commitment. particularly Iran. to expand and fill the vacuum. The vital interest the United States has in access to oil and the role it plays in keeping access open to other nations in Europe and Asia make it unlikely that American leaders could or would stand back and hope for the best while the powers in the region battle it out. which some see as the magic key to unlocking peace. for without it the European nations after World War ii would never have felt secure enough to reintegrate Germany. The subtraction of American power from any region would not end conflict but would simply change the equation. Even under the umbrella of unipolarity. The region and the states within it remain relatively weak. and therefore to the need for a permanent American role in Europe. a multipolar world in which the poles were Russia. They believe the order the world enjoys today exists independently of American power. Even the European Union. the departure of the United States from the scene — even if it remained the world‘s most powerful nation — could be destabilizing. and especially since the end of the Cold War. Conflict between nations would involve struggles on the oceans as well as on land. An American withdrawal from Iraq will not return things to ―normal‖ or to a new kind of stability in the region. The alternative to American predominance in the region is not balance and peace. In the Middle East. the United States. practically ensures a heavy American military presence in the region. where most nations agree that a reliable American power has a stabilizing and pacific effect on the region. too. which could in turn draw the United States back in under unfavorable circumstances. competition for influence among powers both inside and outside the region has raged for at least two centuries. history suggests that conflicts in Europe involving Russia are possible even without Soviet communism. the aspects of international order that they like would remain in place. that the United States could step in to check any dangerous development on the continent. It is further competition. China. including the United States. It is also optimistic to imagine that a retrenchment of the American position in the Middle East and the assumption of a more passive. as does conflict between Iran and Israel or other Middle Eastern states. and comity in the Middle East. International order does not rest on ideas and institutions. The world hasn‘t changed that much. forcing the United States and its European allies to decide whether to intervene or suffer the consequences of a Russian victory. If the United States withdrew from Europe — if it adopted what some call a strategy of ―offshore balancing‖ — this could in time increase the likelihood of conflict involving Russia and its near neighbors. It is shaped by configurations of power. both on the seas and on the ground. Such order as exists in the world rests not merely on the goodwill of peoples but on a foundation provided by American power. Most Europeans recoil at the thought. ―offshore‖ role would lead to greater stability there. They imagine that in a world where American power was diminished. It Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 21 . India. too. and Europe. is not only far from perfect but also offers no guarantee against major conflict among the world‘s great powers. Nor would a more ―even-handed‖ policy toward Israel.

the future is likely to be one of intensified competition among nations and nationalist movements.S. neither country can meet its energy needs through existing clean-energy technologies. http://www. with an SBSP component as a prominent focus.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 will produce a new instability. First. relations. and various technological advances over the past few decades have made space-based solar power a more realistic possibility.-India Space Cooperation Could Power Ties‖.com/articles/6811/u-sindia-space-cooperation-could-power-ties//jchen Space-based solar power (SBSP) may soon emerge as one of the leading sectors of strategic cooperation between India and the U. and Jawaharlal Nehru University. no one should imagine that a reduction of American power or a retraction of American influence and global involvement will provide an easier path. Garretson making the case for it being the next focus of the growing partnership. while pushing the technological envelope further than ever before. That forms the foundation for broader US-India relations World Politics Review. studied economics at Presidency College.worldpoliticsreview.com/articles/6811/u-sindia-space-cooperation-could-power-ties//jchen SBSP has already been explicitly identified at the highest levels of the Indian government as a strategic priority. Air Force Lt. studied economics at Presidency College. Scenario 2 is India SBSP development boosts bilateral space cooperation with India World Politics Review.. Calcutta. 25 OCT 2010 ―U. and Jawaharlal Nehru University. including nuclear power.-India Space Cooperation Could Power Ties‖. with a recently released report (. one likely to draw the United States back in again. SAURAV JHA. and space cooperation presents an increasingly attractive option for doing so. would define the 21st century. There is an expectation that Obama's visit will see movement on removing controls on the sale of high-tech items as a prelude to an agreement on space cooperation. Col. Second. The alternative to American regional predominance in the Middle East and elsewhere is not a new regional stability. With commentators in both countries identifying the dovetailing of space and energy cooperation as the "next big thing" in IndoU. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 22 .S. New Delhi. but its ultimate deployment will require an unprecedented bilateral effort. New Delhi.S.pdf) authored by U.S.S. 25 OCT 2010 ―U. That effort could drive an Indo-U. Difficult as it may be to extend American predominance into the future. Peter A. there are now signs that the push on both sides is lining up with all of these circumstantial "pull" factors. In an era of burgeoning nationalism. such as energy access. Studies show that SBSP is feasible. Calcutta.worldpoliticsreview. http://www. in Obama's words.S. the Obama administration wants to build on the foundations of bilateral relations laid by the Bush administration. SAURAV JHA. SBSP allows India to keep its space program focused on developmental priorities. partnership that. There are a number of reasons why SBSP may emerge as the hub for strategic industrial coordination between the two countries.

Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 23 . The U. space policymakers about Indian capabilities in integrating systems from varied sources. and politically sustainable." announced in January 2004. studied economics at Presidency College. ―The United States and India are working more closely together than ever before.security and nuclear cooperation. Unlike the other two pillars -. Gates said in his speech to the Shangri—La Dialogue in Singapore. supported by both major political parties in the U.running on parallel tracks. These principles. Gates said. The two most important are India's edge as a low-cost manufacturer for future SBSP components and its cheap satellite-launch capability. SAURAV JHA.S. India's attractiveness to U. This success had a role in convincing U. 25 OCT 2010 ―U. he added.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Cooperation over SBSP is normal means – NASA would outsource launching to cheaper Indian markets World Politics Review.S.S. Calcutta. expendable launchers. he noted.thehindu. cyberspace. http://www. New Delhi. ―I believe our work in Asia is laying the groundwork for continued prosperity and security for the United States and for the region. 2011. presence in Southeast Asia and the Indian Ocean area. and now. The military posture proposed will maintain American presence in northeast Asia while enhancing U. During the Cold War there was an uneasy co-existence between the world‘s largest democracy and the world‘s oldest.worldpoliticsreview. and that requires it to sustain its allies while maintaining a robust military engagement and deterrent posture across the Pacific Rim. air. increasing participation in multilateral venues. http://www.com/news/national/article2076380. space. our partnership is playing a vital role. operationally resilient.S. policymakers lies in its promise for reducing costs and increasing returns. a just international order that highlights rights and responsibilities of nations and fidelity to the rule of law. thereby boosting the prospects of synchronization of U. as it is an area where significant complementarities between the two countries exist. Mr. Indo-U.S. ―A partnership that will be an indispensable pillar of stability in South Asia and beyond whether countering piracy.‖ Mr. Gates said.S. engagement in Asia has been guided by a set of enduring principles that have fostered the economic growth and stability of the region. collaboration is currently characterized by a slew of agreements -some substantial.S. which already have specific agreements in place -. The Chandrayaan mission also demonstrated India's orbit-transfer capability -.S. such as the Chandrayaan moon mission. is a Pacific nation. strategic dialogue. "Next Steps in Strategic Partnership. Now. will be an indispensable pillar of stability in South Asia and beyond. India's 2008 moonshot eventually led to the independent discovery of the presence of water on the moon by American and Indian instruments carried on board. Indeed. partnership.‖ he said..a crucial condition for the sustainability of commercially deployable SBSP. the Indian space program also moved beyond its traditional focus (. there is a partnership based on shared democratic values and vital economic and security interests.S. Even as NASA has shifted its focus to large.S. partnership to help stability in South Asia: Robert Gates.‖ Mr. he noted. and Indian space architecture for a potential SBSP collaborative effort. ISRO continues to back re-usable launch-vehicle technology.com/articles/6811/u-sindia-space-cooperation-could-power-ties//jchen Over the same period.ece) The India — U. The Chandrayaan mission was an early illustration of the space component of the overarching Indo-U. US India relations key to regional stability The Hindu 6/4 (Indian newspaper.S. or aiding the development of Afghanistan. will do more and expand into other areas in non-traditional ways. American Defence Secretary Robert Gates has said. ―Indeed. and Jawaharlal Nehru University.pdf) on remote-sensing satellites for developmental needs to more-ambitious programs.‖ he said. SBSP could be a point of convergence.S. The U. June 4.S.‖ Mr. and open access by all to the global commons of sea. include free and open commerce.-India Space Cooperation Could Power Ties‖. India-U. which it believes can significantly reduce the cost of satellite launches -. which is based on shared democratic values and vital economic and security interests. one of the most striking — and surprising — changes I‘ve observed during my travels to Asia is the widespread desire across the region for stronger military-to-military relationships with the United States — much more so than during my last time in government 20 years ago. He said the U. others rudimentary -. NASA may soon begin to outsource a significant chunk of low-Earth-orbit launches to the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). ―We‘ve taken a number of steps towards establishing a defence posture across the Asia-Pacific that is more geographically distributed.space continues to be characterized by ad hoc arrangements. Gates said in his speech in which he emphasised on the need to have engagement with top Asian countries.a central technical component for geo-stationary and mid-Earth-orbit SBSP concepts.

and even the threat of nuclear war.. the existence of an arsenal of mass destruction in such an unstable region in turn has serious implications for future arms control and disarmament negotiations.) Israeli nukes aimed at the Russian heartland seriously complicate disarmament and arms control negotiations and.for whatever reason.S.S. if the familiar pattern(Israel refining its weapons of mass destruction with U.S. complicity) is not reversed soon. once unthinkable except as a last resort. a nuclear escalation. It is widely reported that the principal purpose of Jonathan Pollard's spying for Israel was to furnish satellite images of Soviet targets and other super sensitive data relating to U. http://www. and dramatically lowers the threshold for their actual use.html Meanwhile.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Middle East instability escalates and goes nuclear John Steinbach. In the words of Mark Gaffney.globalresearch. spy secrets.. would now be a strong probability. nuclear targeting strategy. ISRAELI WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION: A THREAT TO PEACE. at the very least. March 2002." and Ezar Weissman. if not for all out nuclear war.. Israel's current President said "The nuclear issue is gaining momentum(and the) next war will not be conventional.ca/articles/STE203A. Seymour Hersh warns.." Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 24 .. as the Iraqis did. the unilateral possession of nuclear weapons by Israel is enormously destabilizing. Israel no longer needs U. "Should war break out in the Middle East again. ". or should any Arab nation fire missiles against Israel.the deepening Middle East conflict could trigger a world conflagration. DC Iraq Coalition. (Since launching its own satellite in 1988." Russia and before it the Soviet Union has long been a major(if not the major) target of Israeli nukes.

kerosene. but of war and peace. Nations that get a large percentage of their electricity from space will not have to fear that their neighbors will cut them off from gas or coal supplies. and diesel are. Traditionally that has been the role of governments. The Space Review. the investment logic changes.com/article/1389/1 In the future other pipelines. John Mankins‘ successful experiment. The Space Review. governments. the investment logic changes. is the first real data point we have (see ―A step forward for space solar power‖. this issue). The need for vulnerable pipelines and shipping routes will diminish. Even with subsidies. beaming power from Maui to the Big Island of Hawaii. should concentrate on reducing the technological unknowns and setting the stage for future developments in the middle or end of the next decade. The profit-seeking side of the private sector does not see its role as inflicting peace on an unstable and violent world. Getting permission from the FCC. but they are going to be phased out over time in favor of such things as plug-in hybrids. such as the one that may run from the coast of Pakistan to western China. weight for weight and volume for volume. editor and publisher of Spaceequity. This will not happen overnight. The coming huge increase in demand for energy as more and more nations achieve ―developed‖ status has been discussed elsewhere. It is hard to imagine that large powerful states such as China or India will allow themselves to be pushed back into relative poverty by a lack of resources or by environmental restrictions. as well as from the state and local governments is quite an accomplishment and shows that this technology can be shown to be safe.thespacereview. However. Gasoline. and space solar power‖. eliminate these kinds of dangers.com. The world is evolving away from oil-based transportation systems. ―War. Removing this kind of infrastructure from its central role in the world‘s energy economy would eliminate one of the most dangerous motivations for war that we may face in the 21st century. but it will reduce them. especially the US government. It could be subsidized the way that wind power or terrestrial solar has been. While most space solar power advocates believe that the basic technology already exists. Moving a substantial percentage of the Earth‘s energy supply off the planet will not. Transmitting any amount of power over nearly 150 kilometers shows what can be done. as are the capital requirements. the engineering challenges are huge. If SSP were perceived as a ―war avoidance‖ mechanism or technology. It will probably take decades. Seen as a simple business proposition space solar power (SSP) is a long way from becoming a viable economic source of energy. by far the most effective transportation fuels. The need for a wholly new kind of world energy infrastructure is not just an issue involving economics or conservation. in and of itself. and in recent decades the socalled NGOs or non-profit sector. If the world really is entering into a new age of resource shortages—or even if these shortages are simply widelyheld illusions—nations will naturally try their best to ensure that they will have free and reasonably priced access to the stuff they need to survive and to prosper.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Advantage 3 is Resource Wars SPS averts global conflict and resource wars by removing energy sources from territorial claims Taylor Dinerman. Innovative financing propositions such as the idea that a government could promise to buy a certain amount of space-generated power at a set price may become attractive in the future. Even more important is the fact that Mankins and his team were able to navigate the government‘s regulatory maze in order to achieve their goal. it is hard to see that the private sector would pay for the development work due to the unknown technological risks and to the long time scale. author and journalist based in New York City. peace. the FAA. http://www. 6/8/ 2009. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 25 . For the moment. if SSP were perceived as a ―war avoidance‖ mechanism or technology. may be just as important and as vulnerable as the one that runs through Georgia. but the process is now in motion. however. Some of the proposed regulations aimed at the climate change issue will inevitably make matters worse by making it harder for nations with large coal deposits to use them in effective and timely ways.

and coal plants. The solar energy available in space is literally billions of times greater than we use today. ethanol. makingspace solar power a truly long-term energy solution. eliminating a major source of national competition for limited Earth-based energy resources. hybrids will soon evolve into plug-in hybrids which can use electric energy from the grid.org/settlement/ssp/index. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 26 . It works regardless of cloud cover. ―Space Solar Power Limitless clean energy from space‖. Advantages of Space Solar Power (also known as Space-Based Solar Power. spacesolar power does not require environmentally problematic mining operations. Thistechnology on a larger scale. can supply nearlyall the electrical needs of our planet. As batteries.space solar power will not produce hazardous waste. in turn. Space solar power can provide the needed clean power for any future electric transportationsystem. space solar power has a number of substantial advantages over other energy sources. It doesn't help to remove fossil fuels from vehicles if you just turn around and use fossil fuels again togenerate the electricity to power those vehicles.htm The United States and the world need to find new sources of clean energy. space solar power does not compete for or depend uponincreasingly scarce fresh water resources. National Space Society. space solar power does not provide easy targets for terrorists. Food can continue to be a major export instead of a fuel provider. not just take a step in theright direction. Another need is to move away from fossil fuels for our transportation system. dwarfing all others combined. Space solar power willprovide true energy independence for the nations that develop it. Space solar power can provide large quantities of energy to each and every person on Earth with very little environmental impact. space solar power does not compete for increasingly valuable farmland or depend on natural-gas-derived fertilizer. space solar power is available 24 hours a day. daylight. Unlike bio-ethanol or bio-diesel. gas.or wind speed. Unlike nuclear power plants. Space solar power can provide a market large enough to develop the low-cost space transportation system that is required for its deployment. or SBSP) Unlike oil.3 billion of the Sun's output. super-capacitors. The lifetime of the sun is an estimated 4-5 billion years.space solar power does not emit greenhouse gases. in huge quantities. combined with already demonstrated wireless power transmission (see 2-minute video of demo). 7 days a week. While electricity powers fewvehicles today. Unlike nuclear power plants. October 2007. will also bring the resources of the solar system within economic reach. Unlike terrestrial solar andwind power plants. Space solar power can solve our energy and greenhouse gas emissions problems.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Scenario 1 is Oil Solar technology leads to global energy independence—removes the need for foreign oil NSS. but solve . Space solar power can be exported to virtually any place in the world . enabling us to expend resources in other ways. Space solar power can take advantage of our current and historic investment in aerospace expertise to expand employment opportunities in solving the difficult problems of energy security and climate change. Solar energy is routinely used on nearly all spacecraft today. http://www. While all viable energy options should be pursued with vigor. Space solar power will not require dependence on unstable or hostile foreign oil providers to meet energy needs . This . As Earth receives only one part in 2. the gasoline engine will gradually play a smaller and smaller role in transportation but only if we can generate the enormousquantities of electrical energy we need. Space Solar Power gathers energy from sunlight in space and transmitsit wirelessly to Earth.nss. and fuelcells improve. which needs to be stored and guarded for hundreds of years. Not just help. Space solar power can also be used for desalination of sea water. Unlike coal and nuclear fuels. Unlike coal and nuclear plants. and its energy can be converted for local needs such as manufacture of methanol for use in places like rural India where there areno electric power grids. space solar power is by far the largest potential energy source available.

―The total spent annually is between $2 billion and $2. political corruption.. Failure to make energy independence the nation‘s highest priority after the Gulf War demonstrated that the United States did not have the political will to free itself from dependence on foreign oil. Friedman (Pulitzer Prize winning columnist). and America‘s enthusiasm for energy independence faded into memory.S. In some 20 countries. oil has become associated with terrorism. terrorism. and recruit new members.. America stands at a crossroad. New York Times. Wahhabism is a fundamentalist Islamic movement that has its roots in the extreme Islamic Takfiri ideology. The Detroit Economic Club. Every time you fill your gas tank. The charities were part of an extraordinary $70 billion Saudi campaign to spread their fundamentalist Wahhabi sect worldwide. corporate greed. The Saudi Connection. the global petroleum industry is a three trillion dollar a year business. The global expansion of militant Islam is financed by Middle East oil wealth. Future wars could be prevented if everyone who has taken a stand against the war in Iraq would turn their passion toward the goal of American Energy Independence.S. Energy Security. Oil is no longer viewed as just another commodity. a choice between two very different futures. News & World Report. the idea of American energy independence has returned with a vengeance. ―The rise of terrorism by militant Islam against the United States and the West coincided with the rise in oil prices of 1979-80 and the subsequent transfer of hundreds of billions of dollars from the West to Muslim countries. but it is not the only source of energy. Following the 1973 Arab oil embargo. With the help of new technology. Then during the 1980's. In the U. The 1973 Arab oil embargo interrupted the flow of oil causing severe gasoline shortages and long lines at gas stations.‖ David D.‖ Nexus—OIL and AL Qaeda By Frank H. The war against Islamic terrorism cannot be won without cutting off Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 27 . which is a religious belief that encourages its followers to use violence as a means to achieve their goals. Freedom from oil dependence will cut-off the flow of oil money to the Middle East and put an end to the financial support of militant Islam.americanenergyindependence. The 1991 Persian Gulf War was a military intervention to stop one dictator from taking control of Middle East oil — this was the third and most severe warning. the idea of energy independence captured the imagination of the American people. U. told a Senate committee that estimates went north of $75 billion. the world consumes over 80 million barrels of oil every day (over 30 billion barrels per year). One choice leads to increased dependence on foreign oil and a future dominated by terrorism and war.5 billion. Oil is a natural source of energy.S. purchase weapons.. Standing against war is not enough – Standing together for Energy Independence will create a positive political force and a shared national dream. Kaplan U.‖ he said. oil revenues were the catalyst that converted passive resentment into Islamic Terrorism.S. Is there anyone who still cannot see the connection between the flow of oil money into the Middle East and the flow of terrorism out of the Middle East? ―The meteoric rise of oil revenues in the 20th century meant a new era for Islam. Now. http://www. The other choice leads to American energy independence and a world economy that is no longer desperate for oil. Today. and successfully landed robotic exploration vehicles on Mars. and Brookings Institution on U. It seems reasonable to believe that American scientists and engineers could also develop environmentally safe alternative energy technology that would free America from oil dependence. a former Treasury Department general counsel.S. The embargo exposed America's growing oil dependence and gave the American people their first warning of the price they would pay for continued dependence on imported oil. Ph.‖ – Max Singer. and global warming. Center for Strategic and International Studies. re-awakened by the terrorist attack on 9/11 and war in the Middle East. oil means gasoline. compilation of articles from: U. At $100 per barrel. Foreign Service (Retired). mapped the human genome. The 1979 Iranian revolution interrupted the flow of oil again — this was the second warning. American technology has put a man on the moon. September 11. In the minds and hearts of the American people.‖ The Saudi Connection By David E. more than thirty years after the oil embargo. It is a call to this generation to take action and decide the course of history by declaring and fighting for American Energy Independence. Denton. senior fellow. It is time for America to lead the development of new energy technology that will free the USA and the entire world from dependence on oil. America‘s energy needs can be obtained from sources other than petroleum. and Islamic centers that have acted as support networks for the jihad movement. and economic collapse Ron Bengston.com A powerful idea is spreading through America. Development of alternative energy to free the world from oil dependence will create a seismic shift within the economic foundation of the world.. The Hudson Institute. 2008. the money was used to run paramilitary training camps.D. The money helped lay the foundation for hundreds of radical mosques. increased automobile fuel efficiency and new oil discoveries created a surplus of oil on the world market. some of the money will find its way into the hands of Islamic extremists who are planning the next terrorist attack.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Continued oil dependence leads to global instability. 2001 was a preview of America's future – one possible future. How billions in oil money spawned a global terror network: ―Starting in the late 1980s—after the dual shocks of the Iranian revolution and the Soviet war in Afghanistan—Saudi Arabia's quasi-official charities became the primary source of funds for the fast-growing jihad movement.News & World Report ―Exactly how much the Saudis have spent to spread Wahhabism is unclear. signaling the urgent need for American Energy Independence. becoming a powerful force shaping the political views of a new generation of Americans. the USA alone consumes over 20 million barrels per day (over 7 billion barrels per year). Aufhauser. schools.

S. money and.S. In an era when exploding global demand for energy creates high prices and fears of scarcity. and legislative leadership of an administration behind solving a problem that is highly conducive to political procrastination and partisanship. most important. Energy Security and the 2008 Presidential Election. While some Republicans reject the idea of energy independence. ―Third. energy is the issue with the widest gulf between what is required to make our nation secure and what is likely to be achieved through the inertia of existing programs and Congressional proposals. issues which I believe have not diminished in importance.S. I say this deliberately..SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 the flow of oil money to the Middle East Thomas Friedman The New York Times Pulitzer Prize-winning foreign affairs columnist ―No matter what happens in Iraq. We seek options that would allow for military disengagement in Iraq and the wider Middle East. embargo... As we sacrifice blood and treasure. most Republicans acknowledge and accept the need for energy security. 2007 Center for Strategic and International Studies Energy: The Most Important Issue of 2008 — Speech given by U. Republican candidates who advocate energy independence are talking about economic and global energy security. The transfer of American wealth to the Middle East helps sustain the conditions on which terrorists prey. For this reason. We pressure Sudan to stop genocide in Darfur. such as deficit reduction. ―Today. A democratization policy in the Middle East without a different energy policy at home is a waste of time. the U. as well as persistent public policy struggles that have confronted us for decades. regulatory authority. We know that oil money funds everything from the madrassas that plant the seeds of terror in young minds to the Sunni insurgents that attack our troops in Iraq. and overall budget problems will be heavily encumbered over both the short and the long run if we do not mitigate our energy import dependence. voters should understand that Republicans and Democrats define energy independence differently. the country that faced down the tyranny of fascism and communism is now called to challenge the tyranny of oil. it is the issue on which meaningful progress most depends on the great intangible in American public policymaking – the application of dramatic.S. ―Three factors lead me to the conclusion that energy is the most vital topic of this Presidential election: ―First. Our energy dependence is perpetuated by a lack of national will and focus. many of the most severe recession scenarios involve sustained energy disruptions due to terrorism. yet oil revenues flowing to authoritarian governments are often diverted to corrupt or repressive purposes. and social security. Senator Richard Lugar (R-IN) on December 18.. Almost any scenario for recession will be deepened by high energy costs. Republicans want all of America's natural resources available for energy production.S. Our ability to address social security. ―Congress and private enterprise can make evolutionary energy advancements. including all federal lands that hold oil. We pressure Iran to stop its uranium enrichment activities. Presidential candidates.‖ U.. education. but revolutionary national progress in the energy field probably is dependent on presidential action. notwithstanding the existence of extremely important immediate concerns such as the war in Iraq and the performance of the American economy. I say this even in the context of my own long standing evangelism related to non-proliferation and arms reduction. hatch the plots. Only the President has the visibility to elevate a cause to national status. John McCain and Barack Obama. natural gas. many Republicans are passionate about it. yet key nations are hesitant to endanger their access to Iran‘s oil and natural gas. The estimated 800 Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 28 . the lives of our young people. have voiced their support for energy independence.‖ U. We fight terrorism. indeed. When Republican candidates speak of energy independence they are campaigning for expanding oil production in Alaska and opening the oil fields off the coast of California (an oil resource potentially larger than Iraq). We know that our oil addiction is jeopardizing our national security—that we fuel our energy needs by sending $800 million a day to countries that include some of the most despotic. visionary. and sustained Presidential leadership. economy is likely to continue to underperform. Senator John McCain Speech on Energy Policy: Watch the Video or Read the Text April 23. or natural disaster. Senator Barack Obama Speech on Energy Policy: Watch the Video or Read the Text May 07. For the very resource that has fueled our way of life over the last hundred years now threatens to destroy it if our generation does not act now and act boldly. We need a president ―At the dawn of the twenty-first century. ―Second. transformational energy policies are likely to be a requirement for achieving our economic and social aspirations here at home. and only the President can leverage the buying power. and carry out attacks on our soldiers and citizens. yet our way of life depends on a steady stream of oil from that region. We know what the dangers are here. we cannot dry up the swamps of authoritarianism and violent Islamism in the Middle East without also drying up our consumption of oil—thereby bringing down the price of crude oil. that energy security and the economic and environmental issues closely associated with it should be the most important topics of the 2008 Presidential election. health care. Moreover. energy is the underlying condition that exacerbates almost every major foreign policy issue. coal and oil shale deposits. war. yet energy-poor countries are further impoverished by expensive energy import bills. volatile regimes in the world. but we find that the Sudanese government is insulated by oil revenue and oil supply relationships. We try to foster global respect for civil society and human rights. 2007 at the Brookings Institution on U. yet some of the hundreds of billions of dollars we spend each year on oil imports are diverted to terrorists. American national security will be at risk as long as we are heavily dependent on imported energy The final 2008 U. American voters will choose a pro-energy independence candidate for President in 2008. health care. However.S. some of our gas dollars flow to the fanatics who build the bombs. As such. I would state unequivocally. We give foreign assistance to lift people out of poverty.. 2007 The Detroit Economic Club ―Al Qaeda must revel in the irony that America is effectively helping to fund both sides of the war.

Saudi Arabia. Eliminate world oil dependence and the Islamic extremists will be deflated psychologically. and Venezuela. California. over 700 billion dollars flowed into OPEC from oil hungry countries around the world. How much of that money was given to support the worldwide advance of Islamic terrorism? With rising oil prices. global oil dependence is an immediate threat. Democrats tend to play down or deny the threat of oil financed Islamic militancy. Ronald Reagan is credited for defeating Communism without firing a shot. when Democrats speak of energy independence they are usually talking about independence from any and all fossil fuels as well as independence from nuclear energy. it just means they will have limited influence without the oil wealth. OPEC revenue is expected to exceed one trillion dollars in 2008. All are Islamic countries except Venezuela which has partnered with Iran. Iraq. In 2007. Kuwait. UAE. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 29 . as a global threat to civilization. Current OPEC members are Algeria. Qatar. Islamic terrorism. It averages out to that fact. Libya. Global Warming is a sustainability issue that must be solved as the world progresses toward complete global modernization. (That does not mean their feelings and beliefs will not sustain. If the oil comes from a well in Wyoming. preferring instead to focus on the threat of Global Warming. while at the same time enticing their leaders and people toward freedom. Republicans also support the development of technology to produce coal-to-liquid transportation fuels—an American resource that is greater than all of the oil in the Middle East. In contrast. Nigeria. The price is the same for everyone in the world. OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) produces about 40% of the world‘s oil today. It is important to acknowledge that energy independence and global warming are separate issues.) Islamic militancy is emboldened by the perception of power and dominance that Islam derives from the world‘s dependence on oil — oil that the world must get from Arab countries. In contrast. It doesn‘t matter where oil comes from. the threat of oil financed terrorism is like a coiled rattlesnake immediately on the path in front of a day-dreaming hiker. American voters need to understand the relative priority. Canada. the threat of greenhouse gas emissions is like the threat of cancer from prolonged cigarette smoking. which translates to OPEC getting 40 cents on every dollar paid for oil anywhere in the world. Demand anywhere increases demand everywhere.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 billion barrels of recoverable oil from oil shale located in the United States is three times greater than the proven oil reserves of Saudi Arabia. by economically isolating and suffocating the Soviet Union. Iran. So it is always true that OPEC gets 40 cents on every dollar paid for oil anywhere in the world. Russia. Texas. Indonesia. On the other hand. Mexico. or the North Sea it doesn‘t make any difference because oil is a global commodity. initiating action toward achieving global independence from petroleum (as a source of energy) will lead to the defeat of Islamic terrorism. cannot sustain itself without the massive oil revenue that finances it. a clear and present danger. In a similar way. Metaphorically speaking.

stitutions of poor governments to restrict health spending only serves to deepen inequalities in health care and perpetuate social injustice. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 30 .pdf) In addition to connecting remote locations with energy. 1990. Professor at Princeton University. Advocacy to re. SBSP is the only clean energy source that has the potential to deliver the energy needed to have desalination become a cheap and practical reality.national financial policies that foment poor health. http://www. Writers for Sun and Wind Magazine.tries are instead forced to march in lock step to. to decrease their public sector budgets.tutions such as the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank force poor governments.cule capital to protect their vulnerable citizens and educate their children.ward the ‗free‘ market.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Scenario 2 is Water SPS solves water shortages – powers desalination plants Reid Smith and Lisa Cohn. claims Sage Water wars go nuclear Jonathan Weiner. tensions over dwindling water supplies and rising populations are reaching what many experts describe as a flashpoint. Further. Neo-liberal economic ‗reforms‘ imposed on poor countries by international financial insti.sentials such as vaccination. Already in the Middle East. tram North Africa to the Persian Gulf and from the Nile to the Euphrates. the Change Bomb.com/development/journal/v50/n2/full/1100376a. page 270) If we do not destroy ourselves with the A-bomb and the H-bomb. ―Only a matter of time?‖. and for decades to come.000 nuclear warheads the world has stockpiled since Trinity. revitalizing the public health infrastructure and improving the delivery of es. then we may destroy ourselves with the C-bomb. Water Shortages are a form of structural violence driven by colonialism and present day corporations Plan breaks down oppression Joia S Mukherjee. SBSP may also play an integral part in solving the global water crisis. colonialism and slavery. but takes an enormous amount of energy and is not feasible with today‘s energy sources and prices. October 2009. In poor countries. Medical Director of Partners in Health. ―The Next One Hundred Years‖. and are to.tural violence that underlies disease. as the recipients of qualified loans.net/articles/spacepower. Poverty and the AIDS Pandemic‖ http://www.html Current global inequalities are often the legacies of oppression. one explosion may lead to the other. enforcing policies such as user fees for health and primary education. when they would rather invest their minus. And in a world as interlinked as ours.more. A climate shift in that single battle-scarred nexus might trigger international tensions that will unleash some at the 60. Desalination – the production of fresh water from salt water – is a viable technology.dress the violations of the basic right to health must recognize that more money is needed for health now. It is only with ongoing.energysmith. ―Structural Violence. the coercion by international financial in. privatize health services and.day perpetuated by radical. market-driven inter. says Sage.palgrave-journals. these recipient coun. 2007. sanitation and clean water are critical aspects to remediating the struc. large-scale international assistance that poor governments will be able to address the right to health in a sustained way.

a different fission fuel cycle. being incorporated into such a rational sustainable energy transition plan. such as thorium. Space solar power comes very close to this ideal. operation. Hence.15 The efficiency of a Rectenna is above 80 per cent (rejects less than 20 per cent to the biosphere). The Space Review. An ideal energy source will not add to global warming. Whether this will be an improved form of enriched uranium nuclear fission. 09 (Peter A.pdf) While no energy source is entirely benign. Directorate of Strategic Plans and Programs. P. a concentrating solar plant (thermal) is perhaps 15 per cent efficient (rejecting 85 (per cent) while a fossil fuel plan is likely to be less than 40 per cent efficient (rejecting 60 per cent to the biosphere). there is no need for active cooling and so no need to tie the location of the receiver to large amounts of cooling water. the more advanced fusion energy is not yet known. The Next Major Step In The Indo-US Strategic Partnership?‖. a Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) International Fellow in India. beginning the engineering development of SSP now becomes a necessity. as such. is a senior member of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) a past chair of the AIAA‘s Space Logistics Technical Committee. However.edu/issue16/papers/OP_SkysNoLimit. Three possible energy sources that could achieve sufficient generation capacity to close the 2100 shortfall are methane hydrates. 5/4/ 2009. and waste disposal are technically and politically resolved. and the founder and president of the Spacefaring Institute LLC. not expected to impact the atmosphere. ―Sky‘s No Limit: Space-Based Solar Power. and SSP. whereas for the same power into a grid. under permafrost. previously the Chief of Future Science and Technology Exploration for Headquarters Air Force. but 250 million additional Americans and 5 billion additional electrical power consumers worldwide by 2100 will need substantially more assured generation capacity. have short energy payback time.14 SBSP is. Most people would agree that an advanced nuclear generator scalable from tens of megawatts to a few gigawatts. with the accompanying environmental problems of dumping large amounts of waste heat into rivers or coastal areas. http://www. or terrestrial solar plant. ONLY SPS supplies the power needed for a sustainable energy transition James M. Snead. The key planning consideration is: Which of these are now able to enter engineering development and be integrated into an actionable sustainable energy transition plan? Methane hydrate is a combination of methane and water ice where a methane molecule is trapped within water ice crystals. Unless the US federal government is willing to forego addressing the very real possibility of energy scarcity in dispatchable electrical power generation. the SBSP concept has significant things to recommend it for the environmentally conscious and those wanting to develop green energy sources. The amount of heat contributed by transmission loss through the atmosphere and reconversion at the 19 receiver-end is significantly less than an equivalent thermal (fossil fuel). http://spacejournal. a rational US energy plan cannot yet include methane hydrates as a solution ready to be implemented to avoid future energy scarcity.E. which rejects significantly more heat to the biosphere on a per unit (per megawatt) basis. Intelligent control of consumer electrical power use to moderate peak demand and improved transmission and distribution systems to more broadly share sustainable generation capacity will certainly help. require no water for cooling and have no adverse effects on living things. We are left with SSP. require little in the way of land.. SSP is the one renewable energy solution capable of beginning engineering development and. advanced nuclear energy. Planning and executing a rational US energy policy that undertakes the development of SSP will Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 31 . or. ―The vital need for America to develop space solar power‖.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Advantage 4 is the Environment Scenario 1 is Warming SPS is the ideal clean energy to solve warming – minimal pollution and resource use Garretson. The high efficiency of the receivers also means that unlike thermal and nuclear power plants. acceptable production solutions have not yet emerged.thespacereview.com/article/1364/1 A key element of a well-reasoned US energy policy is to maintain an adequate surplus of dispatchable electrical power generation capacity. nuclear power plant. a rational US energy plan cannot yet include advanced nuclear energy as a solution ready to be implemented to avoid future energy scarcity. with acceptable environmental impact and adequate security. and under cold rock formations. therefore. Why not plan to use methane hydrates? The issues are the technical feasibility of recovering methane at industrialscale levels (tens to hundreds of billions BOE per year) and doing so with acceptable environmental impact. produce no greenhouse gasses. As a result. Research into all of these options is proceeding with significant research advancements being achieved..ohio. The unique conditions necessary for forming these hydrates exist at the low temperatures and elevated pressures under water. Almost all of the inefficiency in the system is in the space segment and waste heat is rejected to deep space instead of the biosphere. is a desirable long-term sustainable energy solution. Some experts estimate that the undersea methane hydrate resources are immense and may be able to meet world energy needs for a century or more. While research into practical industrial-scale levels of recovery with acceptable environmental impact is underway. until commercialized reactor designs are demonstrated and any environmental and security issues associated with their fueling.

"the end of living and the beginning of survival" for humankind. At first sight this looks like wise counsel from the climate science adviser to Defra. Of course. And as the Arctic warms. who warned that "if we get to a four-degree rise it is quite possible that we would begin to see a runaway increase". when a global temperature increase of 6C coincided with the release of about 5. when sea levels rose by about 120 metres to create the Channel. But the idea that we could adapt to a 4C rise is absurd and dangerous. and much of the world's most productive farmland. Bob Watson [PhD in Chemistry. All the world's coastal plains would be lost. It appears that an initial warming pulse triggered other warming processes. The climate system is already experiencing significant feedbacks. look 55. Or perhaps the beginning of our extinction. Award for Scientific Freedom and Responsibility from the American Association for the Advacement of Science] told the Guardian last week. in the immortal words that Chief Seattle probably never spoke. Watson's call was supported by the government's former chief scientific adviser.uk/commentisfree/2008/aug/11/climatechange) We need to get prepared for four degrees of global warming. Many scientists warn that this historical event may be analogous to the present: the warming caused by human emissions could propel us towards a similar hothouse Earth. reasonableness dictates that the serious engineering development of SSP be started now. the release of billions of tonnes of methane – a greenhouse gas 70 times stronger than carbon dioxide over 20 years – captured under melting permafrost is already under way. Billions would undoubtedly die. complete with ports. 8/11. notably the summer melting of the Arctic sea ice. rapid advancements in advanced nuclear energy or methane hydrate recovery or the emergence of a new industrial-scale sustainable energy source may change the current circumstances favoring the start of the development of SSP. 2008. http://www. This is a remarkable understatement. Lush subtropical forests grew in polar regions.co. The collapse of the polar ice caps would become inevitable. Weather would become extreme and unpredictable. transport and industrial infrastructure. The world's geography would be transformed much as it was at the end of the last ice age. To see how far this process could go. and the more the Arctic warms. Global warming on this scale would be a catastrophe that would mean. The more the ice melts. the North Sea and Cardigan Bay out of dry land.5m years to the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum.000 gigatonnes of carbon into the atmosphere. both as CO2 and as methane from bogs and seabed sediments. the more sunshine is absorbed by the sea.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 jump-start America on the path to acquiring the mastery of industrial space operations we need to become a true spacefaring nation. The Earth's carrying capacity would be hugely reduced. But not knowing how long affordable easy energy supplies will remain available and not knowing to what extent terrestrial nuclear fission and renewable energy production can be practically and politically expanded. cities.guardian. and sea levels rose to 100m higher than today. with more frequent and severe droughts. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 32 . bringing long-term sea level rises of 70-80 metres. Feedback cycles exacerbate warming leading to extinction Oliver Tickell. Sir David King [Director of the Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment at the University of Oxford]. environmental researcher. floods and hurricanes.

SPS Affirmative

DDW 2011

1 Scenario 2 is Natural Disasters
SPS provides direct and instant relief to natural disasters NSSO, National Space Security Office, 2007 (―Space-Based Solar Power as an Opportunity for Strategic Security‖, pages 41-42)
For the DoD specifically, beamed energy from space in quantities greater than 5 MWe has the potential to be a disruptive game changer on the battlefield. SBSP and its enabling wireless power transmission technology could facilitate extremely flexible ―energy on demand‖ for combat units and installations across an entire theater, while significantly reducing dependence on vulnerable over‐land fuel deliveries. SBSP could also enable entirely new force structures and capabilities such as ultra long‐endurance airborne or terrestrial surveillance or combat systems to include the individual soldier himself. More routinely, SBSP could provide the ability to deliver rapid and sustainable humanitarian energy to a disaster area or to a local population undergoing nation‐building activities. SBSP could also facilitate base ―islanding‖ such that each installation has the ability to operate independent of vulnerable ground‐based energy delivery infrastructures. In addition to helping American and Allied defense establishments remain relevant over the entire 21st Century through more secure supply lines, perhaps the greatest military benefit of SBSP is to lessen the chances of conflict due to energy scarcity by providing access to a strategically security energy supply.

SPS can control weather– prevents natural disasters and controls rainfall Dr. Bernard J. Eastlund, B. S. in physics from MIT and a Ph.D. in physics from Columbia University, and Lyle M. Jenkins, Project
Engineer, NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Eastlund Scientific Enterprises , ―Thunderstorm Solar Power Satellite-Key to Space Solar Power‘‖, October 2008, http://electricalandelectronics.org/wp-content/uploads/2008/10/01235075.pdf//jchen= The application of the Solar Power Satellite for the prevention of tornadoes was proposed by Eastlund [Ref. 13. Although the constituency for storm modification resides mainly in the tornado belt states, the potential benefits of saving lives and reducing property damage have broad appeal. The refinement of SSP technologies and operations can be achieved without an immediate competition with fossil fuel energy. The fundamental concept is disruption of the convective forces in a thunderstorm [Ref. 131. By selective heating of the cold rain, the process that concentrates energy in tornadoes is disrupted. By interfering with the tornadogenesis process, it appears that some tornadoes might be eliminated. Subsequently, loss of life and storm destruction are reduced. Such benefits are attractive to politicians and are not as sensitive to the system economics as is the commercial solar power satellite. Once the fundamental technology and operations have been demonstrated, the cost and risk of energy production from space can be realistically assessed. Looking beyond the taming of tornadoes, hurricanes are formed from ensembles of mesocyclones. As the total available power increases, TSPS could be considered for modifying the features of the mesocylones that allow hurricanes to reinforce their motion. Potentially, the steering winds could be disrupted to steer the storms away from metropolitan regions. The ultimate application of a full system might be to steer the jet stream to manipulate the rainfall patterns on the earth‘s surface. Even with the expensive TSPS, it is likely that the intervention cost for a particular storm will not approach the cost for preventing acts of terrorism with similar casualties [Ref. 131

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1
Unchecked natural disasters culminate in extinction Sid-Ahmed, writer for Al-Ahram Weekly, 1/12/2005, Al-Ahram Weekly (Mohamed Sid-Ahmed, ―The post-earthquake world‖,
http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2005/724/op3.htm) The human species has never been exposed to a natural upheaval of this magnitude within living memory. What happened in South Asia is the ecological equivalent of 9/11. Ecological problems like global warming and climatic disturbances in general threaten to make our natural habitat unfit for human life. The extinction of the species has become a very real possibility, whether by our own hand or as a result of natural disasters of a much greater magnitude than the Indian Ocean earthquake and the killer waves it spawned. Human civilisation has developed in the hope that Man will be able to reach welfare and prosperity on earth for everybody. But now things seem to be moving in the opposite direction, exposing planet Earth to the end of its role as a nurturing place for human life. Today, human conflicts have become less of a threat than the confrontation between [Humanity] Man and Nature. At least they are less likely to bring about the end of the human species. The reactions of Nature as a result of its exposure to the onslaughts of human societies have become more important in determining the fate of the human species than any harm it can inflict on itself. Until recently, the threat Nature represented was perceived as likely to arise only in the long run, related for instance to how global warming would affect life on our planet. Such a threat could take decades, even centuries, to reach a critical level. This perception has changed following the devastating earthquake and tsunamis that hit the coastal regions of South Asia and, less violently, of East Africa, on 26 December. This cataclysmic event has underscored the vulnerability of our world before the wrath of Nature and shaken the sanguine belief that the end of the world is a long way away. Gone are the days when we could comfort ourselves with the notion that the extinction of the human race will not occur before a long-term future that will only materialise after millions of years and not affect us directly in any way. We are now forced to live with the possibility of an imminent demise of humankind.

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SPS Affirmative

DDW 2011

1 Scenario 3 is Ice Age
SPS solves ice age – application of heat energy averts famine and disease Mark Hempsell, senior lecturer in space technology at the University of Bristol, Acta Astronautica, Volume 59, Issue 7, October 2006, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0094576506001755//jchen
One of the common features of past natural global catastrophes is a cooling of the Earth's climate, which is the key vector triggering famine, disease and other causes of death. In cases of NEO impact and caldaria volcanoes this is caused by material in the atmosphere and lasts for over a year. The cause of the cooling during the little ice age is less certain but it lasted for a considerable period of time. A system to counter this cooling would have widespread applicability and great efficacy in these cases, and could in itself prevent the majority of deaths. The system would not have to heat the whole Earth but rather selectively target regions where cooling induced effects create a hazard. Examples might be heating plague reservoirs regularly to above 25° to prevent breakout of the disease, ensuring snow melt in early spring in high latitude countries (so ice reflectivity does not reduce solar heating) reducing occurrence of frost in high-yield agricultural areas, and the heating of ocean regions to ensure viable rainfall. If a significant SPS capability existed that used microwave power transmission, then heating could be achieved by defocusing the transmission antenna and pointing the power beam at the area that requires heating. That is to use the SPS as a microwave oven. This is clearly a ―zero cost‖ option as no new systems are required and one 5 GW unit could provide 10 mW/cm2–500 km2 (a circle 25 km diameter at the equator). In practice, the target areas are more likely to be in the order several 100 km in diameter so tens of SPS would need to be used together.

Ice age causes extinction—feedbacks are key to prevent it Zbigniew Jaworowski is chairman of the Scientific Council of the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection in Warsaw
and former chair of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. He was a principal investigator of three research projects of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and of four research projects of the International Atomic Energy Agency. He has held posts with the Centre d'Etude Nucleaires near Paris; the Biophysical Group of the Institute of Physics, University of Oslo; the Norwegian Polar Research Institute and the National Institute for Polar Research in Tokyo (hes qualed), ―The Ice Age is Coming‖, Winter 03-04, http://www.21stcenturysciencetech.com/Articles%202004/Winter20034/global_warming.pdf) It is difficult to predict the advent of the new Ice Age—the time when continental glaciers will start to cover Scandinavia, Central and Northern Europe, Asia, Canada, the United States, Chile, and Argentina with an ice layer hundreds and thousands of meters thick; when mountain glaciers in the Himalayas, Andes, and Alps, in Africa and Indonesia, once again will descend into the valleys. Some climatologists claim that this will happen in 50 to 150 years.53, 54 What fate awaits the Baltic Sea, the lakes, the forests, animals, cities, nations, and the whole infrastructure of modern civilization? They will be swept away by the advancing ice and then covered by moraine hills. This disaster will be incomparably more calamitous than all the doomsday prophecies of the proponents of the man-made global warming hypothesis. The current sunspot cycle is weaker than the preceding cycles, and the next two cycles will be even weaker. Bashkirtsev and Mishnich expect that the minimum of the secular cycle of solar activity will occur between 2021 and 2026, which will result in the minimum global temperature of the surface air. The shift from warm to cool climate might have already started. The average annual air temperature in Irkutsk, which correlates well with the average annual global temper- ature of the surface air, reached its maximum of +2.3°C in 1997, and then began to drop to +1.2°C in 1998, to +0.7°C in 1999, and to +0.4°C in 2000. This prediction is in agreement with major changes observed currently in biota of Pacific Ocean, associated with an oscillating climate cycle of about 50 years‘ periodicity. The approaching new Ice Age poses a real challenge for mankind, much greater than all the other challenges in history. Before it comes-let's enjoy the warming, this benign gift from nature, and let's vigorously investigate the physics of clouds. F. Hoyle and C. Wickramasinghe stated recently that "without some artificial means of giving positive feedback to the climate ... an eventual drift into Ice Age conditions appears inevitable." These conditions "would render a large fraction ofthe world's major food growing areas inoperable, and so would inevitably lead to the extinction of most of the present human population." According to Hoyle and Wickramsinghe, "those who have engaged in uncritical scaremongering over an enhanced greenhouse effect raising the Earth's temperature by a degree or two should be seen as both misguided and dangerous," for the problem of the present "is of a drift back into an Ice Age, not away from an Ice Age." Will mankind be able to protect the biosphere against the next returning Ice Age? It depends on how much time we still have. I do not think that in the next 50 years we would acquire the knowledge and resources sufficient for governing climate on a global scale. Surely we shall not stop climate cooling by increasing industrial CO2 emissions. Even with the doubling of CO2 atmospheric levels, the increase in global surface air tem- perature would be trifling. However, it is unlikely that perma- nent doubling of the atmospheric CO2 , even using all our car- bon resources, is

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1
attainable by human activities. Also, it does not seem possible that we will ever gain influ- ence over the Sun‘s activity. However, I think that in the next centuries we shall learn to control sea currents and clouds, and this could be sufficient to govern the climate of our planet. The following "thought experiment" illustrates how valuable our civilization, and the very existence of man's intellect, for the terrestrial biosphere. Mikhail Budyko, the leading Russian climatologist (now deceased) predicted in 1982 a future drastic C02 deficit in the atmosphere, and claimed that one of the next Ice Age periods could result in a freezing of the entire surface of the Earth, including the oceans. The only niches of life, he said, would survive on the active volcano edges. Budyko's hypothesis is still controversial, but 10 years later it was discovered that 700 million years ago, the Earth already underwent such a disaster, changing into "snowball Earth," covered in white from Pole to Pole, with an average temperature of minus 40°C.

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SPS Affirmative

DDW 2011

1 Advantage 5 is Tech Spillover
SPS development prompts industrial spin-off tech and attracts private capital Lyle M. Jenkins, Jenkins Enterprises, Project Engineer, NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, December 2009, ―Development
of Space-Based Solar Power‖, Intech, http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/development-of-space-based-solar-power//jchen Summary Space-Based Solar Power is a huge project. It might be considered comparable in scale to the national railroads, highway system, or electrification project rather than the Manhattan or Apollo endeavors. However, unlike such purely national projects, this project also has components that are analogous to the development of the high volume international civil aviation system. Such a large endeavor includes significant international and environmental implications. As such it would require a corresponding amount of political will to realize its benefits. Most of America‘s spending in space does not provide any direct monetary revenue. SBSP will create new markets and produce new products. Great powers have historically succeeded by finding or inventing products and services not just to sell to themselves, but to sell to others. Today, investments in space are measured in billions of dollars. The energy market is trillions of dollars and will generate substantial new wealth for our nation and our world. Investments to develop SBSP have significant economic spin-offs. They open up or enable the other new industries such as space industrial processes, space tourism, enhanced telecommunications, and use of off-world resources. After the fundamental technological risks have been defined, shifting SBSP from a research and development project to a financial and production program is needed. Several major challenges will need to be overcome to make SBSP a reality, including the creation of low cost space access and a supporting infrastructure system on Earth and in space. The opportunity to export energy as the first marketable commodity from space will motivate commercial sector solutions to the challenges. The delivered commodity can be used for base load terrestrial electrical power, wide area broadcast power, carbon-neutral synthetic fuels production, military tactical support or as an inspace satellite energy utility

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augmenting peaking loads as necessary. as much as 50 to 60 per cent of India‘s 1. Even so. Air Force officer on sabbatical as an Air Force Fellow. The ability to provide 24hour. Intech. Sustainable development has become the mantra for dealing with the potential global crises that are facing civilization. it is in the nature of SBSP concepts to provide energy in a highly usable form with an exceptional capacity factor. hydroelectric power.com/articles/show/title/development-of-space-based-solar-power//jchen The rate of change and its direction leave civilization vulnerable to severe economic change in a period of significant population growth. although it‘s development represents many challenges. Collecting solar energy is prime candidate.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Advantage 6 is the Economy SBSP creates jobs and increases tax revenues. A primary challenge is the issue of large initial cost prior to generating a return on that investment. stimulating the economy Garretson. A second key advantage of SBSP is its scalability. but the total energy needs of a fully developed planet with over 10 billion people. much wealth and significant tax revenues for the state. NASA Lyndon B. Unlike other renewable energy sources. non-polluting highly-usable energy has a highly beneficial effect on poverty alleviation and creation of economic opportunity and wealth. These advantages address multiple contemporary problems and constituencies. 8/2010. renewable energy is a resource that meets the criteria of sustainability. December 2009.intechopen. The importance of a base-load and urban capable renewable power source cannot be understated. early SSP systems are not likely to be price competitive unless fossil fuel pricing incorporates the long range economic impact. Collecting the energy in space provides significant advantages in continuity of supply. ―Sky‘s No Limit: Space-Based Solar Power.6 billion population will reside in cities8). Experts calculate that the exploitable energy in orbit exceeds not just the electrical demand of the planet today. ―Development of Space-Based Solar Power‖. natural gas and coal. Jenkins. Project Engineer. the addition of new. http://www. Directorate of Strategic Plans and Programs. The Next Major Step In The Indo-US Strategic Partnership?‖. previously the Chief of Future Science and Technology Exploration for Headquarters Air Force. Like other renewable energy sources. SBSP systems provide a non-depletable source of carbon-neutral energy for long-term sustainable development.. Clean. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 38 .10 Because of the strong coupling between electrification. pages 17-18) The significance of SBSP systems lies in its many potential advantages. dispatchable electric power in quantities appropriate for base-load cities (by 2039.9 Therefore.11 The very large size of the market12 also means that a successful space solar power industry will create many jobs. The NASA Fresh Look at Space Solar Power study shows that concepts needing less initial investment are feasible. The nature of the satellites and their receiver also means that much intermediate and costly transmission infrastructure can be dispensed with and a single satellite can service multiple receiving stations. the concept can address both immediate concerns regarding the need to displace carbon producing plants with cleaner power and longer term needs to replace the very substantial investment and dependence on coal and other fossil fuels as they are depleted. Jenkins Enterprises. human development and gross national product (GNP) / gross world product (GWP). and industrial processes means that it can fill the same roles as nuclear power. and have a highly stimulatory effect on space and high tech industry and national tech base.13 SPS provides economic stability – continuous energy supply safeguards against supply shocks Lyle M. Johnson Space Center. Sky‘s No Limit (Peter A. predictable.

http://www. decline. the crisis has weakened the power of the merchants. This may be happening yet again.com/politics/story. History may suggest that financial crises actually help capitalist great powers maintain their leads-but it has other. As a result.‖ February 4 2009. Europe was a pretty peaceful place in 1928. but the Depression poisoned German public opinion and helped bring Adolf Hitler to power. the companies and banks based in these societies are often less established and more vulnerable to the consequences of a financial crisis than more established firms in wealthier societies. what rough beasts might start slouching toward Moscow. consequently.If financial crises have been a normal part of life during the 300-year rise of the liberal capitalist system under the Anglophone powers.S. ―Only Makes You Stronger. populist radicals.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Continued economic decline will result in global war. the Seven Years War. If the current crisis turns into a depression. Bad economic times can breed wars. less reassuring messages as well. the cold war: The list of wars is almost as long as the list of financial crises. And. and professionals who want to develop a liberal capitalist society integrated into the world. or authoritarian traditionalists who are determined to resist liberal capitalist society for a variety of reasons. industrialists. The New Republic.tnr. the two World Wars. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 39 . Kissinger senior fellow for U. foreign policy at the Council on Foreign Relations. Beijing.html?id=571cbbb9-2887-4d81-854292e83915f5f8&p=2 AD 6/30/09) Frequently. Meanwhile. Crisis can also strengthen the hand of religious extremists. financiers. if we can't get the world economy back on track. the American Revolution. Karachi. financial crises often reinforce rather than challenge the global distribution of power and wealth. Henry A. developing countries and countries where capitalism has relatively recent and shallow roots tend to suffer greater economic and political damage when crisis strikes--as. so has war. we may still have to fight. inevitably. Walter Russell Mead. the Napoleonic Wars. but. None of which means that we can just sit back and enjoy the recession. yet. The wars of the League of Augsburg and the Spanish Succession. it does. or New Delhi to be born? The United States may not.

―Although the annual probability of Earth being struck by a large NEO is extremely small. 2002. ―The New Viability of Space Solar Power: Global Mobilization for a Common Human Endeavor‖.google. Martin Schwab. This approach would be in keeping with the philosophy established by Dr. Philosophy School of Humanities. David Morrison of the NASA Ames Research Center.com/scholar?start=40&q=unilateral+solar+powered+satellites&hl=en&as_sdt=0. The needed add-ons might be telescopes and lasers for the primary use of defending Earth from the many small Earth crossing orbits of asteroids and comets collectively referred to as Near Earth Objects (NEOs). Date accessed June 25. 2011 Economic considerations play a large role in justifying launch costs. Professor of Philosophy. http://scholar. Since it is possible. whether by government or by industry. April 15. Director of Humanities and Law Minor. there should be a way to add a third and fourth component/justification to proposed space platforms. The telescope/laser fixtures could be used to detect and deflect NEOs that are about 50 meters across (―city killers‖) and to detect the larger kilometer wide ―Earth killers‖ that would require more persuasive measures. according to Glaser to achieve a dual purpose by placing SSP collectors on existing communications satellites. English Professor School of Humanities.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Advantage 7 is Asteroids SPS detects and averts asteroid collisions Schwab. <<same impacts as the Asteroids Scenario>> Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 40 .30&as_ylo=2000. Morrison says. the consequences of such a collision are so catastrophic that it is prudent to assess the nature of the threat and prepare to deal with it.

and space-based power beaming applications. and international cooperation. 2007) The technology to beam power over long distances could lower application satellite weights and expand the envelope for Earth. Armed Forces can reduce the risk for large scale commercial development of the technology. de-orbit of space debris. economic prosperity and national security.S. It is significant that the Bush Administration has taken the time and effort to update all of the U. but because of the power available on orbit. including science. ―Space Based Solar Power as an Opportunity for Strategic Security‖ Phase 0 Architecture Feasibility Study.dtic. Col. By installing a power plant in geostationary orbit. which would enable concepts as diverse as comet / asteroid protection systems.S." Marine Corps Lt. the Industrial College of the Armed Forces. has left the U. if the plans succeeds. The current Administration has issued five space-specific policies to provide goals and objectives for the U. A truly developed Space-Based Solar Power infrastructure would open up entirely new exploration and commercial possibilities. Robert Forward‘s StarWisp Concept. Navigation. No risk of space debris – SPS DE-orbits them NASA. Commercial Remote Sensing. exploration. Initial government funding is key to private industry investment – lowers financial risk Daily Tech. space policies. "The business case still doesn't close. reserving the right to defend assets in space.S.S. U. ushering in an era of clean energy. hopes that the government chooses to follow the report and adopt the technology. Such a move could allow the U. a senior service school providing graduate level educationto sernior members of the US armed forces. and Timing.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Solvency The USfg is key to aerospace competition . and Space-Based Positioning. Charles Miller. a space technology start-up. not only because of the access which will be discussed in the section on infrastructure. is that industries may eventually see the technology at an affordable price. while the military will pay a premium to become the early adopter.S.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA475093&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc. 10/15/07. and beamed propulsion possibilities including far-term concepts as a true interstellar probe such as Dr. government has long understood that access to space and space capabilities are essential to U. Each policy endeavors to maintain U.dailytech. and its allies to commercially eliminate oil dependence. he says. and to continue to exploit space for national security and economic prosperity. The consolidation of the major space industry players and a general down-turn in the commercial space market demand.pdf The U. 9 America‘s success in space is dependent on government involvement. ―The Final Report: The Space Industry‖ Industrial College of the Armed Forces. motivation.S. http://www.export controls and mergers have weakened the private sector ICAF. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 41 . October 10. Damphousse of the NSSO states in the report.htm//jchen The plan also states that by developing SSP. What this means. 2007 (NASA. ―The Pentagon Wants Space Solar Power for U.S. and inspiration. these policies are Space Exploration.S. In addition to the National Space Policy. Space Program..S.com/The+Pentagon+Wants+Space+Solar+Power+for+US+Allies/article9275. the U. Spring 2007. and director of the Space Frontier Foundation. Paul E. but it's closer than ever. and meet the energy needs of the developing world. space industry reliant on the government for revenue and technology development. space policy from 1962 to 2006 served to ensure national leadership in space and governance of space activities. http://www. coupled with export restrictions. Jason Mick. space supremacy. the government can effectively "buy down" the risk for industry start-ups such as his company. CEO of Constellation Services International. Space Transportation. space-to-space power utilities. Allies‖.S.

and economic well-being.S. Enormous amounts of increased energy are needed. The Department of Defense is funding a great deal of research into robotics. geopolitics. However. Therefore. Government is inefficient. The United States is obviously that sort of power. Department of Defense.government R&D is key to successful SPS George Friedman. finding cures for degenerative diseases. 2011 At the same time we must prepare for long-term increases in energy generation from nonhydrocarbon sources-sources that are cheaper and located in areas that the United States will not need to control by send-ing in armies. based on history. whether the source is spacebased solar power or some other technology. The problem with natural gas in particular is that it is pedestrian. Thus the government will absorb the cost of early develop-ment and private investment will reap the rewards.google. the state is much better at investing in long-term innovation. Lending powers and those contending for power constantly find themselves under military and economic pressure. the German military created the foundation of modern rocketry.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Funding isn‘t enough . and in which the state has more resources. is the U. During a war aimed at global domination. For this decade. They respond to it by inventing extraordinary new technologies.http://books. To connect and control their empire. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 42 . although I think ful-fillment of that contract on that schedule is unlikely. but they are not nearly as good in basic research. accepting the ordinary and obvious is called for Hrs t-followed by great dreams quietly expressed. The government is heavily Funding one area we have discussed. which can‘t yield the magnitude of results required. Mitsubishi has invested inspace-based solar power to the tune of about $21 billion. and the likely source of the technology. Date accessed June 23. When we look at the projects we need to undertake in the coming decade. the organization most likely to execute them successfully is the Department of Defense. and CEO of the private intelligence corporation Stratfor. but that inefficiency and the ability to absorb the cost of inefficiency are at the heart of basic research. He is the founder. has not had its due. what should be under way and what is under way is private-sector development of inexpensive booster rockets. is an American political scientist and author. 2011 ―The Next Decade: Where We‘ve Been and Where We‘re Going‖. financial overseer. But the fundamental problem. the president must make certain that development along several axes is under way and that the potential for building them is realistic. In my view. The We are in a period in which the state is more powerful than the mar-ket. From aircraft to nuclear power to moon Hightsto the Internet to global positioning satellites.com/books?id=y5plTzPTw8YC&pg=PA235&dq=Space+based+solar+power&hl=en&ei=99cDTq3bHIfE gAfTypSODg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=10&ved=0CGAQ6AEwCQ#v=onepage&q=Space%20based%20solar%20 power&f=false. this is space-based solar power. There is nothing particularly new in this intertwining of technology. The danger is that the president will fritter away his authority on projects such as conservation. the Roman army built roads and bridges that are still in use. the British came up with radar. chief intelligence officer. and terrestrial solar power. wind power. But like so much of what will take place in this decade. Markets are superb at exploiting existing science and early technology. and California`s Pacific Gas and Electric has signed a con-tract to purchase solar energy from space by 2016. energy. the choices are pedestrian. The Philistines dominated the Levantine coast because they were great at making armor. It is currently under economic pressure but declining military pressure. Such a time is not usually when the United States undertakes dramatic new ventures. in countering. Eutope's EAB is also investing.

The environmental impact of the orbital solar power plants would become significantly lower than for any Earth-based power plant except perhaps nuclear fusion.The social impact of cheap and clean energy from space is more difficult to estimate.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 No perception of military threat – existence of ICBMs make SPS an undesirable weapon NSSO.light. it would be about 0. The concept presented in this paper has some significant advantages over many other proposed concepts for large scale energy production on Earth. Its motivation for study. It is however difficult to estimate the benefits of a large amount of cheap clean energy.org/settlement/ssp/library/nsso. But the NSSO is not interested in space. SBSP does not offer any capability as a weapon that does not already exist in much less. If the satellites and rockets are then built on the Moon in robotic factories. Solving the long-term energy scar. http://www. the beam from geostationary Earth orbit is just too wide to shoot indi. nuclear fusion promises to become a clean and cheap source of energy. Solar Power Satellites are sustainable. and we estimate that about 3 jobs would be created in the economy per 1 MW of installed useful power.ing SBSP is to identify sources of energy at a reasonable cost any. lessens the need to inter.ception that space solar power might somehow be used as a weapon. The first option is to build and employ reusable space vehicles for launching the satellites. SBSP would not be a precision weapon. One could therefore expect a net positive effect of solar power satellites on sustainability.vidual targets—even if the intensity were sufficient to cause harm. While space solar power is still way too expensive for launches from the Earth. America can use the existing technical expertise in its military to catalyze an energy transformation that lessens the likelihood of conflict between great powers over energy scarcity. April 2011 ―Solar orbital power: Sustainability analysis‖. Philadelphia. The peak intensity of the microwave beam that reaches the ground is less than a quarter of noon-sun. It is estimated as about US $1 per W of useful power. and then uses its produced energy to lift itself into a higher GEO orbit or even to the Moon [35]. helps the world climb from poverty to prevent the spawn of terrorism. which are built in a robotic factory on the Moon and then launched into the GEO orbit. PA. and technologically feasible Lior. It is also important that the price as well as environmental impact of solar orbital power are expected to decrease with scale. Measured by CO2 emissions. a worker could safely walk in the center of the beam. 2007. cheap.The production cost of the orbital solar power plants could also become significantly lower than for any Earth-based power plant except perhaps nuclear fusion. Today‘s militaries are looking for more precise and lower collateral-damage weapons. Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics. Date accessed June 24. and the second option is to build the satellites and rockets in space (e. University of Pennsylvania.5 kg per W of useful power.. the beam can be designed to instantly diffuse should pilot signal lock ever be lost or disrupted.g. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 43 ..com/science/article/pii/S0360544210005931. we estimate that:. That is why it is so important to educate people about this technol.sciencedirect. there are several technological possibilities to reduce this price.based solar power as a weapon.S. which is the main recommendation by NASA. http://www.vene in failed states which cannot afford required energy. instead of rockets. the nation already has working ICBMs with nuclear warheads should it choose to use them to destroy large enemy targets. Additionally. Report to the National Security Space Office.ogy and to continue to conduct the research in an open environment. because space power satellites seem to be connected to a significant loss of jobs.mission and deliberate safe-design of the transmitting antenna act to prevent beam focusing above a pre-determined maximum inten.htm//ZY When first confronted with the idea of gigawatts of coherent energy being beamed from a space. and averts the potential costs and disaster responses from climate change. The physics of microwave trans. environmental and social aspects of sustainability for electricity production in solar space power plants using current technology.nss. or a bad thing: proliferating weapons to space.where in the world. Solar orbital power concept can become operational in less than a decade and produce large amounts of energy in two decades.based solar power (SBSP) satellite. October 10.ingly costly. on the Moon). people immediately ask. Noam Lior. which would most likely more than offset the negative effects of lost jobs. to shorten the logistics lines and huge amount of infrastructure needed to support military combat operations. An old NASA estimate shows that this would be economical for as few as 30 orbital satellites with 300 GWe of total power [17].sity level. and to prevent conflicts over energy as current sources become increas. and this number would even decrease with improved technology and larger scope. SBSP is not suitable for attacking ground targets. For example. if the first satellite is launched into the low Earth orbit. In addition to expected increase in employment this makes solar orbital power an important alternative to other sustainable energy sources. The costs could be even further reduced. For a large scale application of orbital power stations both environmental impact and costs can be significantly reduced. however even in the best case scenario it can‘t become operational before 2040. These effects seem to be the most positive. 2011 We have analyzed some economic. For example. The DoD is not looking to SBSP for new armaments capabilities. At several kilometers across. by coupling the transmitting beam to a unique ground-based pilot signal.city problem is too vital to the world‘s future to have it derailed by a miscon. and would also decrease with improved technology and larger scope. ―wouldn‘t that make a powerful weapon?‖ Depending on their bias that could either be a good thing: developing a disruptive capability to enhance U.expensive options. power. if thermal power satellites are used. SBSP is an anti-war capability.

dtic. 2002. the potential security vulnerability to SSP ground installations would eventually be near that of the current grid system. ―Space‐ Based Solar Power: As an Opportunity for Strategic Security‖. This low energy density and choice of wavelength also means that biological effects are likely extremely small.google. April 15. biomass. possible weaponization of the beam. If SSP transmissions were directed to thousands of small. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 44 . English Professor School of Humanities.30&as_ylo=2000. • Because the microwave beams are constant and conversion efficiencies high. Director of Humanities and Law Minor. they can be beamed at densities substantially lower than that of sunlight and still deliver more energy per area of land usage than terrestrial solar energy. Martin Schwab.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Fears of radiation are misgrounded – beams are less harmful than sunlight NSSO. and at the edge of the rectenna equivalent to the leakage allowed and accepted by hundreds of millions in their microwave ovens. Date accessed June 25. all of which must be addressed with education. National Security Space Office. Philosophy School of Humanities. decentralized ―community grids. and vulnerability of the satellite. hydropower and geothermal power. ―The New Viability of Space Solar Power: Global Mobilization for a Common Human Endeavor‖.‖ sabotage of any few receiving stations would not achieve the goal of the terrorist.pdf//jchen FINDING: The SBSP Study Group found that when people are first introduced to this subject. The peak density of the beam is likely to be significantly less than noon sunlight.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA473860&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc. http://scholar. 2011 If this strategy were expanded.com/scholar?start=40&q=unilateral+solar+powered+satellites&hl=en&as_sdt=0. Professor of Philosophy. http://www. NASA has gone to great efforts to make SSP ―fit‖ into the existing grid or ―energy markets. comparable to the heating one might feel if sitting some distance from a campfire. the key expressed concerns are centered around safety. 10/10/07.‖ One of the purposes of this paper is to demonstrate why it might be advisable to decentralize the grid so that it would better fit SSP and other forms of renewable energy such as terrestrial solar. No chance terrorists steal SPS—once the power is decentralized. it makes it impossible Schwab. wind power.

SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 *****LEADERSHIP***** Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 45 .

7-16-2007.html) The study also concluded that solar energy from satellites could provide power for global U. are interested in the concept. The Earth‘s economy is going to need so much extra power over the next few decades that every new system that can be shown to be viable will be developed. 6/1/2008. in the long run.cnn. SPS is inevitable – US development is key to dominance Taylor Dinerman. CNN (Lara. If the US were to develop space solar power for military applications it would give the US civilian industry a big head start. Russia. China. http://www. the European Union and India. is working toward testing a small-scale demonstration in the near future.com/2008/TECH/science/05/30/space. there is no reason why this cannot be made into a win-win outcome. Japan is an upcoming rival Farrar. And Japan. As long as the military requirements are legitimate.S. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 46 . inevitable. according to the Pentagon report. http://www." Miller said. "The country that takes the lead on space solar power will be the energy-exporting country for the entire planet for the next few hundred years.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 SPS Inevitable – k2 Heg SBSP is key to hegemony for hundreds of years. author and journalist from New York. ―How to harvest solar power? Beam it down from space!‖. military operations and deliver energy to disaster areas and developing nations.com/article/910/1 Space solar power is.thespacereview.solar/index. which has been pouring millions of dollars into space power studies for decades. writer for CNN. but we‘re not the only ones in the race. ―Solar power satellites and space radar‖.

These are the Dark Age experiences that a world without a hyperpower might quickly find itself reliving. religious orders. limited nuclear wars could devastate numerous regions. The trouble is. regional nuclear wars. Technology has upgraded destruction. The alternative to unipolarity would not be multipolarity at all. and cruise liners. Be careful what you wish for.ph/downloadables/A_World_Without_Power_as_published_in_Foreign_Policy.org. less hospitable for foreigners seeking to work. wretchedly poor citizens would seek solace in Evangelical Christianity imported by U. beginning in the Korean peninsula and Kashmir. In Africa. the prospect of an apolar world should frighten us today a great deal more than it frightened the heirs of Charlemagne. The reversal of globalization--which a new Dark Age would produce--would certainly lead to economic stagnation and even depression. It would be apolarity--a global vacuum of power. For the world is much more populous--roughly 20 times more--so friction between the world's disparate "tribes" is bound to be more frequent. 7/1/2004 ―A World Without Power. Western investors would lose out and conclude that lower returns at home are preferable to the risks of default abroad. so it is now possible not just to sack a city but to obliterate it. labor. As the United States sought to protect itself after a second September 11 devastates. For more than two decades. or even a return to the good old balance of power. Professor of History at NYU. the great plagues of AIDS and malaria would continue their deadly work. In Latin America. targeting oil tankers. The worst effects of the new Dark Age would be felt on the edges of the waning great powers. except where countries have shut themselves off from the process through tyranny or civil war. http://fnf. or do business.S. now human societies depend not merely on freshwater and the harvest but also on supplies of fossil fuels that are known to be finite. too.pdf So what is left? Waning empires. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 47 . Religious revivals. it would inevitably become a less open society. of course. Houston or Chicago. Technology has transformed production. that this Dark Age would be an altogether more dangerous one than the Dark Age of the ninth century. unleashing the centrifugal forces that undermined previous Chinese empires.‖ Foreign Policy. and a power vacuum that would cause global conflict—extinction Niall Ferguson. globalization--the integration of world markets for commodities. A coming retreat into fortified cities. And far more dangerous forces than rival great powers would benefit from such a notso-new world disorder. and capital--has raised living standards throughout the world. With ease. Meanwhile. increasing trans-Atlantic tensions over the Middle East to the breaking point. Islamist extremists' infiltration of the EU would become irreversible. who would wish to leave their privately guarded safe havens to go there? For all these reasons. The few remaining solvent airlines would simply suspend services to many cities in these continents. If the United States retreats from global hegemony--its fragile self-image dented by minor setbacks on the imperial frontier--its critics at home and abroad must not pretend that they are ushering in a new era of multipolar harmony. The wealthiest ports of the global economy--from New York to Rotterdam to Shanghai-would become the targets of plunderers and pirates. aircraft carriers. say. as Europe's Muslim enclaves grew. Meanwhile.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Impact – Ferguson Hegemony prevents economic collapse. visit. terrorists could disrupt the freedom of the seas. while Western nations frantically concentrated on making their airports secure. perhaps ending catastrophically in the Middle East. Incipient anarchy. An economic meltdown in China would plunge the Communist system into crisis.

SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 ***SPACE SUPREMACY*** Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 48 .

assistant professor of strategic studies in the Naval War College‘s Strategic Research Department and founding member of the college‘s new China Maritime Studies Institute. Vol. Erickson and Lyle J. especially given China‘s new commercial power and its noninterventionist ethos. the US. Nevertheless. . China can still pose a considerable challenge to American hegemony. 26 Issue 6. December 2006. It will be a challenge amid the ‗Long War‘against terror for Washington to compete effectively for the hearts and minds of elites and populations in various regions of the world. 29: 6. two Chinese analysts claim that their country‘s rise is different from that of previous powers because it is merely a peaceful restoration of former capabilities and is also part of Asia‘s larger rise. In pursuing rapid. Journal of Strategic Studies. Andrew and Goldstein. With regular riots in the Chinese countryside (even in China‘s relatively wealthy eastern coastal provinces). the need to prepare for strategic competition with Japan. yet balanced military development. preparing for the worst: China‘s response to US hegemony‖. One can imagine a variety of other scenarios that might describe different choices concerning this classic dilemma between ‗guns and butter‘. * associate professor in the Strategic Research Department of the Naval War College. In one of the more optimistic assessments of American preponderance. Erickson. he asserts. Journal of Strategic Studies. for example.42 However. not only with respect to civilian-military resource tradeoffs. not least of which concerns to what extent resources should be allocated to military development versus social and economic priorities. preparing for the worst: China's response to US hegemony'. no state is likely to be in a position to take on the United States in any of the underlying elements of power. 89 A simple comparison of Beijing‘s emerging nuclear posture with Moscow‘s nuclear arsenal at its apex (tens of thousands of warheads) illustrates the point. but its aggressive commercial policies may also precipitate anti-Chinese sentiment. this dilemma is likely extremely acute. Indeed. Of course.generation fighter aircraft. Beijing could have opted for Soviet-style geostrategic competition with the United States.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Inherency – China Rise (1/2) Wolforth‘s wrong – China‘s growing hard and soft power makes them a competitor Andrew E. is no doubt an aspiring world power. as has already occurred in both Nigeria 41 and Pakistan. China is hardly adhering to the path that most developing states have pursued in so far as it is actively pursuing a full spectrum of advanced. a Chinese challenge to US hegemony cannot be ruled out. But except for the Sino-Japanese relationship. or possibly a combination of the two motivates China to develop robust military capabilities in the maritime and aerospace realms. The Asian giant‘s challenge to various aspects of US hegemony might even increase as the US continues to be burdened and extended by the Long War against global terror. But Chinese strategists have drawn historical lessons from Soviet militarist exhaustion during the Cold War and have little appetite for attempting to directly match US military might. iw No doubt China‘s leadership currently faces a set of enormous challenges.‘ 40 Moreover. ―Hoping for the Best. when coupled with the accelerating pace of Chinese military modernization. William Wohlforth argues that a global rival will not emerge to end America‘s unipolar hegemony for the foreseeable future. Brazil. primarily internal problems. ‗No other major power is . Goldstein. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 49 . nor a ballistic missile program to speak of. ‗irrational nationalism will grow with PRC power‘. likely to take any step that might invite the focused enmity of the United States‘. however. Chinese strategists have a keen sense for the imperative of balance. . the potential for a genuine challenge to American global hegemony becomes conceivable. 955 — 986 China‘s rise has quite clearly prompted significant concern among its neighbors. as a senior Chinese official emphasized to one of the authors. Lyle(2006) 'Hoping for the Best. The analysts further emphasize that ‗China‘s rise confronts many challenges. Beijing‘s policy of ignoring human rights may attract Third World elites. the impressive growth trajectory of such global economic and political influence need not necessarily threaten US national security. not to mention a second-generation ballistic missile submarine in development. but also within the military itself. pg. China‘s growing aerospace industry is a challenge to US hegemony. ‗indigenous weapons platforms. Furthermore. 981-982. Beijing‘s soft power diplomacy has skillfully neutralized and contained many of these geopolitical concerns. it is possible to overstate PRC soft power. but it has neither its own fourth. In a view that mirrors official People‘s Republic of China (PRC) pronouncements. but there are many such examples. ‗For many decades.‘ Based on this assessment of China‘s increasing hard and soft power.

29: 6. Chinese strategists envision aerospace assets playing a vital role in any future Taiwan scenario. Lyle(2006) 'Hoping for the Best. Andrew and Goldstein. But just as China was not dissuaded from submarine development in the recent past by American dominance in that area. ballistic and cruise missiles guided by Beidou satellites might be used to target US aircraft carriers. with significant implications for Beijing‘s ability to influence its maritime periphery and challenge US hegemony. For instance. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 50 . The most fundamental question is whether the PLA will be able to master the developments in air. Such a strategic requirement would necessitate the continued transformation of the PLA. its aerospace capacities are likely to rise with it. as China‘s current submarinefocused navy and still limited air force can only support the more modest strategy of access denial at present. As China‘s overall national power continues to rise. 955 — 986 China‘s aerospace development has profound implications for the US military. Journal of Strategic Studies. preparing for the worst: China's response to US hegemony'.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Inherency – China Rise (2/2) China‘s growing aerospace industry is a sign of its willingness to challenge US hegemony Erickson. Beijing also seems unwilling to cede aerospace dominance.and space-based platforms and C4ISR needed to support a PLA strategy beyond the East Asian littoral.

Not all of these surviving companies are in strong business health. The administration and the Congress must heed our warning call and act promptly to implement the recommendations in this report. the commission observed. Kinne. http://www.pdf In highlighting its concern about the future preeminence of the US aerospace industry.‖ 14 The commission also noted. . .‖ 16 (emphasis added) Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 51 . . Air War College. .dtic. ―Is the United States Air Force Responsible for Preserving the US Aerospace Industrial Base?‖. [and] the US K-12 education system [is failing] to properly equip US students with the math. has previously commanded two different Air Force Materiel Command squadrons. Only one US commercial prime aircraft manufacturer remains. science. This is in contrast to the attitude present here in the United States. We stand dangerously close to squandering the advantage bequeathed to us by prior generations of aerospace leaders. . engineering and manufacturing . [and] the industry is confronted with a graying workforce in science.‖ 15 Addressing part of the national security issue. current commander of the Cryptologic Systems Group. A healthy aerospace industry is a national imperative. . . ―The US aerospace industry has consolidated to a handful of players—from what was once over 70 suppliers in 1980 down to 5 prime contractors today. . and technological skills needed to advance the US aerospace industry. the commission noted ―Other countries [specifically in Europe and Asia] that aspire for a great global role are directing intense attention and resources to foster an indigenous aerospace industry. Lieutenant Colonel in the United States Air Force. ―New entrants to the industry have dropped precipitously to historical lows . . oversaw development of new space surveillance systems and technologies at the Air Force Space Command‘s Alternate Space Control Center.mil/cgibin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA539894&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Inherency – US Decline US aerospace dominance is in decline – increasing competition means now is the key time Christopher E. February 20 09.

The report called on government and the investment community must become more sensitive to commercial opportunities and problems in space. and so recommended a fenced amount of research and development budget. At the same time. competitive and global marketplace. it needs to invest in long‐term enabling research and related RDT&E infrastructure. national and global perspective. secure. our ―national jewel‖ which has enhanced our security. manufacture and maintain advanced systems and potentially provide expanded capability to the warfighter. the report noted that the federal government is dysfunctional when addressing 21st century issues from a long term. national security and procurement policies represent some of the most burdensome restrictions affecting U. the United States must overcome the obstacles that jeopardize its ability to sustain leadership in space. the U. including our industrial base. establish national aerospace technology demonstration goals. recognizing that government must assist industry by providing insight into its long‐term research programs.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Solvency XTN – Aerospace Primacy (1/2) Space based solar power fills all gaps in U. and create an environment that fosters innovation and provide the incentives necessary to encourage risk taking and rapid introduction of new products and services. economic benefit and scientific discovery. and suggested the establishment of national technology demonstration goals. Specifically. aerospace sector has been living off the research investments made primarily for defense during the Cold War…Government policies and investments in long‐term research have not kept pace with the changing world. ―America must exploit and explore space to assure national and planetary security. travel. vital capabilities in our defense industrial base will be lost. which stated: The United States must maintain its preeminence in aerospace research and innovation to be the global aerospace leader in the 21st century. Our nation does not have bold national aerospace technology goals to focus and sustain federal research and related infrastructure investments. It suggested an increase in public funding for long term research and supporting infrastructure and an acceleration of transition of government research to the aerospace sector. and quality of life will depend on it. commerce and exploration.S.nss. The Commission concluded that the nation will have to be a space‐faring nation in order to be the global leader in the 21st century—that our freedom. It urged the federal government must remove unnecessary barriers to international sales of defense products. industry competitiveness. http://www.necessary for developing and supporting future launch capabilities to revitalize U.S. National Space Security Organization. and significantly increase in the investment in basic aerospace research to increase opportunities to gain experience in the workforce by enabling breakthrough aerospace capabilities through continuous development of new experimental systems with or without a requirement for production. They explicitly recommended hat the United States create a space imperative and that NASA and DoD need to make the investments . 10/10/2007.15 . and lifestyle. and implement other initiatives that strengthen transnational partnerships to enhance national security. recommended that the United States boldly pioneer new frontiers in aerospace technology. and that government must commit to increased and sustained investment and must facilitate private investment in our national aerospace sector. aerospace primacy NSSO. workforce. Such experimentation was deemed to be essential to sustain the critical skills to conceive.pdf FINDING: The SBSP Study Group found that SBSP directly addresses the concerns of the Presidential Aerospace Commission which called on the US to become a true spacefaring civilization and to pay closer attention to our aerospace technical and industrial base. as well as provide Incentives to Commercial Space.S.‖ An SBSP program would be a powerful expression of this imperative. Over the last several decades. Recognizing the new realities of a highly dynamic. Space‐Based Solar Power As an Opportunity For Strategic Security. which included reducing the cost and time to space by 50%. The Aerospace Commission recognized that Global U. A top priority was increased investment in basic aerospace research which fosters an efficient. wealth.S.S. mobility. The nation needs to capitalize on these opportunities. Private‐public partnerships were also to be encouraged.org/settlement/ssp/library/final-sbsp-interim-assessment-release-01. This can only be achieved through proactive government policies and sustained public investments in long‐term research and RDT&E infrastructure that will result in new breakthrough aerospace capabilities. noting that U. It also noted that without constant vigilance and investment. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 52 . and therefore. An SBSP program as outlined in this report is remarkably consonant with the findings of this commission. aerospace leadership can only be achieved through investments in our future. long term research and national infrastructure.S. It concluded that. space launch infrastructure. and the federal government needs to lead the effort. and industry needs to provide to government on its research priorities. develop. joint office to support the Executive Agent for Space and the newly formed Defense Space Council. Phase 0 Architecture Feasibility Study. and safe aerospace transportation system.

http://www. http://solarhigh. and its energy can be converted for local needs — such as manufacture of methanol for use in places like rural India where there are no electric power grids. the contribution of this capital cost to the delivered cost of electric energy would be 5. Space solar power can provide a market large enough to develop the low-cost space transportation system that is required for its deployment. Offer clean. political and strategic consequences of abdicating our leadership in space but also abandon control of our energy future.org/Overview. October 2007. will also bring the resources of the solar system within economic reach. ―Space Solar Power: Limitless clean energy from space‖. Space solar power can also be used for desalination of sea water.6 cents/kWh. in turn. Serious studies of SBSP are under way in several countries.html//jchen Conclusion The expected cost of deploying SBSP is ~$7. inexhaustible solar power almost anywhere on Earth. A strong US commitment to SBSP could Solve the energy problem permanently. SBSP is thus much more promising than terrestrial solar as a replacement for fossil fuels or nuclear power. second-rate nation that must import electricity as well as petroleum. Offer greatly reduced launch costs to all users of space. including the rectenna as well as construction and launch of Block II satellites. China. India and the European Union. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 53 . ―Solar High: Energy for the 21st Century‖. Continued US neglect of this vital technology means that we will not only suffer all the economic. Amortized over an expected life of 30 years at a discount rate of 5%. Restore the status of the United States as an energy-exporting nation. including Japan. Open the solar system as the domain of our species. Space solar power can take advantage of our current and historic investment in aerospace expertise to expand employment opportunities in solving the difficult problems of energy security and climate change. What we do about these issues in the next few years will determine whether we will restore American initiative or become a debt-ridden.nss. Restore US preeminence in launch services. NASA and commercial interests.org/settlement/ssp///jchen Space solar power can be exported to virtually any place in the world.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Solvency XTN – Aerospace Primacy (2/2) SSP development is key to expand the aerospace market and lower transportation costs NSS. including the DoD. in the USA and around the world. This. National Space Society. US commitment to SBSP solves cost efficiency – that‘s key to US space leadership Solar High Study Program. Permit explosive growth in extraterrestrial enterprises. March 2011.400/kW. eliminating most concerns about resource exhaustion. Create large international markets for export of our technology as well as energy.

As the economics of energy shifts.google.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Solvency XTN – Aerospace Primacy (3/3) US SPS development now ensures energy and space dominance George Friedman. Obviously. and distributed through the existing and expanded electric grid. though for nonemerg eenyy situations the military would prefer to use vehicles des sinned specifically for military purposes. covering an area the size of New Mexico with solar panels) is swallowed up by the limirlcssness of space. designed to convert solar energy into electricity. Nor will any country have the appetite to challenge the United States at that moment. weapons-use of SPS would be prohibited by current bilateral and multilateral treaties. transmitted to the earth. Such equipment would give the possessor a large breakout p9tential for rapid deployment of personnel and hardware in time of crisis.C. would enhance this Nation's military space capabilities. Office of Technology Assessment"August 1981 The development of fleets of launch and transfer vehicles (ior SPS). The United States will also have created another foundation for its geopolitical power—it will become the largest energy producer in the world. and collectors can be positioned to receive continual sunlight. attractive.S.com/books?id=rg97KwH2GkC&pg=PA222&lpg=PA222&dq=%22United+states+space+hegemony%22&source=bl&ots=db3rKvOBi4&sig=7jR08Y uVDUROYo8EcbqRYbnsdzg&hl=en&ei=TDYFTrnrBoHogQeH3si0DQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CCE Q6AEwAQ#v=snippet&q=United%20States%20space%20hegemony&f=false//ZY NASA has been involved in research on space-based energy since the 1970s. The satellite portion of SPS is vulnerable to various methods of attack and interference but the likelihood of its being attacked is only slightly greater than for major terrestrial energy systems. ii will become a feature of everyday life. and thus many more energy-intensive activities will become feasible. will be placed in geostationary orbit or on the surface ot the moon. in the form space solar power (SSP). I he entrepreneurial possibilities that emerge will be astounding. 2009. The ability of the United States to provide much cheaper solar energy will create At\ additional lever for the superpower to increase its international dominance. An attack on American facilities will be unthinkable given the now vast imbalance of power. including hydrocarbons. Japan and China and most other countries are going to be energy importers. These advances will lead lo reduced energy costs on earth. will become less. since the localized microwave radiation would be intense. The military effects of SPS will depend largely on the institutional framework within which it is developed. In the war of the 2050s the United Slates will really start using this new system. Plus there are no clouds. and the Internet in the 2000s. The number of cells needed could be reduced by concentrating sunlight using mirrors. One thing that space has available is space. The Next 100 Years: A Forecast for the 21st Century http://books. such as electronic warfare or providing energy to military units. : Congress of the U. Who could have drawn a line between ARPANET and the iPod All that can be said is that this second wave of innovations will transform things at least as much as the interstate highway and the Internet did—and bring as much prosperity in the 2060s as the interstate brought in the 1960s. but the risks would be far less than that from nuclear reactors or from the environmental effects of hydrocarbons. SPS itself could be used for military purposes. For one thing. other sources of energy. international involvement would tend to reduce the potential for use of SPS by the military sector. SPS is good for military use. widely recognized international affairs expert and author of numerous books. Other countries will not be able to launch their own space-based systems. as well as facilities for living arnd working in space. And in the space-based energy project of die 2060s. with its energy fields protected from attack. they will not have a military making the down payment on the system. What would be unbearably intrusive on earth (say. the receivers would have to be installed in isolated areas on earth. reconverted to electricity. but is technically unsuited to constitute an efficient weapon.. The electricity will be converted into microwaves. thus reducing the cost of launching the photovoltaic arrays. US Congress 81 Solar power satellites Washington. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 54 . Vase numbers of photovoltaic cells. D.

http://www. reducing the overall need for government investment. and intelligence on terrorist activities. In this model. a mainstay of our national security strategy. Wexler & Walker Public. Lockheed Martin and the U. worldwide demand for commercial satellite launch has dropped essentially to nothing--and is not expected to rise for a decade or more--while the number of available launch platforms worldwide has proliferated. the key to near. Combat air patrols swept the skies. government essentially buying launches at the margin. at the outset of the crisis.Defend America and Project Power--when and where needed. A new strategy for assured access to space must be found. materiel.S. Consider just a few of the issues: * Much of our capability to defend America and project power depends on satellites.nss.org/resources/library/spacepolicy/2002AerospaceCommission. and the security and protection of key government officials was enabled by timely air transport. satellites supported real-time communications for emergency responders. 2001 dramatically demonstrated the extent of our national reliance on aerospace capabilities and related military contributions to homeland security. and reliance on the economics of a commerciallydriven market is unsustainable. when needed. with the U. Public Policy Associates. S. with precision weapons and cruise missiles. As recent events in Afghanistan and Kosovo show. Today. control and communications assets permitted the rapid targeting of key enemy positions and facilities. They rely on platforms and an industrial base--measured in both human capital and physical facilities--that are aging and increasingly inadequate. In both places. satellites and reconnaissance aircraft. In order to defend America and project power. each company partner made significant investments of corporate funds in vehicle development and infrastructure. the nation needs the ability to move manpower.html Defending our nation against its enemies is the first and fundamental commitment of the federal government. As recently as 1998. Today's military aerospace capabilities are indeed robust. The events of September 11. provided critical strategic and tactical intelligence to our national leadership.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 I/L XTN – Aerospace k2 Heg Space primacy assures U. the business case for EELV simply does not close. and aircraft to critical locations. and will continue to be. destroyed enemy forces. This has been. "Final Report of the Commission on the Future of the United States Aerospace Industry‖. but at significant risk. therefore. Assured reliable access to space is a critical enabler of this capability. imagery for recovery. Space-borne intelligence.S. Today. command. EELV drew primarily on commercial demand to close the business case for two new launchers. Aircraft carriers and their aircraft also played key roles in both conflicts.and mid-term space access was the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV). often aided by the Global Positioning System (GPS) and the Predator unmanned vehicle. some unmanned. the power generated by our nation's aerospace capabilities is an--and perhaps the-essential ingredient in force projection and expeditionary operations. Air Force. NSS Aerospace Commission. Walker. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 55 . however. intelligence information and precision weaponry swiftly to any point around the globe. Chairman. Airlifters and tankers brought personnel. a development project of Boeing. November 2002. materiel. 2 This translates into two broad missions-. And aerial bombardment. assets in space and cements overall hegemony Robert S.

just as navies protect passage and commerce on the seas. http://www. humanity will extend its interests fully across cislunar space and beyond. For now. intelligence. A relatively small number of similar satellites spread out in orbital space can survey the entire Earth's surface.html//jchen The reason for going to near-Earth space for security purposes is to gain access to regions of the Earth where terrestrial forces either cannot go or cannot loiter as economically as some satellites. Toward a Theory of Spacepower. Space power key to surveillance and information gathering M. Someday in the future. NDU Press. albeit briefly. but only space systems (and some terrestrial cyber networks) perform them continuously on a global scale. but this will evolve over time to include the cislunar region and the Moon. and an associate director of the Eisenhower Center for Space and Defense Studies at the US Air Force Academy. It is an independent form of power that can be used alone or in concert with other forms of power to achieve desired ends. and timing. humans live on the surface of the Earth.36 Eventually. Air.edu/press/space-Ch17.html//jchen The purpose of security spacepower is to provide capabilities to assist in achieving political and military objectives.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 I/L XTN – Aerospace k2 Conventional Wars Current spacepower is used for support functions to land-based military M.ndu. 2003. which gives space-based constellations the ability to perform missions on a global scale. among others. and computer (C4) support. populations and their political entities will likely migrate into space as well. ―Security and Spacepower‖. navigation. PhD student of strategic studies at the University of Reading. and sea forces also perform missions like these. Security spacepower will protect those interests. and with their leadership. In the opening years of the 21st century. May 20. and contemporary spacepower in this context refers to the struggles occurring there. These space networks create a global infrastructure that links together expeditionary forces deployed anywhere in the world and connects these forces with each other in all media.ndu. providing command. control. Space is a place where humans live and place uninhabited systems that help resolve problems. Smith. 2003. May 20.edu/press/space-Ch17. positioning. Toward a Theory of Spacepower.V. and an associate director of the Eisenhower Center for Space and Defense Studies at the US Air Force Academy.V. http://www. land. and weather support to terrestrial forces. NDU Press. especially for economic development. these missions are primarily informational—that is. It begins above the Earth's surface at the lowest altitude where a satellite can sustain a circular orbit. States perform many missions in space. communications. ―Security and Spacepower‖. at approximately 93 miles and extends outward to infinity—excluding heavenly bodies. Smith. however. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 56 . and reconnaissance (ISR). PhD student of strategic studies at the University of Reading. surveillance.

ndu. May 20. It does this by providing transparency into observable human activities around the globe and into space that removes uncertainties and security concerns or allows them to be addressed with a better approximation of the facts. Powerful spacefaring states may be able to use martial space strength in traditional ways.V. http://www. These ventures can become the framework of better international relationships and confidence-building maneuvers between potential adversaries.html//jchen Conclusion The primary value of spacepower is war prevention. 2003.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 I/L XTN – Aerospace k2 International Co-op Space supremacy fosters international cooperation through transparency and deters conflicts M. PhD student of strategic studies at the University of Reading. Toward a Theory of Spacepower. ―Security and Spacepower‖. and an associate director of the Eisenhower Center for Space and Defense Studies at the US Air Force Academy. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 57 . not support to warfighters.edu/press/space-Ch17. Smith. Space also provides opportunities for cooperative ventures on spacefaring activities across all sectors. NDU Press. such as providing assurances and using dissuasive and deterrent strategies. to prevent wars.

it is likely that they will be forced to counter each other's space systems in the very early stages. PhD student of strategic studies at the University of Reading. there are inadequate defenses for space systems. May 20. Toward a Theory of Spacepower.V. Smith. At present. timing. state and nonstate.edu/press/space-Ch17. but defense is possible. Weak actors are likely to employ space weapons in an attempt to counter the advantage space confers on powerful states. Finally. but an additional set of tools that delivers unique capabilities. and tempo of combat operations exponentially beyond non-spacefaring actors' ability to cope.html//jchen If history serves as a template for the future in space. 2003. with powerful spacefaring states using the medium to enable their surveillance and reconnaissance strike complexes in ways that accelerate the scale. space is very much part of the military mix of all actors. http://www.ndu. and it must be recognized that spacepower is not a replacement for terrestrial forces. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 58 . ―Security and Spacepower‖. wherein a belligerent merely attacks an adversary's space systems to inflict costs or to induce strategic paralysis on the enemy before offering terms. The most dangerous situation. then space will become a warfighting medium.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Impact– Space Wars/Escalation Space militarization is inevitable but evolution of defensive systems can deter escalation M. however. If the motives are intense. NDU Press. It is already heavily militarized. occurs if two powerful spacefaring states go to war with each other. and an associate director of the Eisenhower Center for Space and Defense Studies at the US Air Force Academy. Space denial strategies of warfare are likely to evolve.

A student of spacepower must become thoroughly familiar with both of these works. Smith.html//jchen In anticipating the future of spacepower for theoretical discussion. space warfare.V. . In the words of Colin Gray: It is a rule in strategy. The preponderance of evidence suggests that space will be no different than air.edu/press/space-Ch17. and whether or not to weaponize space are all matters of policy.25 Some predict that spacepower will make the greatest contributions to combat effectiveness in wars of the 21st century. . In the bluntest of statements: space warfare is a certainty in the future because the use of space in war has become vital. Spacepower is already part of the warfighting mix in the political and strategic unity of war.24 War is a political activity and therefore a human activity with a long history that serves as a guide path.22 It is the job of theory to anticipate such developments given the template that history suggests. land. NDU Press. Toward a Theory of Spacepower. and sea regarding warfare. the greater has to be the incentive to damage. http://www. Likewise. the injury that can be caused to such states by menacing their space systems can be considerable. air-. the beast of war will either break its chains all at once or stretch them slowly over time.ndu. Advanced spacefaring states are already reliant—and moving toward dependence—on space-derived services for activities across every sector of their societies. we can do little more than extract a roadmap from the history of human activity and extrapolate forward. Regardless of public sentimental or environmentally shaped attitudes towards space as the pristine final frontier. disable. Land. PhD student of strategic studies at the University of Reading. for that reason has to be worth attacking by others. one derived empirically from the evidence of two and a half millennia. May 20. and this trend will continue.21 Like war itself. 2003. Given these incentives. but not its own logic. but they are applicable enough to see that spacepower may have its own grammar. that anything of great strategic importance to one belligerent.26 Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 59 .23 The logic of statecraft and warfare laid out in Sun Tzu's The Art of War and in Carl von Clausewitz' On War applies to spacepower as well as any other element of military power.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 Space Wars Space wars are inevitable – strategic value of space guarantees conflict over it M. space warfare is coming. or destroy it. the decision to build space weapons. Spacepower is becoming critical to their styles of warfighting. And the greater the importance. . not theory.20 The strategic value of space to states is not in question. ―Security and Spacepower‖. and an associate director of the Eisenhower Center for Space and Defense Studies at the US Air Force Academy. and seapower lend imperfect analogies to spacepower. capture.

Just as the triad of bombers. Smith.V. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 60 .SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 Air Force/Army Tradeoff Spacepower won‘t trade off with other forces – must work in coordination M. when aircraft cannot respond to a time-critical situation as quickly as spacecraft.V. 2003. spacepower. The armed forces of many nations train their warfighters in highly specialized ways with the objective of being able to dominate operations within their respective media.edu/press/space-Ch17. There is unquestionably some overlap between the capabilities of spacepower and other forms of power. today's redundancy prevents an adversary from gaining a significant advantage should they successfully counter space-based systems or other terrestrial forces. and when surprise is of the utmost importance. http://www.ndu. seapower. but this is a source of strength. ―Security and Spacepower‖. land power. http://www.edu/press/space-Ch17. Won‘t trade off with other forces – economics and strength in redundancy M. in close coordination with the other warfighters. there should be an integrated combined arms approach. ―Security and Spacepower‖. PhD student of strategic studies at the University of Reading. and economic considerations may require air delivery of munitions. when only a specialized weapon delivered from space will have the desired probability of killing a target. 2003. May 20. Instead. and an associate director of the Eisenhower Center for Space and Defense Studies at the US Air Force Academy. Space operations are expensive. but no mission in any service should ever move entirely to space. submarines. NDU Press. PhD student of strategic studies at the University of Reading. Exceptions include times when cost is not a consideration. NDU Press. Operations in each media require centralized control by practitioners of that form of power.html//jchen Space forces do not compete with terrestrial forces for roles and missions.html//jchen When space forces eventually obtain systems that can create physical effects at any location on the surface of the Earth (for example. and an associate director of the Eisenhower Center for Space and Defense Studies at the US Air Force Academy. not waste. Airpower. and now cyberpower bring different capabilities to modern warfare. and missiles during the Cold War prevented either adversary from gaining a significant advantage should their opponent successfully counter one set of capabilities. such as combat in areas where aircraft are denied access. conventional bombing).ndu. Under no circumstances should all of the eggs ever be placed in the space basket. to ensure the optimum management of resources and integration of efforts to achieve the objectives of strategy. Toward a Theory of Spacepower. just as the bomber did not replace artillery. Smith. May 20. Toward a Theory of Spacepower. There will be some adjustments in force structures as space capabilities become more robust. this will not replace the standing requirement for aircraft and missiles to be able to do the same thing.

as with space offense. From 1995 to 1999. He also worked for the State Department as a nuclear weapons expert in the Bureau of Political-Military Affairs. survival. There is an inherent risk of strategic instability when relatively modest defense efforts create disproportionate danger to an adversary. And there is a serious risk of crisis instability in space when "going first" pays off. United States Institute of space //ZY The overall U. where he led the Interagency START Policy Working Group and served on the U. MacDonald was a professional staff member on the House Armed Services Committee and was national security adviser to Sen. and allied security. MacDonald holds a BSE from Princeton in aerospace engineering and two master's degrees from Princeton— one in aerospace engineering and a second in public and international affairs. Testimony before the US-China Economic and Security Review commission on The Implications of China‘s Military and Civil Space Programs. and commercial benefits they enable can continue to be available to the United States and its allies.S. Dale Bumpers (D-AR). but the potential for space instability seems high and likely to grow. MacDonald.destroying an adversary's satellites before he destroys yours.there should be ample opportunity for many countries to benefit and prosper from a properly crafted system of space management. This need not mean that China and others must perforce be disadvantaged by such an arrangement .S. START delegation in Geneva. May 11. is a consultant in technology and national security management and is currently senior director to the Congressional Commission on the Strategic Posture of the United States. goal in space should be to shape the space domain to the advantage of the United States and its allies. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 61 .SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 Hostile Hegemony US space hegemony would be largely a peaceful effort Bruce W.S. he was assistant director for national security at the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy as well as senior director for science and technology on the National Security Council staff. The United States has an overriding interest in maintaining the safety. We don't know what would happen in a crisis. and to do so in ways that are stabilizing and enhance U. civilian. 20 11. Earlier. and function of its space assets so that the profound military.

as when the Soviet Union shocked the world with Sputnik in 1957. The lesson for space is that some country inevitably will move to seize control of it.htm FINDING: The SBSP Study Group found that SBSP offers significant opportunities for positive international leadership and partnership. sustainable development. and the peaceful use of space. ―Space Based Solar Power:As an Opportunity for Strategic Security‖. SBSP offers a way to bypass much terrestrial electrical distribution infrastructure investment and to purchase energy from a reliable source at receiver stations that can be built by available domestic labor pools without significant adverse environmental effects. Germans and French would even wave when they flew by each other. 10-10-2007. national political reporter for National Review. the United States could have beaten the Soviets to space but for a deliberate slow-down strategy that was meant to foster sunny relations with the world's other superpower. Back then. just as air power was when the First World War erupted in 1914.now.nss.org/settlement/ssp/library/nsso. the very availability and stability of energy is a threat to other countries‘ internal stability and ability for development. Yet it wasn't long before the reality of war took hold and they began shooting. http://www. at once providing a positive agenda for energy. and decisively‖ National Review. http://www. While the US may be able to afford increased energy prices. the international community is even hungrier for solutions to these issues. In truth.freerepublic. Americans have been caught napping before. If the United States is interested in energy. ―Our 'Next Manifest Destiny': America should move to control space -. no matter how much money the United States sinks into feel-good projects like the International Space Station. climate. Miller. climate change. military planes initially were used to observe enemy positions. The skies were not to be a safe haven.com/focus/news/714383/posts Space power is now in its infancy. 7-15-2002. There was an informal camaraderie among pilots. development. Your turns doesn‘t apply – dominance is inevitable. National Security Space Office. it‘s only a question of who John. and space. J. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 62 .SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 – Heg Bad Heg bad turns don‘t apply – the plan creates positive leadership NSSO. including greenhouse gas emissions.

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Space development is key to strategic leadership National Research Council, the working arm of the United States National Academies, carrying out most of the studies providing scientific and technical services, 2009, ―America's Future in Space: Aligning the Civil Space Program with National
Needs‖, pg. 42 Surely, a vigorous civil space program will be a strong signal that our future as a nation is promising, that life can be better, that our prospects are boundless. Civil space assets, with their global perspective on the changing Earth, can provide knowledge to enable wise stewardship of our planet's bounty. We can become a true space-faring society with new opportunities for our economy. Civil space activities will add to knowledge of our place in the cosmos and thereby expand the cultural richness of our nation. The United States, leading by example and in cooperation with others in the exploration and utilization of space, can be a strategic leader in the world, not to be feared or despised, but rather to be valued for its concerted attention to basic challenges facing people worldwide.

A highly competent workforce is key to solve aerospace competitiveness National Research Council, the working arm of the United States National Academies, carrying out most of the studies providing scientific and technical services, 2009, ―America's Future in Space: Aligning the Civil Space Program with National
Needs‖, pg. 53-54 The United States has been a space-faring nation for more than 50 years, and the experienced aerospace workforce that pioneered the exploration of space and engineered notable past accomplishments is quickly retiring. As of February 2009, more than 60 percent of NASA's full-time permanent employees were at least 45 years old, and nearly one quarter of employees were above 55. Assessments of the U.S. aerospace industry workforce give similar results for private sector employees.8 The urgent need to replenish the aerospace science and engineering talent pool spans both civil and military space and is particularly critical in the aerospace industry. Civilian and military agencies and private industry are all codependent on the same highly skilled aerospace workforce. A recent NRC report,9 as well as others, also emphasized that certain skill areas, especially systems engineering and project management, are particularly understaffed and vulnerable to further shortages. To address those specific needs, a follow-on NRC report calls for more opportunities to provide hands-on training and experience with spaceflight development programs. 10 A strong aerospace engineering workforce is only one component of the overall demand in our country for a strong science and engineering workforce. Aerospace engineering requirements compete nationally for much of the same technically trained talent needed across the broad research and engineering sectors of our country. Unfortunately, the United States is not meeting the consolidated needs for science and engineering expertise. Rising Above the Gathering Storm addressed this issue holistically and concluded that [T]he scientific and technical building blocks of our economic leadership are eroding at a time when many other nations are gathering strength. We strongly believe that a world-wide strengthening will benefit the world's economy— particularly in the creation of jobs in countries that are far less well-off than the United States—but we are worried about the future prosperity of the United States. Although many people assume that the United States will always be a world leader in science and technology, this may not continue to be the case inasmuch as great minds and ideas exist throughout the world. We fear the abruptness with which a lead in science and technology can be lost and the difficulty of recovering a lead once lost—if indeed it can be regained at all (p. 3). The committee faJly concurs with the findings and recommendations of that report, especially with respect to recruiting and training a skilled technical workforce and supporting long-term, potentially high-payoff basic research. Without a strong, diverse workforce, the civil space program will be unable to meet the opportunities and challenges it faces.

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1
SBSP solves competitiveness – creates an educated workforce and tech opportunities NSSO, National Security Space Office, 10/10/07, ―Space‐ Based Solar Power: As an Opportunity for Strategic Security‖,
http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA473860&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf//jchen FINDING: The SBSP Study Group found that SBSP offers a path to address the concerns over US intellectual competitiveness in math and the physical sciences expressed by the Rising Above the Gathering Storm report by providing a true ―Manhattan or Apollo project for energy.‖ In absolute scale and implications, it is likely that SBSP would ultimately exceed both the Manhattan and Apollo projects which established significant workforces and helped the US maintain its technical and competitive lead. The committee expressed it was ―deeply concerned that the scientific and technological building blocks critical to our economic leadership are eroding at a time when many other nations are gathering strength.‖ SBSP would require a substantial technical workforce of high‐ paying jobs. It would require expanded technical education opportunities, and directly support the underlying aims of the American Competitiveness Initiative.

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SPS Affirmative

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1 Solvency XTN – Tech Leadership/Civil Programs
Reusable launch vehicle tech is key to civil space programs and competitiveness National Research Council, the working arm of the United States National Academies, carrying out most of the studies providing scientific and technical services, 2009, ―America's Future in Space: Aligning the Civil Space Program with National
Needs‖, pg. 56-58 Future U.S. leadership in space requires a foundation of sustained technology advances that can enable the development of more capable, reliable, and lower-cost spacecraft and launch vehicles to achieve space program goals. A strong advanced technology development foundation is needed also to enhance technology readiness of new missions, mitigate their technological risks, improve the quality of cost estimates, and thereby contribute to better overall mission cost management. Space research and development efforts can take advantage of advances from other fields—and can contribute back to those fields. For example, civil space programs can benefit from and contribute to the state of the art in advanced materials, computational design and modeling, batteries and other energy-storage devices, fuel-cell and compact nuclear power systems, fault-tolerant electronics, optics, and robotics. This scientific synergy extends the ability to accomplish more capable and dramatic missions in space, as well as to contribute to broader national interests driving innovation in other areas of terrestrial application. The unique challenges of the space environment make demands on technology in ways that often accelerate the development pace and advance the understanding of the foundations of technologies. The responsibility to provide for this advanced technology base for civil space activities rests with NASA, in partnership with universities, other government agencies, and industry. The "customers" for the products of technology are NASA, NOAA, industry, and military space programs in which multiple-use technology is applicable. Because of budget pressures and institutional priorities, however, NASA has largely abandoned its role in supporting the broad portfolio of civil space applications, and the space technology base has thus been allowed to erode and is now deficient. The former NASA advanced technology development program no longer exists. Most of what remained was moved to the Constellation Program and has become oriented specifically to risk reduction supporting the ongoing internal development program.11 To fulfill NASA's broader mandate, an independent advanced technology development effort is required, much like that accomplished by DARPA in the DOD, focused not so much on technology that today's program managers require but on what future program managers would wish they could have if they knew they needed it, or would want if they knew they could have it. This effort should engage the best science and engineering talent in the country wherever it resides—in universities, industry, NASA centers, or other government laboratories—independent of pressures to sustain competency at the NASA centers. A DARPA-like organization established within NASA should report to NASA's Administrator, be independent of ongoing NASA development programs, and focus on supporting the broad civil space portfolio through the competitive funding of world-class technology and innovation projects at universities, federally funded research and development centers, government research laboratories, and NASA centers. A solid technology base is essential to the U.S. civil space program. Yet financial support for this technology base has eroded over the years. The United States is now living on the innovation funded in the past and has an obligation to replenish this foundational element. Furthermore, the synergy between research and education will yield even greater benefits if funding supports an extramural program at U.S. universities. University research ensures a diverse approach, connection to a broad research community, and encouragement of a pipeline of technically talented men and women for the U.S. workforce. SUMMARY COMMENTS Four foundational elements—an integrated strategy, a highly capable technical workforce, an effectively sized infrastructure, and a priority investment in technology and innovation—are necessary for a robust and productive U.S. civil space program. In the annual discussions of individual programs and agency budgets, these elements are not often mentioned, and if they are it is usually in some small aside. However, the U.S. civil space program would have more effect, a broader reach, and a greater connection to the American people if senior officials paid more attention to these elements. The U.S. civil space program has become integral to achieving goals significant to the nation. Civil space activities offer the promise of helping to address challenging national imperatives, such as ensuring national security, protecting the environment, providing clean and affordable energy, meeting 21st-century needs for education, sustaining global economic competitiveness, and promoting beneficial international relations. Because civil space activities benefit citizens' lives and the national interest in so many tangible and intangible ways, the U.S. civil space program should be structured and provided with resources commensurate with its multiple responsibilities. The committee concluded that given their demonstrated utility and future promise, elements of the civil program should be aligned to fully serve the larger national interest, and decisions about civil space priorities, strategies, and programs, and the resources to achieve them, should always be made with a conscious view toward their linkages to broad national interests.

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1 I/L XTN – Competitiveness k2 Heg
Establishing technological dominance is a prerequisite to any attempt at space supremacy Richard S. Stapp, In Partial Fulfillment of the Graduation Requirements of ACSC by Major, March 19 97
A Research Paper Presented To The Research Department Air Command and Staff College, ―SPACE DOMINANCE CAN THE AIR FORCE CONTROL SPACE?‖//ZY Since the early days of the space race, the US has realized the advantage that comes with controlling the heavens. General Thomas D. White, then Air Force Chief of Staff, was quoted in 1957 as saying ―in the future, whoever has the capability to control space, will likewise possess the capability to exert control of the surface of the earth.‖10 This prophetic statement was fully realized nearly 35 years later in the desert of the Middle East. The Gulf War made perfectly clear the advantage space gives the controlling party. Touted by some as the first ―Space War‖, the use of space based communications, reconnaissance, and navigation greatly enhanced the coalition forces‘ ability to prosecute the war. While the US use of space was never contested, it is unlikely that future conflicts will be waged against enemies with such limited space capability. Each year, the technological margin the US has over the rest of the world is eroded. Future conflicts will likely involve nations with significant space capability. The importance space will play in future conflicts can not be overemphasized. Just as the US has become increasingly dependent, both militarily and economically, on the use ofspace,theremainderoftheworldhasbeguntoexperiencethesamephenomenon. The US and USSR no longer hold a monopoly on space exploration and development. A number of nations now have from limited to advanced space capabilities. Future space 5control will depend on our adversary‘s capabilities in space. Just as air superiority can be achieved against an inferior enemy air force, space superiority can likewise be achieved against an inferior enemy space force. In the past, the US has counted on this inferiority to maintain dominance in space. With the technological margin rapidly fading, the US can no longer accept as default its superiority in space capability. Sophisticated enemies with the capability to use space to their advantage will continue to emerge. To counter such threats, the US must continue to lead the advance in space technology, for only by controlling the ―high ground‖ of space, can the US ensure its own security and freedom of action around the world. Technology is a binary function; it either exists or it doesn‘t. Without it, nothing is possible. With it, anything is possible. Technology is the linchpin which allows space operations to be achievable and effective. Without the technology to develop and employ the systems required for space dominance, no effective space control policy can ever be instituted. Just as air superiority requires advanced aircraft and weapons systems, space control requires advanced spacecraft and space systems. So, does the technology to support a policy of space control exist? If it doesn‘t, space control is impossible. If it does, the question is no longer whether it‘s possible, but rather, is it feasible?

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And. less reassuring messages as well. If the current crisis turns into a depression. lead. Crisis can also strengthen the hand of religious extremists. the personal computer. Today. the Seven Years War. As a result. ―Is America Losing its Edge?‖ Foreign Affairs. increased investment in research and development (R&D). The percentage of patents issued to and science journal articles published by scientists in China.html?id=571cbbb9-2887-4d81-854292e83915f5f8&p=2 AD 6/30/09) Frequently. Indian companies are quickly becoming the second-largest producers of application services in the world.S. financial crises often reinforce rather than challenge the global distribution of power and wealth.S.If financial crises have been a normal part of life during the 300-year rise of the liberal capitalist system under the Anglophone powers. scientific innovation and technological entrepreneurship have ensured the country's economic prosperity and military power. Although the United States' technical dominance remains solid.‖ February 4 2009. or New Delhi to be born? The United States may not. financiers. the two World Wars. it does. other countries merely followed the U. and managing database and other types of software for clients around the world. consequently. But this won't be easy. we may still have to fight. ―Only Makes You Stronger. and professionals who want to develop a liberal capitalist society integrated into the world. Economic collapse causes global war Walter Russell Mead.com/articles/60260/adam-segal/is-america-losing-its-edge The United States' global primacy depends in large part on its ability to develop new technologies and industries faster than anyone else. but. foreign policy at the Council on Foreign Relations. or authoritarian traditionalists who are determined to resist liberal capitalist society for a variety of reasons. Bad economic times can breed wars. decline.tnr. This may be happening yet again. and advanced materials used in semiconductors.S. Kissinger senior fellow for U. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 68 . The United States will never be able to prevent rivals from developing new technologies. as the United States is learning. Maurice R. It was Americans who invented and commercialized the semiconductor. U. to keep its privileged position in the world. South Korea. Beijing. The wars of the League of Augsburg and the Spanish Succession. yet. For the last five decades. the Napoleonic Wars. aerospace. advantage in the manufacture of computer chips and telecommunications software.S. Indeed. technological innovation and a significant threat to it. developing. this technological edge-so long taken for granted-may be slipping. the United States must get better at fostering technological entrepreneurship at home.S.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Impact Module – Economy Decline in competitiveness crushes the economy and ends hegemony Adam Segal. Asian governments are improving the quality of their science and ensuring the exploitation of future innovations. and the most serious challenge is coming from Asia. but the Depression poisoned German public opinion and helped bring Adolf Hitler to power. it can remain dominant only by continuing to innovate faster than everyone else. and many other types of manufacturing. Through competitive tax policies. inevitably. and preferential policies for science and technology (S&T) personnel.foreignaffairs. Meanwhile.com/politics/story. and Taiwan is rising. if we can't get the world economy back on track. the American Revolution. so has war. what rough beasts might start slouching toward Moscow. biotechnology. And even China has made impressive gains in advanced technologies such as lasers. populist radicals. industrialists. November/December 20 04. South Korea has rapidly eaten away at the U. Karachi. the crisis has weakened the power of the merchants. Singapore. developing countries and countries where capitalism has relatively recent and shallow roots tend to suffer greater economic and political damage when crisis strikes--as. History may suggest that financial crises actually help capitalist great powers maintain their leads-but it has other. None of which means that we can just sit back and enjoy the recession. http://www. Henry A. and the Internet. the companies and banks based in these societies are often less established and more vulnerable to the consequences of a financial crisis than more established firms in wealthier societies. Greenberg Senior Fellow in China Studies at the Council on Foreign Relations and the author of ―Digital Dragon: High Technology Enterprises in China‖. supplying. Europe was a pretty peaceful place in 1928. however. The New Republic. globalization cuts both ways: it is both a potent catalyst of U. the cold war: The list of wars is almost as long as the list of financial crises. the globalization of research and development is exerting considerable pressures on the American system. http://www.

SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 ***INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION *** Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 69 .

Peru and Thailand. The use of space is certain to become an increasingly vital element of China’s security and civil needs. However. QUALS. CHINA‘S SPACE PROGRAM: A NEW TOOL FOR PRC ―SOFT POWER‖ IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS? Space has become another area where China is exerting its soft power. built and launched a satellite oil rich Nigeria but also combined it with a major loan to help pay the costs . China‘s space activities are also being used as a tool for diplomacy. It is highly probable that competition between China and other advanced space. 50 In addition to serving national security and domestic civilian use of space. and will likely help the nation to secure its necessary supply of resources and energy. China’s pursuit of such international cooperation is expected to expand in the future. whose natural resources China covets. have blossomed to include the establishment of satellite tracking stations and a leading role in multilateral frameworks. The nation‘s space related international cooperation efforts. China not only designed. It is positioning itself as a space benefactor to the developing world-the same countries in some cases.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Inherency – China China is threatening United States space based softpower MARA IMRAN. China is starting to realize that growth in science and technology cannot be achieved outside of that environment. Indonesia.faring nations will intensify with regard to space development and use in general.SEPTEMBER 2010. projects like the China-Nigeria partnership in communication satellite development and launches can be seen as examples of China’s exploitation of space activities as a diplomatic tool. Pakistan. In light of this posture and China’s growing efforts to provide African nations with official development assistance and debt relief. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 70 . It has signed a similar contract with Venezuela and is developing an earth observation satellite system with Bangladesh. Mongolia. as a nation that operates in the globalized world. Iran. which began with a bilateral arrangement for satellite development.

in support of national interests and in the interests of the world at large. a resource not owned by any one nation but crucial to the future of all humankind. 42-43 Strategic leadership for the United States means thinking about the future in a way that sees beyond immediate and particularly American needs and policies—such as ensuring access to resources or a temporary military advantage—and positioning the nation to help set an agenda for worldwide action. civil space program.com/science-environment/snagging-free-range-solar-power-in-spaceis-an-option-3382/ A U. there should also always be concern for the larger world and for how the United States is viewed as a benevolent nation with foresight and determination to make a better world for all humankind. the working arm of the United States National Academies. a 2.miller-mccune.S. pg.‖ Damphousse said. If America chooses to achieve these goals. exertion of strategic leadership there is thus no venue more special than space. but by example and in cooperation with other nations. True strategic leadership will be achieved not by dominance. In addition to protecting those activities in space that are judged to be essential to U. we are not only in the business of war fighting. strategic leadership Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 71 . 10-25-09.S. civil space program is to enhance U. a former NASA technologist and co-founder of the Virginia-based Managed Energy Technologies.S. global strategic leadership through leadership in civil space activities.S. 2009. Soft Power Leadership (1/2) SBSP is uniquely key to soft power Bruce Dorminey. the United States should aim for more than immediate solutions to transitory problems and should find approaches that seek to shape the future. but rather as symbolic of the future itself. national interest.S.‖ To that end.500-kilogram space solar power satellite could see launch within the next five years. human beings around the world view space not just as a place. Strategic Leadership The goals just enumerated—Earth stewardship. Indeed. with an estimated top-end budget in the hundreds of millions. and for which the United States must continue as an undisputed leader.‖ said James Mankins. and societal benefits.S. For U. Through its efforts and achievements.S.S. technological. In considering both its own national interests and benefits to humankind. http://www. space solar technology may provide a solution for developing nations that have both a need for energy and telecommunications but lack infrastructure.S. and inspiration—provide the foundation for a preeminent U. expanding human frontiers. scientific discovery.-based science journalist and former Hong Kong bureau chief for Aviation Week and Space Technology and former Paris-based technology correspondent for the Financial Times newspaper.S. Space is viewed by many countries of the world as a global commons.‖ Space development is key to multilateral alliances and global leadership National Research Council. carrying out most of the studies providing scientific and technical services. project what Damphousse terms ―soft power. Miller-McCune. he said. So. could also help the U. the nation has earned its position of leadership in space. ―Overpopulation and scarcity of resources translates into conflicts. ―America's Future in Space: Aligning the Civil Space Program with National Needs‖. A goal of the U. You could provide gigabits-per-second bandwidth at a bargain-basement price. we can also achieve a goal of particular importance—to enhance U.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Solvency XTN – U. Department of Defense space solar power project. ―You would piggyback communications of all kinds around the edges of the power beamer. ―Snagging Free-Range Solar Power in Space Is an Option‖. ―Once deployed. economic. U. In addition. I doubt you would ever build a conventional communications satellite again.‖ ―It‘s no real stretch to equate energy security with national security. which in many cases is no longer possible. we are in the business of war prevention.

NASA. ―The New Viability of Space Solar Power: Global Mobilization for a Common Human Endeavor‖. as has this paper that the ultimate success of SSP for terrestrial power critically depends on ―dramatic reductions‖ in the cost of transportation from Earth to orbit. the panel also says. along with NASA.com/scholar?start=40&q=unilateral+solar+powered+satellites&hl=en&as_sdt=0. The promise of and institutional commitment to inflatable space structures for SSP and a variety of human activity in space is perhaps the most exiting revelation of this research. political and military power of the United States. social. Professor of Philosophy. Philosophy School of Humanities. Date accessed June 25. 2011 In recent months. academia and officials from other government agencies such as the Department of Energy. the NRC concluded. as much as possible in developing SSP as a common human endeavor. English Professor School of Humanities. The NRC also says that significant breakthroughs are still required to achieve the final goal of producing cost-effective terrestrial power.‖ The NRC went on the recommend that industry experts.google. 2002.30&as_ylo=2000. and global energy grids. Soft Power Leadership (2/2) SSP solves US space diplomacy Schwab. Director of Humanities and Law Minor. April 15. should study the desirability of ground to space and space-to-space demonstrations by using the International Space Station as a test platform for SSP related hardware.S. Martin Schwab. Specifically. This paper also considered the potential diplomatic advantages to including the developing world. civil and military applications for the nation.51 This paper has examined current research into SSP from the perspective of national and international security in the face of potential terrorist sabotage of U. Department of Defense and the National Reconnaissance Office should be engaged in charting SSP activities. The final conclusion of this paper is that mobilization around SSP would indeed be a worthy expression of the economic. the National Research Council (NRC) has stated that NASA‘s SSP has ―important commercial. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 72 .SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Solvency XTN – U. http://scholar. The SSP reviewers at the NRC conclude by calling for ground demonstrations of point-to-point wireless transmission of power.S.

SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Solvency XTN – International (1/3) SPG has international consensus – desire for clean energy and stopping climate change overrides concerns Narayanan Komerath. apart from the US and Europe. The global imperative to control emissions of heat and Greenhouse Gases (GHG) into the atmosphere provides additional opportunities. http://ieeexplore. Georgia Institute of Technology. Cooperative regulation could be modeled after the various UN agreements that allot orbit sectors and frequency bandwidth to nations to enable the communication satellites. $" The installed cost per unit power is high for solar and wind plants.org/stamp/stamp. plateau edges. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 73 . 2009 Atlanta Conference on Science and Innovation Policy. #" All solar and wind plants are handicapped by large fluctuations or day-night / seasonal cycles and weather. Energy and Security Policies‖. with a growing space program. our Space Power Grid (SPG) approach is a 3-stage process to bring about full SSP. outdated power grids. which has few fossil power resources. 2009 Atlanta Conference on Science and Innovation Policy.25] for space solar power. Japan. large temporal fluctuations in demand. For the first time. but this means having to install twice the capacity that the plant can sell. bring an unusual opportunity. and price occur mainly in the big cities and industrial areas. a. China has been tapped by the European Union for participation in a power grid. has already invested heavily in microwave infrastructure for communications. China. 10/3/2009.ieee. This generates a climate ripe for undertaking the massive collaborative effort that can lead to true energy independence. Solar. Galileo and Glonass global positioning systems. and from most non-spacefaring nations. the GPS. Such power qualifies for the status of ―baseload power‖[14]. Africa and Australia have vast undeveloped areas that are suitable for renewable power generation but lack terrestrial power grids. Energy and Security Policies‖. Today rising energy demand is driving construction of renewable power plants around the world. Georgia Institute of Technology. On the other hand. b. A global solar power grid in Space should meet with support from all the spacefaring nations. mountain slopes. Russia. THE NEW WINDOW OF OPPORTUNITY: RENEWABLE POWER AND CLIMATE CONTROL IMPERATIVES Briefly. There will be powerful beams of energy crisscrossing between these. 10/3/2009. there is a source of significant revenue and international mandate associated with replacing fossil-generated power. has a very strong program[24. ―The Space Power Grid: Synergy Between Space. School of Aerospace Engineering. Climate Change and the Carbon Market The confluence of the energy crunch and climate change concerns. http://ieeexplore. as well as the possibility of concerted global action. Already. consensus appears to have emerged on the issues confronting nations.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5367831&tag=1//jchen The SPG involves placing a substantial number of satellites into low/mid earth orbit. through synergy with the terrestrial Renewable Energy and Climate Control initiatives. and should be amenable to converting some of that to power beaming purposes. India. even without having to install inefficient auxiliary generators and associated infrastructure. glacier bases and coastlines. ―The Space Power Grid: Synergy Between Space. International desire for renewables boosts SPS success – adds market incentive Narayanan Komerath.ieee. Issues that arise from these areas are summarized below. GHG-emitting auxiliary generators to qualify for baseload status.org/stamp/stamp. while the many island nations of the world would benefit from beamed power as a replacement for fossil power. Much of the planet has either no power grid or low-capacity. and several large ultralight collectors into high orbits. and meet sudden peaks in demand. wind and tidal plants are fundamentally inhibited by 3 problems: !" The best places to extract renewable power are highaltitude and remote deserts. and hence transmission costs are high.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5367831&tag=1//jchen II. Many use fossil-burning. School of Aerospace Engineering. Baseload Qualification for Wind and Solar Power The market value of electric power is much higher if the supplier can guarantee a certain level of power generation. With the next round of the Climate Control global agreement due in 2013.

and shown to provide an excellent vehicle for global collaboration.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5367831&tag=1//jchen CONCLUSIONS In this paper. http://www. space stations. ―The Space Power Grid: Synergy Between Space.org/stamp/stamp. human missions to the Moon and Mars. ―Security and Spacepower‖. and space traffic management. space situational awareness. 2003. Civilian nature of SBSP enhances global transparency and understanding – US and Soviet Union prove M. The special features of the space power grid are presented. 10/3/2009. The European TRANS-CP project is cited as a relevant current initiative to develop suitable policy. Georgia Institute of Technology. Security concerns that appear to pose formidable obstacles are cited as also posing unprecedented opportunities for wel-controlled collaboration between nations. Such partnerships need not be limited to security-related functions. The public policy initiatives needed for renewable energy. PhD student of strategic studies at the University of Reading. It not only heightens the likelihood of success of those programs. decreases the potential for cultural misunderstandings. are seen to be acceptable in many nations. May 20. and an associate director of the Eisenhower Center for Space and Defense Studies at the US Air Force Academy. and through sequestering of technologies particular to the project as done in the European Space Agency‘s projects. increases the opportunities for alliance. thereby reducing security concerns. but over time it also reduces the friction during peacetime between states. 2009 Atlanta Conference on Science and Innovation Policy. http://ieeexplore. Although the tangible scientific benefits of the exercise are debatable. School of Aerospace Engineering. obstacles and issues in bringing space solar power to earth are discussed. Partnering on spacefaring projects brings together more brilliant minds and resources to solve problems and to advance the art. The American and Soviet joint venture on the Apollo-Soyuz mission in the mid-1970s is one such example. The policy initiatives advanced in Europe for comparable solar power grid project are discussed. NDU Press. Another opportunity that spacepower provides for managing security concerns is capitalizing on collaborative international security space arrangements to provide global transparency. it is shown that there are viable paths for these challenges.ieee. and fosters working relationships between governments. This civil spacepower effort became a point of departure for other confidence-building gestures between the two and certainly eased tensions in the homelands and among the rest of the world as well. Toward a Theory of Spacepower. While substantial technical challenges remain.8 Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 74 . Smith. The goal is not only to accomplish something meaningful in space. Energy and Security Policies‖. to name just a few. as well as for the economics and public/ international collaboration needed to make Space Solar Power available to humanity. space-based astronomy. provide a window of opportunity to bring about Space Solar Power in synergy with the development of clean renewable power on earth. integrates aspects of each state's economic and industrial base.ndu.V. but must cross into civil and commercial endeavors as well. even between the two Cold War antagonists with their widely divergent strategic cultures.edu/press/space-Ch17. but also to build mutual understanding and rapport among the participating states.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Solvency XTN – International (2/3) International acceptance of renewable energy sets the perfect conditions for SPS – promotes collaboration and security Narayanan Komerath. it demonstrated to both parties and to the international community that cooperation on a very challenging task is possible. the purpose. The present congruence of international interest in renewable energy sources and in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. and so forth. such as space-based solar power. through the participation of personnel who are cleared at the individual level.html//jchen Partnering.

2002. • Be developed at a fraction of the costs for the 1979 SPS Reference System. More than 2400 scientists believe that the probable cause of this increase is the result of the unprecedented use of oil. • New relationship between government and industries in space. Canada.pdf The NASA ―fresh look‖ study set out to determine whether an SSP system could achieve the following: • Deliver energy to power grids at prices equal to or below Earth based alternatives. The University of Pittsburgh.it/~benato/download/nationalgrid/Documenti/Space%2520Solar%2520Power1.5 to1.‖ 10 the operational systems.unipd. There are significant factors in the new SPS development that did not exist twenty years ago.0 degrees Fahrenheit during the past century. http://www. ―A Fresh Look at Space Solar Power. and Japan Dr. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) provide strong evidence that Earth‘s temperature has increased by at least 0. Canada and Japan. • Deliver energy into a variety of markets without major environmental damage. ‖The New Viability of Space Solar Power: Global Mobilization for a Common Human Endeavor‖. coal and gas (fossil fuels) during the 20 th century for both transportation and energy production. 20 The United Space Alliance between Boeing and Lockheed Martin with respect to maintaining shuttle operations to the International Space Station is the primary example of this new relationship. Donald M. • New opportunities for partnerships in space with Russia. The International Program on Climate Change (IPCC) and the U. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 75 . April 15. Goldstein. Europe.die. They include: • Increasing concern regarding the probable link between carbon combustion. Co2 emissions and global climate change. Special Topics in International Security. Europe. Graduate School of Public and International Affairs.S.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Solvency XTN – International (3/3) SSP provides us with space partnerships with Russia. NASA has focused more on the function of research and development while industry has begun to develop more of 19 Mankins.

html//jchen Partnering is not always easy.issues. climate change.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA473860&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc. Spacepower cooperation boosts international soft power even among developing countries M.edu/press/space-Ch17. and an associate director of the Eisenhower Center for Space and Defense Studies at the US Air Force Academy. Poorer states will not. SBSP offers a way to bypass much terrestrial electrical distribution infrastructure investment and to purchase energy from a reliable source at receiver stations that can be built by available domestic labor pools without significant adverse environmental effects.pdf//jchen FINDING: The SBSP Study Group found that SBSP offers significant opportunities for positive international leadership and partnership. In fact. development. and talent give each state a different value as a potential partner. 10/10/07. from a partnership perspective. including greenhouse gas emissions. While the US may be able to afford increased energy prices. If the United States is interested in energy. The strategic cultures of most states—especially weaker or developing ones that are not yet spacefaring—will find the indirect methods highly attractive and engender soft power to the leaders of such efforts.ndu. climate. http://www. at once providing a positive agenda for energy.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Solvency XTN– Developing Countries SBPS boosts international cooperation – developing countries want a reliable energy infrastructure NSSO. the very availability and stability of energy is a threat to other countries‘ internal stability and ability for development. States that are rich in some areas will be highly sought after as partners. 2003. as the members of the International Space Station or the mostly European states belonging to the Galileo Consortium will attest. distribution of resources. and the peaceful use of space.V. Toward a Theory of Spacepower. the international community is even hungrier for solutions to these . and space. Smith. The opportunities that spacepower offers spacefaring and non-spacefaring states alike in the forms of global transparency and international partnering in order to prevent wars are entirely different from opportunities provided by operations in any other media. ―Space‐ Based Solar Power: As an Opportunity for Strategic Security‖.16 . NDU Press.dtic. Disparate economic strengths. sustainable development. all are valuable as prospective partners as part of a collaborative international security arrangement. National Security Space Office.9 These approaches may be sufficient for most states' space-related security needs while reducing their security concerns inside the terrestrial confines. May 20. http://www. it can be frustrating and even maddening. PhD student of strategic studies at the University of Reading. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 76 . However. ―Security and Spacepower‖.

areas that it has largely left to the European Space Agency and various national space agencies.‖ The Commission will pursue the dialogue with its key partners United States and Russia and will initiate discussion with other space faring nations such as China in order to develop more synergies. The union‘s space initiatives include: building the Galileo satellite navigation system. The EU says the treaty gave it ―an explicit role in designing a policy for the exploration and exploitation of space in order to promote scientific and technical progress.U.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Solvency XTN – European Union The E. in Journalism from Rider University. industrial competitiveness and the implementation of its policies. in particular China. Space should become an integral part of the EUs external policy in particular to the benefit of Africa.A. and deepening cooperation with nations outside of Europe. increasing Europe‘s independence in space. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 77 . EU Extends Sphere of Operations Into Space. a communications expert hold a masters degree in Science. graduate of the International Space University and holds a B. 4/7. Technology and Public Policy from The George Washington University. where he studied at the Space Policy Institute. parabolicarc. developing an integrated space policy. wants to work in space Doug Messier. which went into effect for the 27-member union in 2009.. The EU‘s increasing role in space is a result of the Lisbon Treaty. pursuing a space industrial policy in cooperation with ESA and member states.com The European Union is increasingly involving itself in space policy and programs.

unidir.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Impact – Space Wars Space multilateralism prevents a space weapons conflict Roger Harrison. 5 Most critically.‖ 6 It further prohibits the stationing of weapons of mass destruction in space or on celestial bodies. 4 OST was primarily negotiated in a bilateral back and forth between the United States and the Soviet Union. limits uses of the Moon and other celestial bodies to exclusively peaceful purposes. summer 2010. Director. and could be seen as the central pillar of the current multilateral institutional framework. nuclear space race among the international community. http://www.armscontrol.ch/unidir-views/pdf/pdf-uv-30-33. and military maneuvers on the Moon and other celestial bodies. as a means of mitigating what both sides saw as a risky elevation of the nuclear arms race to space. by means of use or occupation. EISENHOWER CENTER FOR SPACE AND DEFENSE STUDIES. http://www. both of which submitted drafts to the United Nations (UN) General Assembly in 1966. the OST establishes space as a global commons ―not subject to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty. and to quell growing fears of just such a 4 For a brief history of the treaty negotiations. Eisenhower Center for Space and Defense Studies. and forbids the establishment of military bases. see Arms Control Association. ―SPACE and DEFENSE‖. the testing of weapons. or by any other means. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 78 .pdf The Outer Space Treaty (OST) of 1967 provides the basic foundation for international space law.org/documents/ outerspace (accessed April 2010).

An accidental war sparked by a computer glitch in space could plunge the world into the most destructive military conflict ever seen. According to Perrow. 35 To the extent that ballistic missile interceptors based in space can knock out enemy missiles in mid-flight. Yale sociologist Charles Perrow has analyzed 'complexly interactive. by taking the decision to commit violence out of human hands and endowing computers with authority to make war.S. The dizzying speed of space warfare would introduce intense 'use or lose' pressure into strategic calculations. Gordon Mitchell. and/or chemical weapons. Bowman. No. 'anti-ballistic missiles and anti-satellite warfare technologies go hand-in-hand'.isisuk. it is not hard to imagine that any nation subjected to space weapon attack would retaliate with maximum force.uk/0811/isis/uk/bmd/no6. 'even a tiny projectile reentering from space strikes the earth with such high velocity that it can do enormous damage — even more than would be done by a nuclear weapon of the same size!'. As Marc Vidricaire. associate Professor of Communication at the University of Pittsburgh. which have many sophisticated components that all depend on each other's flawless performance. It is chilling to contemplate the possible effects of a space war. Robert M. defence analyst David Langford sees one of the most destabilizing offensive weapons ever conceived: 'One imagines dead cities of microwave-grilled people'.. http://www. 6. given the system characteristics. '[t]he odd term "normal accident" is meant to signal that. Col.36 Deployment of space weapons with pre-delegated authority to fire death rays or unleash killer projectiles would likely make war itself inevitable. military planners could sow insidious seeds of accidental conflict.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Impact – US China Space War A U. including use of nuclear. this interlocking complexity makes it impossible to foresee all the different ways such systems could fail.33 This drift toward usage is strengthened by a strategic fact elucidated by Frank Barnaby: when it comes to arming the heavens.html) A buildup of space weapons might begin with noble intentions of 'peace through strength' deterrence. 37 In the same Star Wars technology touted as a quintessential tool of peace. Delegation of Canada to the UN Conference on Disarmament. ISIS Briefing on Ballistic Missile Defense. According to retired Lt. China space arms race would mean extinction—WMD and CBW strikes Dr.34 The interlocking nature of offense and defense in military space technology stems from the inherent 'dual capability' of spaceborne weapon components. tightly coupled' industrial systems such as space weapons. this automation would enhance survivability of vulnerable space weapon platforms. with the spectre of split-second attacks creating incentives to rig orbiting Death Stars with automated 'hair trigger' devices. 7/2001 ―Missile Defense: Trans-Atlantic Diplomacy at a Crossroads‖. such interceptors can also be used as orbiting 'Death Stars'. you could use the same capability to target something on land'. given the susceptibility of such systems to 'normal accidents'.co. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 79 .demon. As Perrow explains. but this rationale glosses over the tendency that '… the presence of space weapons…will result in the increased likelihood of their use'. biological. However. capable of sending munitions hurtling through the Earth's atmosphere.38 Given this unique potential for destruction. multiple and unexpected interactions of failures are inevitable'. In theory. explains: 'If you want to intercept something in space.

SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 ***INDIA*** Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 80 .

Only SSP. low-cost Earth-to-orbit transportation systems is as urgent as ever. The technology has not been perfected and the need for new. Photovoltaic panels on rooftops and solar water heaters all make excellent small-scale contributions to the solution. While there is a lot of talk about terrestrial solar. but there are no requirements for any scientific breakthroughs. and geothermal power as alternatives to coal—which seems to be currently politically unacceptable—or nuclear—which has its own set of political problems but whose greatest drawback may simply be the length of time it takes to build new power plants—space solar power (SSP) may be the only alternative that could be made to work before the major global electricity demand crisis hits. which operates 24 hours a day. Mukherjee was wise enough to add that ―even if there were no climate change arguments. In fact. Taylor Dinerman is an author and journalist based in New York City. the India Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is already working on one of the key technologies needed for an SSP system. In the near term the new Indo-US renewable energy partnership would seem to be the right place to start this collaboration. bring SSP systems into service sometime late next decade or the early 2020s. In Washington lots of people have complained that the Obama Administration has so far not given the India-US relationship the attention it deserves. ―It is therefore completely one sided to target countries like India. which has gained such a sorry reputation in this area. Others are waiting to see if this relatively new team is going to follow up on the progress made by both the Clinton and the George W. The one area in which there seems to be movement on. Former External Affairs Minister Pranab Mukherjee made this clear when he spoke at the Asia Society in New York last year and said. they have made it clear that they are not willing to inflict economic pain on their people in order to appease those in the West who are demanding that they cease their current drive to climb out of mass poverty in the name of the environment. Should India and the US cooperate on space solar power? spacereview. 7 days a week. From India‘s standpoint the government does take the energy problem very seriously.‖ He called for a ―major R&D effort to develop applications that that can provide convenient. India needs it even more.com If the US has a serious medium-term need for a very large new source of clean energy.‖ Recognizing the potential weakness of a case based strictly on the question of climate change. Indian participation in both private and public SSP programs should be welcomed by the US. Fortunately both India and the US have space programs and technologies that could. abundant energy from the Sun is not an impossible dream. 9. wind. around the year 2050. though. considerations of energy security alone would require a medium to long term strategy of implementing a strategic shift from fossil fuels to non fossil fuels. Bush Administrations in building a real friendship between the two democratic giants. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 81 .‖ Any analysis of the potential of terrestrial solar energy in India or elsewhere runs up against the awesome size of the future demand for power. can hope to meet this need. the kind of ambitious idealism that we saw at NASA during the Apollo years could be engendered by this goal. but fail to bring to account those who have been responsible for more than 70% of the accumulated emissions in the atmosphere. cost effective large scale applications of solar energy. Together the partners can identify what will be needed in the way of technological and scientific investments over the next decade in order to make SSP a reality. Ehe US government should make an effort to facilitate this by helping with visas and work permits for qualified Indian scientists and engineers.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Solvency XTN – Bilateral Co-op (1/4) Mutual energy interests ensure cooperation over SPS Taylor Dinerman. While they connect it with the question of climate change. is a ―renewable energy partnership‖. if developed together and possibly with other interested nations such as Japan. With its commitment to develop a new low cost reusable spaceplane. clean. but they cannot by any stretch of the imagination fulfill the requirements of a huge growing economy like India‘s. Recent moves towards reforming the notorious International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) should include ensuring that SSP systems are covered by the Department of Commerce regulators rather than by the State Department. Safe. whose emissions though modest are rising. India has lots of talent that can be committed to this effort and so does the US. year after year.

assessment of SBSP (. Among the remaining pitfalls to further cooperation. given that a huge chunk of households in India are not yet connected to a conventional electrical grid. it was the U.S.S. collaboration is currently characterized by a slew of agreements -. US Proposed‖. which already have specific agreements in place -. India would still have to sign the MTCR. the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) and the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) represent the greatest areas for concern. However. Indo-U. partnership that. Col. but of U. The Chandrayaan mission also demonstrated India's orbittransfer capability -.S. Entity List. This success had a role in convincing U.S. with a recently released report (. strategic dialogue.S. Neither SBSP nor the idea of an international partnership as an enabler for it is new. The two most important are India's edge as a low-cost manufacturer for future SBSP components and its cheap satellite-launch capability.-India relations.a central technical component for geo-stationary and mid-Earth-orbit SBSP concepts.S." during Obama's visit.space continues to be characterized by ad hoc arrangements.some substantial. First. drawing on India's world class science resources. Garretson's report touches on these issues with regard to SBSP. such as the Chandrayaan moon mission. Interestingly. The Chandrayaan mission was an early illustration of the space component of the overarching Indo-U. relations. the Indian space program also moved beyond its traditional focus (. will prioritize "the partnership between the two countries to advance clean energy.. in Obama's words. there are now signs that the push on both sides is lining up with all of these circumstantial "pull" factors. only began to view India as a major potential partner in such an endeavor in the second half of the last decade.security and nuclear cooperation. the Obama administration wants to build on the foundations of bilateral relations laid by the Bush administration.com/2010/09/18/multilateral-space-based-solar-energy-program-led-by-india-us-proposed/ Space-based solar power (SBSP) may soon emerge as one of the leading sectors of strategic cooperation between India and the U. ISRO continues to back re-usable launch-vehicle technology.pdf) that the U.S.S. and space cooperation presents an increasingly attractive option for doing so. such as energy access. SBSP has already been explicitly identified at the highest levels of the Indian government as a strategic priority. However. given that any SBSP partnership will involve the transfer of cutting-edge technologies. With commentators in both countries identifying the dovetailing of space and energy cooperation as the "next big thing" in Indo-U. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 82 . 9/13/2010. Master's in Renewable Energy Engineering and Management at The Energy and Resources Institute (University) at New Delhi. so an India-specific agreement could be possible. Unlike the other two pillars -. Specifically.S. would define the 21st century. Garretson making the case for it being the next focus of the growing partnership. http://cleantechnica. policymakers lies in its promise for reducing costs and increasing returns. environmental engineer from New Delhi. thereby boosting the prospects of synchronization of U. as it is an area where significant complementarities between the two countries exist. concerns over nonproliferation and intellectual-property rights. Not surprisingly. Policy heavyweights Karl Indefurth and Raja Mohan also recently advocated for making space the focus not only of the impending Obama visit. controls on high-tech exports -. a new report from the Center for New American Security argued that meaningful cooperation on SBSP requires the immediate removal of ISRO from the U. India's 2008 moonshot eventually led to the independent discovery of the presence of water on the moon by American and Indian instruments carried on board. "Next Steps in Strategic Partnership. Peter A.S. Institute of Defense Studies and Analyses. but its ultimate deployment will require an unprecedented bilateral effort. which it believes can significantly reduce the cost of satellite launches -.running on parallel tracks.pdf).S. In 2007. while pushing the technological envelope further than ever before." announced in January 2004. And U. an interim U.which target India more than any other major nation besides Pakistan and China -. India already complies with these regulations to a greater extent than some existing MCTR members do. in order to assuage U. neither country can meet its energy needs through existing clean-energy technologies. a US Air Force lieutenant colonel called up on the governments of India and the United States to initiate this pathbreaking project and make the space-based solar energy a commercially viable business venture by 2025. The idea of a multilateral spacebased solar energy program was initiated by an Indian Defense Ministry think tank.S.S.S. the U. NASA may soon begin to outsource a significant chunk of low-Earth-orbit launches to the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). There are a number of reasons why SBSP may emerge as the hub for strategic industrial coordination between the two countries. which designates targets of proliferation concerns (.S.S. Air Force Lt. Studies show that SBSP is feasible. There is an expectation that Obama's visit will see movement on removing controls on the sale of high-tech items as a prelude to an agreement on space cooperation. SBSP allows India to keep its space program focused on developmental priorities.pdf) on remote-sensing satellites for developmental needs to more-ambitious programs. private sector that first highlighted India as an important market for future SBSP development.S. including nuclear power.represent the most significant.-India relations. Even as NASA has shifted its focus to large. restrictive U. That effort could drive an Indo-U. others rudimentary -.pdf) authored by U. with an SBSP component as a prominent focus.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Solvency XTN – Bilateral Co-op (2/4) Cooperation with India over space spills over to broader relations Mridul Chadha. space policymakers about Indian capabilities in integrating systems from varied sources. and various technological advances over the past few decades have made space-based solar power a more realistic possibility. asserting that an exception could be made in the case of ITAR along the lines of similar arrangements in the past. SBSP could be a point of convergence. Indeed. A report prepared by Peter Garretson. and Indian space architecture for a potential SBSP collaborative effort.pdf) identified India as a key prospective partner for collaboration. According to Garretson. Second.a crucial condition for the sustainability of commercially deployable SBSP. Energy Secretary Steven Chu stated (. Over the same period.S.S. given the nature of U. ―Multilateral Space-based Solar Energy Program Led by India. India's attractiveness to U. expendable launchers.

What has prevented the SBSP from becoming a real option? Is it the enormous cost involved in developing the option or is it an option that never got the popular attention due to the multiplicity of departments involved? Proponents argue that the cost of SBSP should not be compared to the direct costs involved. oil. Kalam said that "by 2050. the worldwide demand for primary energy increases by 55 per cent between 2005 and 2030 . growing at 3. basic space and atmospheric and earth science among others. Tatas have shown interest in exploring this option. 2009) appears to be an ideal basis for new research and development on SBSP. US.5 However. the initiative has to come from the government. This is a solar energy source that is close to infinite. The US side of funding for the Endowment is reported to come from the US S&T "Rupee Funds" established in the 1980s to encourage and fund bilateral S&T projects. there seems to be some official involvement due to the involvement of Dr. It can also reportedly work irrespective of conditions that are a problem for other alternative energy sources such as cloud cover. India has looked at this option for quite sometime. nuclear. APJ Abdul Kalam first at the Aeronautical Society of India (AeSI) and later again at a press conference in Washington DC last year. Japan and Israel. An answer for both the developed and developing countries. clean energy technologies. availability of sunlight. an energy source that can reach the most distant villages of the world. Such an option will also be reportedly a cleaner energy option. and convert it to radio-waves to be beamed to special receiving antenna farms on the ground (called rectennas) about the size of a small airport. the largest ever constructed. Thereafter. Mark Hopkins. 4/2. made up of kilometers of solar cells. wind. Bangalore and leader of the Chandrayan-I project. non-ionizing wavelength. Her areas of research include US foreign and security policy. Alex. and as a consequence of economies of scale. President of the Space Power Association and a veteran of NASA. isn‘t it time for India and the US to make serious commitments to Space-Based Solar Power (SBSP)? Japanese crisis has triggered worldwide re-thinking on the feasibility of pursuing nuclear energy to meet growing global energy demands. in addition to Dr. health and infectious diseases. as India is already in pursuit of SPS Dr. geothermal."3 According to the International Energy Agency (IEA).1. orfonline. This will bring the much-desired focus on the question of technology transfer between India and the US.com With the earthquake and the subsequent tsunami that hit Japan on March 11. clean environment. This option would also significantly augment India‘s capabilities in the space domain. clean and dirty. It is time that India and the United States and the countries around the world looked at an often-overlooked option: SBSP.K. enabling many other applications. or wind speed. On the Indian side.2 It is estimated that one kilometre-wide band of geo-synchronous earth bit can produce solar flux to match as much as the total amount of energy produced from all the different recoverable oil reserves on Earth. The initiative is now titled as the Kalam-NSS (National Space Society) Energy Initiative. Senior Fellow at the Institute of Security Studies (ISS). it is not as dangerous as sunlight with its high energy ultraviolet rays. In 1987. Col. very large satellites. there appears to be interest among the private sector companies like Boeing. the demand is expected to more than double by 2030. the first bit of work was undertaken looking at advanced space transportation system design concepts for cost-effective space solar power. the energy is reconverted and sent via the existing electrical grid. Japan and Russia. India‘s foray into space and its space policies have had strong civilian and developmental roots and accordingly the government needs to place the SBSP within its overall national space policy.8 per cent hike per year on average. Such satellites would necessitate a fleet of re-useable space planes. The idea of harnessing SBSP as an option originated in the United States some 40 years ago. and Northrop Grumman and on the Indian side. in huge quantities. the world will fall short of the energy we need by 66%. SBSP is available throughout the year.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Solvency XTN – Bilateral Co-op (3/4) SPS development would boost relations. The idea was promoted by none other than Dr. military strategies of major Asian powers including China. Lockheed Martin.Unlike terrestrial solar and wind power plants. an energy source that produces no carbon emissions. even if we use every available energy resource we have. advanced materials and nanotechnology science. and gas. What are the options to meet this cost? Are the Indian and American governments and private sectors willing to make significant investments on the R&D of this technology? The US-India Agreement to establish an S&T Board and an Endowment to carry out research (July 20. who is the Director of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) Satellite Centre.4 With energy demand growing rapidly. which will have far-reaching positive spin-offs in the ever-changing security environment in Asia. The cost-benefit analysis needs to be done on a different scale. T. New Delhi. space and nuclear security. At the rectenna. would collect the Sun‘s energy where there is no night. The energy is sent in the form of a low energy beam at about 1/6th the intensity of normal sunlight that falls on earth. Observer Research Foundation. While this can potentially be an excellent case for public-private partnership. This has kick-started a debate also in India not only on the safety of nuclear plants but also on other energy options. Speaking in New Delhi in November last year. ISRO is believed to have welcomed an International Preliminary Feasibility Study. the costs of developing this technology may seem exorbitant. CEO of the US-based National Space Society and John Mankins. In simple terms.6 per cent rate per year. and for India. including possibly the influence of nuclear lobbyists. and an energy source that can turn countries into net energy exporter. SBSP is described thus by Lt. coal. conventional and alternative. Otherwise. Peter Garretson of the US Air Force: "In this concept. climate science. Kalam. advancement in the space arena with technology transfer as a given between India. SBSP seems like an ideal candidate because this fund seeks to finance projects on a broad spectrum of issues of mutual benefit such as biotechnology. India‘s decision to pursue SBSP will have multiple impact -clean energy.. reduce the cost of space access a hundred fold. the SBSP option offers huge opportunities. There is an answer. The Kalam-NSS initiative is an India-US partnership taken up by individuals with long-term expertise in the space realm. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 83 . But because it is a low-energy. Some of the key people involved are. for the SBSP per se. including the direct and indirect cost of global warming and climate change. Rajeswari Pillai Rajagopalan. Dr. Recently. solar. US and Japan. ISRO is reported to have done some exercise looking at the feasibility of this option and examined three specific configurations. But it has not been pursued with vigour for a variety of reasons.

the influence of a historically normative power representing the developing world and its equities is a powerful enabler. such a partnership between the U.4 Finally. Garretson. as already noted above. India is projected to be in the midst of its demographic dividend. Work to send a solar energy-beaming experiment to the International Space Station was canceled in 2008. The plan increases US-Indo Relations Garretson. ―Sky‘s No Limit: Space-Based Solar Power." Hopkins said. August 2010 (Peter A. with the largest working age population of any country on earth . energy. there has been significant momentum to the technical cooperation aspect of the Indo-US strategic partnership and we have finally put in place all the necessary precursor elements for institutional research and development. climate change. and a linked effort also promises a tremendous ultimate market potential . The Next Major Step In The Indo-US Strategic Partnership?‖. Cooperation today is principally at a low level because bureaucracies still are not familiar with each other. the United States would contribute technology. page 67) Firstly. Further. Directorate of Strategic Plans and Programs. Satellites to Beam Solar Power Down From Space.com NASA does not currently have an official space solar power program. space. military has also experimented with solar energy beaming. the success of space solar power will depend partly on low-cost manufacture. He was previously the Chief of Future Science and Technology Exploration for Headquarters Air Force.5 and trust is earned incrementally over time. aviation. there is considerable momentum in the Indo-US strategic partnership.com. and a Visiting Fellow at the Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses (IDSA) New Delhi. a prosperous India increases the chances the rise of China will be peaceful. senior writer for space. India could also potentially launch the power-gathering satellite aboard one of the nation's rockets.S. while India could take care of much of the low-cost manufacturing.com and Livescience.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Solvency XTN – Bilateral Co-op (4/4) India US coop works for both sides: Both sides get jobs. but also expressed an interest in international cooperation. In the time frame when space solar power will come of age . the case for technical cooperation with India is quite strong. as it may present a way to deliver power to remote areas of the globe. likely considerably more acute than other potential partners which makes it potentially a more motivated partner. and without such a partnership a go-it-alone attitude might find the environment and the markets considerably less permissive. high tech. even as other manufacturing and labour markets age and face decline. India is the only major state where a Head of State has not only suggested space solar power as a goal for its space agency. In the course of this research. "India is rapidly rising and this is in the interest of both nations. "The potential of combining those two could generate a large amount of jobs in both countries. Second. He is an active duty Air Force officer on sabbatical as an Air Force Fellow. the initiative's leaders said. with key components–space.S. and India could have ramifications not just for the energy crisis. though it has funded research into the field in the past. in a breakthrough project like space solar power where an international regulatory framework is required. Under New Plan. Third. India‘s need for power and development is acute. The U. "Neither of our nations wishes to contain China ? however. over the course of nearly a decade. and significantly. Ultimately. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 84 . but for international politics. 2010. and dual-use strategic technologies and defence cooperation–already in place with vibrant dialogue." Hopkins said. perhaps 15 years in the future." Under the Kalam-NSS plan. As already remarked. Fourthly. was a Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) International Fellow in India. and the US can use Indian rockets Clara Moskowitz. there was no indication that there was reason to doubt that such trust and familiarity will be the natural course.

(―Falling Oil Prices Bad for US/China Relations: Economist‖. the atmosphere in the run-up to this year‘s meeting has been the most positive since the financial crisis.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 – China Conflict (1/2) Relations are low – oil prices prevent cooperation CNBC. in a research note. Nonetheless. ―We doubt this will last. http://mobile.cnbc. China can argue that its economy is rebalancing.‖ he wrote. ―For this reason. One analyst though predicts the recent fall in oil and commodity prices could turn the heat up on US/Chinese relations in the coming months. on the surface at least.‖ Williams wrote. The speed at which the surplus has fallen over the last year can be entirely explained by the rise in commodity prices rather than any surge in real import demand. Overnight Chinese data showed the trade surplus for April coming in at $11. While still not rising as fast as many in the US would want. in a clear sign Williams is right. potentially reawakening strains with the US.‖ Williams added. ―For everything apart from commodities – including the bilateral surplus with the US – China‘s surplus remains close to a record high. The second reason tensions have eased according to Williams is the five percent rise in the yuan since the peg was dropped last year. for now.‖ said Mark Williams. the senior China economist at Capital Economics. come down to less than four percent of gross domestic product. there has been talk in recent weeks of letting the yuan rise further as a way of combating Chinese inflation. due in part to the US attention being focused on the death of Osama bin Laden and the markets' attention being focused on falling commodity prices and the euro zone crisis. The talks have been surprisingly low key. His point is that higher commodity prices have led China‘s trade surplus to. ―On the economic side.com/us_news/42968112) President Barack Obama called for more balanced trade relations with China as a delegation from Beijing met with US officials in Washington yesterday. "This estimate is based on the difference between consumer price inflation in China and the US and is – we believe – misleading. The US Treasury has been suggesting that the yuan is rising at a real rate of around 10 percent against the dollar.4 billion. 5/10/2011. nearly four times higher than the many in the market had been expecting. compared with 10 percent on the eve of the financial crisis. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 85 .‖ said Williams. the surplus is likely to rebound rapidly if commodity prices continue to decline.

In the near term the only new source of electric power that can hope to generate enough clean energy to satisfy China‘s mid. The crisis may come sooner if. Experts and leaders from NASA and from the Energy and Commerce departments should brief all of the major spacefaring nations. or terrestrial solar will be useful. especially electricity. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 86 . the greatest danger to China‘s future prosperity is its huge need for energy. The capital costs for such systems are gigantic. Wind power and terrestrial solar power will not be able to contribute much to meeting China‘s demand and certainly not without government subsidies which a relatively poor nation such as China will be reluctant to provide. http://www. Conflicts caused by hard choices between land use for factories and housing and for food production are now common. This may seem odd when one looks at a map. and other rising powers find their populations demanding lifestyles comparable to those they now see the West enjoying. According to an International Energy Agency estimate. at least not without strong safety measures. Information about planned demonstration projects. China may be reluctant to rely heavily on nuclear power plants. At some point within the next twenty or thirty years China will face an energy crisis for which it will be almost certainly unprepared. has a land shortage problem. China is already experiencing shortages. including dam building and new coal-fired power plants. China. at least on a small scale. say around 2025. particularly ones on the ISS. While China may turn to widespread use of nuclear power plants. Senior Editor at the Hudson Institute‘s New York office. Experiments have demonstrated. but when compared with both future power demands and considering the less-than-peaceful alternative scenarios. the US. author of the textbook Space Science for Students. the ability of private US or multinational firms to offer China a reliable supply of beamed electricity at a competitive price would allow China to continue its economic growth and emergence as part of a peaceful world power structure. Only a new source of electrical energy will insure that such a nightmare never happens. If the US were to invest in space-based solar power it would not be alone. Other sources such as nuclear. Space Review (Taylor. like its neighbors Japan and Korea. demand for electricity in China will grow at an average annual rate of 4. including China.to long-term needs is space based solar power.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 – China Conflict (2/2) The plan solves their war and economy scenarios – overabundance of energy means we‘ll share Dinerman. However. The Yangtze Delta region. at this stage. but the highly productive industrial regions of China are confined to a limited coastal area. due to a combination of internal and external pressures. At that point their economic growth would stall and they would face a massive recession.thespacereview. For the US this means that in the future. In spite of a furious effort to develop new power sources. especially when compared to what a similar project would take in the US or Europe when the NIMBY (Not In My Back Yard) factor adds to the time and expense of almost any new project. faced capacity shortages of four to five gigawatts during peak summer demand in 2003. and space solar power‖. thus making them more expensive and more time consuming to build. not be looking for international partners. building a permanent base and a solar panel manufacturing facility up there is beyond what can reasonably be anticipated. which includes Shanghai and the provinces of Jiangsu and Zhijiang and contributes almost 20% of China‘s GDP. Thus. but they are limited by both physics and politics. Even if NASA administrator Mike Griffin is right and they do manage to land on the Moon before the US gets back there in 2020. 10/22/2007. In spite of the major advances that China has made in developing its own space technology. Leaving aside the political vulnerabilities inherent in any communist regime. the Chinese are forced to limit the use of coal and similar fuels. should be public and easily accessible. America‘s space policy makers should. As a matter of US national security it is imperative that this country be able to fulfill that worldwide demand. it will be many years before they can realistically contemplate building the off-Earth elements of a solar power satellite. let alone a lunar-based system. Only space solar power can be delivered in amounts large enough to satisfy the needs of these nations. The global repercussions would be disastrous. Avoiding a large-scale future war over energy is in everyone‘s interest. the Communist Party leadership is certainly aware of the role that glasnost and the Chernobyl disaster played in the downfall of another Communist superpower.8% from 2003 and 2025.com/article/985/1) The biggest factor in world affairs in the next twenty or so years is the rise of China to true great power status. They would also be able to export these large systems: a system that can survive the typhoons in the South China Sea can also handle the monsoons of the Bay of Bengal or the hurricanes of the Caribbean. China‘s economic growth is outstripping its capacity to generate the terawatts needed to keep it going. especially in about fifty years when China. China would have to build the receiver antennas (rectennas) and connect them to its national grid. Our world‘s civilization is going to need all the energy it can get. space solar power looks like a bargain. The Japanese have spent considerable sums over the years on this technology and other nations will seek the same advantages described in the NSSO study. These areas also overlap with some of the nation‘s most fertile agricultural lands. that such receivers are safe and that cows and crops can coexist with them. China and its neighbors could compete to see who could build the most robust and cost-effective sea-based rectennas. Clean solar power from space is the most promising of large-scale alternatives. ―China. there are persistent doubts and it would be wise to plan for a world in which rectenna placement on land will be as politically hard as putting up a new wind farm or even a nuclear power plant. but this would be fairly easy for them. Building the rectennas at sea would help alleviate some of these disputes. but instead should opt for a high level of international transparency. wind. India.

The Break-Up of Pakistan? Musharraf probably hopes that by giving de facto autonomy to the Taliban and Pashtun leaders now with a virtual free hand for cross border operations into Afghanistan. Musharraf faces the nationalist struggle in Kashmir. there exists a strong latent embryo of a Pashtun national consciousness and the idea of an independent Pashtunistan state has been raised regularly in the past with regard to the disputed territories common to Afghanistan and Pakistan. fundamentalist support in his own Armed Forces and Intelligence Services is extremely strong. former member of the British Labour Party Exectutive Committee. he will undercut any future upsurge in support for a break-away independent Pashtunistan state or a "Peoples' War" of the Pashtun populace as a Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 87 . 9/23/07 ―Better another Taliban Afghanistan.com/display. Evidently. In fact. Returning from the frontier provinces with Bin Laden's severed head would be a trophy that would cost him his own head in Pakistan. President Musharraf stated clearly that he is acting first and foremost to protect the interests of Pakistan. his deal with the Pashtuns is essentially an effort to firewall his country against civil war and disintegration. a totally artificial border between created by British Imperialism in the 19th century. and growing terrorist bombings in the main cities. 2004 (C. In effect.aspx?id=639 Although the Pashtuns are more closely linked to tribal and clan loyalty. Until now. He is a political psychologist. not only top Taliban leaders. India will have to develop some contingency planning to address such a situation. political cooperation among India. While there was outrageous in Kabul. It has been a question bedevilling relations between the Afghanistan and Pakistan throughout their history. but the potential that an irresponsible regime might emerge in Islamabad cannot be completely ruled out. So much so that analyst consider it likely that the Army and Secret Service is protecting.electricarticles. the consequences of such an outcome—remote as it may seem in New Delhi—could indeed be disastrous. Political consultations among the three powers on Pakistan might have become a feasible option today given India‘s rapidly expanding relations with both the United States and China. than a Taliban NUCLEAR Pakistan!?‖. he could not win and has settled instead for an attempted political solution. There is also a large Shiite population and clashes between Sunnis and Shias are regular. New Delhi should engage both nations in bilateral discussions on the future stability of Pakistan. the « Talibanistation » of the whole Pashtun people. It has been an untreated. Given the presence of nuclear weapons. ―What If Pakistan Fails?‖ Washington Quarterly. an insurgency in Balochistan. For the same reasons. fighting Pashtun tribes has cost him double the number of troops as the US has lost in Iraq. he faces exactly the same problems as the US and Allies in Afghanistan or Iraq. Accordingly. Raja. Yet. The area was cut in two by the "Durand Line". have been reluctant to be perceived as engaging New Delhi on the question of Pakistan‘s stability. On their own. When he agreed the policy of appeasement and virtual self-rule for North Waziristan last year. none of them can prevent state failure in nuclear-armed Pakistan or manage its consequences. Over the long term. Therefore. State failure in Pakistan and its consequences would give Washington and Beijing much to worry about regarding their own long-term interests in the region. At best he takes the occasional risk of giving a nod and a wink to a US incursion. is this what lies behind the current policy of appeasement President Musharraf of Pakistan towards the Pashtun tribes in along the Frontiers and his armistice with North Waziristan last year? Is he attempting to avoid further alienating Pashtun tribes there and head-off a potential separatist movement in Pakistan. the United States. Indeed. the United States and China. but even then at the peril of the chagrin of the people and his own military and secret service. the United States. researcher into Chaos/Complexity Theory.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Impact Module – Indo-Pak War US/India bilateral relations key to prevent Pakistani state failure Mohan. and China on regional security would have been dismissed as outlandish until recently. unrest in the Sindh. but Bin Laden and the Al Qaeda central leadership thought to be entrenched in the same Pakistani borderlands. he has not captured or killed Bin Laden and the Al Qaeda leadership. what he fears most is. and China holds the key to preventing state failure in Pakistan and has the potential to facilitate Pakistan‘s evolution toward political moderation and economic modernization and lay the foundation for regional stability and economic integration in the subcontinent. In his own words. which could develop from the Taliban's offensive across the border in Afghanistan? Trying to subdue the frontier lands has proven costly and unpopular for Musharraf. which he warns could inflame the already fierce fundamentalist and other separatist movement across his entire country. Winter) Will such cooperation be forthcoming from two of Pakistan‘s most important allies? Suggestions for such cooperation among India. Morgan. State failure in Pakistan might not be likely. and with India before Partition. Pakistan collapse triggers Indo-Pak nuclear conflict and civil wars throughout Asia Stephen J. Moreover. a serious dialogue among the three countries on the future of Pakistan has become an urgent necessity. Professor of South Asian studies at Jawaharlal Nehru University. given the high stakes in their relationships with Islamabad. http://www. festering wound which has lead to sporadic wars and border clashes between the two countries and occasional upsurges in movements for Pashtun independence. He does not want to open the door for any backdraft from the Afghan war to engulf Pakistan.

and possibly nuclear war. this would also spill over into India both with regards to the Muslim community and Kashmir. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 88 . Indeed. Invading Pakistan would not be an option for America. military Islamic regime. stretching from Pakistan to Palestine. As the war intensifies. in the context of the new world situation. this might not take place outside of a protracted crisis of upheaval and civil war conditions. as looks likely. the country could be faced with civil wars and popular fundamentalist uprisings. Border clashes. Moreover. leaning on the radicalised masses to take power. This would bring a shift in the tectonic plates of global relations. where legal powers would shift to Islamic courts and forms of shira law would be likely. then a Taliban Pashtun caliphate could be established which would act as a magnet to separatist Pashtuns in Pakistan. indeed. as he himself described it. he has no guarantees that the current autonomy may yet burgeon into a separatist movement. Some form of radical. conditions would be ripe for a coup d'état by the fundamentalist wing of the Army and ISI. could. Such deep chaos would. through Afghanistan into Iraq and up to the Mediterranean coast. of course. Strong centrifugal forces have always bedevilled the stability and unity of Pakistan. It could usher in a new Cold War with China and Russia pitted against the US. his policy could completely backfire upon him. However events may prove him sorely wrong. Fundamentalism is deeply rooted in Pakistan society. A new war. between Pakistan and India could no be ruled out. secular opposition parties. but Israel becomes a possibility. as well. as they say. The fact that in the year following 9/11. the likely break up of Afghanistan along ethnic lines. even then. but captures at least half of the country. lead the way to the break up of Pakistan. open a "Pandora's box" for the region and the world. the most popular name given to male children born that year was "Osama" (not a Pakistani name) is a small indication of the mood. With the possibility of unstable clerical and military fundamentalist elements being in control of the Pakistan nuclear arsenal. as well as the acquisition of nuclear and other deadly weapons secrets by Al Qaeda. probably including a military-fundamentalist coup d'état. Undoubtedly. Appetite comes with eating. not only their use against India. The prophesy of an arc of civil war over Lebanon. mixing fundamentalist movements with nationalist uprisings and sectarian violence between the Sunni and minority Shia populations. Although. Given the weakening base of the traditional. should the Taliban fail to re-conquer al of Afghanistan. Atomic Al Qaeda Should Pakistan break down completely. Then. a Talibanstyle government with strong Al Qaeda influence is a real possibility. terrorist attacks. sectarian pogroms and insurgency would break out. The nightmare that is now Iraq would take on gothic proportions across the continent.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 whole. Therefore a nuclear war would now again become a real strategic possibility. and. Palestine and Iraq would spread to south Asia.

SPS Affirmative

DDW 2011

1 ***READINESS***

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1 Solvency XTN – Flexible Deployment (1/3)
Energy flexibility key to Army mobility and operations Dennis K. Bohannon, ASA(IE&E), US Army, 4/27/11, ―Army operational energy aiming high‖,
http://www.army.mil/article/55593/army-operational-energy-aiming-high///jchen Holistic policies are accelerating energy, environmental and efficiency solutions and technology for Forward Operating Contingency Bases. Charged with developing and implementing those policies, Hammack said, "Improving efficiency at base camps represents one of the best opportunities to decrease Army operational energy usage." The Army realizes that energy use in peacetime and on installations differs from the energy use during contingency operations. Nonetheless, Hammack says, solutions at home will help Soldiers in combat. "We are moving forward by developing new doctrine and focusing investment on technologies applicable in the context of contingency operations. These efforts can increase Soldier effectiveness, extend the endurance and resilience of the force, reduce the need for fuel convoys, and reduce operational costs." The Army recently announced selection of installations that have committed to achieving Net Zero in Energy, Water or Waste. Five installations were identified in each of these areas and will communicate their journey to Net Zero on a regular basis. This work is providing the critical data necessary to support initiatives which will address the operational energy challenges and maintain an efficient, flexible energy posture that will enable highly effective, widely dispersed, and increasingly mobile forces in combat. Hammack said that through innovation, adaptation, exploration and evaluation. "We are creating a culture that recognizes the value of sustainability, measured not just in terms of financial benefits, but benefits to maintaining mission capability, quality of life, relationships with local communities and the preservation of options for the Army's future," she said. "It is operationally necessary and financially prudent."

Accessible electric supply key to forward operating bases Naval Research Laboratory, W. Neil Johnson, et. al., 10/23/09, High-energy Space Environment Branch, ―Space-Based Solar
Power: Possible Defense Applications and Opportunities‖, Keith Akins, James Armstrong, Kwok Cheung, Glen Henshaw, Steven Huynh, Paul Jaffe, Matthew Long, Michael Mook, Michael Osborn, Robert Skalitzky, And Frederick Tasker Jill Dahlburg And Michael N. Lovelette Robert Bartolo And Keith Williams Mark Dorsey Donald Gubser Philip Jenkins, Scott Messenger, John Pasour, And Robert Walters Nathan Smith Wayne Boncyk Michael Brown David Huber//jchen 2.1 Forward Operating Base Power A Forward Operating Base (FOB) exists to support a small number of reconnaissance and surveillance teams as well as for military power projection ahead of primary forces. As such, the FOB can be anywhere from 50 to 5000 personnel because it is task-organized and scales to meet the size of the assigned task(s). Provision of electrical energy to the FOB must be viewed as a necessary commodity. The FOBs tend to be in remote, relatively inaccessible areas, due to both terrain and location of opposing forces (OPFOR). Resupply missions are tradeoffs between the risk of sending in an armed convoy and the risk, and substantial additional costs, of air resupply.

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1 Solvency XTN – Flexible Deployment (2/3)
SPS allows for military power projection and readiness through force mobility Jeff Foust, Editor and publisher of the Space Review online journal, 8/13/ 2007, ―A renaissance for space solar power?‖, The Space
Review, http://www.thespacereview.com/article/931/1 Air Force Lt. Col. Michael ―Coyote‖ Smith, leading the NSSO study, said during a session about space solar power at the NewSpace 2007 conference in Arlington, Virginia last month that the project had its origins in a study last year that identified energy, and the competition for it, as the pathway to ―the worst nightmare war we could face in the 21st century.‖ If the United States is able to secure energy independence in the form of alternative, clean energy sources, he said, ―that will buy us a form of security that would be phenomenal.‖ ―The military would like nothing better than to have highly mobile energy sources that can provide our forces with some form of energy in those forward areas,‖ Smith said. At the same time, the DOD has been looking at alternative fuels and energy sources, given the military‘s voracious appetite for energy, and the high expense—in dollars as well as lives—in getting that energy to troops deployed in places like Afghanistan and Iraq. Soldiers, he noted, use the equivalent of one AA battery an hour while deployed to power all their devices. The total cost of a gallon of fuel delivered to troops in the field, shipped via a long and, in places, dangerous supply chain, can run between $300 and $800, he said, the higher cost taking into account the death benefits of soldiers killed in attacks on convoys shipping the fuel. ―The military would like nothing better than to have highly mobile energy sources that can provide our forces with some form of energy in those forward areas,‖ Smith said. One way to do that, he said, is with space solar power, something that Smith and a few fellow officers had been looking at in their spare time. They gave a briefing on the subject to Maj. Gen. James Armor, the head of the NSSO, who agreed earlier this year to commission a study on the feasibility of space solar power. There was one problem with those plans, Smith said: because this project was started outside of the budget cycle, there was no money available for him to carry out a conventional study. ―I‘ve got no money,‖ he said, ―but I‘ve got the ability to go out there and make friends, and friends are cheap.‖ So Smith and his cadre of friends have carried out the research for the study in the open, leveraging tools like Google Groups and a blog that hosts discussions on the subject. Smith made it clear, though, that he‘s not looking for a quick fix that will suddenly make solar power satellites feasible in the near term. ―If I can close this deal on space-based solar power, it‘s going to take a long time,‖ he said. ―The horizon we‘re looking at is 2050 before we‘re able to do something significant.‖ The first major milestone, he said, would be a small demonstration satellite that could be launched in the next eight to ten years that would demonstrate power beaming from GEO. However, he added those plans could change depending on developments of various technologies that could alter the direction space solar power systems would go. ―That 2050 vision, what that architecture will look like, is carved in Jell-O.‖ The idea of a demonstration satellite was endorsed by Shubber Ali, an entrepreneur and self-described ―cynic‖ who also participated on the NewSpace panel. ―The first step in this case needs to be a cheap, simple satellite, just to prove that we can beam power back down,‖ he said. A satellite that generated just 10 kilowatts of power—less than some commercial GEO communications satellites—could be developed for on the order of $100 million, he said. If space solar power is to become a reality, Smith said, it will have to be because of a ―massive collaborative effort‖ in which the DOD will play a small, but not leading, role. Ali said there needs to be a ―coalition of the willing‖ that includes the DOD and other government agencies like NASA and DOE, as well as ―the usual suspects‖ in the commercial space sector, to help advance space solar power if it appears it can be feasible. That group, he said, should also include oil companies. ―We like to think of ‗Big Oil‘ as a big, ugly, evil set of companies that are just taking our money at the gas tank,‖ he explained, ―but the reality is that they are not idiots and they do take the long view.‖ Smith agreed, and noted that his team had already met with some representatives off major oil companies, in part because ―we realized we didn‘t want to get ‗Tuckered‘ out of the business,‖ a reference to Preston Tucker, who clashed with the established Detroit automakers in the 1940s. If space solar power is to become a reality, he said, it will have to be because of a ―massive collaborative effort‖ in which the DOD will play a small, but not leading, role. ―This is not the Department of Defense‘s job. We do not want to be in the energy business, we don‘t want to be a producer of energy,‖ he said. ―We just want to be a customer of a clean energy resource that‘s out there.‖

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1 Solvency XTN – Flexible Deployment (3/3)
Failure to achieve energy access at forward operating bases hurts combat readiness NSSO, National Security Space Office, 10/10/07, ―Space‐ Based Solar Power: As an Opportunity for Strategic Security‖,
http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA473860&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf//jchen When all indirect and support costs are included, it is estimated that the DoD currently spends over $1 per kilowatt hour for electrical power delivered to troops in forward military bases in war regions. OSD(PA&E) has computed that at a wholesale price of $2.30 a gallon, the fully burdened average price of fuel for the Army exceeds $5 a gallon. For Operation IRAQI FREEDOM the estimated delivered price of fuel in certain areas may approach $20 a gallon. • Significant numbers of American servicemen and women are injured or killed as a result of attacks on supply convoys in Iraq. Petroleum products account for approximately 70% of delivered tonnage to U.S. forces in Iraq—total daily consumption is approximately 1.6 million gallons. Any estimated cost of battlefield energy (fuel and electricity) does not include the cost in lives of American men and women. • The DoD is a potential anchor tenant customer of space‐ based solar power that can be reliably delivered to U.S. troops located in forward bases in hostile territory in amounts of 5‐ 50 megawatts continuous at an estimated price of $1 per kilowatt hour, but this price may increase over time as world energy resources become more scarce or environmental concerns about increased carbon emissions from combusting fossil fuels increases

SBSP allows direct recharge of troop energy supplies – cuts need for supply lines Naval Research Laboratory, W. Neil Johnson, et. al., 10/23/09, High-energy Space Environment Branch, ―Space-Based Solar
Power: Possible Defense Applications and Opportunities‖, Keith Akins, James Armstrong, Kwok Cheung, Glen Henshaw, Steven Huynh, Paul Jaffe, Matthew Long, Michael Mook, Michael Osborn, Robert Skalitzky, And Frederick Tasker Jill Dahlburg And Michael N. Lovelette Robert Bartolo And Keith Williams Mark Dorsey Donald Gubser Philip Jenkins, Scott Messenger, John Pasour, And Robert Walters Nathan Smith Wayne Boncyk Michael Brown David Huber//jchen 2.2 Power to Individual End Users The prospect of reducing the need for soldiers and other users to carry numerous and heavy batteries is very attractive. Batteries are logistically challenging for their mass and for the need to protect them from moisture, extreme temperatures, and other hazards. It is estimated that 15% to 20% of a soldier‘s 30 to 40 kg pack consists of batteries [1]. Obtaining replacement batteries adds to the fuel consumed by resupply lines, and the task of recharging batteries adds to the load on generators at forward bases. Because of this, SBSP has been posed as a means to recharge such batteries or to displace the need for them by providing power directly to the soldier.

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1 Solvency XTN – Easy Integration
Efforts toward ground based solar power at FOBs already exist – just needs SPS energy source Dennis K. Bohannon, ASA(IE&E), US Army, 4/27/11, ―Army operational energy aiming high‖,
http://www.army.mil/article/55593/army-operational-energy-aiming-high///jchen "At our existing forward operating bases, we continue to look for new and efficient ways to expand the use of solar power, turning waste to energy, reuse of grey water such as reusing shower water for toilets, using waste heat for steam to electricity generation, solar hot water, micro power grids and other technologies to reduce the demand for resources," she said. She said she found people taking initiative and making a difference. "One example is a contractor filtering used generator oil and used canola oil from dining facilities to blend with JP8 fuel to run their generators. This reduced the amount of fuel transported and saved 65,000 gallons of JP8 last year. I also saw solar panels being used to provide power to perimeter force protection sensors, alert devices (big voice) and for perimeter lighting at Bagram (Airfield), Afghanistan."

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SBSP could also facilitate base ―islanding‖ such that each installation has the ability to operate independent of vulnerable ground‐ based energy delivery infrastructures.dtic. while significantly reducing dependence on vulnerable over‐ land fuel deliveries. ―Space‐ Based Solar Power: As an Opportunity for Strategic Security‖. perhaps the greatest military benefit of SBSP is to lessen the chances of conflict due to energy scarcity by providing access to a strategically secure energy supply. SBSP could provide the ability to deliver rapid and sustainable humanitarian energy to a disaster area or to a local population undergoing nation‐ building activities. 10/10/07. beamed energy from space in quantities greater than 5 MWe has the potential to be a disruptive game changer on the battlefield.pdf//jchen For the DoD specifically. In addition to helping American and allied defense establishments remain relevant over the entire 21 st Century through more secure supply lines. http://www. SBSP and its enabling wireless power transmission technology could facilitate extremely flexible ―energy on demand‖ for combat units and installations across an entire theater. More routinely. National Security Space Office.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA473860&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc. SBSP could also enable entirely new force structures and capabilities such as ultra long‐ endurance airborne or terrestrial surveillance or combat systems to include the individual soldier himself. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 94 .SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 I/L XTN – Flexibility k2 Heg SBSP ensures military energy flexibility – key to combat readiness and operations NSSO.

SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 *****ENVIRONMENT***** Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 95 .

October 2007.Generic SBSP solves for environmental degradation Strickland. Only the energy receivers need be built on Earth. The full environmental benefits of space solar power derive from doing most of the work outside of Earth's biosphere. The transition to power from space is responsive to the environmental concerns and the need to stabilize the Global environment and consequently the Earth‘s economic and social stability. nighttime and weather (Mankins. ―Development of Space-Based Solar Power‖.based solar power can address all of these needs simultaneously.S. Jenkins Enterprises. 2010.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Solvency . http://www. The key to getting support for space solar power may be the growing awareness of the threat of rapid global environmental change. Risk of environmental catastrophe justifies investment in SPS Lyle M. Scientists are extending their traditional role of theory and observation to emphasize the risks of global change. would spend on nuclear or ground solar during a single year. and space-based manufacture of components. chairman for the Austin Space Frontier Society. Jenkins. Environmental benefits Advocates of space solar power have been presenting the concepts as a means to help meet world energy needs. and the basic technology has been around since the late 1960‘s (Mankins. masking angles due to local terrain.mil/100. but there are several challenges that need to be tackled before it will be a reality.com/articles/show/title/development-of-space-based-solar-power//jchen 3.intechopen. Project Engineer.org/settlement/ssp///jchen In the longer term. ―Space Solar vs Base Load Ground Solar and Wind Power‖.edu/issue16/strickland2.html) If nuclear reactor parts could be mass-produced and the reactor construction standardized as France does to keep the capital cost at $2 billion/Gigawatt. Concern for the environment is greater than the policy makers realize. Manufacture outside the biosphere means zero environmental impact NSS. The risks provide the context for action by policy makers to move toward sustainable systems. ― Minimizing Losses In A Space Laser Power Beaming System‖. With materials extraction from the Moon or near-Earth asteroids. National Space Society. 2008:25). space solar power can be built from materials from space. with sufficient investments in space infrastructure. the global annual cost would be 2. as energy output of a conventional ground-based solar array is reduced by as much as 80% by the atmosphere. space solar power would have essentially zero terrestrial environmental impact. 2011 The most popular vision of space-based power is a constellation of on-orbit collectors used to gather solar energy directly from the sun and then ―beam‖ that energy down to large receivers on the ground in order to provide power. Thankfully these obstacles can be overcome by engineering and economics. SSP represents the only source of power that we can keep adding to at this rate without causing any environmental degradation or massive use and depletion of physical resources to build the many millions of tons of ground solar and wind equipment required. Winter 2010. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 96 . ―Space Solar Power: Limitless clean energy from space‖.4 Trillion and the US share would be about 500 Billion/yr. http://handle. SPS solves environment Bellows.7Earthgenerated solar energy is not currently enough to sustain future clean energy power needs. http://www.dtic. or aid in satellite power requirements. Intech. Building re-usable rockets and a system for constructing and implementing SSP operations in space would probably cost much less than what the U. Online Journal of Space Communication (John K. 2008:20). Fossil fuel alternatives have been two cheap and near term effect on the ―economy‖ inhibits action by policy makers. In addition.nss. Captain of the USAF. This argument has not been effective in garnering support for even basic research and technology development. December 2009. the shorter "long term" will be. Space. Date accessed June 24. Charlie T.ohio.2/ADA518829.. http://spacejournal. The sooner we start and the harder we work. Space solar power can completely solve our energy problems long term. NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. Bellows.

―THE ARMY AND THE ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT: WHO' S ENDANGERING WHOM?‖. major alterations of ocean currents from sea warming and changes in salinity. shade-tolerant plants. mangrove swamps. which may threaten ecosystems by altering carbon and nitrogen cycles fundamental to interactions between plants. and human extinction. animals would be limited by the distribution of the plants they eat or otherwise depend on. Global warming may increase turnover in tropical forests. Global climate change. United States Army (David. the atmosphere. Furthermore. and the dustbowl conditions of the 1930s in the U. ―Biodiversity loss and public health. over denser. and other constructions would further complicate species migration. and habitat destruction all have the capacity to lead to species extinction and biodiversity loss. Barriers to species migration exist where people live . Member at the National Academy of Science and Technology Department of Science and Technology. stratosphere ozone depletion. agricultural lands. so does the risk of ecosystem failure.dtic. are relatively mild examples of what might be expected if this trend continues. each new extinction increases the risk of disaster. Like a mechanic removing. and finally the increase in carbon dioxide itself.cities. Major of US Army.S. and the soil. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 97 . There are evidences of species migrations and potential losses paralleling increases in recorded temperatures. mountains. with all its dimly perceived and intertwined affects could cause total ecosystem collapse. Global climate change is an aspect of environmental degradation with a major impact on species and biodiversity leading to the shifting of migration ranges of plants and animals to adapt to climatealtered habitats. 3/18/2007. and coral reefs. light demanding plants that take up less carbon dioxide. The spreading Sahara desert in Africa. http://www.pdf) By causing widespread extinctions humans have artificially simplified many ecosystems. Other aspects of global climate change that may have a major impact on species and biodiversity include: Algal blooms fertilized by the discharge of sewage and by agricultural runoff.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Impact – Biodiversity Environmental stability is key to biodiversity Cantoria. one by one. National Academy of Science and Technology Department of Science and Technology (Magdalena. Theoretically. roads.mil/cgibin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA456541&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc. As biologic simplicity rises. 80 mankind may be edging closer to the abyss. the rivets from an aircraft's wings.com/environment-natural-resources/ecology-environmental/12926098-1. with potentially enormous changes in climate and in marine ecosystems. Biodiversity loss leads to extinction Diner. slower-growing. each new animal or plant extinction. favoring rapidly growing.html) Environmental degradation leads to biodiversity loss and has serious implications for public health.‖. rising seas that may threaten species in coastal wetlands. or unsuitable habitat conditions prevented their advance. Certainly. April 1993 .allbusiness. thereby accelerating global warming. Species that could not adapt have been lost either because their rates of migration were too slow or because geographical barriers like oceans. http://www. toxic substances in the environment.

both of which are invisible. typically increasing in acidity by a factor of 100 or more. Also affected are stone buildings. ―§ 5. greenhouse effect. lead. and make the fish we eat poisonous. lower crop productivity from pumped ground water or irrigation as well as smog fallout from the air. (Schemer. Transportation (internal combustion engines) produce 43% of nitrogen oxides but little sulfur Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 98 . Acid rain is caused by sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide emissions. Toxins and carcinogens are often found in the environment in dangerous levels as a result. 2002.000 of 100.S. as Canada's Minister of the Environment. Crops are affected by acid rain. The figure below shows the contributions of each in the USA.3 Environmental Effects of SPSs on Earth‖ Currently. Mark Prado. The increasing acidification of U. Babies and the elderly are most affected. 59). or potential of hydrogen) has been measured and correlates with the death of species. Discharges of acids. affect recreational lakes and streams. ref. the most economical large scale electricity source is coal fired power plants. caused by fossil fuel consumption for electricity.g. asserted "Your country. People in many cities have been affected by overdoses of copper and lead poisoning as acid rain corrodes copper pipes and lead solder joints. Hans Martin: "We calculate that half of the acid deposition striking Canada is imported from the U. smog particles).S. about 200 lakes are fishless as a result of acid rain due to fossil fuel combustion many hundreds of miles/kilometers away. Roman ruins. ref. Over the decades.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Impact Module – Acid Rain Acid rain. contaminate waterways. A major concern is the effect on the rice paddy fields of China and Southeast Asia which feed so many people. John Roberts. 49) Even in strict Sweden. and the Taj Mahal south of New Delhi. The list of those hard hit is long. including benzene." (ref.12.7% of nitrogen oxide emissions. mercury. health problems. In the Adirondack Mountains. drainage into our water). 51) Germany's great Black Forest is sick and dying due to acid rain. the acidity level (pH. etc. we must deal with the effects of mining coal (e. beryllium and cadmium. loss of biodiversity. ref. rain since the first large scale databases were implemented in the mid-1950s is dramatic. the United States. which prompted German legislation to attempt to reduce acid rain production within their country by stricter environmental standards. Dr. and disposal of burned coal and smokestack sludge." These are just a few examples. However. former advanced planner for Pentagon space program. arsenic. (Nat'l Geographic. causes crop shortages. about 20. Note that fossil fuel power plants put out 79% of sulfur oxide emissions and 50. is dumping its garbage at the expense of our country.. 51) His coordinator for acid rain research. European Gothic architecture. dissolved solids and suspended solids can degrade drinking water supplies.000 once-thriving lakes have become fishless due to winds from other countries bringing smog which falls with the rain. combustion gases (acid rain. in noting the dying forests and lakes. but include the Acropolis in Athens. though it is not feasible to make major reductions (Pearce.

SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Impact – Nuclear Escalation Environmental conflict destroys the taboo and goes nuclear Dyer. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 99 . And we have certainly been given the right incentives: The holiday from history that we have enjoyed since the early '90s may be drawing to an end. we may be able to ride out the next halfcentury without the first-magnitude catastrophe of a global nuclear war.htm) War is deeply embedded in our history and our culture. may be lurking in our future. and another great-power war. So are the coming crises. http://www. in Military and Middle Eastern History from the University of London. given the right incentives. The "firebreak" against nuclear weapons use that we began building after Hiroshima and Nagasaki has held for well over half a century now. mostly environmental in origin.D. but the potential certainly exists for a major dieback of human population. (Gwynne. but weaning ourselves away from it should not be a bigger mountain to climb than some of the other changes we have already made in the way we live. 12/30/2004. With good luck and good management. and may drive some to desperation. Ph.commondreams. fought next time with nuclear weapons. probably since before we were even fully human. But the proliferation of nuclear weapons to new powers is a major challenge to the stability of the system. Add in the huge impending shifts in the greatpower system as China and India grow to rival the United States in GDP over the next 30 or 40 years and it will be hard to keep things from spinning out of control. which will hit some countries much harder than others. ―The End of War‖.org/views04/1230-05.

SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 ***WARMING*** Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 100 .

library. ―Development of Space-Based Solar Power‖. Rhodes. Jenkins Enterprises. Otherwise non. Johnson Space Center. When rockets launch through the atmosphere.com/articles/show/title/development-of-space-based-solar-power//jchen The risks identified through the rigor of the U. There will continue to be an element of the political community that is committed to the short-term view because of the immediate economic impact. which will marginally reduce sunlight. principally carbon dioxide and methane. journalist and poet.ingentaconnect. socioeconomic and health consequences of global change. Since the whole reason for placing a solar power satellite is to increase the amount of solar energy reaching Earth. The rectennas would be many kilometres across. indeed.sweet efficiency and solves greenhouse gases Rhodes. ocean currents and atmospheric water vapor. Just understanding may not be sufficient because of the complex relationships of greenhouse gases. Rather the prevailing view seems to be that increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases. wind circulation. which would in all likelihood consist of many short dipole antennas. It is undisputed that carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has increased by over twenty percent since the beginning of the industrial age. This is. To ensure environmental stability.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Solvency XTN – CO2 Buildup (1/2) SPS key to reduce fossil fuel use and CO2 buildup Lyle M. http://dartmouthcolnh. As an alternative to fossil fuels as a source of energy. but the latter are more complex and more expensive68. which hence is causing the Earth to warm-up4. understanding Earth system processes and developing computer models to predict the course of changes induced by humans or as the result of natural variations. The program is beginning to analyze the environmental. He has published more than 200 peer reviewed articles and five books. NASA Lyndon B. a criticism that can be levelled at all kinds of high-altitude aircraft.arable land can be used. The prosperity of future generations is dependent on a stable global environment.intechopen. It is thought that microwaves broadcast from the SPS will be received in the dipoles with about 85% efficiency which is less than that expected for conventional microwave antenna. the additional energy will be terrestrially dispersed as heat. connected via diodes. Intech. but crops and animals may be farmed underneath one. SSP could reduce the buildup of CO2 in the atmosphere and the consequent climate changes from an enhanced greenhouse effect. The anticipated benefit to the Earth‘s environment is the overarching objective that may provide support for technology development and demonstration toward space solar power for use on Earth.S.5. and is also a published novelist. SBSP is awesome. as only thin wires will be used to support the structure and to make the dipoles. Jenkins. Christopher J. The USGCRP is an integrated program documenting the Earth system. March 2010 ―Solar energy: principles and possibilities‖. and this may be significant if the scale of operations is large enough. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 101 . Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) must provide the motivation for action toward sustainable systems. Fossil fuels are certainly a major contributor to that increase. continued effort to understand the effect of human activities must be a priority. Project Engineer. December 2009. Professor Chris Rhodes has a visiting position at the University of Reading and is Director of Freshlands Environmental Actions. The obvious next step is to assess means for mitigation of the effects of global change. Other concerns concern the effect on the atmosphere.com/content/stl/sciprg/2010/00000093/00000001/art00003 A critical part of the SBSP concept is the Earth-based antenna (rectenna) receiver system. are causing the Sun‘s energy to be trapped rather than being radiated into space. http://www. There are economic returns from a space-based power source that will lead to commercial management and operation of the system. SBSP would contribute greatly to a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. By replacing fossil fuel use. This reality is a factor that will have to be dealt with through facts and risk assessment for the long term view. Thus the technology is less demanding in terms of its land requirement than is often claimed. the hot rocket exhaust reacts with the atmospheric nitrogen and can form NOx which can destroy the ozone layer.

The beam and rectenna won't heat up Earth and in fact lead to a cooler Earth. the higher standard of living. Often. the environment would benefit greatly if we bring in electricity from SPS for cooking. the reason is the reduced need to rely on one's children for labor. Sustainable agriculture can greatly reduce nomadic destruction.) Earth power plants usually cause thermal pollution only locally.a major reason for deforestation and nomad migration. The sooner we embark on a SPS program. which in turn will reduce soil depletion and migrations.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Solvency XTN – CO2 Buildup (2/2) SPS causes a significant reduction in pollution of multiple sources. not pipelines. tankers. when we burn oil or coal.htm Yet. and far more significantly. supplies and economic repercussions). (Other times it's religion. Notably. and getting more than that isn't feasible by the laws of thermodynamics. but the waste heat is in space. Electric powered consumer products certainly relieve one of the need for offspring labor. you create heat. former advanced planner for Pentagon space program. What must be offered is less expensive clean electricity. Mark Prado. The more children. it will reduce carbon dioxide emissions which are responsible for global warming. and infrastructure spending is less for electricity -. Alternative lifestyles to those that destroy nature can become available.) Even in the least developed countries. This relieves families of the need for labor in collecting firewood miles away -. Let's make Earth into a museum of the Universe's unique life.. Conversion of this heat to electricity is typically 30% efficient from coal and nuclear sources. 20th century communications creates many opportunities.12. dollars) and allow this money to go to local modernisation. long-term environmental preservation is seen as a luxury that can't be afforded now. Electric threshing of stalks (versus manual labor).g. 2002. That's Third World `social security'. Secondly. First. The reduction in need of imported oil will reduce drainage of foreign exchange (i. Basically. Electric powered water pumps for wells and irrigation will reduce labor needs for carrying water for miles and will also help prevent newly deforested areas from soon becoming dustbowls (with a resultant migration again). for two reasons. Some people have expressed concern that the SPS beam and rectenna will heat up Earth since we are "importing" energy. offspring switch from becoming a source of economic production to a burden for economic mobility. since the SPS replaces fossil fuel consumption. warming up lakes which they use for cooling. when you burn fossil and nuclear fuels. and will also help the oil-poor less developed countries to finance their debts. versus 30% for thermal power plants (70% waste heat) like coal and nuclear. the SPS beam for the reference concept has a maximum intensity only 20% that of sunlight at its center. History has shown that countries' economic development has resulted in lower population growth rates. SPS electricity promises to be cheaper than oil (as well as more reliable in the long run from price shocks. e. The SPS would produce less waste heat on Earth than other electricity generation techniques because the rectenna would be more than 80% efficient (20% waste heat and reflection). the better for Earth economies and the environment. especially carbon emissions. (The satellite is only about 20% efficient in converting sunlight to electricity. not on Earth's surface. and communications and modernization often relieve a culture of its ancient roots in the need for many children. The truth is the opposite. we are "importing" heat to the environment by releasing heat stored in a chemical form. and communications and education can help lay the foundations for slower population growth.. Once a society modernizes in key ways. The single greatest forms of environmental destruction to nature are the population explosion in equatorial regions and efforts to raise standards of living without much regard to the environment.3 Environmental Effects of SPSs on Earth‖ http://permanent. because they're the most economical. train tracks. no carbon dioxide (CO2) or other greenhouse gases. as can awareness of the world and their role in it.e. and deep sea ports. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 102 . and for support in old age. It also reduces the practice of burning the dung of laboring animals instead of using it to refertilize the soil. coal fired power plants continue to be the power source of choice by both the most advanced and the poorest countries in the world. no acid rain. The SPS produces: no waste matter. In the less developed countries.simple electric power lines. not destroy it for extra near-term dollars.com/p-sps-bi. ―§ 5.

who lives 30 miles from the Arctic Circle. spread of disease. Faced with this specter. floods and violent storms across the planet over the next century‖. with 1998 a close second‖. Past ice age transitions. there is one major existential threat to American security (as well as prosperity) of a nonviolent nature. ―In legitimate scientific circles.‖ During the Cold War. Unfortunately. and inundate Manhattan up to the middle of Greenwich Village. carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere remained relatively constant at about 280 parts per million (ppm). At worst. only to slow their increase. took place in just decades. Over the long run it puts dangers from terrorism and traditional military challenges to shame. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 103 . based on positive feedback from the buildup of water vapor in the atmosphere that is both caused by and causes hotter surface temperatures. plants are blooming several days earlier than a decade ago‖. associated with only 5-10 degree changes in average global temperatures. climate change could ―literally alter ocean currents.‖ writes Elizabeth Kolbert.‖ From the founding of the first cities some 6. species extinction. swamp the southern third of Florida.. even though no one was then pouring ever-increasing amounts of carbon into the atmosphere. says physics professor Marty Hoffert of New York University. leading to a sea level of rise of 20 feet that would cover North Carolina‘s outer banks. mass die offs of plants and animals. we‘re going to heat the atmosphere to the temperature it was in the Cretaceous when there were crocodiles at the poles. 2007 (Terry L. Scientists worldwide have been observing the gathering of this threat for three decades now. though far in the future. and what was once a mere possibility has passed through probability to near certainty. But the most frightening scenario is runaway greenhouse warming. ―Earth‘s warming climate is estimated to contribute to more than 150. about double pre-industrial levels. we are already experiencing the effects of 1-2 degree warming in more violent storms. It is a threat not only to the security and prosperity to the United States.‖ Evidence from a vast international scientific monitoring effort accumulates almost weekly. as this sample of newspaper reports shows: an international panel predicts ―brutal droughts. and…worldwide. but potentially to the continued existence of life on this planet. Professor of IR @ National War College. anthropogenic and causes extinction Deibel.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Impact XTN – Extinction (1/2) Warming is real.‖ concluded Inuit hunter Noah Metuq. ―Foreign Affairs Strategy: Logic for American Statecraft‖ pages 397-8) Finally. ―widespread bleaching from Texas to Trinidad…killed broad swaths of corals‖ due to a 2-degree rise in sea temperatures. the best one can conclude is that ―humankind‘s continuing enhancement of the natural greenhouse effect is akin to playing Russian roulette with the earth‘s climate and humanity‘s life support system. Indeed not one of more than 900 articles on climate change published in refereed scientific journals from 1993 to 2003 doubted that anthropogenic warming is occurring. It is the threat of global warming to the stability of the climate upon which all earthly life depends. so there is no way immediately to reduce levels. astronomer Carl Sagan popularized a theory of nuclear winter to describe how a thermonuclear war between the Untied States and the Soviet Union would not only destroy both countries but possibly end life on this planet. Economist William Cline once estimated the damage to the United States alone from moderate levels of warming at 1-6 percent of GDP annually. and then everything will collapse. Another catastrophic effect would be the collapse of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation that keeps the winter weather in Europe far warmer than its latitude would otherwise allow. ―it is virtually impossible to find evidence of disagreement over the fundamentals of global warming. ―rising sea temperatures have been accompanied by a significant global increase in the most destructive hurricanes‖. ―we‘re just going to burn everything up. ―They call it climate change…but we just call it breaking up. demands urgent action. ―NASA scientists have concluded from direct temperature measurements that 2005 was the hottest year on record. severe warming could cost 13-26 percent of GDP. wipe away huge portions of Alpine Snowcaps and aid the spread of cholera and malaria‖. Global warming is the post-Cold War era‘s equivalent of nuclear winter at least as serious and considerably better supported scientifically. At present they are accelerating toward 400 ppm. the only debate is how much and how serious the effects will be. ―The world is slowly disintegrating. which. As the newspaper stories quoted above show. ―glaciers in the Antarctic and in Greenland are melting much faster than expected.000 years ago until the beginning of the industrial revolution. atmospheric CO2 lasts about a century. and threatened inundation of low-lying countries like the Pacific nation of Kiribati and the Netherlands at a warming of 5 degrees or less the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets could disintegrate. and by 2050 they will reach 500 ppm.000 deaths and 5 million illnesses each year‖ as disease spreads. we are thus in for significant global warming.

In other words. journalist. At the rate the Sun is heating up. In the worst-case scenario. Everything from here on in will be shaped by what we do now. A million years from now. ―Thermageddon: Countdown to 2030‖. which is all we have found on either Mars or Venus. it will be impossible to reduce the greenhouse effect sufficiently to maintain life beyond another 1 billion years. we find ourselves four-fifths of the way through life on Earth. With a dead planet orbiting on both sides of us. nothing will remain but the contours of naked mountains and the basins of dried-up seabeds. Nonsense. downright weirdly stable atmosphere Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 104 . you say. you would think we would be wary about what we did to our own precious. who will know that we existed? The trouble is that a million years from now the planet could be emerging from a millennial climate shift triggered in a brief spurt of carbonization just before the end of the Holocene. 20 03. and is now withering before our eyes. pg. It‘s not the Fall of Man we are talking about any longer: it‘s the Fall of Eden. cofounder of Greenpeace and a Canadian environmentalist.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Impact XTN – Extinction (2/2) Warming makes the Earth inhospitable and causes extinction Robert Hunter. What a waste if we continue the plunge into the chaos and suffering of a world aflame or flooded or crushed under ice! What a waste of an excellent planet and a species with greatness in it! Scientists calculate that life on Earth is about 4 billion years old. author and politician. 254 Eden has been contaminated.

resulting in impacts on continental scales. ―Population growth and increased water withdrawals are projected to increase this number to around five billion by 2025. asking them if a runaway greenhouse effect was a serious possibility. not only from thirst but from hunger brought on by the failure of crops and the collapse of fish stocks and herds. and inundate extensive coastal areas. and 53 probably not. In Oceania. The full horror of this situation is not that five billion people are going to be suffering horribly years from now. On virtually every front. cofounder of Greenpeace and a Canadian environmentalist. barely half as much will be by that date. absolutely! ―Projected climate changes during the 21st century have the potential to lead to future large-scale and possibly irreversible changes in Earth systems [my italics]. only a third as much land is expected to be useable. collapses. pg. awful as that picture is. and triggers feedbacks causing even more catastrophic warming Robert Hunter.‖ The examples include significant slowing of the ocean circulation that transports warm water to the North Atlantic.000 years. which meant that 51 out of 113 believed it was at least a possibility. and release of terrestrial carbon from permafrost regions and methane from hydrates in the coastal sediments. and die-offs that are taking place already. What about after that? How long will the suffering go on? Are we talking decades? Or are we possibly talking centuries? Could we in fact be talking about millennia or a state of affairs that goes on forever? Is such a scenario possible? According to the IPCC. Disintegration of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet or melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet could raise global sea level up to 3 meters each over the next 1.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Impact Magnifier – Feedback Cycle Warming kills billions. submerge many islands. At a glance. Releases of terrestrial carbon from permafrost regions and methane from hydrates in the coastal sediments. For example. shrinkages. submerge many islands. Asian losses are expected to amount to onethird of existing available land.‖ Five billion people without enough Water! Surely a vision of a living hell on Earth. depending on the rate of population growth. their impacts would be widespread and sustained. Depending on the rate of ice loss. scarcities of renewable resources are expected to exacerbate or trigger civil strife. the rate and magnitude of sea-level rise could greatly exceed the capacity of human and natural systems to adapt without substantial impacts. The amount of cropland per person can plainly be seen to be plunging everywhere. the significant slowing of the oceanic thermohaline circulation would impact deepwater oxygen levels. author and politician. degradations. Consider the implications of the ecological declines. 36 said that it was possible. the graphs assembled by Thomas Homer-Dixon of the Peace and Conflict Studies Program at University of Toronto reveal the retreat of croplands around world as a result of population growth and the degradation of fertile land. 145-147 We are in for a pounding. large reductions in the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets. a vastly greater number face the threat of slowly dying of thirst. would further increase greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere and amplify climate change [my italics]. it is just a snapshot of a moment in the near future. ―Thermageddon: Countdown to 2030‖. And while hundreds of millions flee the rising seas. When activist/author Jeremy Leggett polled four hundred climate scientists who had been involved in the IPCC process. a third of the world‘s population. induced by warming. journalist. accelerated global warming due to carbon-cycle feedbacks in the terrestrial biosphere. There are currently 1. by 2025. 20 03. which is to say they use more than 20 percent of their renewable water supply. and would reduce warming over parts of Europe. let alone when it comes to your entire planetary biosphere. In Africa. before anything more than the first few ripples of climate-change effects have been felt. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 105 . 15 said that it was probably. living in countries that are already water-stressed. If these changes in Earth systems were to occur.7 billion people. carbon uptake by oceans and rnarine organisms. No. while the Americas will lose at least a quarter. Those are odds you don‘t want to face in an operation.

glaciers. ultimately.such as the ones that left millions of Northwesterners shivering in December.and less water for drinking and watering lawns in the summer. which eat the salmon. which could unravel the marine web of life. coal and other fossil fuels has unnaturally heated the atmosphere -." "Scientists are pretty well done arguing about whether the warming in the last 50 years is related to burning fossil fuels. http://www. Their conclusions: Evidence of climate warming is unequivocal. Researchers said they are more than 90 percent certain that global warming is caused by humans -.and the effects are likely to last for centuries. Seattle Metro Daily (Robert and Lisa. the warming is likely to mean intensified droughts and heat waves. cars and countless other sources. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 106 .seattlepi. along with unusually strong storms -. the Washington state climatologist. the world's leading climate scientists are reporting today that they are basically certain that burning gasoline.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 ―No Warming/Threat‖ Everyone disagrees with your authors – the threat is unequivocal McClure and Stiffler. The scientists also highlighted an increasingly worrisome global trend: acidification of the oceans. whose exploding energy use stands to exacerbate the problem. As report co-author Philip Mote. orcas. ―Scientists agree: Humans causing global warming‖. said in translating his fellow scientists' language about responsibility: "We did it. less snow for skiing -. 2/1/2007. And that conclusion was even stronger until last-minute maneuvering by China.their most powerful assertion to date. In the Pacific Northwest.php) Using their strongest language to date. writers for Seattle Pi. as well as methane and other gases." Mote said. salmon and.com/local/article/Scientists-agree-Humans-causing-global-warming-1227187. It is caused by the carbon dioxide spewed out by power plants. That could mean perilous times for forests. residents appear headed into a period of more drought. Worldwide. the report says. while killing 13.

cofounder of Greenpeace and a Canadian environmentalist. It is to be expected that such people would deliberately distort or ignore the IPCC‘s findings. author and politician. Simulations of the response to natural ―forcings‖ alone. There is still a handful of people getting their funding or salaries from the oil. and chemical industries who continue to try to argue that it is purely a coincidence that greenhouse=gas concentrations. pg. ―Thermageddon: Countdown to 2030‖. 139 In its initial report. ―The effect of anthropogenic greenhouse gases over the last 50 years can be identified despite uncertainties in other forcings‖ [my italics] The scientists conclude that the twentieth century‘s climate was unusual. the IPCC concluded. the authors state that new estimates of climate response to natural and anthropogenic forcing are available. under the circumstances. journalist. Their behavior. that ―the balance of evidence suggests a discernible human influence on global climate.‖ It also noted that the ―anthropogenic signal‖ — evidence of human activity at the root of changes — was still emerging from the background of natural variability.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 ―Not Anthro‖ Warming is anthropogenic – models prove and critics are paid off by oil companies Robert Hunter. just as global temperatures begin to soar. are at their highest levels in millions of years. indicate that natural pressures may play a role in the observed warming in the first half of the twentieth century. Now. The observed warming in the latter half of the century is ―inconsistent‖ with models of natural internal climate variability. famously. Thus. particularly CO2. is merely repugnant.‖ Model estimates of the rate of anthropogenic warming are consistent with observations in the majority of cases. however. and new detection techniques have been applied. coal. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 107 . including the response to solar variability and volcanic eruptions. These studies ―consistently find evidence for an anthropogenic signal in the climate record of the last 35 [to] 50 years. anthropogenic factors do provide an explanation for the twentieth-century temperature change. but fail to explain the warming in the latter half of the century. 20 03.

The most sophisticated tools of all are the three-dimensional General Circulation Models (GCMs). for instance. atmosphere. journalist. ―Thermageddon: Countdown to 2030‖. carbon sinks. author and politician. the UN might as well have turned to witch doctors dancing around a fire. snow. GCMs have proven their reliability by correctly predicting the cooling caused by the eruption of Mount Pinatubo. cofounder of Greenpeace and a Canadian environmentalist. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 108 . What the IPCC had going for it was a combination of calculating power and accumulated data that was unprecedented. such as oceans. however. pg. precipitation. And they are not untested. probabilities that are in the range of 95 percent or better. wind speeds. Here again. every algorithm they used was peer-reviewed. and for the first time in history it is possible for scientists to deliver. seasonal temperature cycles. every algorithm. albedo. geographical variations. ice. scientists have run the best of these models backwards and correctly replicated the climatic changes caused in the past by natural greenhouse-gas concentrations. They work – although of course they remain limited by the amount of information we can put into them. humidity. the things have been test-driven. which can then be run forward to see how climate evolves in a theoretically endless number of scenarios. as critics like to claim. every data-point they entered. These models allow scientists to create a ―virtual Earth. Some two thousand scientists were brought together for the first of dozens of conferences. rattling bones. And these were just the tools and the raw material. etc.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 ―Models Wrong‖ Models are accurate – they‘re backed up by tests Robert Hunter. has taken a quantum leap since the Second World War. cloud cover. 20 03. if not absolute certainties. Every word they wrote.‖ complete with all the major features of the current climate. meaning that each paper submitted for inclusion in the IPCC‘s work was picked at mercilessly by other scientists and experts before it saw print. every datapoint they entered. The art of predicting the future. 76-77 At any point in history prior to the development of super-computers. Models also anticipated the delayed response of plant life to warming and cooling episodes caused by El Nino. By way of testing their veracity. In other words. humanity lucked out. which use thousands of mathematical equations to represent the physical laws of nature that govern the interactions between the various components of the climate systems.

SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 ***NATURAL DISASTERS*** Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 109 .

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DDW 2011

1 Solvency XTN – Disaster Relief
SBPS provides a key avenue of disaster relief and international cooperation NSSO, National Security Space Office, 10/10/07, ―Space‐ Based Solar Power: As an Opportunity for Strategic Security‖,
http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA473860&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf//jchen Finding: The SBSP Study Group found that one immediate application of space‐ based solar power would be to broadcast power directly to energy‐ deprived areas and to persons performing disaster relief, nation‐ building, and other humanitarian missions often associated with the United Nations and related non‐ governmental organizations. o Recommendation: The SBSP Study Group recommends that during subsequent phases of the SBSP feasibility study opportunities for broad international partnerships with non‐ state and trans‐ state actors should be explored. In particular, cooperation with the United Nations and related organizations to employ SBSP in support of various humanitarian relief efforts support consistent with the U.N. Millennium Objectives must be assessed with the help of affiliated professionals

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1 Solvency XTN – Weather Control
SPS solves for weather control Viorel Badescu, and Richard Brook Cathcart, and Roelof D. Schulling., Badescu graduated the Faculty of Mechanical
Engineering at the Polytechnic University of Bucarest and obtained the Ph.D at the Energetics Faculty in the same University. He is reviewer or Associate Editor of four international journals and member of 9 scientific societies., Cathcart is a member of The American Society for Macro Engineering, expert on macroengineering, 6, Macro-engineering: a challenge for the future, google books, cites other studies Further, we introduce instantaneous perturbations to the model atmosphere while practical perturbations would necessarily be introduced over a finite time interval. For example, we cannot change the temperature throughout a hurricane all at once. Instead one might heat or cool the atmosphere, thereby changing the temperature over a period of time. In the future we hope to conduct experiments in which we hold the initial state fixed but calculate the precise pattern and strength of heating needed to control the hurricane. The energy required would be huge, but solar power stations in space in large enough numbers could do the job. Sometime this century, space solar power might provide a small but significant fraction of our energy needs. One way to transmit the energy down to earth is to beam it down as microwaves. Depending on the microwave frequency used, the atmosphere is transparent or absorbing, and so a secondary use of space solar power might be to heat the atmosphere to control the weather. Microwave frequencies of interest, however, do not penetrate rain. Therefore, in one experiment we allowed only changes to temperature outside of the center of the hurricane. The final results are similar, but not surprisingly the initial temperature perturbations outside of the central area arc larger in amplitude. In the future, combined with more realistic simulations, the vector of control parameters that is optimized might be a description of the temporal and spatial patterns of feasible forcing. For example, these parameters might describe additional heating supplied to the atmosphere by a space solar power downlink in the 183 GH/, water vapor spectral region. In this chapter we hope to convince the reader that there is a scientific basis to believe that controlling the weather, even the most powerful storms, may be possible in the future. In spite of various simplifications, our experiments demonstrate the control of simulated hurricanes. To explain our technique we will list describe 4d-VAR. the process used at some of the main weather forecast centers to estimate current atmospheric conditions for the purpose of initiating a computer model weather forecast. We modified this technique to calculate the most efficient perturbation to control our simulated hurricanes. We will see that the structure of these most efficient perturbations is very complex. and it will require enormous investments in infrastructure to be able to calculate and generate them quickly enough.

SPS can modify weather and prevent tornados – justifies economic cost Lyle M. Jenkins, Jenkins Enterprises, Project Engineer, NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, December 2009, ―Development
of Space-Based Solar Power‖, Intech, http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/development-of-space-based-solar-power//jchen The Thunderstorm Solar Power Satellite (TSPS) is a concept for interacting with thunderstorms to prevent formation of tornadoes. TSPS benefits are saving lives and reducing property. These benefits are not as sensitive to the system economics as the commercial solar power satellite and justify government investment in space solar power. The TSPS can develop and demonstrate the technology and operations critical to understanding the cost of space solar power. Consequently, there is no direct competition with fossil fuel based power supplies until SSP technology and operations have been demonstrated. Before weather modification can be safely attempted, the fine structure of thunderstorms must be simulated and related to tornadogenesis.

SBSP solves weather disasters Jenkins, L.M Jenkins, Jenkins Enterprises, March 2011, ―Concepts for demonstration of wireless power transfer for Space-Based
Solar Power‖ http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=5747305&tag=1, Date accessed June 26, 2011 The flight TSPS is expected to result in a greater capability to monitor storms and to react if necessary. Investment in the TSPS would be considerably greater than a groundbased system for interacting with storms. Definition of an integrated approach involving computer simulation, technology development and demonstration will provide a basis for action. These initial research activities will provide a link to the eventual development of Space-Based Solar Power[11]. The potential of SBSP is the provision of clean renewable energy to the world. There are many development routes to this capability. The Department of Defense is currently studying the application of Space-Based Solar Power to battlefield power requirements[1]. Other applications include controlled modification of severe storm systems. energy in tornadoes and to diffuse it over a larger area. The anticipated result is minimum impact on overall weather without the death and destruction from tornadoes. The wireless power transmission demonstration is one of the initial elements of an evolutionary development of SBSP. Advancing and maturing the key technologies and systems concepts for SBSP, a ―pilot plant‖ is a critical step.

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1 ***RESOURCE WARS***

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1 Inherency – Energy Demands
Resource demands will increase by a factor of 11 by 2100 Garretson, a Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) International Fellow in India, previously the Chief of Future Science and
Technology Exploration for Headquarters Air Force, Directorate of Strategic Plans and Programs, 09 (Peter A., ―Sky‘s No Limit: Space-Based Solar Power, The Next Major Step In The Indo-US Strategic Partnership?‖, http://spacejournal.ohio.edu/issue16/papers/OP_SkysNoLimit.pdf) However, the US also faces similarly compelling challenges in the long run. Analysts like Mike Snead point out that by 2100, the US population will have almost doubled (from 307 million to 560 million), and it will require approximately 1.6 times the energy (28 billion Barrels of Oil Equivalent vs 17) required today. Today 85 per cent of US energy comes from non-sustainable sources (oil, coal, and natural gas). To meet the 2100 need, sustainable energy production must expand by a factor of about 11, effectively meaning that today‘s total energy production capacity of nuclear, hydroelectric, geothermal, wind, ground solar electric, and land biomass would have to be added every decade through the end of the century. Snead‘s analysis suggests that even with very optimistic assumptions about expansion (nuclear from 101 GW today to 175 GW by 2100, hydro expanding from 78 GW to the estimated practical maximum of 108 GW, geothermal from 3 GW to 150 GW, adding 390 square km for land and off-shore wind power191 and 153,000 square km for ground solar photovoltaics192 in the southwest desert states, and 1.3 billion tonnes of land biomass), these expanded sustainable energy sources will provide only about 30 per cent of the US‘ needed 1,750 GW of 2100 dispatchable electrical power generation capacity and about 39 per cent of the needed 17 billion BOE of 2100 annual fuels production. Snead argues that the shortfall of some 1.200GW of dispatchable power generation and 11 billion BOE annual fuel requirement can be met using space based solar power.193

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1 Solvency XTN – Resource Wars
SBSP solves for energy conflicts, which sparks great power conflict
NSSO 7 National Security Space Office, 10/10/2007, NSSO Report to the DoD (Space‐Based Solar Power As an Opportunity for Strategic Security, page 14) The SBSP Study Group found that SBSP offers a long‐ term route to alleviate the security challenges of energy scarcity, and a hopeful path to avert possible wars and conflicts. If traditional fossil fuel production of peaks sometime this century as the Department of Energy‘s own Energy Information Agency has predicted, a first order effect would be some type of energy scarcity. If alternatives do not come on‐ line fast enough, then prices and resource tensions will increase with a negative effect on the global economy, possibly even pricing some nations out of the competition for minimum requirements. This could increase the potential for failed states, particularly among the less developed and poor nations. It could also increase the chances for great power conflict. To the extent SBSP is successful in tapping an energy source with tremendous growth potential, it offers an ―alternative in the third dimension‖ to lessen the chance of such conflicts.

Solves resource wars –provides secure source of energy NSSO, National Security Space Office, 10/10/07, ―Space‐ Based Solar Power: As an Opportunity for Strategic Security‖,
http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA473860&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf//jchen FINDING: The SBSP Study Group found that SBSP offers a long‐ term route to alleviate the security challenges of energy scarcity, and a hopeful path to avert possible wars and conflicts. If traditional fossil fuel production of peaks sometime this century as the Department of Energy‘s own Energy Information Agency has predicted, a first order effect would be some type of energy scarcity. If alternatives do not come on‐ line fast enough, then prices and resource tensions will increase with a negative effect on the global economy, possibly even pricing some nations out of the competition for minimum requirements. This could increase the potential for failed states, particularly among the less developed and poor nations. It could also increase the chances for great power conflict. To the extent SBSP is successful in tapping an energy source with tremendous growth potential, it offers an ―alternative in the third dimension‖ to lessen the chance of such conflicts

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SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 ***OIL SCENARIO*** Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 115 .

do space power propo. that the world is at or very near peak oil production‖. ―It is pretty clear. it may already be too late. we areseeingtheevidencealready. With electricity demand and atmosphericpollution growing in a sort of ‗unholy alliance‘. from several regional markets. ―This means that the price will continue to climb in spurts and starts. POWERSPACE So. John Mankins is more forthright: ―If we wait to develop revolutionary new energy sources such as SSP until the existing terrestrial power supply reaches a tipping point. 2010. he says.nents think a point will arise when terrestrial power supplies become so inadequate that SSP is a necessity? According to Nansen. invariably ever higher‖.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Inherency – Peak Oil Peak Oil coming within 10 years Mark Williamson. he expects a ―serious realisation of the problems to sink in within the next 10 to 20 years‖. The time to light the next candle is before the first one goes out – not after you‘re sitting in the dark! Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 116 . ―May the power be with you‖.

Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 117 . and far exceeds the projected 30TW of annual demand in mid century. renewable alternative to current energy consumption Hadhazy. 4/16/09. 10/10/07. ―The New Viability of Space Solar Power: Global Mobilization for a Common Human Endeavor‖. the receiving stations that separate communications data signals from power beams and the computers that tell the satellites where on the ground to aim the beams. a growing number of countries and companies believe an energy revolution could be in the offing. The Scientific American (Adam." says Marty Hoffert.dtic. But driven by the urgency of climate change and the lowering costs of solar technology. Why bother harvesting solar energy directly from space? It is abundant. mostly because they are yet unaware that SSP is indeed a commercially viable option. and it will last for billions of years—orders of magnitude beyond all other known sources combined. If one were to stretch that around the circumference of geostationary orbit. 2002. April 15.30&as_ylo=2000. Philosophy School of Humanities.scientificamerican. Tex. the phased array microwave or laser transmitters. that 1 km‐ wide ring receives over 210 terawatt‐ years of power annually. the physics of photovoltaic cells and microwave generation are well understood. The amount of energy coursing through that one thin band of space in just one year is roughly equivalent to the energy contained in ALL known recoverable oil reserves on Earth (approximately 250 terawatt years). in 1972. SBSP offers a clean. the Internet as we know it today did not exist.google.366 gigawatts of solar energy continuously pouring through every square kilometer of space. This is enough to satisfy the needs and desires of the entire human race on Earth through 2100. ―Space‐ Based Solar Power: As an Opportunity for Strategic Security‖. non-integrated network of SSP satellites could supply Earth with 10 to 30 trillion watts of electrical power. http://www. an emeritus professor of physics at New York University. English Professor School of Humanities. The next stage with regard to SSP requires a demonstration by NASA to ―put all the pieces together‖ by placing a prototype SSP satellite into the exosphere. So far neither industry has shown much interest." says Frederick Best. provide constant. 30 years ago. The reservoir of Space‐ Based Solar Power is almost unimaginably vast. pollution-free power—unlike intermittent wind and cloud cover–sensitive ground-based solar. "[SBSP] is a disruptive technology [in that] it could change the whole energy equation. according to energy experts. writer for Scientific American.pdf//jchen FINDING: The SBSP Study Group found that by providing access to an inexhaustible strategic reservoir of renewable energy. in 1992. A decentralized.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA473860&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc. Nevertheless. and its shine would reach energy-gathering satellites placed into geostationary (fixed) orbits—the realm of many currently deployed communications spacecraft—more than 99 percent of the time. communications satellites existed but were a novelty. SSP will ultimately depend on the willingness of telecommunications and electric utility companies to enter the SSP business together. ―Will Space-Based Solar Power Finally See the Light of Day?‖. In contrast. Martin Schwab. SBSP could. This is not to minimize the difficulties and practicalities of economically developing and utilizing this resource or the tremendous time and effort it would take to do so. Hopefully.com/article. SBSP offers an attractive route to increased energy security and assurance. with room for growth far past the foreseeable needs of the entire human civilization for the next century and beyond. director of the Center for Space Power (CSP) at Texas A&M University in College Station. http://scholar. Director of Humanities and Law Minor. Space‐ Based Solar Power taps directly into the largest known energy resource in the solar system. Date accessed June 25. Sunlight is some five to 10 times stronger in space.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Solvency XTN – Energy Independence (Non-Oil Specific) One set of SSP satellites solve Earth‘s energy needs through 2100 Schwab. In the vicinity of Earth.35 SBSP energy potential is unlimited – provides clean energy based off sun NSSO. published articles such as this will increase awareness among executives in the telecommunications and electric utility industries. renewable energy—available to the human civilization if it can develop the means to effectively capture it. it is important to realize that there is a tremendous reservoir of energy—clean.com/scholar?start=40&q=unilateral+solar+powered+satellites&hl=en&as_sdt=0. The energy output of the fusion‐ powered Sun is billions of times beyond that. 2011 10 years ago. http://www. National Security Space Office. and "you can get [this] power 24/7. testing the solar collectors. and without the emissions of fossil fuels or radioactive waste from nuclear power. Professor of Philosophy. each and every hour there are 1.cfm?id=will-space-based-solar-power-finally-see-the-light-of-day) The challenges of building this satellite (due to be completed in 2016) and introducing so-called space-based solar power (SBSP) remain formidable.

advancement of general space faring. The early pioneers of SBSP technology will be able to assert themselves as global energy leaders for decades to come SBSP energy potential could completely replace oil NSSO. For example. Le. The need for development of polluting coal power plants and drilling for oil would be greatly reduced or eliminated. A future powered by the sun would allow economies and innovation to thrive around the globe.dtic.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Solvency XTN – Oil Dependence SBPS solves coal and oil dependence – fosters international cooperation and reduces resource conflict Tuyet N. the need for alternative sources of energy increases exponentially.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA473860&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc. 2009. economic. An ideal solution would be to develop a method to harvest this cheap solar energy twenty four hours a day.cgi?article=4736&context=etd_theses&seiredir=1#search=""space+based"+"solar+power"+satellite"//jchen Every day the world population increases in number and puts a greater strain on the Earth's finite supply of resources. 2008). As fossil fuels are depleted by today's demanding economies and industries. according to the India Planning Commission. ―Conceptual design of a solar power beaming space system‖. China. economic development. The advantages of Space Based Solar Power are many. Small villages in third world countries such as India would be transformed into thriving communities with higher living standards and significant contributions to the global economy. 10/10/07. Master‘s Thesis. One solution to this looming energy crisis is to look to the stars. Placed in a high orbit where solar energy is intense. as well as the expected environment within the next 25 years. SBSP requires the assembly of an expansive network of solar panels in geosynchronous orbit about the Earth. National Security Space Office. The United States.sjsu. An SBSP network would allow the world to detach itself from the dependence on a finite supply of fossil fuels. One such solution is the concept of Space-Based Solar Power (SBSP). Once collected by the solar panels. Many villages exist with limited power or no power at all. virtually unlimited energy. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 118 . Study of space‐ based solar power (SBSP) indicates that there is enormous potential for energy security. Russia. The enormous potential of this resource demands an examination of mankind‘s ability to successfully capture and utilize this energy within the context of today‘s technology. In order to keep pace with population expansion. and policy realities.000 additional megawatts of power to keep pace with its frantically growing economy and population (Farrar. this endless supply of energy could be beamed down to ground stations all over the world. limitless energy reduces the need for the destruction of the environment for the purpose of meeting increasing energy demands. India must develop new sources of energy to provide power to these villages and bring them in line with the more developed regions of the country.edu/cgi/viewcontent. improved environmental stewardship. http://scholarworks. Solar power is one source of clean. Canada. and the members of the European Union. and overall national security for those nations who construct and possess such a capability. ―Space‐ Based Solar Power: As an Opportunity for Strategic Security‖. are all intrigued by the idea of SBSP for domestic and commercial purposes. The reduction of competition for limited resources would reduce tension between world powers and relieve worries over energy shortages. http://www. SBSP would allow for global expansion and development without inciting fears over an energy supply that cannot keep up with increasing demand.pdf//jchen A single kilometer‐ wide band of geosynchronous earth orbit experiences enough solar flux in one year (approximately 212 terawatt‐ years) to nearly equal the amount of energy contained within all known recoverable conventional oil reserves on Earth today (approximately 250 TW‐ yrs). undeveloped areas in third world countries. India must generate 700. these solar cells would gather the sun's energy almost twenty four hours a day and 365 days a year. This method of harvesting clean. including rural. Japan. San Jose State University.

that the US consumes roughly 25% or the world‘s energy and produces about 25% of the world‘s GDP. Taylor Dinerman is an author and journalist based in New York City.com The late French historian Francois Furet once made the point that ―Of all the passions of modern democracy… the oldest. Energy is naturally at the heart of any nation‘s grand strategy. Space solar power: opposition and obstacles. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 119 . relatively low-cost energy is critical to a democratic capitalist economy.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Impact Module – Hegemony Countries with sustainable energy can sustain heg Taylor Dinerman. spacereview. 7. Reliable. Foes of middle-class capitalist democracy see energy as being the system‘s Achilles heal.‖ Middle-class capitalist democracy is the most successful form of government so far invented by human beings. as our old Soviet friends used to say. It is no accident. and the most powerful is the hatred of the bourgeoisie.. the most constant.

Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 120 . It must be noted that the principal objective of this study differs significantly from that of the multitude of previous studies performed in reference to SBSP in that it focuses on defense rather than utility grid applications. and qualification facility. retire technical risk. fabrication. A secondary objective was to determine possible funding agencies that would entertain a broad NRL proposal to perform research and development for elements of such a system. Date accessed June 25. nuclear. Government to conduct analyses. The principal objective of this Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) SBSP study was to determine if the NRL can offer a unique. http://handle.S. October 23.dtic. and efficient approach to supplying significant power on demand for Navy. and that those alternative solutions (including terrestrial solar. and wind) must be an integral part of the solution.mil/100. 2009. The NRL SBSP Study Group concurs with the conclusions of the numerous previous studies of preceding decades that the SBSP concept is technically feasible but that there remain significant system risks in many areas. ―Space-based Solar Power: Possible Defense Applications and Opportunities for NRL Contributions‖. It has been observed that the implementation of such a system could offer energy security. The Group concurs that SBSP offers one of several possible solutions to the energy independence and dominance of our country and our military. NRL‘s in-house capabilities include an integrated spacecraft design. particularly those that NRL is technically qualified to address. and technological advantages to those who would undertake its development.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Solvency XTN – Heg SBSP provides energy independence – that‘s key to military dominance Naval Research Laboratory. 2011 Space-based solar power (SBSP) is generally considered to be the collection in space of energy from the Sun and its wireless transmission from space for use on Earth. NRL is the corporate research laboratory for the Navy and Marine Corps and conducts a broad program of scientific research.‖ The NSSO report‘s recommendations included statements calling for the U. or other Department of Defense (DoD) applications by employing a space-based solar power system. This study was initiated by and prepared for top NRL management in part as a result of the publication of the National Security Space Office‘s (NSSO) report ―Space-Based Solar Power as an Opportunity for Strategic Security. As the corporate research laboratory for the Navy and Marine Corps with a proven record of technology transition. NRL is ideally suited to assist in this effort. environmental. cost-effective.2/ADA513123. and become an early demonstrator for SBSP. technology and advanced development. and a ground station network. Marine Corps. This report reviews some of the critical technology issues for SBSP and highlights relevant research areas.

SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 ***TECHNOLOGY SPILLOVER*** Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 121 .

and Homeland Security? The historical battle be-tween genetics and evolution in biology? Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 122 . which led to the Mercury andGemini projects. Over time. Eisenhower ―as a result of the Sputnik crisis in confidence. however. disaster relief. billions of dollars were being invested by the DOE and Clean tech venture capitalists in technology that NASA knew was inferior to what they had already proven would work in their laboratories. How many take-offs and land-ings of the space shuttle would Americans watch? So. put it into commercial use. The Canadian government was all ears. one the country was growing increasingly concerned about: renewable energy.S. ln outer space.C. Instead. NASA? Aren't those the guys who invented Tang? Like the CIA.. However. NASA grew increasingly insecure about its role in the twenty-tirst century. there is no atmospheric interference. no major power lines to target that could cut off power to critical functions. When we stop to think about it. NASA turned their attention to a new market. clean. Surprisingly. All because humans are still hardwired to defend their territory even when it is to the detriment of the greater good. but is this example substantially different from continuing to readmit almost 40 percent of the ER pa-tients within 90 days? Or the resistance to sharing information among the CIA. the solution didn‘t come from a venture-backed start up in Silicon Valley. and then sell the power back to the United States! Suddenly the saying ―You can't be a prophet in your own land‖ takes on new significance . Fortified government silos that are unable to cooperate. spacebased solar may be an alarming ex-ample of how silos prevent progress. Department of Energy for over a decade. or huge carbon emissions from coal-fired plants. That‘s right: Free solar power could be reformatted and beamed safely into every home. What could they do? Frustrated and defeated at every turn. When this story breaks. when it comes to free solar energy for every house-hold on the planet. Electricity from satellites in outer space? Sounds like science fiction. Date accessed June 24. NSA. The nation would be more secure because then there would be no centralized utilities. Imagine the impact if every household had something as small as a satellite dish (akin to satellite television) by which we could receive all the power we need-for free. America's love affair with outer space began to cool and NASA began to worry that its work was becoming irrele-vant. NASA was accused by the DOE of ―mission creep‖ and ordered to stick to space exploration. nuclear waste cemeteries.com/books?id=uHfdaFN22TsC&pg=PA142&dq=Space+Based+Solar+Power&hl=en&ei=_s0DTuaRLITGgAeUu2QDg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=10&ved=0CFkQ6AEwCQ#v=onepage&q=Space%20Based%20Solar%20Power &f=false. we may have already solved the problem.the effect silos have on impeding progress is obvious. After pouring millions of taxpayer dollars into inventing space-based solar energy-the permanent solution to unlimited. The atmosphere acts as a shield that protects us. In an effort to restore NASA‘s once-prestigious leadership role in the world. But no one would answer. ln an effort to prove its commercial viability. In their eyes it was achance to perfect space-based solar. NASA was signed into existence in 1958 by President Dwight D. FBI. green energy was far outside of NASA‘s stated mission. Spacebased solar would change everything. Others will accuse the Department of Energy of being inept. it comes from the most unlikely of places: the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). a handful of scientists began a secret program: space-based solar power. All because of silos. which tried to make data available to academia for environmental research. D. http://books. the most efficient place to collect solar energy isn't on the surface of the planet. heated up. 2011 Sometimes. agency can‘t get another one to listen. It was a risky endeavor and one that jeopardized thirty-year careers atthe space agency: The scientists asked for permission to open discus-sions with Canada on a ―joint research project‖ that would allow them to begin testing their discovery and prove its viability. some people may direct their outrage at the NASA scientists. 2010. and safe energy for the entire planet-the United States stands on the verge of allowing other nations to eclipse it. all because one U. Rebecca Costa is a socio biologist who offers a genetic explanation for current events. share information. there are many more examples in which powerful solutions to our biggest challenges never come to light. Still other extremists will aim their sights at President Obama.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Solvency XTN – Key to NASA/NASA Cred (1/2) SPS development key to NASA credibility Costa. They would solve the problem of unlimited clean energy for the entire world once and for all. There may even be individuals who will accuse me of being unpatriotic for going public with the fact that we have the technology to deliver unlimited energy from outer space. a university laboratory. but it would also mean no more utility plants or giant towers with cables strung across the desert. When you think about it. No underground trenches. For example. and Lands at and Earth Observing.google. emerging trends and individual behavior. but this same shield also greatly reduces the strength of solar energy that can be captured. the space agency entered a period of commercial partnerships wherein much of its focus was on communication satellite technologies. or the Department of En-ergy.ples of complex collaboration. and during this time a small group at NASA has also been perfecting a method for capturing energy and delivering it safely back to Earth‘s surface. NASA then went on to develop Sk)/lab and the Space Shuttle-two highly successful exam. For decades NASA has been experimenting with solar cells in outer space in order to power satellites and spacecraft. But as the competition for funding in Washington. But it would all be mis-placed blame and therefore unhelpful. So What‘s Stopping us? It‘s shocking to discover that the scientists who have been working on space-based solar energy at NASA have been banging on the doorof the U. they were unable to break through the silo walls that separated energy from space research. as in the case of health care. GPS navigation. Not only would it help our pocketbooks. and eventually culminated in the Apollo space pro-gram and putting the first man on the moon. so the efficiencies are magnitudes greater than what we achieve by laying solar panels on our roofs. Meanwhile. a handful of researchers went to work on tearing down the silos that were preventing progress. and solve complex sys-temic problems together are the problem-not individual players. and business. ―The Watchman‘s Rattle: Thinking Our Way Out of Extinction‖.S. No matter how many times the scientists at NASA tried.‖ It‘s initial goal was to achieve human space flight. however. But the scientists at NASA were government employees bound by strict confidentiality.

quantifying those benefits for a mission to Saturn. size or payload capability when compared to a nuclear-powered system.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Solvency XTN – Key to NASA/NASA Cred (1/2) SSP key to jumpstart NASA NASA Research Center. This study concluded that significant improvements in solar cell and array technology have definitely advanced the viability of photovoltaic use much farther into the solar system than previously thought possible. It illustrates that substantial benefits of a balanced development approach. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 123 .jsp?arnumber=4922856&tag=1. Date accessed June 25. May 16. it still provides an additional design option for many NASA missions when other issues may be the determining factor. 2011 Despite the many issues associated with the use of photovoltaics to power deep space missions. Clear technology development paths exist to enhance PV applications in support of these missions. 2008.ieee. high-power solar arrays.org/xpls/abs_all. The NASA GRC study has identified some low power missions (200-300 watts) where near-term solar array designs and SOA multi-junction solar cell technology can provide the capability to perform these missions. as well as work on large. it appears that solar arrays may indeed be a viable option for a number of NASA missions. Figure 7 summarizes the benefits of technology development in both the solar cell and array areas. ―Advanced Solar Cell And Array Technology For NASA Deep Space Missions‖ http://ieeexplore. The feasibility of PV use critically depends on the specifics of the mission and the spacecraft concept. Further investigation into LILT effects on solar cells is required. Even though a PV system may not optimize well in terms of mass.

sciencedirect. and overall advancement of the nation Space generated energy is key to energy supply and spin-off tech Mark Hempsell.S.S. As stated previously. the technology and infrastructure required to implement a significant space power capacity will. Given the harsh and unforgiving environment of space and the difficulty of getting out of Earth's gravity well. 2009. and societal benefits. a goal of the U. This paper looks specifically at the role space generated power can play in this regard. The first class is the direct use of energy produced by the systems to directly deal with the undesirable consequences of a developing catastrophe event. a vigorous U. space radiation. and developing food sources are also among the top priorities of an ever more resource-constrained Earth. benefited from work on Project Mercury and subsequent programs. Elsewhere. along with myriad other innovative manufacturing techniques. A correctly targeted capability can be a ―comprehensive insurance cover‖ for many potential threats.S. by serendipity. ―America's Future in Space: Aligning the Civil Space Program with National Needs‖. it has been argued that these requirements are best met by space industrialisation which can be the most effective response to the risks involved and should be the key focus of space infrastructure development [5]. carrying out most of the studies providing scientific and technical services. civil space program will support and expand the capability of the private sector to help meet national needs and facilitate the development of economic opportunities that may be created in space or through the use of space systems. The efforts involved in space exploration over the past half century have benefited society by pushing the limits of current technology and expanding the scientific and technological frontiers. pg. the U. It is noteworthy that generating fresh water. Given that global catastrophes. and grow food in a harsh environment. Beginning in the 1960s. By achieving this goal. create and maintain a continuous space technology pipeline and use the challenges presented by space exploration to create new technologies. senior lecturer in space technology at the University of Bristol. and other health effects. and space science and aerospace research can be applied to a wide array of areas outside the space arena. The civil space program will need to develop a deeper understanding of and countermeasures for bone loss. The second class of impact is consequential. innovations such as chemical milling and high-energy metal forming. The potential role of a space power capability falls into two broad classes. While the human space exploration program should not be justified based on the prospect of advances in these areas. the space industry often requires cutting-edge technology. Recent economic trends favor workers with higher skills.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Solvency XTN – Tech Innovation (1/2) Space innovation is key to technological development and further space exploration National Research Council. provide and store energy in a compact space. Ultimately. Issue 7. if humans are to travel far from Earth they will have to solve many key problems: how to generate water over extended periods of time. 35-36 Another key role that the space economy plays within the general economy is that of being a leading-edge consumer and driver of technology. October 2006. creating efficient energy sources. significantly affect the general capability to address global catastrophe events. http://www. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 124 . Innovative equipment and procedures for providing medical care to astronauts could contribute to improved approaches to high-quality medical care in the United States and around the world. such provisions need to be of a global scale and be as immune as possible to the chain of events. civil space program is to provide technological. enabling some blanket preparations to cover a wide range of possible events. civil space program whose priorities are determined by assessing where it can lead to transformative scientific or technical outcomes will become a leading-edge driver and consumer of these technologies. contributing to the technological. by definition. the working arm of the United States National Academies.com/science/article/pii/S0094576506001755//jchen Previous work has drawn attention both to the complexity of global catastrophe events and to the commonality of the agents involved regardless of the cause [2]. scientific. encompass the whole of the Earth. Volume 59. economic. Acta Astronautica.

.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Solvency XTN – Tech Innovation (2/2) Branch-off technology from SPS solves electricity generation and long term energy independence Space Studies Institute. to address battery depletion or eclipse constraints). etc. high-energy electrolysis to produce hydrogen from water for use in fuel cells in vehicles. or high altitude airships. aircraft. (c) large-scale ships at sea. Certain applications such as power delivery to high-altitude airships or ships at sea requires complementary tracking to ensure power is delivered accurately to these moving objects. last cited December 2006. http://ssi. and support of broader goals for energy security and energy independence. Eric & Marty Hoffert.org/reading/papers/sun-powered-laser-beaming-from-space-forelectricity-on-earth///jchen APPLICATIONS: The research proposed here is targeted to produce a successful system for power generation and transmission systems using high powered lasers. (d) satellites requiring new power sources (i. such as flexible power distribution delivered to: (a) isolated or advanced positions. there are a large number of unique and important applications which can be supported. (b) airplanes. South Orange. ―Sun-Powered Laser Beaming from Space for Electricity on Earth‖.. Versatility Energy. Once such a milestone can be achieved in the development of the core enabling technologies for WPT and SSP.e. or (e) offshore bodies such as islands and man-made platforms. movement of objects from LEO to GEO. Additional capabilities may include support for on-demand high-scale power generation in remote areas. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 125 .

Chief of Advanced Concepts for the National Security Space Office. where he covered science and the environment for more than 20 years. Washington State University. do some experiments on the International Space Station. for example. In Block's terms (1980). American Journal of Sociology.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Solvency XTN – Fed k2 Tech Innovation Military investment in SSP is essential—spurs general tech innovation Michael D. as the company stated — to get the solar station into space. he says. 1990). Paul Damphousse. ―We might. Society-centered theories of the military-industrial complex view the difference between the pre. The same phenomenon could take an emerging but outlandish-sounding technology and push it into the energy mainstream. Col. Lemonick is the senior writer at Climate Central. such as Hurricane Katrina. not a planner. Being able to tap into power beamed directly down from space would clearly have a lot of appeal. the government could rapidly accelerate development of the technology. employment.. According to Marine Corps Lt. No.S.S. a nonpartisan organization whose mission is to communicate climate science to the public. pp. But the military‘s interest in SBSP could give a major boost to the technology. State Building: The Defense Program as Industrial Policy. scientific and technological choices. ―I suspect that NASA will start working on energy and on more advanced technology and less on. with some arguing that Solaren‘s project will be far more expensive than the company estimates. ―rather than having to send up a dedicated test satellite. Such futuristic schemes have understandably generated a great deal of skepticism. 358-404 The University of Chicago Press As the World War II "arsenal of democracy" and the postwar hege. says Damphousse.and postwar state as essentially a quantitative one. Space experts have been debating the issue online. Vol. He has also written four books on astronomical topics and has taught science journalism at Princeton University.‖ says Damphousse. leading to technological innovations and economies of scale. Damphousse noted. ―We have a significant footprint getting energy in. noting the need for frequent convoys of oil tankers. Damphousse supports the idea of coordinated studies by the Pentagon and other agencies — such as NASA and the Department of Energy — that would have a stake in space-based power. but also for areas affected by natural disasters.S. The state planned the development of sectors that were essential to strategic policy and crucial to U. 2 (Sep.S. By undertaking some of the research and being an early customer for SBSP. state beyond a "tipping point" in its relations with private firms. we‘re also interested in weaning ourselves off fossil fuels because climate change could pose national security risks. is that ―we‘re obviously interested in energy security. For those reasons.‖ Such cooperation might appeal to NASA. the demands of World War II and postwar hegemony pushed the U. state has shaped industrial production in strategically important sectors. But this research into aeronautics and electronics provides evidence that the hegemonic U. in part because it could take more than a dozen launches — not just four. even if it were relatively costly. the military is interested in SBSP for two main reasons. the U. he said.‖ But there would also be a tactical advantage to space-based solar. 90 The Rise of the Pentagon and U. Government investment in aeronautics has empirically enhanced private industry Gregory Hooks.S. Historians of aviation agree that the government‘s decision to back air mail played a major role in developing the aircraft industry. and air support — all of which is expensive and dangerous. and balance of trade4 Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 126 . 96. it uses diesel generators to supply forward bases with power. he was a senior writer at Time magazine. And it‘s not just useful for the battlefield. state established a qualitatively new relationship with capitalist firms.monic power. Prior to joining Climate Central. which is already up there and generating 110 kilowatts of power from its own solar cells. the government can rapidly accelerate development of the technology. but it remained a consumer. The first.‖ he says. the soldiers to protect them.‘‖ says Mankins. ‗Let‘s get to the moon by 2018. and By being an early customer. The postwar state purchased a large quantity of weapons. When the military is operating in remote regions of countries like Iraq or Afghanistan.

Emcore Photovoltaics. Johnson Space Center. 2008.ieee. the way will be opened for further exploration and development of space Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 127 . 33%) and lower mass solar cell technologies are in the development phase at Emcore Photovoltaics to enable the next class of high-power satellites and spacecrafts. It illustrates that substantial benefits of a balanced development approach. 2008. Navid S.intechopen. an average of more than 20 telecommunication satellites have been ordered annually in the 2003 . Once the potential for clean renewable energy from space is demonstrated. The principal payoff is projected to be the demonstration of space solar power technology and operations.ple. Fatemi. May 16. This study concluded that significant improvements in solar cell and array technology have definitely advanced the viability of photovoltaic use much farther into the solar system than previously thought possible. SSP lays the technological foundation for development of other satellites Fatemi. This can lead to investment by the commercial energy organizations when their technical and operational risk is reduced. Many science. For exam. The NASA GRC study has identified some low power missions (200-300 watts) where near-term solar array designs and SOA multi-junction solar cell technology can provide the capability to perform these missions. Clear technology development paths exist to enhance PV applications in support of these missions.ieee. http://ieeexplore. http://www. Jenkins Enterprises. ―Satellite market trends and the enabling role of multi-junction space solar cells‖. ―Advanced Solar Cell And Array Technology For NASA Deep Space Missions‖ http://ieeexplore. By defining options and benefits.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Solvency XTN – k2 Other Space Exploration (1/2) SSP technology key to all future NASA missions NASA Research Center. May 16. This rather healthy trend is projected to continue for at least the next several years. Even though a PV system may not optimize well in terms of mass. Intech. It promises early benefits by saving lives and reduce property damage. earth observation and interplanetary exploration missions have also been planned and executed in the same time frame. size or payload capability when compared to a nuclear-powered system. quantifying those benefits for a mission to Saturn. it appears that solar arrays may indeed be a viable option for a number of NASA missions. 2011 Despite the many issues associated with the use of photovoltaics to power deep space missions. Project Engineer. high-power solar arrays. SBSP may alert decision-makers to the potential of space operations as more than a tool to monitor the course of global change. The feasibility of PV use critically depends on the specifics of the mission and the spacecraft concept.org/xpls/abs_all. ―Development of Space-Based Solar Power‖. SPS opens access to future clean energy operations and space development Lyle M.org/xpls/abs_all. as well as work on large.junction solar cells have been the enabling technology behind most of these satellites. Date accessed June 25. Date accessed June 25. The very high-efficiency multi. Jenkins.. NASA Lyndon B. it still provides an additional design option for many NASA missions when other issues may be the determining factor. December 2009.com/articles/show/title/development-of-space-based-solar-power//jchen Space-based geoengineering concepts for environmental countermeasures are a potential supplement to earth-based actions. The first 4 months of 2008 have already seen 9 orders. Even higher efficiency (Le. Further investigation into LILT effects on solar cells is required. Figure 7 summarizes the benefits of technology development in both the solar cell and array areas.jsp?arnumber=4922856&tag=1.jsp?arnumber=4922696&tag=1. Within the envelope of environmental protection is the preventing tornadoes concept. 2011 The space satellite industry has enjoyed a period of relative stability and prosperity since 2003.2007 time period.

or wireless cooperative formations. not only because of the access which will be discussed in the section on infrastructure. and perhaps even form its components. 10/10/07.dtic. The Solar Electric Transfer Vehicles (SETV) needed to lift the Space Solar Power Satellites out of low‐ earth orbit. It cannot at present move large amounts of mass into Earth orbit. and very limited access to space. commerce and defense. the United States has very limited capabilities to build large structures. http://www.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Solvency XTN – k2 Other Space Exploration (2/2) Breakthroughs in SBSP tech are key to all other future space exploration ventures NSSO.pdf//jchen FINDING: The SBSP Study Group found that retirement of the SBSP technical challenges begets other significant strategic benefits for exploration. ―Space‐ Based Solar Power: As an Opportunity for Strategic Security‖. would completely revolutionize our ability to move large payloads within the Earth‐ Moon system. A truly developed Space‐ Based Solar Power infrastructure would open up entirely new exploration and commercial possibilities. high‐ definition television and radio. space‐ to‐ space power utilities. such as power platforms that provide services to multiple payloads. • The expertise gained in developing large structures for space based solar power could allow entirely new technologies for applications such as image and real‐ time surface and airborne object tracking services. autonomous self‐ constructing structures. and mobile. de‐ orbit of space debris. It has very limited in‐ space maneuver and operational capability. It would enable entirely new architectures. very large apertures or very high power systems in orbit. • At present. SBSP development would advance the state of the art in all of the above competencies. It has no capability for beamed power or propulsion. • The technology to beam power over long distances could lower application satellite weights and expand the envelope for Earth‐ and space‐ based power beaming applications. Robert Forward‘s StarWisp Concept. which would enable concepts as diverse as comet / asteroid protection systems. National Security Space Office.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA473860&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 128 . and beamed propulsion possibilities including far‐ term concepts as a true interstellar probe such as Dr. as well as high bandwidth telecommunications. that in‐ and‐ of‐ themselves may justify a national program. broadcast services. The United States correspondingly has extremely limited capabilities for in‐ space manufacturing and construction or in‐ situ space resource utilization. but because of the power available on orbit.

Alternatively. Michael Mook. And Frederick Tasker Jill Dahlburg And Michael N. Paul Jaffe. Lovelette Robert Bartolo And Keith Williams Mark Dorsey Donald Gubser Philip Jenkins. Analysis by Sievenpiper [4] suggests that microwave satellite to satellite power transmission is not appropriate when distances are greater than 20 km or when used as a means to save weight with a single-use system. augmenting the amount of energy that they harvest from Sun exposure alone. Scott Messenger. Kwok Cheung. and no easy way to find its power transmission satellite. Scott Messenger. as clusters of satellites could be reconfigured while sharing power.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Solvency XTN – k2 Other Satellites (Efficiency) SBSP transmission to satellites maximizes energy efficiency and increases payload Naval Research Laboratory. Glen Henshaw. et. This work has been promoted by DARPA through the System F6 program for fractionated spacecraft [3]. Robert Skalitzky. ―Space-Based Solar Power: Possible Defense Applications and Opportunities‖. Lovelette Robert Bartolo And Keith Williams Mark Dorsey Donald Gubser Philip Jenkins. Glen Henshaw. Greater flexibility is afforded. allowing smaller rectenna arrays to substitute for much larger and more massive solar array assemblies on the receiving vehicles. W. Solar power transmission between satellites is feasible – increases power collection and payload amount Naval Research Laboratory. et. This becomes problematic if the subsatellite has neither batteries nor solar arrays. Power could be nearly continuous from a constellation of GEO SBSP satellites. One particular concern is how subsatellites would deal with ―safe-hold‖ mode. the fallback position a satellite defaults to if a problem is detected. And Robert Walters Nathan Smith Wayne Boncyk Michael Brown David Huber//jchen 2. Michael Osborn. power from SBSP could instead be converted to light and beamed directly onto solar array assemblies on existing spacecraft. Matthew Long. ―Space-Based Solar Power: Possible Defense Applications and Opportunities‖. High-energy Space Environment Branch. James Armstrong. due to RF inefficiencies and increased complexity.7 Space Solar Power to Non-Terrestrial Targets SBSP. And Robert Walters Nathan Smith Wayne Boncyk Michael Brown David Huber//jchen 2. John Pasour.7. A system implementer would be better off simply using more solar cells on one satellite. and it could support multiple payloads during the course of its lifetime.. Possible benefits of satellite-to-satellite power transmission include that the solar power collection resource could be launched once. Kwok Cheung. but many of the same limitations still apply. And Frederick Tasker Jill Dahlburg And Michael N. Steven Huynh. 10/23/09.. Lasers have been proposed for power transmission as well. transmitted as RF energy from a solar power satellite in GEO. Matthew Long. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 129 . Keith Akins. 10/23/09. Robert Skalitzky. Neil Johnson.1 Satellite-to-Satellite Power Transmission It has been suggested that there may be an advantage to developing space systems that are a group of individual free-flying modules broken down by function. Restrictions on the downlink power density driven by bio-exposure constraints at the Earth‘s surface would not necessarily apply to power beamed to other spacecraft. al. al. Neil Johnson. Keith Akins. in which the satellite typically points to the Sun to charge its batteries with its solar arrays. James Armstrong. can be used to supplement or even supplant the more traditional sources of electric power on other satellites or unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Michael Mook. W. Michael Osborn. High-energy Space Environment Branch. Paul Jaffe. Steven Huynh. which could minimize the disruption in operations of LEO vehicles or UAVs from lack of insolation during local night. providing potentially significant augmentation of the capabilities of those existing systems. John Pasour.

Over the last several decades. Specifically. wealth. The nation needs to capitalize on these opportunities.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA473860&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc. which stated: The United States must maintain its preeminence in aerospace research and innovation to be the global aerospace leader in the 21st century. the U. aerospace sector has been living off the research investments made primarily for defense during the Cold War…Government policies and investments in long‐ term research have not kept pace with the changing world.pdf//jchen FINDING: The SBSP Study Group found that SBSP directly addresses the concerns of the Presidential Aerospace Commission which called on the US to become a true spacefaring civilization and to pay closer attention to our aerospace technical and industrial base. our ―national jewel‖ which has enhanced our security. National Security Space Office. 10/10/07.dtic. and the federal government needs to lead the effort. Our nation does not have bold national aerospace technology goals to focus and sustain federal research and related infrastructure investments. This can only be achieved through proactive government policies and sustained public investments in long‐ term research and RDT&E infrastructure that will result in new breakthrough aerospace capabilities.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Solvency XTN – Fed k2 Tech Innovation Federal support of space tech development like SPS forges the path for future breakthroughs and aerospace dominance NSSO. An SBSP program as outlined in this report is remarkably consonant with the findings of this commission. establish national aerospace technology demonstration goals. ―Space‐ Based Solar Power: As an Opportunity for Strategic Security‖. it needs to invest in long‐ term enabling research and related RDT&E infrastructure. and create an environment that fosters innovation and provide the incentives necessary to encourage risk taking and rapid introduction of new products and services Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 130 . http://www. and lifestyle. travel.S.

The size of system that could deflect a NEO sufficiently to avoid collision with the Earth is also uncertain and is strongly dependent upon the assumptions made on size. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 131 . Volcanoes across the globe would begin to rumble and spew. Harrison et al. so survivors would have no idea what was happening else where or where to turn. It would hardly matter. a cloud of blackness would cover the planet. while they are comparatively rare compared to calderia volcanoes as a natural initiator of global catastrophes. Asteroid collision causes extinction – volcanoes. A small asteroid with centuries until the potential impact may be deflected sufficiently by a single nuclear device (e. As one commentator has put it. over an area stretching from Denver to Detroit and encompassing what had once been Chicago. The size of asteroid required to create a global catastrophe is a matter of some debate. the first inkling of catastrophe would be a flash of blinding light-the brightest ever seen by human yes-followed an instant to a minute or two later by an apocalyptic sight of unimaginable grandeur: a roiling wall of darkness reaching high into the heavens. Its approach would be eerily silent since it would be moving far beyond the speed of sound.sciencedirect. To deflect an iron asteroid using a pulsed laser was estimated to need peak powers of 200 GW. As anyone who has used such a pump knows. Within minutes.000 Kelvin. Issue 7. 2003. For those outside the zone of immediate devastation. houses. sweeping everything before it.g. and nearly every living thing would be dead.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Impact Module – Asteroids SPS solves asteroid collisions – develops infrastructure and supplies energy needed for deflection Mark Hempsell. earth. [24]. The massive disturbances to the ionosphere. No one can do more than guess what the associated damage would be. orbit and timescale. However. since Earth‘s ability to support life would be universally diminished. who chanced to look in the right direction would see a bewildering veil of turmoil followed by instantaneous oblivion. the Twin Cities-the whole city of the Midwest. would knock out communication systems everywhere. as in a bicycle pump. St. and tsunamis Bill Bryson. or ten times the surface temperature of the Sun. People up to a thousand miles away would be knocked off their feet and sliced or clobbered by a blizzard of flying projectiles. This has been the subject of considerable recent literature and while many different approaches have been proposed all of them require a considerably greater space infrastructure than currently available. factories. but the blast would blow out a thousand cubic kilometers of rock. Whereas Rigby et al. cars-would crinkle and vanish like cellophane in a flame. Kansas City. which is probably just about possible with the current space infrastructure. There have been proposals for large orbital systems to deflect asteroids for example that outlined by Campbell et al. where the people of Manson had a moment before been going about their business. One second after entering the atmosphere. are of special interest as sufficient space capability would enable deflection of destruction of the incoming object—thus fully preventing the catastrophe. compressed air grows swiftly hot. Acta Astronautica. One suggested location was a Sun Earth Lagrange point.com/science/article/pii/S0094576506001755//jchen Large near-Earth object impacts. A short history of nearly everything An asteroid or comet traveling at cosmic velocities would enter the Earth‘s atmosphere at such a speed that the air beneath it couldn‘t get out of the way and would be compressed. written several science books. The meteorite itself would vaporize instantly. and the temperature below it would rise to some 60. Within an hour. say. and burning rock and other debris would be pelting down everywhere. filling an entire field of view and traveling at thousands of miles an hour. It has been estimated that at least a billion and half people would be dead by the end of the first day. setting much of the planet ablaze. Tsunamis would rise up and head devastatingly for distant shores. BROADWAY BOOKS. a large comet with only a year or two warning would require systems well beyond current capability. [21] suggest that 1 km size object is just below a threshold where global effects could cause a catastrophe level event. October 2006. Radiating outward at almost the speed of light would be the initial shock wave. Every living thing within 150 miles that hadn‘t been killed by the heat of entry would now be killed by the blast. Anyone in a tall building in Omaha or Des Moines. Louis. This is the output of two reference SPS satellites giving a good indication of the size of system required for this technique. So a system capable of handling a 1 km object would be the minimum required to deal with potential global catastrophe level events. and superheated gases. http://www. the meteorite would slam into the Earth‘s surface. In this instant of its arrival in our atmosphere everything in the meteors-people. The impact would almost certainly set off a chain of devastating earthquakes. But that‘s just the initial shockwave. Volume 59. earthquakes. other than that it would be brisk and global. Beyond a thousand miles the devastation from the blast would gradually diminish. Journalist for The Times. in short-nearly every standing thing would be flattened or on fire. senior lecturer in space technology at the University of Bristol. [23]). which would correspond to a continuous power supply requirement in the order of 20 GW. fleeing would very little affected by any plausible relocation effort. [22] argue a 1 km object could have caused the Dark Ages in the 6th Century AD.

‖41In 1992. the consequences of such a collision are so catastrophic that it is prudent to assess the nature of the threat and prepare to deal with it. there should be a way to add a third and fourth component/justification to proposed space platforms. http://scholar. Director of Humanities and Law Minor. MIT. In the U.42 Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 132 . The telescope/laser fixtures could be used to detect and deflect NEOs that are about 50 meters across (―city killers‖) and to detect the larger kilometer wide ―Earth killers‖ that would require more persuasive measures. ―Although the annual probability of Earth being struck by a large NEO is extremely small. Congress requested Morrison to study ways to discover Earth crossing orbits of NEOs before they hit Earth. Air Force.S. The needed add-ons might be telescopes and lasers for the primary use of defending Earth from the many small Earth crossing orbits of asteroids and comets collectively referred to as Near Earth Objects (NEOs). Date accessed June 25. David Morrison of the NASA Ames Research Center. He developed the idea of an international Spaceguard Survey of ground-based telescopes to detect and catalogue all asteroids larger than 1 kilometer within the next 25 years.30&as_ylo=2000. The University of Arizona and Livermore National Laboratories. ―The New Viability of Space Solar Power: Global Mobilization for a Common Human Endeavor‖.S. Morrison says. the U. Since it is possible. 2011 Economic considerations play a large role in justifying launch costs. English Professor School of Humanities. April 15.com/scholar?start=40&q=unilateral+solar+powered+satellites&hl=en&as_sdt=0. Martin Schwab. whether by government or by industry. 2002.google. the Spaceguard survey is being funded at $1 million a year under the auspices of NASA. JPL. according to Glaser to achieve a dual purpose by placing SSP collectors on existing communications satellites. This approach would be in keeping with the philosophy established by Dr.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Solvency XTN – Asteroids SSP dual use flexibility solves asteroids Schwab.. Philosophy School of Humanities. Professor of Philosophy.

that one state is the only state which qualifies as a superpower.com/blogs/view/1043//jc So. or if there was some kind of asteroid that wiped out half the country. relative power shifts slowly. provided that that event did not also drag down China or Japan. another superpower. and so forth – and we have another country emerging where it is roughly comparable to the United States in terms of its military and economic capacity. The only way. Japan. that you could have a situation where we go from the U. and in terms of the kinds of political and military commitments that it has throughout the world – the only way I see this happening would be if the United States. then you would have the end of the United States as the sole superpower. when we ask: is the U. the sole superpower? To me. and is about the same size in military capacity terms as the rest of the world. then there is not going to be another state which is emerging as a peer rival. If we had a civil war. or whoever else. and he is recently the author of the book ―World out of Balance: International Relations and the Challenge of American Primacy.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Impact XTN – Hegemony Asteroids destroy hegemony Stephen Brooks. in my view. somehow.planetdebate. transcribed by Vinay Pai.‖ and he is an expert on international security and globalization. If you have one state which is bigger than the next several states combined economically.S. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 133 . Associate Professor of Government at Dartmouth College. or a peer of the United States. and there being other important countries out there – which are China. and there is no other state which is a superpower – and when the gap is that big. http://www. ―Stephen Brooks on Hegemony‖. was split in half. the answer is obvious.S. for a very long time. lecture @ DDI 7/21/ 2010. being from the sole superpower. And the simple reason why is that within international relations.

SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Impact XTN – Solves Disasters (Generic) SPS spin-off technology solves multiple other global catastrophes Mark Hempsell. Volume 59. October 2006. It does. give an indication of the possibilities that would become available if an SPS capability on the scale of the NASA reference system were to be implemented. The conclusion can be drawn that. if mankind can generate power from space on an economic basis then other capabilities and options to address global catastrophe events would be viable. Issue 7. Table 2 summarises the discussion in the paper and shows that all the systems considered can be constructed from elements that match the reference SPS element size. http://www. senior lecturer in space technology at the University of Bristol. Acta Astronautica. The overall system size (and by inference the supporting infrastructure capability) are also generally comparable with the reference SPS system of 60 SPS with the exception of systems designed to address global warming which need to be on a considerably larger scale Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 134 . It follows that the individual elements of the supporting infrastructure would also be adequate for their construction.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0094576506001755//jchen 4. however. by serendipity. Conclusions The assessment of the various options is preliminary and not comprehensive.

the ―standard run‖ was a resource depletion collapse. The ballistic coefficient ensures heat loads at atmosphere entry do not melt the ingot and that the final impact speed with the ground is 100 m/s slow enough to ensure the ingot stays in one piece for salvage.sciencedirect. To produce hundreds of Mega-tonnes of iron and tens of Mega-tonnes of aluminium an operation would require 100 GW on a continuous basis. iron and possibly nickel. Thus the transport element is not a significant extra burden. senior lecturer in space technology at the University of Bristol. however. October 2006. Issue 7. The material would be sent to Earth using a electromagnetic accelerator the energy required to do this is between 6% for steel and 1% for aluminium of the energy required to mine and refine the metal. Of course one of the first major users of lunar materials would be the SPS systems itself as highlighted by O‘Neil [37]. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 135 . Acta Astronautica. so it is likely that the technology for lunar metal extraction would be part of the SPS legacy and not require separate development. The argument made was not that there was a shortage of these metals but that the energy used in refining metals from their ores is one of the highest contributors to humanity's energy consumption. The overall concept is shown in Fig. Bond and Varvill's solution to the final return to Earth was to shape the ingots into an aerodynamic disk shown in Fig. 2. http://www. 2. In the later high profile work by Meadows et al. Bond and Varvill [36] have explored a concept for mining metal on the Moon on a scale that would meet the world's demand for most common metals aluminium. Bond and Varvill assumed this would be provided by SPSs in L4 or L5 Lagrange points—20 reference SPSs would be required to supply this—allowing continuous mining and refining operations.com/science/article/pii/S0094576506001755//jchen In current times there is a greater concentration on pollution induced problems such as global warming. Each disk is 80 m diameter and 8 m deep with a mass of 3000 tonnes. Volume 59.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Impact Module – Asteroid Mining Solves resource depletion – makes asteroid mining viable by providing energy and technology Mark Hempsell. silicon titanium. The original global dynamic modelling work of Forrester [34] demonstrated that with only very small changes in the modelling parameters collapse due to pollution effects could be interchanged with collapse due to resource depletion. Therefore an extraterrestrial metal supply would have a considerable impact on the Earth's total energy requirements. [35]. earlier warnings of anthropogenic collapse tended to highlight rates of resource depletion.

Barnes is an expert on public healthcare law. They are inherently capable of implementing some processes. Many articles have been written highlighting this concern. resulting in much higher signal to noise ratio (SNR). Neil Johnson.4 Bistatic Radar Illuminator Bistatic radar systems are generally well-suited to several specific applications where they outperform conventional monostatic radars. Any SBSP satellite delivering RF energy to the surface can be used in a ―hitchhiker‖ configuration. GEO communication satellites. PATRIOT and Navy Theater Wide (NTW). It is also possible that other programs within BMDO may wish to pick this program up as a future funded effort. Paul Jaffe. High-energy Space Environment Branch. http://www. especially in real-world tactical scenarios. providing orders of magnitude higher illumination of the surface.net/selections/abs2002-2/mdaabs022. where the same RF downlink used to provide power to ground users can also be used as a coherent source of that RF energy for bistatic radar implementations. Kwok Cheung. Initially. John Pasour. attorney and advocate. small interceptors which might be packaged on a booster. it is envisioned that the commercialization aspect of this program will predominantly be limited to future "commercialized" sales of Ballistic Missile Defense Systems. some postulating that the National Missile Defense system could be defeated by several unclassified countermeasures. Matthew Long. Michael Osborn. The primary function of these interceptors would be to actively destroy countermeasures and re-entry vehicles (RV's). 12/16/02. SBSP bistatic systems will be able to operate at much higher effective isotropic radiated power (EIRP) than other spaceborne sources. And Frederick Tasker Jill Dahlburg And Michael N.tuning. There are a number of potential systems that would benefit from this capability including the National Missile Defense (NMD) System. And Robert Walters Nathan Smith Wayne Boncyk Michael Brown David Huber//jchen 2. ―High Power Microwave Bistatic Radar Concept for Ballistic Missile Defense‖. Steven Huynh. One of these concepts uses MMKV's to deploy HPM emitters to damage the electronics of jammers. ―Space-Based Solar Power: Possible Defense Applications and Opportunities‖. and stealth radar technologies. et. The primary criticism of most missile defense systems has been their vulnerability to potential countermeasures. SMDC's Joint Center for Technology Integration and SMDC's Sensors Directorate. Robert Skalitzky. and GPS). Keith Akins. These potential future customers include BMDO's Project Hercules. James Armstrong. <<missile defense good>> Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 136 . Preliminary review demonstrates that bistatic angles greater than 120ø provide substantially larger radar cross-section for RV's than backscattering and yields features that distinguish an RV from a decoy. 10/23/09. retro-directive radar jammers. Scott Messenger.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Impact Module – Missile Defense SBSP powered bistatic radar is 100 times more effective than traditional radar systems Naval Research Laboratory. al. Current missile defense is useless – addition of bistatic radar eliminates vulnerabilities Mark Barnes. The basic MMKV concept is to use multiple. SBSP satellites used as RF sources for bistatic radar applications possess advantages over and above those afforded by more traditional satellites (e. Michael Mook.. notably clutter. providing an ―on-demand‖ capability as an adjunct to the SBSP‘s primary power transmission mission.. bistatic radars are of particular value in countering anti-radiation missile (ARM) threats. THAAD. BMDO's Advanced Technology. that are impossible for monostatic radars [2]. Notably. He was Director of Policy for the New York State Department. Although there is a potential to apply a similar approach to geophysical exploration. Lovelette Robert Bartolo And Keith Williams Mark Dorsey Donald Gubser Philip Jenkins. Instead of relying on coincidental illumination from more traditional spaceborne sources. The proposed concept expands the potential functions of MMKV deployed HPM devices to include the innovative use of bistatic radar signature collection for object discrimination.g. which allows detection of targets with much lower radar cross sections and minimizes an already lower threat from surface jammers. The proposed concept uses the energy emitted by the HPM devices as transmitters and a receiver to form a bistatic radar. W. Glen Henshaw. SBSP RF illumination can be directed to specific tactical areas of interest.dodsbir.htm//jchen Abstract: The project proposes to evaluate the feasibility of enhancing the technology level of the Multiple Miniature Kill Vehicles (MMKV's) that uses High Power Microwave (HPM) devices with a receiver system to collect bistatic radar data for object discrimination.

A novel algorithm was developed that constructs real space target location ‗probability density map‘ from 'Range .i-ai.com/view. A vast amount of experimental data was collected during the field test of MIMO radar in both monostatic and bistatic radar operation modes Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 137 . Intelligent Automaton.. This technology can construct maps separately for slow-moving and fast-moving targets. The technology of statistical MIMO radar was proven using both simulations and field tests. We also experimentally confirmed the capability of independent transceivers to synchronize to 100-ns accuracy using the rubidium clocks and 1-s tic from GPS. http://www. ―High-Frequency MIMO Radar Transceiver for Ballistic Missile Defense‖. 2008.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Solvency XTN – Bistatic Radar Multiple input radar system key to boost missile defense IAI.Doppler shift' power spectra obtained by multiple transceivers working in MIMO operational mode. The capabilities of the digital radar transceiver card was further enhanced by adding means to generate different signal waveforms of arbitrary pulse length that conform to FCC bandwidth allowance. Inc.asp?aid=365//jchen I AI has developed a high-frequency (HF) multiple input multiple output (MIMO) radar system based on digital radar transceivers for ballistic missile defense.

but only if the program is restructured to make it at once more ambitious in terms of future capability and less ambitious in terms of near-term operations.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Solvency XTN – Kickass Radar SPS solves for Kickass Radar for the military Taylor Dinerman. thespacereview. Such large arrays would make the SR spacecraft easy targets for enemy antisatellite weapons and would also produce so much drag while in low Earth orbit (LEO) that their lifespan would be shorter—perhaps much shorter—than current-generation reconnaissance satellites. The first steps in such a program would be to begin work on an experiment to prove that power transmission in space via laser is possible. taking this one step beyond to encompass power should be within the state of the art. Space Radar could do so. In the long term. such as the recently-launched German SAR-Lupe or the NRO‘s Lacrosse system. on a bipartisan basis. such as the Predator and Global Hawk. The bulk of the development work on the radars themselves can be left until later in the program. The power management and thermal control needs of a spacecraft that will carry a human crew to Mars may not be all that different from those of an SPS or an SR satellite. nor existing satellite programs can possibly fill. such satellite would be difficult to detect and track. then. by around 2010. 7. very large solar arrays would be needed. say. does such a system need to rely 100% on its own power? If solar power satellites (SPS) were available in geosynchronous orbit and could beam electricity to the SR satellites in LEO. At the same time the US Defense Department and NASA could begin joint work on a new generation of high-capacity power systems for future spacecraft. Using power from an SPS. integrated into the spacecraft‘s bus. It takes a lot of energy to transmit radar beams powerful enough to track a moving target on Earth from space. Even if these were to use the new Boeing solar cells that. has been extremely reluctant to fund this program. The demise of the E-10 program that had been intended to replace the Air Force‘s JSTARS and AWACS surveillance aircraft has left a hole in future US situational awareness capabilities that neither unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). is power. Why. but they would be a step in the right direction. the arrays would still be much bigger than anything on any operational satellite. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 138 . this might allow the radar satellites to have as much power as their power control systems and heat radiators could handle. What is called the Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) is what makes SR so much better than other space radar systems. Solar Power satellites and space radar. the US could profitably study less ambitious space radar programs such as Canada‘s Radarsat. such a satellite would be able to liberally use its ion engines to change its orbit. Meanwhile. according to the company. the power problem seems to be the main reason that the US Congress.. Launching one or two modest technology development satellites over the next five or ten years would be a helpful way to set the stage for a new SR program. Power could be transmitted by a tightly focused laser or microwave beam to one or two receptors. While many of the details are classified. formerly known as Space Based Radar. are more than 30% efficient. In order to achieve the power levels needed for an effective GMTI system using current technology. the GMTI radar could be replaced and supplemented by an Air Moving Target Indicator (AMTI). These engines would never be powerful enough to make the kind of quick responsive maneuvers that some space operations commanders would like to see in future LEO-based spacecraft. which would need even more power. Taylor Dinerman is an author and journalist based in New York City. If the radar antenna were integrated into the skin of the satellite the way it is on a B-2 bomber.com One of the great showstoppers for the Space Radar (SR) program. Already lasers are being used for communications in civil and military applications.

SPS is a prerequisite to colonization David Schrunk. ―Space solar power technologically ready‖. the potential emergence of new space industries such as space tourism and manufacturing in space depend on advances in space power systems just as much as they do on progress in space transportation. More ambitious missions will never be realized without new. or equivalently. AD Astra. is 10^42 operations per second. about 10^31 potential human lives per second. google books Solar power satellites are space-based power supply system arrays of solar panels that convert sunlight (or photons from other sources such as lasers) into power and then beam that power by microwave (or laser beam) to a distant site. Space solar power is an option that can meet all of these needs. While this estimate is conservative in that it assumes only computational mechanisms whose implementation has been at least outlined in the literature. http://www.[4] Not much more seems to be needed to simulate the relevant parts of the environment in sufficient detail to enable the simulated minds to have experiences indistinguishable from typical current human experiences. Aerospace Engineer. ‘04. professor of philosophy at Yale University. Spring 2008. and settlement. and less-expensive sources of energy. Then the Virgo Supercluster could contain 10^23 biological humans.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Impact Module – Colonization Only SPS can meet the energy demands of space colonization NSS. Large orbiting solar power satellites can then provide continous power in the 100-200 (or more) megawatt range.html As a rough approximation.) and assembled by means of autonomous or tele-operated robotic devices. One estimate of the computing power extractable from a star and with an associated planet-sized computational structure. it is useful to have an even more conservative estimate that does not assume a nonbiological instantiation of the potential persons. let us say the Virgo Supercluster contains 10^13 stars. and affordable and abundant energy for use in space.nss. Every second we delay space colonization one hundred trillion people die Nick Bostrom.[3] A typical estimate of the human brain‘s processing power is roughly 10^17 operations per second or less. rockets. it follows that the potential for approximately 10^38 human lives is lost every century that colonization of our local supercluster is delayed.org/adastra/AdAstra-SBSP-2008. National Space Society.com/astronomical/waste.pdf At the same time. current space missions are narrowly constrained by a lack of energy for launch and use in space. reliable. using advanced molecular nanotechnology[2]. assuming a biological implementation of all persons. ―Astronomical Waste: The Opportunity Cost of Delayed Technological Development. The separate components of the solar power satellites will then be launched by mass driver from the Moon to their destination in space. Even with the most conservative estimate. They will be maneuvered into their final orbit (by tethers. clean energy for the climate. Considerable literature has been written about solar power satellites. Suppose that about 10^10 biological humans could be sustained around an average star. The Moon: resources. the potential for one hundred trillion potential human beings is lost for every second of postponement of colonization of our supercluster Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 139 .‖ http://www.[5] Given these estimates. The lunar industrial base will be used to build the solar panels and other structural components of solar pwer satellites. future development. such as a receiving station on Earth or Mars. they promise to deliver large amounts of electric power to distant sites at low cost. 8. New energy options are needed: sustainable energy for society. This corresponds to a loss of potential equal to about 10^14 potential human lives per second of delayed colonization. What matters for present purposes is not the exact numbers but the fact that they are huge.nickbostrom. etc. Even more. works at the Kepler Space Institute.for example for the global exploration and development of planets such as Mars.

and developing the technologies and infrastructure which can reduce costs. it would reduce the risks that really matter to the humans species—risks related to nuclear proliferation as enrichment technology starts to spread. Paul J Werbos. Risky as it would be. a rational global space policy would maximize the probability that we achieve that hope. I still agree with that claim. even though it may add a risk of a 5-year delay. We have a very good chance of getting to $200/pound-LEO in 5–10 years. and risks related to pollution and the less-than-infinite world supply of coal. But we also face a very real risk of losing that option forever if we do not give it greater priority. starting form John F. costeffective way which makes a net contribution to earth. However. Earth-launched energy from space (ES) is the leading hope for now for providing the necessary level of benefits from space to earth. the success of that longer term effort will depend on developing a more direct market for lunar products and materials. like Kennedy's.sciencedirect. However. National Science Foundation. the possibility may be there. and learn to overcome the conflicts and rivalries which have prevented progress in the past. Our probability of success will be greater if we try to reach sustainability as soon as possible. at a marginal cost of 10 cents/kwh or less. sooner or later. Human development of ES and other activities in earth orbit. Directorate for Engineering. In the past.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Solvency XTN – Colonization SBSP key to colonization Werbos. October 2009. in the mid-term future. NASA's goal of developing the moon [1] is a very important part of the human space program.com/science/article/pii/S0016328709000718 No matter what policy we adopt. It calls out for a commitment. http://www. in 10 years. No matter what kind of exports we seek. great visionaries like Gerard O‘Neill and David Criswell claimed that ES would be much cheaper (and human settlement of space more assured) if we could somehow use materials from the moon to build the kind of systems I have discussed here. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 140 . if we act soon. I would like to see a major international commitment (starting from a few core partners) to try to have gigawatts of electricity beamed down to earth. and on developing crucial infrastructures and technology. ―Towards a rational strategy for the human settlement of space‖. will be an essential part of making that longer term vision successful. by focusing heavily on developing larger ―exports‖ from space to earth. we will need cheaper access to space to make it possible. we cannot guarantee that humans will ever be able to settle space in a sustainable. This would be approximately as risky as trying to go to the moon in 10 years. Kennedy's speech. to take the efficient road— holding down costs by developing new technology and infrastructure.

The industry required in space to produce SPS components is relatively modest. Purification of silicon is easier in the vacuum of space. and it is made up of a small variety of simple parts mass produced in large quantity. A future generation of space-made chips may start to bring a close to many kinds of chip manufacturing on Earth. The first to go into business making silicon solar cells in space may well become the first to dominate that business. The vacuum tubes to generate the beam could be largely steel in terms of weight. former DoD space engineer who worked on projects like SDI.composed of the two most abundant elements on the Moon and likewise in many kinds of asteroids.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Tech Production – Semiconductors SPS is key to semiconductor innovation Mark Prado. with the small electrodes perhaps imported from Earth depending on the level of effort we put into processing the different kinds of asteroidal materials. Some design studies claim that more than 99% of an SPS can be made from asteroidal and/or lunar material. The glass cover over the solar cells could be silica glass (silicon dioxide) -. and better crystals grow in zero gravity (due to no convection currents).it is composed of materials most abundant in asteroids near Earth and/or from the Moon. as silicon is the second most abundant element on the Moon and likewise in many kinds of asteroids. The SPS structure could be made from asteroidal nickel-iron steel or steel-reinforced lunarcrete or astercrete using cheap glass-ceramics or fiberglass composites.permanent. Silicon Valley could lose big business to competition from Silicon Orbit in the future. Computer chips are small and lightweight enough to bring back to Earth.htm The solar power satellite fits into an asteroidal and lunar materials utilization scenario very well -. Given the advantages of manufacturing semiconductors in orbit. The silicon solar cells can be made from lunar or asteroidal silicon. That may be judged by the first to experiment in orbit and get patents. http://www. ―The Solar Power Satellite (SPS) Concept‖. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 141 . to the benefit of consumers and Earth's environment. 20 02. The waveguides could be made of glass ceramics.com/p-sps.

rather than the UAV being a sole consumer. This application is more plausible when taken in conjunction with a forward base SBSP scenario. Scott Messenger. High-energy Space Environment Branch. at typical UAV cruise power requirements of 75 to 100 W and typical wing areas of 1. et. James Armstrong. are payload limited because a significant fraction of total vehicle mass must be dedicated to energy storage. Paul Jaffe. In fact.. Glen Henshaw. energy storage still comprises anywhere from 20% to 50% of total vehicle mass in flight-proven UAVs. ―Space-Based Solar Power: Possible Defense Applications and Opportunities‖. W. SBSP. usually in the form of batteries. Those batteries are essential to provide power during nighttime flight as well as to augment available solar power when the aircraft flies in attitudes or circumstances not favorable to solar energy collection. can result in far less battery mass being required on the aircraft. Kwok Cheung. Michael Mook. Matthew Long. Keith Akins. provided in concert with local insolation at the UAV.2 to 2 m2. And Frederick Tasker Jill Dahlburg And Michael N. while demonstrated to be feasible. Significant augmentation of overall UAV system capabilities is possible if a large fraction of that battery mass can be made available to the payload. And Robert Walters Nathan Smith Wayne Boncyk Michael Brown David Huber//jchen 2. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 142 . John Pasour. a network of SBSP satellites can provide nearly continuous power to the UAV during local night. moving target. al. Neil Johnson.7. Robert Skalitzky. all the flight power for the bird could conceivably be provided by RF or light transmission from SBSP without exceeding the 100 W/m2 controlled area limit of exposure currently accepted as human-safe.2 Space to UAV for Dwell Extension Current long-duration solar-powered UAV systems. Lovelette Robert Bartolo And Keith Williams Mark Dorsey Donald Gubser Philip Jenkins. Significant challenges include wireless power beam control to a comparatively small. 10/23/09. where the UAV could fly through the wireless power beam already being sent to the base. Michael Osborn.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Tech Production – UAVs SBSP powered UAVs can operate continually with maximized power and payload Naval Research Laboratory. In addition to providing additional power during daylight operations. While significant advances in lightweight battery technology have been made in recent years. Steven Huynh.

The Solar Electric Transfer Vehicles (SETV) needed to lift the Space Solar Power Satellites out of low‐ earth orbit. It has very limited in‐ space maneuver and operational capability. The United States correspondingly has extremely limited capabilities for in‐ space manufacturing and construction or in‐ site space resource utilization. autonomous self‐ constructing structures. and perhaps even form its components. SBSP development would advance the state of the art in all of the above competencies. 10/10/2007 (―Space‐Based Solar Power As an Opportunity for Strategic Security. page 22) At present. asteroid protection and space debris protection NSSO. as well as high bandwidth telecommunications. the United States has very limited capabilities to build large structures. and beamed propulsion possibilities including far‐term concepts as a true interstellar probe such as Dr. and very limited access to space. Robert Forward‘s StarWisp Concept. or wireless cooperative formations. National Security Space Office. broadcast services. very large apertures or very high power systems in orbit. but because of the power available on orbit. de‐ orbit of space debris. A truly developed Space‐Based Solar Power infrastructure would open up entirely new exploration and commercial possibilities. • The technology to beam power over long distances could lower application satellite weights and expand the envelope for Earth‐ and space‐ based power beaming applications. which would enable concepts as diverse as comet / asteroid protection systems. such as power platforms that provide services to multiple payloads. space‐ to‐ space power utilities. It has no capability for beamed power or propulsion. • The expertise gained in developing large structures for space based solar power could allow entirely new technologies for applications such as image and real‐ time surface and airborne object tracking services. It would enable entirely new architectures. not only because of the access which will be discussed in the section on infrastructure. and mobile. high‐ definition television and radio. would completely revolutionize our ability to move large payloads within the Earth‐ Moon system. It cannot at present move large amounts of mass into Earth orbit. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 143 .SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Tech Production – Moon Development/Space Debris SBSP is key to spurring Moon development.

in particular ―Brilliant Pebbles‖ [15]. Issue 7. the SPS would provide little of the technology development required for a viable system <<missile defense impact>> Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 144 . A simplistic history would be the early period was characterised by an emphasis on directed energy weapons such as lasers and neutral particle beams. senior lecturer in space technology at the University of Bristol.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Impact Module – Space Based Missile Defense SPS development enables infrastructure required for success of SDI and missile defense Mark Hempsell.1. The lesson that can be drawn is that existing launch infrastructure systems cannot support any form of orbital ballistic missile defence.com/science/article/pii/S0094576506001755//jchen 3. The history of this programme highlights the key problem with all potential space solutions to global catastrophes. however. Acta Astronautica. Strategic defence The use of space-based systems to intercept and nullify strategic missiles and thus prevent the destruction caused by a nuclear war is the only seriously funded attempt to prevent global catastrophe using space systems after President Regan established strategic defence initiative (SDI) in 1983 [14]. This was addressed with a programme to produce a heavy launcher called the advanced launch vehicle (ALV) [16]. and that leads to a need for a reusable launcher with aircraft type operations. it was initiated by SDI [18] and the schedule seemed to driven by SDI requirements [19].sciencedirect. The change of SDI's emphasis to Brilliant Pebbles also raised launch capability issues. http://www. While the kinetic systems are far smaller they are required to be deployed in thousands [15]. Volume 59. While the infrastructure requirements would be met. the required launch rate is much higher. This requirement led to the single stage rocket technology programme [20] that culminated in the DC-X experimental vehicle flight programme. both the mass and the launch rate required are well beyond the capabilities of the current launch capability. So while the requirement for a heavy lift capability was lost. The SDI programme explored numerous different technologies and approaches. in comparison with the launch requirements required for an SPS system it would be two orders of magnitude lower. The directed energy weapons typically would each have mass around 100 tonnes with tens required in lower Earth orbit. Although a USAF programme with some NASA interest [17]. and the later stages were characterised by an emphasis on kinetic weapons. October 2006.

SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 *****ECONOMY***** Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 145 .

com/scholar?start=50&q=development+%22space+based+solar+power%22&hl=en&as_sdt=0. Once this infrastructure is created. This is a prospect with a multitude of applications.30&as_ylo=2000. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 146 . transition to space-based or lunar-based sources is simpler – in other words. The first iteration of the system is described in Boechler et al. Date accessed June 26. and enabling benign economic development in areas where such development is not now viable. 2006. Komerath. this approach enables rapid growth of the ―green‖ energy generation industry. 2011 Coupled with current environmental policy issues. Boechler.Evolutionary Approach To Space Solar Power‖. increase of ―green‖ energy sources. It also sets the context for technological breakthroughs in efficiently converting solar power directly to beamed energy. http://scholar. Georgia Institute of Technology.N. S. this provides the evolutionary approach that has been lacking to-date.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Solvency XTN – Industry Development Tech breakthroughs spur new industry development Komerath et al . ―Space Power Grid.google. paving an intermediate solution path towards a viable solar power industry that integrates extraterrestrial resources. Wanis School of Aerospace Engineering and Center for International Strategy.4 In the long term this will open up a technological solution with far-reaching consequences for energy independence. N. Technology & Policy.

Germany. and marked geographic differences in terrestrial renewable energy potential (for example. including photovoltaics (PV). This research has thus not accounted explicitly for the role of terrestrial renewable energy. but the availability of SSP is independent of terrestrial resource endowments). By using cost indices. alternative sources of energy must be found. The caveat is that even if the entire world electricity budget could be met using solar energy. We find that the benefits of SSP vary markedly among geographic regions as a result of differences in resource endowments. http://www. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 147 . which are more efficient in practical terms. He has published more than 200 peer reviewed articles and five books. of greatest economic impact may not be the new energy technology itself. The Space Review. We find that conditions under which SSP is more likely to be competitive in serving growth in demand include electricity markets in which carbon emissions and thermal effluent associated with some conventional power generation technologies are financially assessed (through fees or taxes). thin film solar cells.000 times the total amount of energy used by humans on Earth. The inevitable contraction of transportation will default a deconstruction of the globalised world economy into that of a system of localised communities.Molly K. and electricity reliability. ―SSP: a spherical architecture‖. the decline of cheap plentiful crude oil (peak oil) will not find a substitution via solar unless a mainly electrified transportation system is devised and it is debatable that there is sufficient time and conven. for characterizing the possible contribution of SSP to electricity markets. they would very likely necessitate the overhaul of the entire global economy to achieve broad compatibility with the new energy technology. quantum dot cells. Rhodes. is a writer for Resources for the Future. 2007 ―Satellite solar power: Renewed interest in an age of climate change?‖ http://www. journalist and poet.tional energy remaining to accomplish this. prior research has also not included environmental effects in an integrated model. concentrating PV and thermal solar power stations. the energy crunch could in principle be averted. 174 PW worth of energy falls onto the top of the Earth‘s atmosphere in the form of sunlight which is almost 10. Most pressingly. These effects are defined and measured within a larger modeling framework in which the potential value of SSP is placed in economic context with electricity supplies in distinct geographic markets. The model explicitly incorporates environmental effects and reliability concerns associated with conventional (terrestrial) power technologies. natural gas. including two regions within the USA (California and the Midwest). coal. and military strategy for the medium of space. some regions lack geothermal and solar thermal capacity. Various means for garnering energy from the Sun are presented. http://dartmouthcolnh. most immediately oil. The output of the model is the discounted present value of the possible economic benefits of SSP compared with conventional electricity generation as the year 2030 approaches and additions to power generation capacity are required to meet growing demand.ingentaconnect. and public policy. economic. Another discriminating factor is the extent to which reliability of conventional generation technologies is less than that which may be expected from SSP. Finally the prospects of space based (satellite) solar power are considered. as taken from all sources.solves economy Macauley . In fact. The detailed computer-based model developed here estimates the potential economic value of SSP as a source of commercial power by the year 2030.thespacereview.library.sciencedirect. 6/1/09. It seeks to promote understanding of costs and opportunities. March 2010 ―Solar energy: principles and possibilities‖. We also incorporate formal statistical measures of uncertainty with respect to the cost performance of power technologies in the future as well as public policy likely to govern or influence future electricity markets. Christopher J.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Solvency XTN – Economic Transition SPS use prompts a global economic transition to clean tech and job creation Trevor Brown. author focused on political. power generation costs (including fuelstock costs). the model has conceptual rigor but is parsimonious in some of its data requirements. If even a fraction of this could be harvested efficiently. the environment. This detailed energy market and geographic modeling are intended to complement and significantly facilitate further SSP engineering development and related investment decisions by providing understanding of conditions under which SSP could be successful. and India. Professor Chris Rhodes has a visiting position at the University of Reading and is Director of Freshlands Environmental Actions. creating many new high technology jobs in industries across the world. the remaining 80% of energy which is not used as electricity but thermal power (heat) still needs to be found in the absence of fossil fuels. Macauley. technical innovation in other technology between now and the coming decades. oil. SSP has a large pay off in the long term. and how to address them in a systematic and quantitative framework.com/content/stl/sciprg/2010/00000093/00000001/art00003 As the world faces an impending dearth of fossil fuels. nuclear and hydroelectric power combined. The resultant economic transformation would be incredible.com/article/1383///jchen If solar power satellites such as these did come into being.com/science/article/pii/S0265964607000264#secx16 This study models and analyzes the relationship among SSP. Previous SSP research has largely (although not exclusively) evaluated SSP by comparing it with fossil-fuel technologies based on highly aggregated US national average data. but rather the wave of innovation arising in complement to the new energy technology Economic transition is inevitable after fossil fuels run out – SPS key to avert energy crunch Rhodes. BA from Indiana University and an MSc from Nanyang Technological University. Importantly. but especially in the nation that was at the epicenter of the SSP breakthrough. and is also a published novelist.

SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 ***ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE*** Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 148 .

our government‘s failure to regulate corporate polluting and reluctance to create incentives for clean and renewable energy alternatives. ―Overcoming Structural Racism. Climate change is hitting close to home. the ground never froze in Brooklyn. of course. We criticize our consumer culture with its insatiable appetite for SUVs. and the Environment. across cities. While no one can say for sure that global warming caused hurricane Katrina. I was digging up dandelions that had taken over my yard and preparing new flowerbeds. No. issues of racial inequity are left out. Director of the Center for Social Inclusion. By understanding and addressing the inequities brought on by structural racism. thanks to the hard work of environmental activists. This constitutes environmental racism. We can even turn New Orleans‘ tragedy into an opportunity to understand better the human landscape that for so long has been sowed with the poisonous seeds of racism.urbanhabitat. Katrina was a category three hurricane.S. Summer 2006. New York could be the next New Orleans. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has predicted eight to 10 hurricanes in the North Atlantic Ocean this season—about half-a-dozen of them expected to be at least a category three. when we talk about global warming. Often. In January. the science strongly suggests that storms are getting fiercer and more destructive because of carbon emissions. across countries. But we can stop the tragedy of New Orleans from repeating itself. 13. We focus on ―dirty‖ energy. Poverty. Failure to address climate change means leaving communities of color increasingly vulnerable to Katrina-like disasters. Vol. One thing climate change makes clear: what happens to one community can happen to all—across neighborhoods. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 149 . important factors in creating and perpetuating a climate crisis that is finally being acknowledged in the U. All of these are. New York.‖ Race. So. including socially and economically..org/node/504 Last winter.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Disaster Advantage Minority communities are disproportionately affected by environmental catastrophe. 1. online: http://www. Maya Wiley. and our preference for suburban living with its long commutes. we can and will improve our environment in every possible way.

"Not only are minorities and indigenous groups disproportionately suffering as a result of climate change but they are affected by what the world sees as solutions to climate change. "From the immediate aftermath of a disaster to the point of designing policy on climate change . recognition of the acute difficulties that minorities face.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Poverty Advantage Low income communities are toast because of climate change.co. most marginalised neighbourhoods. a non governmental organisation working to secure the rights of ethnic. India. religious and linguistic minorities and indigenous peoples worldwide.telegraph. There is now a greater urgency to make these voices heard in the climate change debate. is often missing. said: "Climate change has finally made it to the top of the international agenda but at every level. include: Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 150 . Brazil and Argentina communities had been forcefully evicted from their land so crops could be planted. The study by the Minority Rights Group International (MRG) says in some cases fragile and disadvantaged communities may not survive unless their plight receives urgent attention. MRG's flagship annual State of the World's Minorities report gives examples of how minorities and indigenous groups were most affected in climate-related disasters because they live in the poorest. Many indigenous peoples and some minorities relied on their environment for survival which made them especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change. relief took a long time to reach them and when it did they were subject to blatant discrimination in the aid distribution process. national or local level. In South American countries such as Colombia. Minorities 'hardest hit' by climate change. 2:30PM http://www. When Dalits or 'untouchables' in Bihar.html GMT 11 Mar 2008 Environmental disasters across the world had shown that help and relief reaches them last." Local people had also been hit by the rush towards the planting of crops such as corn or palm oil to produce biofuels. Ishbel Matheson.uk/earth/earthnews/3335691/Minorities-hardest-hit-by-climate-change. were disproportionately affected during the 2007 floods. the report claims. Some of the examples highlighted by MRG. MRG's Head of Policy and Communications. The telegraph." Ishbel Matheson said.they are both most effected and seen as the solution to a problem perpetuated by the developed world. be it inter-governmental.the unique situation of minority and indigenous groups are rarely considered.

For one. is one of the most promising alternative technologies for reducing CO2 emissions and thus reducing ―Green House Effect‖. Industrialization and urbanization will sharply increase energy use. Inc. The second DC-to-microwave converter of the SPS can be either microwave tube system and/or semiconductor system. Peter E. The volume of solar energy hitting the earth is more than twice that generated by all the forms of energy sources ‒ both conventional and non-conventional put together. especially space solar power. Glaser.. However. in space.. long-term opportunity to tap space's unlimited resources rather than relying only on Earth's limited ones. Electricity generation using photo-voltaic cells is receiving increasing attention as a means of electricity generation that produces neither CO2. stable electricity generation is difficult. It may be their combination. . NOx nor SOx pollution as do systems using fossil fuel burning.887 km altitude) is rarely shaded by the Earth. Also. DC-tomicrowave converter. The energy received from the Sun in just one hour is sufficient enough to meet the entire global energy demand for around one year. and transmitting this power to the Earth's surface. independent of the weather and of the day-and-night cycle. The solution to this problem of finite sources is to utilize terrestrial renewable energy resources to the maximum extent possible. Solar power generation. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 151 . it is in sunlight about 98 % of the time. member of National Space Society Board of Governors. while at the same time developing Space solar power a global. The third segment is a gigantic antenna array known as rectenna.Satellite power generation should fit electrical demand profile Satellite power generation should generate power at the maximum selling price Use actual data on electrical demand & price The SPS is a gigantic satellite designed as an electric power plant orbiting in the Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO). 2000 ―The World Needs Energy from Space. not to an unreal average-price model. there is no atmosphere or clouds to attenuate and diffuse the incoming solar radiation. and large antenna array to beam down the microwave power to the ground.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Rapid industrialization will entrench energy poverty. fellow of the American Association of the Advancement of Science and the American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics. where it is converted into electrical power for terrestrial use. a satellite in a high geosynchronous orbit (35. because solar energy generation is impossible at night and of poor efficiency during cloudy weather. It consists of mainly three segments.voltaic panels in geo-stationary orbit (GEO) to generate electricity. solar energy collector to convert the solar energy into DC (direct current) electricity. However. if solar panels are launched into space they can produce power continuously. The recent prominence of possible climate change due to the ―greenhouse effect‖ from burning of fossil fuels has again brought alternative energy sources to public attention. Reliance on fossil fuels could produce unprecedented environmental damage. at a future time. inducted into the Space Technology Hall of Fame. It is important to design the system to service the real-world electrical power market. former Vice President for Advanced Technology at Arthur D. The Solar Power Satellite or "Space Solar Power" (SPS) is a concept to collect solar power in space. The first solar collector can be either photovoltaic cells or solar thermal turbine.Space based solar power prevents this and improves the living conditions for those most effected by global warming. As a result. 24-hour-a-day energy supply. Space has a number of advantages for solar power.. It will help sustain human life on Earth and. nor radiation like nuclear power systems. The Solar Power Satellite (SPS) concept involves a satellite carrying photo. Little. The following criteria will have to be used for a credible analysis of solar power satellite economic benefits and rate of return: .‖ Humanity faces a new energy crisis. and then transport it to the surface of the Earth by microwave (or possibly laser) beam. Space solar power is a challenging.

but. of all fossil fuels. (3) Some two billion people now live without the services that commercial energy provides. Further studies and a substantial amount of research and development will be needed to validate this approach to meet the world‘s energy needs. It will be years before historians sort out exactly how it started. If the world really is entering into a new age of resource shortages—or even if these shortages are simply widely-held illusions—nations will naturally try their best to ensure that they will have free and reasonably priced access to the stuff they need to survive and to prosper. but of war and peace. but no one can deny that it ended with a classic case of Russia using massive military force to impose its will on a tiny but bothersome neighbor. This will not happen overnight. particularly in electric power generation. However. such as the one that may run from the coast of Pakistan to western China. Taylor Dinerman. COLLINS. P. Oil and natural gas will. In any case this little war has shocked the international space industry in more ways than one. Further more. Acta Astronautica Vol. especially in comparison with most of the present sources of base load electric power. the technology for this is daunting and needs to be come more economically feasible before it can be seriously considered. Gasoline. clean energy sources. natural gas. may be just as important and as vulnerable as the one that runs through Georgia. ESA/ESTEC-FSA. and the threat of global climate change due to the emission of various greenhouse gases. In the future other pipelines. presently the dominant source of primary energy. The environmental impacts associated with SSP and wireless power transmission that will convey it to the markets on Earth. weight for weight and volume for volume. The most critical concern is over the risk of significant environmental damage stemming from the use of these fuels. KAYA. The one that ran from Azerbaijan through Georgia to Turkey was. The coming huge increase in demand for energy as more and more nations achieve ―developed‖ status has been discussed elsewhere. Fossil fuels. Therefore. SSP is a promising candidate for future base load electricity supply that could contribute to the grow. there is some prospect of using fossil fuels without venting combustion products into the atmosphere. Coal supplies are sufficient for many years. J. clean and low-cost power. While politicians in the US and Europe debate the best way to ensure access to the International Space Station (ISS). Some of the proposed regulations aimed at the climate change issue will inevitably make matters worse by making it harder for nations with large coal deposits to use them in effective and timely ways. in and of itself. terrestrial renewables).it will be perceived as a peaceful technology to assist the developing world. especially in developing countries. pp. are believed to the minimal.. http://www. well-known and respected space writer regarding military and civilian space activities. this number will increase with resultant poverty and worldwide inequity. KASSING.ing worldwide demand for high-quality energy. Without a new supply of abundant.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 The innovation of SPS can be globally competitive and benefit low income communities N. The world can no longer afford to depend upon easily disrupted pipelines for critical energy supplies.627–630 Energy demand in the world. become increasingly expensive and. ERB. (2) Solar electric power from space can • accelerate ongoing global electrification. Hence. NASDA 2001. The need for vulnerable pipelines and shipping routes will diminish. but it will reduce them. present significant problems. coal. eliminate these kinds of dangers. there is an urgent need to develop new. NASA. PIGNOLET CNES. 2008 the space review. nuclear. eventually. • lead to decreasing electric energy costs through ongoing technological advancements in electronics. Recent studies in the United States have indicated the feasibility for SSP to provide electric power at prices that in the not-distant future will be competitive with alternative sources. kerosene. D. SPS changes the logic of the energy industry. The need for a wholly new kind of world energy infrastructure is not just an issue involving economics or conservation. Some mitigation in the impact of fossil fuel use can be achieved by an increase in efficiency of use. (4) The concerted eorts of many individuals and organizations internationally are required to enable new renewable global energy— including SSP. toward the middle of the next century. by far the most effective transportation fuels. B. No. Environmental impacts include local and regional pollution.49. The following finndings were recognized through our discussions. neither of these avenues should be relied upon as a solution within the next several decades. VASSAUX csa and G. sufficiently scarce to create noticeable shortages.com/article/1209/1 It was a little more than a month ago when the crisis in the Caucasus erupted. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 152 . REPORT OF WORKSHOP ON CLEAN AND INEXHAUSTIBLE SPACE SOLAR POWER AT UNISPACE III CONFERENCE. Moving a substantial percentage of the Earth‘s energy supply off the planet will not. D. and • progressively reduce pollution and the uncertainties associated with present large scale commercial power systems. and diesel are. is growing rapidly. Nations that get a large percentage of their electricity from space will not have to fear that their neighbors will cut them off from gas or coal supplies. a more profound lesson from the crisis is evident.thespacereview. (oil.11. no doubt. Removing this kind of infrastructure from its central role in the world’s energy economy would eliminate one of the most dangerous motivations for war that we may face in the 21st century. coal releases the most carbon as a ratio to energy provided. an important factor in setting off the events of August 2008. MANKINS. Kobe University. (1) Solar power facilities in space can provide abundant and clean new electric power for Earth. It is hard to imagine that large powerful states such as China or India will allow themselves to be pushed back into relative poverty by a lack of resources or by environmental restrictions.

or genocide. in the absence of new government action. Innovative financing propositions such as the idea that a government could promise to buy a certain amount of space-generated power at a set price may become attractive in the future. While most space solar power advocates believe that the basic technology already exists. the consumption of oil and gas will continue to rise inexorably through to 2030. It could be subsidized the way that wind power or terrestrial solar has been. and the U. and every single year. it was clear that even war cannot begin to compare with structural violence. in effect. Number 3 Energy economics: a place for energy poverty in the agenda?//Trilling I believe that over the next quarter of a century our global energy system faces three major strategic challenges: the growing risk of disruptions to energy supply. unending. as are the capital requirements. the Vietnam war (possibly two million.000 deaths). perpetrated on the weak and poor every year of every decade. This might be a good one for the emerging SSP industry. The profit-seeking side of the private sector does not see its role as inflicting peace on an unstable and violent world. No energy means developing countries will continue to have education and economic problems. Analysis we have carried out at the International Energy Agency (IEA) shows that. 2000. 1935-1945).S. Even more important is the fact that Mankins and his team were able to navigate the government’s regulatory maze in order to achieve their goal. Safeguarding energy supplies is once again at the top of the international policy agenda. the FAA.S. however.S. including those caused by genocide--or about eight million per year. VIOLENCE: REFLECTIONS ON OUR DEADLIEST EPIDEMIC. the investment logic changes. environmental protection and expanding access to energy to the world‘s poor can be reconciled is through strong and coordinated government action and public support. in fact accelerating. as well as from the state and local governments is quite an accomplishment and shows that this technology can be shown to be safe. Chief Economist of the International Energy Agency. Much of the additional imports will have to come from the Middle East. such as World War II (an estimated 49 million military and civilian deaths. beaming power from Maui to the Big Island of Hawaii. Department of Psychiatry Harvard Medical School. The Energy Journal. p 195-196. The 14 to 18 million deaths a year cause by structural violence compare with about 100. is the first real data point we have (see ―A step forward for space solar power‖. The threat to the world‘s energy security is real and growing. this issue). John Mankins’ successful experiment. the engineering challenges are huge.empirically kills more than flash point conflict James Gilligan. two to three times as many people die from poverty throughout the world as were killed by the Nazi genocide of the Jews over a sixyear period. the concentration of oil and gas production in a small group of countries with large reserves – notably Middle East producers and Russia – will increase their market dominance and their ability to control the level of prices in the longer term. The Space Review. on the average. thermonuclear war. The world is evolving away from oil-based transportation systems. In addition. and in recent decades the so-called NGOs or non-profit sector. For the moment. throughout the world. The old Strategic Air Command’s motto was ―Peace is our Profession‖. I am also of the view that the only way that the goals of energy security. Seen as a simple business proposition space solar power (SSP) is a long way from becoming a viable economic source of energy. 2007 Volume 28. and persistent energy poverty. and even a hypothetical nuclear exchange between the U. governments.R (232 million). Comparing this frequency of deaths from structural violence to the frequency of those caused by major military and political violence. Transmitting any amount of power over nearly 150 kilometers shows what can be done. it is hard to see that the private sector would pay for the development work due to the unknown technological risks and to the long time scale. Even with subsidies.SPS access would pull many out of poverty Fatih Birol.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 but they are going to be phased out over time in favor of such things as plug-in hybrids. pushing up the need for imports and accentuating the consuming countries‘ vulnerability to severe supply disruptions and resulting price shocks. along vulnerable maritime routes. The continuation of global poverty is a thermonuclear war against the poor. gas and electricity prices – of a Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 153 . the equivalent of an ongoing. as many people die because of relative poverty as would be killed in a nuclear war that caused 232 million deaths. every fifteen years. Getting permission from the FCC. especially the US government. therefore. Soaring energy prices and the geopolitical turmoil of recent years have reminded us of the essential role affordable energy plays in economic growth and human development as well as of the vulnerability of the global energy system to supply disruptions. which continues year after year. if SSP were perceived as a ―war avoidance‖ mechanism or technology. However. the threat of environmental damage caused by energy production and use. This is. should concentrate on reducing the technological unknowns and setting the stage for future developments in the middle or end of the next decade.000 deaths per year from armed conflict. 19541973). the Indonesian massacre of 1965-1966 (perhaps 575. It will probably take decades. The growing insensitivity of oil demand to price will also accentuate the potential impact on international oil prices – and. but the process is now in motion. In other word. Traditionally that has been the role of governments.

Despite the prospect of continuing economic expansion and technologi. These prospects are unacceptable – morally. One of the targets used to measure progress in achieving that goal is halving the proportion of people living on less than $1 per day (UNMP. The cushioning effect on demand of subsidies to oil consumers. resulting in local scarcity of fuelwood and severe damage to the ecosystem. I am proud of the contribution the IEA has made in these areas. most often women and children.ered by batteries. The corollary of this is that prices would fluctuate more than in the past in response to future short-term shifts in demand and supply. it will rise to 2. That is barely 200 million less than today. The latest work by scientists on the potential consequences of rising concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmo. 1. Most of the electricity-deprived are in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia. They lack refrigeration for keeping food and medicines fresh. economically and politi. imports and carbon-dioxide emissions. Another hallmark of energy poverty is the use of traditional biomass in unsustainable. Although 2 bil. Importantly.cal progress in the developing world. can spend many hours gathering such fuels. in practice. The use of biomass is not in itself a cause for concern. If un. 2006). it has a number of harmful consequences for health. significantly reduce the rate of increase in demand and emissions. overtaking the OECD as the biggest emitters soon after 2010. This reduces the time they can devote to more productive activities. Current trends in energy supply also carry the threat of severe and ir. The most recent World Energy Outlook presented the results of an indepth assessment of how far the policies that governments around the world are currently considering could take us in curbing the growth in demand for fossil fuels. contributes to the insensitivity of global oil demand to changes in international prices. 2006). which remain big in many countries.reversible environmental damage – including changes in global climate. In addition. Those appliances that they do have are pow.national crude oil prices. this will be offset by rising world population. such as farming and education. especially coal. 1. We can not simply sit back and wait for the world‘s poorest regions to be. Put another way. energy-related emissions of carbon dioxide will rise broadly in line with fossil-fuel use through to 2030. as well as of the associated economic costs (IEA. Over the past five years. reliance on traditional biomass has a direct impact on human health.1 Only malnutrition.5 billion people – 40% of the world‘s population – rely on traditional biomass such as wood. i.checked. in global oil consumption is set to rise. For these people.velopment Goals – to eradicate extreme poverty – is very unlikely to be met. Up to now. The use of low. But.come sufficiently rich to afford Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 154 . and only a tiny fraction of these have addressed energy-poverty issues.more. They struggle to read by candle light. the economic cost of these policies would be more than outweighed by the economic benefits that would come from using and producing energy more efficiently.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 disruption to oil supplies.or zero-carbon renewable energy sources is set to expand rapidly.quality advice on how to address these concerns. meeting this target would imply a sharper increase in electrification rates and use of modern fuels than we at the IEA are currently projecting. policy makers and industry with timely and high. if fully implemented. We have provided the public. mostly women and children – in developing countries die as a result of fumes from indoor biomass stoves (WHO.cally. which is price-inelastic relative to other energy services. These trends imply that the first of the United Nations‘ Millennium De. Wood gathering can also lead to deforestation. The World Health Organization estimates that each year. the day finishes much earlier than in richer countries for lack of proper lighting.ing is also set to expand.lion people will gain access to electricity during this period. That is why decisive policy action is needed urgently to accelerate energy development in poor countries as part of the broader process of human develop.ment. the energy-economics community has given far less at.sphere and by economists on the costs of inaction should leave us in no doubt that the energy path we are currently on is far from being sustainable (IPCC. less than 20% of the articles that have appeared in the major international energy journals have focused on developing countries. Those policies – aimed principally at diversifying energy use towards less carbon-intensive fuels and at improving the efficiency of energy use – would. the number of people relying on traditional biomass for cooking and heat. making overall oil demand less and less responsive to movements in inter. past experience shows that a rapid transition to mod. Currently.6 billion people in developing countries do not have access to electricity in their homes. these resources account for over 90% of all household energy consumption. 1. on current trends.e. Further. agricultural residues and dung to meet virtually all their cooking energy needs.3 million people – again. unsafe and inefficient ways. These people live mainly in rural areas of Asia and Africa. their number will increase significantly.tries.4 billion people will still lack electricity in 2030. 2005). Given the strong links between income on the one hand and access to electricity and modern forms of energy on the other. by more than half. which eat up a large share of their incomes. In the absence of new policies. the energy-economics community has devoted considerable time and effort to analysing the challenges of energy security and environmental sustainability that are emerging from the way in which we produce and use energy. People.tention to the challenge of energy poverty amongst the world‘s poorest people. but emissions will be driven higher by the inexorable growth in consumption of fossil energy. in Africa. HIV/AIDS and lack of clean water and sanitation are greater health threats. I would like to take this opportunity to appeal to all energy economists around the world to give more attention to this pressing issue. Most of the net fall in the number of electricity-deprived will occur in Asia. The stark facts should give us all pause for thought.7 billion in 2030 – equal to one-third of the world‘s population. In many coun. Unfortunately. the environment and economic and social development. 2007). The share of transport demand. Today.ern energy would normally be expected to accompany the substantial growth in prosperity that achievement of the poverty-reduction goal calls for. The bulk of the increase will come from developing countries. 2.

candidate in Art History at Columbia University. is unlikely to succeed. This will need to involve important investment in energy infrastructure. Oels notes that the determination of refugee status under the 1951 Geneva Convention depends on a sovereign exception to be made between ―legitimate‖ migrants on the one hand—that is. Like improved health. During the early stages of economic development. political and energy-security interests in helping developing countries along the path to energy development. has recently sounded just such a note of caution about the category of the climate refugee in light of broader critiques of policy regimes concerning refugees.sages effectively to policymakers and other stakeholders to make change happen. and at what cost. 19. access to energy is a prerequisite to human de.velopment. as well as manifestations.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 modern energy services.pecially electricity – in the overall energy mix are key contributors to human development. Lack of resources is not an excuse. Indeed. At the moment. including saving 1. Policy reforms and development priorities will always need to be tailored to each country‘s situation. 2 pg. meeting basic human needs. when it comes to the economics of energy poverty.tal to build energy infrastructure from scratch. mobilising that investment will hinge on progress in applying and respecting the basic principles of good governance in the energy sector and in the wider economy. By the same token. We economists have a tremendous amount of theoretical and practical knowledge and understanding of the energy sector. Spring/Summer 2011. a disposable population of ―irregular‖ migrants who do not deserve to be saved or assisted. the Geneva Convention not only inscribes a division between two orders of protected and unprotected humanity—privileging those exposed to ―exceptional‖ persecution while abandoning those who subsist in permanent states of emergency—but also lacks any binding force in its own right. And we must communicate our findings and mes.cess. In other words. hunger and disease persist. including rural development programmes. training and education and support for micro-credit. However. In many cases. there is a poverty of energy economics. Furthermore. We must deepen our understanding of the causes of energy poverty and study the policies and instruments that can best facilitate the transition of hundreds of millions of poor citizens of the world to modern energy services. making available relatively small quantities of modern energy services can bring about significant improvements in human welfare – and at relatively modest cost. In my view.ulations that impede energy trade and investment have to be reformed. And public policies aimed at improving both the quantity and quality of energy services will need to be backed by broader policies to promote investment. pointing to the Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 155 . and coeditor of The Visual Cultures of Nongovernmental Politics. These climate laws will create bare life and the biopolitical control Yates McKee. those who fi t under the parameters of ―political persecution‖ (thus imposing upon UN signatory nations an obligation to allow them to enter their territory)—and. Climate refugees will be subjected to exclusionary laws that will privilege ―exceptional‖ cases over people that live in emergency. The cost of providing assistance to poor countries may turn out to be far less than that of dealing with the instability and insecurity that poverty creates. because of the risks involved. Overcoming it is another. That is less than the profits several major energy companies made in 2006. this is not enough. We must identify which policies work and why. must be at the heart of any strategy to alleviate poverty. despite its appeal to a universal law pertaining to humanity in general. for example. In practice. It contributes to social development by improving health and educa. The trends I have just described are not inevitable. use of energy is both a contributor to. in the early stages of development.3 million lives each year. For as long as poverty. In the poorest countries. Public-private partnerships may be one way forward for these countries. Qui Parle Vol. the extensive use of traditional biomass and the limited availability of electricity and modern fuels for cooking and heating are causes. Concrete improvements in human welfare can be realised quickly at modest short-term cost. Identifying the size of the challenge is one thing. providing LPG cylinders and stoves to all the people who currently still use traditional biomass for cooking by 2030 would boost world oil demand by a mere 1% and cost at most $18 billion a year. relying solely on private capi. For example. is surely much higher. of poverty. Ph.D. as well as a consequence of. asylum. Energy economists have to play their part in this endeavour. the absolute amount of energy used by each person and the share of modern forms of energy – es. the poorest regions will remain vulnerable to humanitarian disasters. The value of the improvements to social welfare. Rich industrialised countries have an important role to play in this pro. As the ancient Chinese philosopher Confucius said ―he who merely knows right principles is not equal to him who loves them‖. Often.tion and to economic development by enhancing the productivity of labour and capital. 319-321 Project Muse Legal theorist Angela Oels. To tackle the challenge successfully we need to feel the pain of the poor and harness the power of energy to help make poverty history. we have obvious long-term economic. Strong political will and commitment on the part of the governments of the world‘s poorest countries will obviously be crucial to breaking the vicious circle of energy poverty and human under-development. No. to social injustice and to political instability. They can – and must – be altered. leaving the interpretation of that division in the hands of the sovereign nation-states. Energy services help enable those needs to be met. Laws and reg. implicitly. higher incomes (Bloom and Canning. In addition to moral issues involved. institutional and regulatory reforms. economic growth and productive employment.7 Informed by Giorgio Agamben. such as food and shelter. 2000). ―On Climate Refugees‖. and transnational migration. much of it funded by the private sector in view of the constraints on public finances. this will call for far-reaching legal.

given the added difficulty of determining what constitutes a climate-based displacement. the agency and responsibility involved in climate-related displacement is much less finite insofar as no particular entity can be assigned responsibility to the anthropogenic impact on the climate system. Whereas the causal chain resulting in the flight of a minority group from a discriminatory if not genocidal ethnonationalist regime can. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 156 . All the conundrums of the refugee concerning sovereignty. Indeed. a campaign of military or paramilitary violence. the manner in which refugee populations are governed by the nation-states in which they find themselves is often on the order of ―bare life. An Agambenian framework is certainly pertinent to a critique of Climate Refugees. as well as determining who or what is responsible for such a displacement. rather than as civic subjects invested with the capacity to make rights claims about the ways in which they are governed. let alone full citizenship. in principle. be pinpointed with regard to a specific piece of legislation. humanitarianism. biopower.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 legal limbo in which hundreds of thousands of people are caught across Europe‘s network of migrant camps. Oels notes that the granting of refugee status does not necessarily translate into the rights of asylum. or even the formal or informal fostering of a cultural milieu conducive to discrimination or violence. which defines its concern with expanding the purview of the refugee in terms of a kind of biopolitical planning and management—as when it evokes the specter of ―violent disturbances and humanitarian disasters‖ that might be set in motion by climate change.‖ treating them as objects of humanitarian administration whose right to protection can be revoked at any time. and citizenship are intensified by climate change.

Ethics & the Environment Vol. among people and other species. which both preserve the biosphere‘s regenerative capacities and share resources fairly among people. and intuitions about the way forward. and working out their implications for particular areas of our environmental decisionmaking. I believe environmental philosophers have important contributions to make to environmentalism as a political movement. Because the main impediments to creating sustainable societies are excessive and growing human populations and consumption levels. ―Taming Growth and Articulating a Sustainable Future: The Way Forward for Environmental Ethics‖. and between current and future generations. Whatever else we do. and ask whether we are leaving any essential tasks unaddressed. environmental philosophers‘ core tasks include articulating and defending such ideals of generous and just sustainability. and ethical theory. I believe this to be a good thing. environmental philosophers‘ commitment to sustainability necessitates that we advocate an end to the endless growth economy and work to specify economic alternatives that will reduce human demands on the Earth (and not merely slow the growth of those demands. and perhaps more parochially. or mitigate some of their worst effects). I take the overarching goal of environmentalism as a political movement to be the creation of ecologically sustainable societies. though. we must grapple with these issues. 16 No. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 157 . I explore these themes below.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Sustainable alternative energy is key to environmental justice Philip Cafaro. that we are particularly well-placed to specify some key aspects of sustainability and press for their adoption. talents. reflect on where we want to go. First. But it is also helpful to step back from time to time. 1 Project Muse The future of environmental ethics will be what environmental ethicists make of it. that future will be pluralistic. particular interests. Arguably. Spring 2011. environmental policy. Since the field encompasses widely divergent philosophical orientations. Anything less does not appear up to our environmental challenges or the demands of morality. indeed. professor of philosophy at Colorado State University focusing on environmental ethics. I consider some possible contributions our field might make to general ethical philosophy. virtue ethics.

anthropologists Willett Kempton and colleagues (1995) concluded that most US citizens share a common set of environmental values. society. it needs to deal with the most pressing problems and provide relevant analysis and guidance. having few resources or time to commit to conservation? Do they feel powerless. sawmill workers. in modern industrial societies. works for the Invasive Species Council. sympathetic to conservation and have many ways to contribute. Do people lie. and many of the issues that dominate environmental ethics attract little interest outside the discipline. Some 70 percent or more of each group. Many see it as a social priority. except sawmill workers (at 63 percent). a primary diagnosis must be that people are insufficiently motivated by their beliefs and sympathies to act. 1 pg. policy action is key Carol Booth. ―A Motivational Turn for Environmental Ethics‖ Ethics & the Environment Vol. A 1996 survey by the Australian Bureau of Statistics found that one-fifth of Australians thought environmental protection more important than economic growth. or lack knowledge about what they can do? These are probably all contributing factors. ―It is difficult to see what practical effect the field of environmental ethics has had on the formation of environmental policy.‖ Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 158 . agreed that ―Humans should recognize they are part of nature and shouldn‘t try to control or manipulate it‖ (107).SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Perm do the plan and all non-mutually exclusive parts of the alternative – the alt doesn‘t solve. 1).‖ lament Andrew Light and Eric Katz (1996. Project Muse Most people in modern industrial societies agree there is a moral need to conserve nature.S. except dry cleaners (57 percent). conservation activist. Environmental ethicists have expressed frustration about the limited impact of their work on conservation. and Robert Frodeman (2006) has called for a ―policy turn. Spring 2009. In a more in-depth study. and massive greenhouse gas emissions. For this reason. 53-78. involving interviews of members of environment groups. is probably the most naturedestructive in human history. while 71 percent rated it equally (DEH 1998). Philosophers are rarely invited as ‗experts‘ to participate in public policy proceedings.1 The chasm between values rhetoric and lifestyle and political focus reeks of hypocrisy. U. agreed ―Justice is not just for human beings. global exploitation of nature. Ron Sandler (2002) has recommended that environmental ethics adopt an adequacy condition of ―practical efficacy‖. Australians are similarly destructive and apathetic despite pro-conservation sentiments. or merely parrot what they consider socially acceptable beliefs? Are they self-deceived about their real values? Or do competing values undermine a conservation focus? Do people lack the capacity to conform with moral beliefs. However. dry cleaners. well educated. with its excesses of consumption. where many are affluent. For example. or others. 14 No. We need to be as fair to plants and animals as we are to people‖ (113). PhD in environmental philosophy on motivations for nature conservation. Yet burgeoning lists of threatened species and ongoing habitat destruction show that these so-called values are failing to motivate sufficient political and social pressure for conservation reform. If environmental philosophy is to effectively contribute to conservation. more than 80 percent of each group.

SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 *****Affirmative Extensions***** Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 159 .

SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 ***SOLVENCY*** Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 160 .

5 probability. if successful.alglobus.024. To the risk of natural events must now be added the risk of anthropogenic catastrophes. Indeed global catastrophes due to natural events have occurred several times in human history with devastating consequences both in terms of human life and social organisation [2]. that is five times larger than the probability of death in a road accident in the UK [3]. so a 50 year $1-2 billion/year SSP R&D program seems appropriate. component development. Great benefits warrant great effort. Rees [4] suggests a 0. Senior Research Associate for Human Factors Research and Technology at San Jose State University at NASA Ames Research Center. positive game changer for energy. In particular. http://www. SSP. http://space. There is no claim that this program is optimal in any sense. it indicates how much effort developing a major new energy source is worth -. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 161 . However. requires no breakthroughs in physics and the space development benefits would be incalculable. To rebut Fetter's claim that economic SSP is all but impossible. About $30 billion is for launcher development and the rest for energy transmission research. The probability of naturally caused global catastrophe events is high. This makes the probability of death caused by a natural global catastrophe 0. January 2009. Volume 59. in-space transportation and assembly and maintenance research. an R&D program to develop SSP need only have a decent chance of success. it has been argued that this should be among the highest priority of governments [5].sciencedirect. However.html//jchen When considering these arguments remember that the case for SSP need not be perfect.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Impact Calculus Prefer our impacts – advantages of SSP far outweigh risk of failure (we have already wasted 20 billion on cold fusion) Al Globus. Issue 7. it may be longer and larger than really necessary. Given the high probability of a global catastrophe. is a major. space development and the global balance of power and. global warming. these events also put the fabric of society at risk. and that in addition to the large mortality. chairman of the Space Settlement Committee of the National Space Society. unlike fusion.com/science/article/pii/S0094576506001755//jchen Global catastrophes (events that cause the death of more than a quarter of world population [1]) can credibly be caused through either natural events or through human activity. It seems reasonable to suggest that an SSP R&D effort on the order of the thus far unsuccessful fusion energy effort is warranted. NASA's budget is roughly $17 billion annually. this may or may not have been a good investment. Depending on one's opinion. senior lecturer in space technology at the University of Bristol. Probability of natural or human catastrophes is extremely high – more likely than a traffic accident Mark Hempsell. many works considering current threats place the probability much higher than the historical natural figures—for example. only that it may be sufficient to meet Fetter's conditions. October 2006. It follows that the probability of an anthropogenic global catastrophe cannot be determined from history or reliably from analysis and is a matter of opinion. including $300-900 million per year for the last 30 years. ―In Defense of Space Solar Power‖.net/papers/FetterResponse. For comparison. with an average separation of around a thousand years and have a typical mortality at least a third of the population.even with substantial risk of failure.what the customer is willing to pay -. The ability of mankind to produce effects on a global scale is recently acquired and is growing rapidly. system design. Acta Astronautica. We have spent over $20 billion on fusion energy research in the last 50 years.

As shown in table 6-4 of the "Fresh Look" final report [1].SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Solvency Shield – Generic Their solvency deficits assume the baseline proposal . To tap this potential market. however—both the dollar value and the potential value of the ecological benefits—is so great that the concept should not be abandoned simply because one candidate system is flawed. Lowering the voltage to avoid plasma discharge would result in unacceptable resistive losses. Technical feasibility requires that the concept not violate fundamental laws of physics. One difficulty is the power distribution system. 2004. Current world electrical consumption represents a value at the consumer level of nearly a trillion dollars per year. Only if an "externality surcharge" is added to non-space power sources to account for the economic impact of fossil-fuels did space solar power options make economic sense. In addition to technical difficulties. consisting of a long highvoltage tether system. Economic feasibility requires that the system can be produced at a cost which is lower than the market value for the product. clearly even if only a small fraction of this market can be tapped by space solar power systems. and that it has no technological show-stoppers.pdf) Space solar power is potentially an enormous business. or else yields a cost marginally competitive (but not significantly better) than terrestrial power technologies. which complicates the design to an impractical extent). but only with the addition of an unwieldy steering mirror. Glenn Research Center.org/settlement/ssp/library/2004-NASAReinventingTheSolarPowerSatellite. The value of the solar power concept. While "externality" factors are quite real. and that it serve a market niche that is able to pay. solar cell efficiency. even with extremely optimistic assumptions of system cost. each design analyzed results in a cost which is either immediately too expensive. It is important to analyze alternative concepts in order to find one that presents a workable system for investment to make money. it is necessary that a solar power satellite concept has the potential to be technically and economically practical.7] only partially satisfies these criteria. The distribution system required to transfer power from the solar arrays to the microwave transmitters. with an initial investment low enough to attract investors.2. rather than being sent over wires to a separate transmitter. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 162 . ―Reinventing the Solar Power Satellite‖. and represent a true cost impact of fossil-fuel generation. cannot operate in the environment of near-Earth space at the voltages required without short-circuiting to the space plasma.it‘s silly to ditch the project because of one factor within it Landis. Power distribution is a general problem with all conventional solar power system designs: as a design scales up to high power levels. and launch cost. Ohio (Geoffrey. http://www. the baseline concept does not meet economic goals. the mass of wire required to link the power generation system to the microwave transmitter becomes a showstopper. (The "solar sandwich" design of the late 70's solved this problem. The baseline "power tower" developed by the "Fresh Look" study in 1996 and 1997 [1. the amount of revenue that could be produced is staggering. with an internal rate of return (IRR) too low for investment to make money. that it does not require technology not likely to be developed in the time frame of interest. A design is required in which the solar power can be used directly at the solar array.isdc2007. it is unlikely that the world community will artificially impose such charges merely to make space solar power economically feasible. National Aeronautics and Space Administration at the Glenn Research Center. February 2004.

Colorado.wordpress. and 4) the business case.[56] The NSSO study concluded SBSP presented a strategic opportunity that could significantly advance U. 3) policy issues. Discussion was lively in most cases. capability. whose expertise lies principally in existing space missions. 10/10/07. addressing energy delivery from space was a relatively foreign subject until this year.com/ to solicit inputs from the public at large. the on‐ line study was accomplished by segregating into four specific breakout areas: 1) science & technology capabilities. business and legal experts contributed to the study NSSO. while significantly reducing dependence on vulnerable over-land fuel deliveries…SBSP could provide the ability to deliver rapid and sustainable humanitarian energy to a disaster area or to a local population undergoing nation-building activities…perhaps the greatest military benefit of SBSP is to lessen the chances of conflict due to energy scarcity by providing access to a strategically secure energy supply. DOE. the SBSP Study Group established an unclassified and access‐ controlled on‐ line collaboration website and began inviting known SBSP experts to participate—many of whom had been involved in either the 1970‘s initial assessment or the 1990‘s ―Fresh Look‖ Study. In addition to a central plenary discussion area to present and debate general ideas. the Space Frontier Foundation also established a parallel. those results are also included within this report. The 5‐ month on‐ line discussion culminated in a 2‐ day conference hosted by the US Air Force Academy Eisenhower Center for Space and Defense Studies at Breckenridge. academia.[57] Most studies till that point only focused on SBSP as a solution of the power needs of the global community at large.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 NSSO Prodict Over 170 scientific.dtic. military. energy. 8/28/10. In particular the study stated: SBSP and its enabling wireless power transmission technology could facilitate extremely flexible ―energy on demand‖ for combat units and installations across an entire theater. 2007. In support of the study group‘s efforts. and others who had participated in the collaborative study. Traditional architecture studies are typically conducted by a contractor under government supervision and compensation. In many cases.[55] The NSSO study requested input from numerous experts in the science and solar power community and with their help made a number of key findings. to business and legal professionals. other national and international experts (both proponents and opponents) were added as study members such that the number of active participants stood at over 170 at the time of this publication (see list at Appendix E).S. a division of the Department of Defense (DoD). leading to the many findings detailed in the interim report that follows. http://spaceenergy. and partners can enable the development of SBSP by mid‐ century. energy. ―Space‐ Based Solar Power: As an Opportunity for Strategic Security‖. 2) logistics and infrastructure requirements. Collecting and organizing such a group of knowledge owners within the timeframe and budget demanded by NSSO required a unique and novel approach for DoD to conduct an architecture study. open‐ access website at http://spacesolarpower. On April 21. 2007. Additional experts were drawn into each debate as required. The workshop included representatives from DoD. National Security Space Office. NSSO is a government organization – its study included numerous science and energy experts Kiantar Betancourt. NASA. Enter the collaborative on‐ line study. to energy policy experts. conducted its own study on the feasibility of SBSP. http://www.com/AnnouncementRetrieve. and partner security. As news of the discussion spread (both by word‐ of‐ mouth and through public media coverage).S. The NSSO study added an additional layer emphasizing the advantages SBSP could offer the U. and various industries to include aerospace.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA473860&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc. ―Space Based Solar Power: Worth the effort?‖. and take 6‐ 12 months for contract award and then an additional 12‐ 24 months to complete.S. majority consensus was obtained and in certain cases it was not. and freedom of action. Making informed decisions about SBSP required immediate access to a broad spectrum of experts—from specialized astronautical engineers.pdf//jchen For the National Security Space Office (NSSO). many of which possessed significant credentials toward answering the question of whether the U. Plenary and breakout results were presented via panel‐ led discussions.[58] Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 163 .aspx?ID=56407//jchen The most recent study of SBSP occurred in 2007 when the National Security Space Office (NSSO). Study leaders posted questions for the group to debate and answer. on 6‐ 7 September.

in the sense that it has the potential to permanently raise the whole of human civilization to a higher level of prosperity. http://www. Since SSP has been regularly used on a small scale to power satellites for forty years already (in marked contrast to the development effort that has gone into nuclear fusion). but only apparently for future generations.‖ He seems to have been reading a completely different report. all of which are measures of power within the military space realm.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Dwayne Day Indict Day doesn‘t even indict the NSSO – he just says it has no political influence. The National Security Space Office was created in 2004 and ―facilitates the integration and coordination of defense. The activists have ignored the message and fallen in love with the messenger.‖ (p.20) This sounds promising. http://www. Simply put. This is a serious challenge for a capable agency with a transformational agenda. the NSSO exists essentially as a policy shop that is readily ignored by the major military space actors such as Strategic Command. A proposed spiral demonstration project can be found in Appendix B.‖ But any office that ―facilitates‖ the activities of other organizations has limited influence. But Day is not impressed. civil. Does it mean we‘ll be able to start work in forty years time? ―FINDING: The SBSP Study Group found that individual SBSP technologies are sufficiently mature to fly a basic proofof-concept demonstration within 4–6 years and a substantial power demonstration as early as 2017–2020. and toothless. part of Oxford University. we are not much closer to space solar power today than we were when NASA conducted a big study of it in the 1970s. which would allow an accelerated pace of progress compared with that proposed by NASA in the late 1990s. He works in academic publishing in the Voltaire Foundation. But in this case. 2008.‖ (p. has an email. hardworking people who have no discernible influence on military space at all.thespacereview. for several years there have been persistent rumors that the NSSO was about to be abolished as unnecessary.com/article/1147/1//jchen The NSSO study is remarkably sensible and even-handed and states that we are nowhere near developing practical SSP and that it is not a viable solution for even the military‘s limited requirements. As one former NSSO staffer explained. many decades in the future: ―The NSSO study […] states that we are nowhere near developing practical SSP […] that the technology to implement space solar power does not currently exist… and is unlikely to exist for the next forty years. In fact. Day. rather it is strategic. the activists touting the NSSO study do not understand where the NSSO fits into the larger military space bureaucracy. The NSSO has a minimal staff and budget and does not command any assets—it does not fly any satellites. It states that the technology to implement space solar power does not currently exist… and is unlikely to exist for the next forty years. ―In defense of the knights‖.20) ―FINDING: The SBSP Study Group found that significant progress in the underlying technologies has been made since previous government examination of this topic. and the direction and pace of progress continues to be positive and in many cases accelerating. Furthermore. this is not for us.‖ This came as news to me. June 23. He admits the report is evenhanded and accurate Dwayne A. and has a particular interest in how progress in space can support sustainable growth. 2008. we find that its introductory paragraphs point out that significant technological progress has been achieved in the past decade. or procure any hardware. irrelevant. and the National Reconnaissance Office whenever it suits them. for his article reads: ―from a technological standpoint. the office consists of many smart. ―Knights in shining armor‖. and commercial space activities. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 164 . launch any rockets. though these are likely to cost between $5B–$10B in total. June 9. long-standing Fellow of the British Interplanetary Society. According to Day‘s reading of the NSSO study. but requires no fundamental scientific breakthroughs or new physics to become a reality. Air Force Space Command. Substantial technology development must occur before it is even feasible. especially when those other organizations are much bigger and have their own interests and connections to the senior leadership.‖ (p.22–23) Turning to Appendix B. which no longer seems as achievable as it did three decades ago (perhaps why SSP advocates tend to skip this part of the discussion and hope others solve it for them). security and spatial range. intelligence. Dwayne Day is an idiot – he can‘t even comprehend the report he indicts Stephen Ashworth.thespacereview. the report makes clear that the key technology requirement is cheap access to space.com/article/1153/1//jchen SSP is not merely expedient. how could the NSSO have concluded that the technology ―does not exist‖? What actually does the NSSO report say? It reports: ―FINDING: The SBSP Study Group found that Space-Based Solar Power is a complex engineering challenge.

for he writes: ―the report makes clear that the key technology requirement is cheap access to space. A substantial demonstrator can be launched before the economics have been solved. Here. each with a lifetime of around 200 return flights to orbit. the design incorporates a breakthrough in overall layout.thespacereview. somebody will succeed. In ten or twenty years time a successful suborbital industry will surely develop a reusable spaceplane for large-scale economic orbital access. That fact that a vehicle such as this might not be available until the 2020s is irrelevant. a government-funded SSP demonstrator to provide confidence that there will be large-scale launch activity in the 2020s. As well as new engines.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Day‘s fundamental assumption about space access is faulty Stephen Ashworth. the present-day economic case for SSP is ―abysmal‖. which no longer seems as achievable as it did three decades ago (perhaps why SSP advocates tend to skip this part of the discussion and hope others solve it for them). manned spaceflight is about to become a profitable enterprise. based in Culham in Oxfordshire. It notes that launch cost is the single most important factor in the economics of SSP. as Day says. It‘s only a matter of time. Here‘s the key fact: SpaceShipTwo represents a completely different economic paradigm from the Space Shuttle because. coal. All hopes that humanity will create a spacefaring civilization rest on this paradigm change. The prototype SSP system proposed in the NSSO study‘s Appendix B would be launched using a ―large-lot purchase‖ of expendable launch vehicles (p. and the suborbital service will demonstrate that a spaceline can be run in the same way as an airline. But people are queueing up to ride on the thing. Virgin Galactic may fail. 2008. and has a particular interest in how progress in space can support sustainable growth. thanks to £5 million (US$10 million) of private investment. In 2004 we saw the first space access by a privately-developed reusable spaceplane. and that increased demand for launch to orbit could lead to a virtuous cycle of cost improvement. June 23. One day. recently told me that the British government is now more supportive of their work than it has been for decades. http://www. its founder and managing director. and its successor is due to begin test flights later this year in the run-up to commercial service. It should be capable of carrying at least 10 tonnes of payload in a standardized container to the orbital altitude of the ISS. for the first time ever. But a government shuttle is no longer where cheap space access is at. part of Oxford University. B-4).‖ Cheap access to space no longer as achievable as it seemed in 1978? This is a clear reference to the Space Shuttle. He works in academic publishing in the Voltaire Foundation. The Skylon orbital spaceplane that the company is promoting is a direct successor to the British Aerospace Hotol project of the 1980s. creating huge problems of balancing the vehicle in atmospheric flight.com/article/1153/1//jchen Is there any specific technology that could have caused Day to be so dismissive of the concept? Indeed there is. it‘s only suborbital. with the engines mounted on stubby wings midway along the fuselage. But factor in a growing space tourism industry moving along its own cost-volume development curve. long-standing Fellow of the British Interplanetary Society. and increasing pressure on oil. ―In defense of the knights‖. Appendix C of the NSSO study analyses the business case for SSP. and the economics could soon look very different. rather than the more usual spaceplane design in which they are attached at the rear. Alan Bond. Sure. aircraft-style. SSP will therefore not really be in the market to buy cheap spaceplane flights to orbit until the 2020s in any case. It has plenty of competitors. there has been major progress in developing a revolutionary new combined jet-rocket engine. The economics of the design depend upon the production of dozens of vehicles. Obviously. The demand for orbital tourist flights exists. One of the leading spaceplane companies in the UK is Reaction Engines. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 165 . and gas.

William Fan. plausible reality.4) could be met. which apparently could have involved putting a demonstration device on the International Space Station. chairman of the Space Settlement Committee of the National Space Society. The core reality behind Fetter's assertions is that space systems and operations are far more expensive than those on Earth.and as a consequence. gas and coal (the fossil fuels). Senior Research Associate for Human Factors Research and Technology at San Jose State University at NASA Ames Research Center. governmental investments. SBSP is also more efficient than traditional solar power. Electrical energy demand is so large that to satisfy even a fraction would require hundreds of PowerSats and allows economies of scale. January 2009.e. SBSP is feasible but costly – only a large governmental investment will spur development Industry and Technology Assessment. Without dramatic disruptive technology or large. SSP's greatest weakness is that profitability depends on supplying very large quantities of power unless a small. we determined that large capital and R&D costs are required for SBSP to occur. we will be focusing on laying down the economic groundwork for SBSP. One thing that surely helps their cause is that one of Obama's transition team members for NASA is George Whitesides. NASA cut SBSP due to budget constraints – federal funding solves David Shiga. SBSP doesn‘t involve the burning of fossil fuels. which have been shown to cause severe environmental problems and global warming. So I wouldn't count out SBSP just yet. there is reason to believe that the U.newscientist. A research effort in this direction may be worthwhile regardless of the fate of space-to-ground power. http://www. as sunlight is almost five and a half times as strong in space than it is on the surface of the earth [1]. Unfortunately. as the marginal costs do not provide an adequate annual return for us to recommend SBSP. ―In Defense of Space Solar Power‖. provided a plausible solution to the issue of transmitting power from space onto the surface of the Earth. The bottom line: in contradiction to Fetter. earlier this month NASA cancelled early work on a proposed SBSP demonstration project. with only short periods of time (of at most 75 minutes during the equinoxes [2]) when a satellite would be in the Earth‘s shadow. http://www.net/papers/FetterResponse.5. and energy demand and cost). although nothing resembling certainty.6) may be met by a reasonably sized R&D program and one condition (1) makes no sense.html//jchen We see that there is evidence to suggest that three of Fetter's six conditions (3. One such market might be space-to-space power. that a vigorous R&D program can develop SSP technology to the point that profitable SSP businesses can be established. weather. we introduce some of the technological aspects of SBSP. 12/22/08. We obtain linearized trend data for various factors that affect the marginal cost of SBSP (primarily solar panel efficiency. The other is the wireless revolution. Weaker arguments suggest that the other two conditions (2. SBSP will not be feasible as a mainstream source of energy until at least 2040. While there is a definite risk of failure. PowerSats supplying power not to the ground but to other spacecraft or perhaps the lunar surface. http://space. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 166 .. federal government should institute a vigorous space solar power research program without delay.edu/e103/Final%20Exams/Space%20Based%20Solar%20Power. niche market willing to pay high prices can be found. substantial reductions in green-house gas emissions. But it sounds like the decision owes more to a tight budget at NASA than anything else.alglobus.com/blogs/shortsharpscience/2008/12/will-obama-pursue-space-based. as it does not have to interact with the atmosphere. Whitesides is currently on leave from his post as executive director of the National Space Society. change. orbital transport costs. They have posted a white paper on the topic on the transition website. James Wu. Such widespread use has allowed wireless power transmission to take dramatic leaps forward. which aims to launch objects into space at a fraction of the current costs. and day/night cycles. We determined that it is actually infeasible to begin work on SBSP. 7/16/11.pdf//jchen Unlike traditional sources of energy such as oil. but current space system prices are based on one-off hand-crafted and therefore necessarily expensive systems. ―Space Based Solar Power‖.gov.pickar. Brian Mok. In this report. i. potential benefits are major: vast quantities of energy. However. and I see no reason why the project couldn't be revived if the next administration takes an interest in SBSP. further decreasing the likelihood of SBSP from being large scale feasible.html//jchen Advocates for SBSP are hoping to secure some support for developing the technology from the Obama administration. ―Will Obama pursue space-based solar power?‖. Harold Martin. physical sciences reporter. First is the advent of private space launch companies.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Federal Action Key – Resources (1/2) SSP is cost effective on a mass scale – ONLY the USfg can provide R&D and economies of scale Al Globus.caltech. On the downside. and great wealth and power for those who succeed. who has been a vocal advocate for SBSP. where he helped push for SBSP research. Space based solar power would be able to run almost continuously. given the incoming president's pledge to make developing alternative energy sources a top priority.S. Some important aspects have changed that could lead to SBSP evolving from a futuristic fantasy into a current. This unquestionable fact gives hope. The most famous one is SpaceX.

google. and economic well-being. is the U. The problem with natural gas in particular is that it is pedestrian. From aircraft to nuclear power to moon Hightsto the Internet to global positioning satellites. is an American political scientist and author. the German military created the foundation of modern rocketry. But like so much of what will take place in this decade. For this decade. chief intelligence officer.http://books. They respond to it by inventing extraordinary new technologies. and the likely source of the technology. although I think ful-fillment of that contract on that schedule is unlikely. Department of Defense. finding cures for degenerative diseases.S. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 167 . has not had its due. Such a time is not usually when the United States undertakes dramatic new ventures. However. the British came up with radar. In my view. The We are in a period in which the state is more powerful than the mar-ket. the state is much better at investing in long-term innovation. But the fundamental problem. Therefore. but they are not nearly as good in basic research. Eutope's EAB is also investing. wind power. He is the founder. The Department of Defense is funding a great deal of research into robotics. and in which the state has more resources. Government is inefficient. Lending powers and those contending for power constantly find themselves under military and economic pressure. Markets are superb at exploiting existing science and early technology. 2011 ―The Next Decade: Where We‘ve Been and Where We‘re Going‖. geopolitics. George Friedman. Enormous amounts of increased energy are needed. the organization most likely to execute them successfully is the Department of Defense. in countering. When we look at the projects we need to undertake in the coming decade.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Federal Action Key – Resources (1/2) Government oversight is key to SBSP. which can‘t yield the magnitude of results required. whether the source is spacebased solar power or some other technology. During a war aimed at global domination. and CEO of the private intelligence corporation Stratfor. energy. 2011 At the same time we must prepare for long-term increases in energy generation from nonhydrocarbon sources-sources that are cheaper and located in areas that the United States will not need to control by send-ing in armies. and California`s Pacific Gas and Electric has signed a con-tract to purchase solar energy from space by 2016. The Philistines dominated the Levantine coast because they were great at making armor. The danger is that the president will fritter away his authority on projects such as conservation. Mitsubishi has invested inspace-based solar power to the tune of about $21 billion. financial overseer. Thus the government will absorb the cost of early develop-ment and private investment will reap the rewards. based on history. this is space-based solar power.private sector can‘t independently solve Friedman.com/books?id=y5plTzPTw8YC&pg=PA235&dq=Space+based+solar+power&hl=en&ei=99cDTq3bHIfE gAfTypSODg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=10&ved=0CGAQ6AEwCQ#v=onepage&q=Space%20based%20solar%20 power&f=false. It is currently under economic pressure but declining military pressure. what should be under way and what is under way is private-sector development of inexpensive booster rockets. and terrestrial solar power. Date accessed June 23. the Roman army built roads and bridges that are still in use. but that inefficiency and the ability to absorb the cost of inefficiency are at the heart of basic research. The government is heavily Funding one area we have discussed. The United States is obviously that sort of power. accepting the ordinary and obvious is called for Hrs t-followed by great dreams quietly expressed. the choices are pedestrian. the president must make certain that development along several axes is under way and that the potential for building them is realistic. To connect and control their empire. There is nothing particularly new in this intertwining of technology.

private industry.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Federal Action Key – Catalyzes Private Sector (1/4) Just one satellite is key – USFG jumpstarts commercial production Kyle Sherer. geothermal. The solar power satellite proposal was then kicked around by NASA and the Department of Energy for a few decades.com/the-solar-power-satellite-broadcasts-energy-to-earth/10290/ In 1968. garnered from an unlimited source. If SPS demonstrates a costeffective yield. advanced nuclear power. The benefits of the solar power satellite are that once it‘s up there. consistent with our existing national policies to invest in other energy sources like wind. but it will be the important first step. and eases the increasing political and financial burden of the fossil fuel economy. federal government has invested over $21 Billion in fusion research in the last 50 years. In his recent Washington Post article. would produce five to ten gigawatts of energy – more than enough for California‘s 4. with various feasibility reports usually stating that the technological principles were sound. mile-long model. Ben Bova argues that the cost/benefit equation of satellite-beamed power has finally tipped enough to make the SPS actionable. Just the act of building the first one. It may sound overly optimistic.4-gigawatt appetite. its performance is not affected by the weather – and unlike nuclear power and fossil fuels. then countries already considering it. ―Solar Power Satellites could broadcast energy to Earth‖. which involved using a one-square kilometer antenna on a satellite to broadcast power via microwaves to a larger receiver on the ground. and Tesla came to grips with losing Wardenclyffe Tower. it produces no waste.net/38b615154ce6479749_p9m6bn37b. • Assign a Lead Federal Agency: Assign lead responsibility for developing SSP to a federal agency. reporter for GizMag. says Bova. clean coal. and delivering power to forward military bases. 11/23/08. http://www. and uses a renewable resource. but the cost was too steep. and biofuels. which alleviates an environmental problem we have known about for decades. When the idea was first shot down. In 1973. • Incremental Step-by-Step SSP Research Program: The Administration should develop a program that is focused on developing and proving key technologies and a series of incrementally more challenging technology demonstrators that can be scaled to much larger systems by mass production techniques. he stated (in a long rant. It seems strange that an idea that has existed for 40 years. 10-29-2008.3cdn. according to Bova. • Focus First on High-Value Niche Power Applications: The federal government should focus first on very high-value energy requirements such as in-space power. has been repeatedly put on ice because of a cost that is still a fraction of what governments spend on military aims. the Space Race caused the wireless energy concept to be re-imagined as a means to turn solar energy into electricity and beam it down to Earth. the proof-of-concept prototype that engages the private sector and encourages government investment. This agency should be tasked to work with other federal agencies. A full. but governments are already investing tens of billions of dollars in nuclear power. • SSP Should be Funded at the Level of Fusion Energy Research: The U. like Japan.gizmag. and our international friends and allies. When choosing a lead agency for SSP. emergency power services to devastated regions for humanitarian purposes. focusing on science and technology. the Administration should establish an SSP research budget within that agency that grows to at least the level of the DOE‘s fusion energy research program Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 168 . It won‘t power much.pdf//jchen RECOMMENDATIONS • Establish Development of SSP in National Policy: Establish in national policy the explicit goal to develop SpaceBased Solar Power as an energy resource. Peter Glaser was granted a patent for his power broadcasting system. fusion. it delivers a constant stream of power to Earth. which uses century-old scientific theory and existing technology. but one worth reading): Federal establishment of SPS drives production and development Opengov ―Space Solar Power (SSP) — A Solution for Energy Independence & Climate Change‖. might hasten their development. Bova‘s proposal involves the construction of a demonstration-model solar power satellite that produces 10 to 100 megawatts. Unlike solar panels here on the ground. and the DOE is currently spending $300 million per year on fusion energy research. would be enough to jump-start the world into wide-scale development. ground solar. geothermal.S. http://otrans.

based in the United Kingdom.pabilities of the Defense Satellite Communications System (DSCS). 10/15/07.tions and imaging satellites and new launch vehicles as well as telecommunications. the broader availability of imagery. services. and its allies to commercially eliminate oil dependence.S. Col. Damphousse of the NSSO states in the report. the government. While government-sponsored innovation pro. Paul E. and meet the energy needs of the developing world. ―The Pentagon Wants Space Solar Power for U.S. including the U. ushering in an era of clean energy. he says. http://www.S. The deal. in an effort to augment the ca. and director of the Space Frontier Foundation.precedented ways. Currently.tary. Dual-use space technologies will spin off from the commercial to the military sector in un. What this means.S.spin off tech The Institute for Foreign Policy Analysis.cations and other capabilities. the private sector will play a growing role in the development of space technologies that have potential military applica. The private sector will develop new products such as satellites and at the same time offer services such as we see today with telecommunications and imagery. and GPS technologies. & the Twenty-First Century‖//ZY Governments in turn will rely increasingly on the private sector for a broader range of space products. "The business case still doesn't close. Charles Miller. the U. but it's closer than ever. ―Missile Defense.vided the initial catalyst.dailytech.S. 2009. Inc.tions in the years ahead. and technologies. products.. the Space Relationship. the government can effectively "buy down" the risk for industry start-ups such as his company. mili. the U. hopes that the government chooses to follow the report and adopt the technology. By installing a power plant in geostationary orbit.ing Paradigm‘s fleet of Skynet satellites.htm//jchen The plan also states that by developing SSP. and services. especially during the Cold War. In some cases government programs will produce infrastructure such as satellites and GPS. a space technology start-up. 37 Initial government funding spurs private industry investment – lowers financial risk Daily Tech. military recently contracted with Paradigm Secure Communications.pabilities. with the private sector then benefiting from such ca. Such a move could allow the U. is that industries may eventually see the technology at an affordable price. CEO of Constellation Services International. Jason Mick." Marine Corps Lt. if the plans succeeds. Armed Forces can reduce the risk for large scale commercial development of the technology. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 169 . the U. will provide the military with X-band communications us. worth up to $48 million over three years.S.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Federal Action Key – Catalyzes Private Sector (2/4) FG funding spurs private sector. will contract with the private sector to lease communi. For example. This includes areas such as communica. while the military will pay a premium to become the early adopter. Allies‖.com/The+Pentagon+Wants+Space+Solar+Power+for+US+Allies/article9275.cations capacity from commercial providers. military receives about 80 percent of its satellite communi. Likewise.

" said US Marine Corps lieutenant colonel Paul Damphousse of the NSSO at a press conference yesterday in Washington.es/noticias. if successful. holds the potential to bridge the ―valley of death‖ that lies between research & development and full commercialization of these technologies. Fellow. Space-based solar power would use kilometre-sized solar panel arrays to gather sunlight in orbit. As such. transport. http://www. high. which would be collected in antennas on the ground and then converted to electricity. which would be developed by first funding a series of space-to-space or space-to-Earth SBSP demonstration projects. 2009. both as a means of reducing dependence on foreign oil as well as for purposes of increasing the efficiency and performance of all aspects of operations across multiple domains including base and facility operations. on. Private Sector needs Gov‘t for SBSP Hsu and Cox. ―PENTAGON BACKS PLAN TO BEAM SOLAR POWER FROM SPACE‖. Aerospace Technology Working Group And Ken Cox. solar power satellites placed in geostationary orbit above the Earth could operate at night and during cloudy conditions. ―Renewable Energy for Military Applications‖ http://www. It would then beam power down to Earth in the form of microwaves or a laser. to the deployment of microgrids for forward base operations and the use of alternative fuels for land. Feng Hsu. the myriad of DOD initiatives focused on fostering cleantech is anticipated to have a substantial impact on the development and growth of the industry as a whole.orbit robotic assembly technology. military – and the supporting governmental infrastructure that facilitates and controls it. Unlike solar panels based on the ground.php?id_not=11978//jchen Increased access to clean and reliable energy has become a leading priority for the U. Government investment in SPS catalyzes private capital New Scientist. Department of Defense (DOD) and the military arena in general. thus triggering large-scale investments by private industries. With projects ranging from the utilization of solar power and wind power for electricity generation. US.google. http://scholar. would ultimately lead to the capacity to harness solar energy from space to alleviate Earth‘s dependence on fossil fuels.com/scholar?start=10&q=development+%22space+based+solar+power%22&hl=en&as_sdt=0.evwind. all branches of the U.6 Mbyte PDF released yesterday by the National Security Space Office recommends that the US government sponsor projects to demonstrate solar-power. Dan Cho.D. Technology demonstrations. DC. and deployment of large-scale orbital solar structures would also be advisable to help reduce risks.efficiency microwave beam generation and control. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 170 . Date accessed June 26. combine to form the single largest consumer of energy in the world – more than any other public or private entity and greater than more than 100 other nations. such as wireless power transmission (WPT). Founder & Director Aerospace Technology Working Group. Ph. military – and many other military and defense entities around the world – are major players in the global cleantech industry. March 29. as an organization. to the adoption of fuel cells for portable power. and sea transport. A report 3.S. NASA GSFC Sr. The upside potential. Military investment in renewable energy and related technologies. DC.generating satellites and provide financial incentives for further private development of the technology.S.org/?q=en/newsletters/rachels_news/929//jchen A futuristic scheme to collect solar energy on satellites and beam it to Earth has gained a large supporter in the US military. Energy consumption is the lifeblood of the U. in many cases. system safety and reliability.S. 2011 And we must invest in projects with multiple benefits such as space-based solar power (SBSP) research and development.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Federal Action Key – Catalyzes Private Sector (3/4) US Military investment in solar jumpstarts private industry REVE 6/14/11.rachel. Ph. "We think we can be a catalyst to make this technology advance. Washington. 10/18/07. and portable soldier power. air. The various composite branches of the DOD.30&as_ylo=2000. thereby addressing global climate-change concerns.D. ― Sustainable Space Exploration and Space Development: A Unified Strategic Vision‖.

http://e360. ―I suspect that NASA will start working on energy and on more advanced technology and less on. By undertaking some of the research and being an early customer for SBSP. ―We might. do some experiments on the International Space Station. for example. The same phenomenon could take an emerging but outlandish-sounding technology and push it into the energy mainstream.msp?id=2184//jchen For those reasons.‖ he says. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 171 .yale.‘‖ says Mankins. ‗Let‘s get to the moon by 2018. Lemonick is the senior writer at Climate Central. leading to technological innovations and economies of scale.edu/mobile/feature. the government could rapidly accelerate development of the technology.‖ Such cooperation might appeal to NASA. ―Solar Power from Space: Moving Beyond Science Fiction‖. 8/31/09. he was a senior writer at Time magazine.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Federal Action Key – Catalyzes Private Sector (4/4) Government backing of emerging tech like SPS empirically causes expansion – airmail proves Michael D. Damphousse supports the idea of coordinated studies by the Pentagon and other agencies — such as NASA and the Department of Energy — that would have a stake in space-based power. which is already up there and generating 110 kilowatts of power from its own solar cells. Historians of aviation agree that the government‘s decision to back air mail played a major role in developing the aircraft industry. where he covered science and the environment for more than 20 years. Prior to joining Climate Central. ―rather than having to send up a dedicated test satellite. a nonpartisan organization whose mission is to communicate climate science to the public.

The Air Force has begun musing unofficially about launching a fleet of micro satellites for even better asteroid detection.com/scholar?start=40&q=unilateral+solar+powered+satellites&hl=en&as_sdt=0. A secondary use of the telescopes and the lasers might also be for international coalitions (following the Gulf War model) to track and destroy agreed upon terrorist organizations and regimes on Earth. large and small. an asteroid about the third of a mile wide passed within 280. Philosophy School of Humanities.30&as_ylo=2000. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 172 . started fires and killed wildlife over an area of more than 1. In 1997 a joint Air Force/MIT program using a two telescopes designed for satellite tracking. a small.‖ The network could be comprised of thousands of reconnaissance satellites in elliptical high Earth orbits that would again. Professor of Philosophy. http://scholar.000 megaton range. English Professor School of Humanities. the explosion would have been in the 5.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 – Terrorism SSP dual use creates multilateral institutions that solve terror Schwab. It was only discovered four days before it passed by. The blast was estimated at tens of megatons and felled trees. serve four purposes: Communications. Director of Humanities and Law Minor. computerized operation soon began discovering more asteroids and comets.000 miles from Earth. and detection of NEOs and deflection of small NEOs.43 One solution to this problem might be to create a multi-lateral planetary defense network as a sort of ―global fire and rescue department. Had it hit. ―The New Viability of Space Solar Power: Global Mobilization for a Common Human Endeavor‖. Martin Schwab. April 15 . rocky asteroid or chunk of a comet exploded five miles above the Tenguska region in Siberia.000 to 12. Date accessed June 25.00 square kilometers. 2002. In 1996. SSP.google. 2011 In 1908. New Mexico. An automated. with generous Pentagon funding was established at the Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff.

Modularity of the system means scope can be expanded or reduced to fit available launch vehicle payload capabilities. it is expected that two beaming satellites (and collecting satellites if space and mass allows) will fit on each Falcon 9 launch.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5367831&tag=1//jchen V. help to mitigate these problems: A large number of small satellites can fit into a single launch vehicle. 2009. the relations to satellite number. [17] we explored the minimum size of the Phase 1 system. and the cost of installing beaming and receiving facilities on a ground station are small in this architecture. The minimum power level was shown to be around 60 MW per satellite. however. the required end-to-end efficiency. Launch costs were estimated using an interpolated form of the lower-bound estimates from the FUTRON launch cost survey [19] of 2004. The ESPA Program is sponsored by the DoD Space Test Program and provides secondary rides to orbit for 180 kg vehicles at a cost of about $1M each. At this level. Launch vehicles are expensive. Development and production costs were estimated using the NASA-Air force NAFCOM cost models[18] with an 85 percent Wright Learning assumed.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 – No Launch We can launch 25 satellites in a single vehicle. but was then expanded to a size of over 100 satellites and stations. SpaceX vehicles are baselined due to the significantly lower cost over other providers and the likely further reductions available once reusability is incorporated into the design. 2009 Atlanta Conference on Science and Innovation Policy. http://hdl. Georgia Institute of Technology. operationally difficult to use. Ryan McLinko is currently a graduate student at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the field of Aerospace Engineering after having received a bachelor‘s degree in the same field at MIT. It must be noted that use of ESPA is not viable in the long term due to the limited number of ESPA rides available on a regular basis.org/stamp/stamp.handle. ―The Space Power Grid: Synergy Between Space. Energy and Security Policies‖. This architecture calls for designing spacecraft to fit the EELV Secondary Payload Adapter standard. Ryan M McLinko. http://ieeexplore.ieee.1/57581 Launching the SSP constellation into orbit is one of the most difficult aspects of the program. Such a system would require the motivations that drive Space agencies worldwide.decreasing the effect on the environment and providing cost efficiency McLinko et al . ESTABLISHING SYSTEM SIZE AND POWER LEVEL In Ref. the system would start functioning with as few as six satellites and 12 power stations. and hence must have SSP as an ultimate goal. and the minimum level of power transacted per satellite to make the system viable. SPS systems can perform with as little as 6 satellites Narayanan Komerath. they will be launched on Falcon 9 or similar launch vehicles. Some aspects of this architecture. and provide a harsh environment for the health of transported satellites during launch. 10/3/2009. based on data up to 2000. but this approach serves as an optimal way to prove out the initial steps of the system. The number of stations can be considerably larger than the number of satellites. School of Aerospace Engineering. ―Space-based solar power generation using a distributed network of satellites and methods for efficient space power transmission‖.net/1721. ESPA type adapters can be developed to launch as many as 25 satellites at a time on a Falcon 9 or similar rocket. when intermittency of transmission and weather issues are taken into account. The lack of a monolithic structure eliminates the need for Saturn V or higher-class heavy-lift launch vehicles. The exercise established the cost of power. Due to the larger size of the beaming satellites. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 173 . required to make it self-sustaining regardless of the implementation of Phases 2 and 3.

The distance from the geostationary belt is so great that beams diverge beyond the coherence and power concentration needed for a weapon. Jenkins. This low energy density and choice of wavelength also means that biological effects are likely to be low. retired Air Force officer who served for 22 years. Johnson Space Center. ―It is very clear that any safety issues are assumed and not real. Absent the pilot signal. 2010. NASA Lyndon B. Nansen adds that tests on insects. The most comprehensive testing has been done by the US military – because they operate high. Intech. http://www. Jenkins Enterprises. he says. the system can be programmed to go into an incoherent mode. proposed microwave intensities would be below the threshold at which objects would begin to heat up. which includes some portable phones. The likelihood of the beam wandering over a city is extremely low. and workers could be easily shielded. Project Engineer. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 174 . Such a beam does not pose a hazard to insects or birds flying through it . However. ―there is no real safety problem. and that standards for SSP systems would be the same as for microwave oven leakage. They can be beamed at densities substantially lower than that of sunlight. Nonetheless. Goldstein. April 2002. The peak density of the beam can be significantly less than noon sunlight. who demonstrated the first successful wireless power trans. December 2009. UK-based space-technology consultant to the space industry. Radiation from SBSP is safe and warnings check Donald M.the army tested it on animals  Mark Williamson. states Nansen. birds and other lifeforms produced no damage with power densities below this heating threshold. However. for Space Systems Operations.mission in 1964 when he powered a model helicopter‖. 2002. Nansen refers to Glaser‘s original proposal: ―The transmitter was based on the work of Bill Brown of Raytheon.die. POWERSPACE//ZY Finally. fences and warningsigns near rectennae would be one method of alleviating this concern.intechopen. Inst. While it is true that higher levels of microwave radiation would locate around the rectennae.power radars – and they found no permanent damage to cells as long as the energy level was less than about 1. No scientific basis for this. The size of the antenna makes microwave beaming unsuitable as a ―secret‖ weapon. the beams‘ frequency is the band used for industrial radio. if community concern were expressed. A person standing in the microwave beam would absorb about 2% of the incident power and feel slightly warmer. SBSP radiation doesn‘t hurt humans David R. and emergency-response radio systems. and at the edge of the rectenna equivalent to the leakage of a microwave oven. The beam is likely to be designed to require a pilot beam transmitted from the rectenna site. Beams f rom a power base on the moon could be turned off in a few seconds or decreased in intensity to accommodate unusual conditions. ―May the power be with you‖. even these levels are expected to be within the range that is now deemed safe by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OHSA). Criswell. The safety of wild life wandering into the beam is not expected to be an issue. ―Development of Space-Based Solar Power‖. wireless connections to remote devices. http://www. Moreover. ―The New Viability of Space Solar Power: Global Mobilization for a Common Human Endeavor ―. This delivers more energy per area than terrestrial solar energy. the general population would be restricted from the industrially zoned beam area. Professor of Public and International Affairs at the Graduate School of Public and International Affairs at the University of Pittsburgh. Concerns may also be addressed through an inspection regime. Director.unipd.it/~benato/download/nationalgrid/Documenti/Space%2520Solar%2520Power1. it would not be a hazard. Microwave intensity under and horizontally beyond the rectenna will be far less than is permitted for continuous exposure of the general population. He is the author of six books.‖ he insists. including The Cambridge Dictionary of Space.000W/m2‖.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 – Radiation (1/2) Transmission rays are safe – equal to radiation from a microwave oven Lyle M. regarding power transmission. Interference generated at harmonics and subharmonics of the beam frequency would likely require reallocation of these systems to other segments of the radio spectrum. Industrial Physicist magazine The space-based technology poses little risk to human health.pdf Some fear that a large network of solar power satellites using microwaves would ―cook‖ the Earth‘s atmosphere like in a microwave oven. In reality. The physics of electromagnetic energy beaming is uncompromising.com/articles/show/title/development-of-space-based-solar-power//jchen Microwave beams are constant and conversion efficiencies high. Even if it occurred.

Exposure to the centre of the beam can in any case be avoided at ground level (e. If the transmitting antenna is turned away from the rectenna. incinerating them to dust! In reality. mechan. and is also a published novelist. It is interesting that wind-turbines are thought to be much more dangerous to birds who inadvertently fly into their sweep. A proposed microwave beam would have a maximum intensity at its centre.intechopen. Simply put. Concerns may also be addressed through an inspection regime.com/content/stl/sciprg/2010/00000093/00000001/art00003 At first glance. He has published more than 200 peer reviewed articles and five books. and biological contamination. it would not be a hazard. a Faraday Cage).The microwave beam intensity at ground level in the centre of the beam would be a built-in feature the system for the simple reason that transmitter (in space) would be too far away and too small to be able to increase the intensity to unsafe death ray levels. Absent the pilot signal. microwave relay beams have been used without incident for many years for telecommunications purposes. One well established means by which to ensure fail-safe beam targeting is to use what are called retrodirective phased array antennayrectenna.72. This low energy density and choice of wavelength also means that biological effects are likely to be low.e.ical stresses. and an intensity of less than 1mWycm2 outside of the rectenna fenceline67. The safety of wild life wandering into the beam is not expected to be an issue. will not be injured by it.com/articles/show/title/development-of-space-based-solar-power//jchen Microwave beams are constant and conversion efficiencies high. and at the edge of the rectenna equivalent to the leakage of a microwave oven. journalist and poet. Christopher J. NASA Lyndon B. via fencing). The distance from the geostationary belt is so great that beams diverge beyond the coherence and power concentration needed for a weapon. a system of this kind is a fail-safe and incapable of focusing its power beam anywhere that did not have a pilot beam transmitter. The following sums are illustrative in putting one‘s mind at rest. The physics of electromagnetic energy beaming is uncompromising. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 175 . SBSP is safe. of corrosion. which will intercept the microwaves. and one wonders what would happen if the beam accidentally drifted off-course and hit some unsuspecting bystander. the phase control fails and the microwave power beam is automatically defocused73..ingentaconnect. Intech. The peak density of the beam can be significantly less than noon sunlight. Professor Chris Rhodes has a visiting position at the University of Reading and is Director of Freshlands Environmental Actions. Here the prin. The beam is likely to be designed to require a pilot beam transmitted from the rectenna site. March 2010 ―Solar energy: principles and possibilities‖. and most aircraft are fitted with a protective metal shell (i. should they fly into the beam-path. The size of the antenna makes microwave beaming unsuitable as a ―secret‖ weapon. Project Engineer. December 2009. Rhodes. http://dartmouthcolnh. They can be beamed at densities substantially lower than that of sunlight. for example and the pilot beam is lost. 495% of the beam energy will fall on the rectenna while any remaining microwave energy will be absorbed and dispersed well within standards currently imposed upon microwave emissions around the world70. Johnson Space Center. even theoretically. Even if it occurred. http://www. Jenkins. It has been proposed that the rectennas should be placed offshore71. the transmitted beam is centred precisely on the rectenna and has a high degree of phase uniformity. but this would cause problems.g.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 – Death Rays No death rays – beams are too dispersed and incoherent to be used as a weapon Lyle M. This delivers more energy per area than terrestrial solar energy. Thereby. The likelihood of the beam wandering over a city is extremely low.. the system can be programmed to go into an incoherent mode. Circuits in each of the antenna‘s subarrays measure the pilot beam‘s phase front against an internal clock phase. An important design constraint is to ensure that the beam is of sufficiently low power that wildlife.library. Jenkins Enterprises.ciple is that a ‗‗pilot‘‘ microwave beam emitted from the centre of the rectenna on the ground establishes a phase front at the transmitting antenna. ―Development of Space-Based Solar Power‖. The term ‗‗death ray‘comes to mind. the idea of sending a beam of microwaves from space to Earth is alarming to say the least. Even within its most intense region the beam energy is far below what is regarded as dangerous even for an indefinitely prolonged exposure69.incapable of focusing beam anywhere but the transmitter Rhodes. mainly birds. amounting to 23 mWycm2 (which is less than a quarter of the solar irradiation constant).

plants. asteroidal and lunar materials. but ozone depletion would be negligible.com/p-sps-bi. however.09 ―Is there a connection between the ozone hole and global warming?‖ http://www. SPS won‘t have a significant effect on the ozone layer.3 Environmental Effects of SPSs on Earth‖ http://permanent. is not the mechanism of global warming. ref. No. Rocket launches do cause various forms of pollution comparable overall to a power plant on the ground. Unlike low Earth orbit space stations and spy satellites. have a common cause—human activities that release gases into and alter the atmosphere. i. leading science-based nonprofit working for a healthy environment and a safer world. (For more detail on the basic mechanism of global warming. Because our atmosphere is one connected system.. The ozone hole. even old satellites Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 176 . The term ‗ozone hole‘ refers to recent depletion of this protective layer over Earth's polar regions. Others asked about whether a SPS could crash to Earth. The SPS in no way affects the ozone layer. cause the ozone molecules to break down. evidence suggests that climate change may contribute to thinning of the protective ozone layer.org/global_warming/science_and_impacts/science/ozone-hole-and-gw-faq. will greatly reduce launch needs.html Ozone (O3) high in the atmosphere absorbs ultraviolet radiation from the sun. and it would take many thousands of years before the SPS's orbit could possibly decay to cause atmospheric entry. capturing the solar heat that would otherwise be radiated out into space. Mark Prado. These gases. 88) Using materials already in space. (Valentino/DoE.12. Global warming is caused primarily from putting too much carbon into the atmosphere when coal. and oil are burned to generate electricity or to run our cars. These gases spread around the planet like a blanket. People. former advanced planner for Pentagon space program. thereby protecting living organisms below from this dangerous radiation.13. see carbon dioxide FAQ.ucsusa. it is not surprising that ozone depletion and global warming are related in other ways. large scale space development using asteroid-derived fuel propellants will insure that dead satellites in low orbit do not crash to Earth. For example. gas. the SPSs are located in a very high Earth orbit. Notably. Ozone depletion occurs when chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)—formerly found in aerosol spray cans and refrigerants—are released into the atmosphere.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 – Ozone Holes (1/2) Plan net helps – solves warming that destroys the ozone layer Union of Concerned Scientists (MIT). Answer: none. and animals living under the ozone hole are harmed by the solar radiation now reaching the Earth's surface—where it causes health problems from eye damage to skin cancer.) Both of these environmental problems do.e. 20 02. through several chemical reactions. however. 7.htm Many people ask about the effects on the ozone layer of SPSs. Ultraviolet radiation represents less than one percent of the energy from the sun—not enough to be the cause of the excess heat from human activities. ―§ 5. reducing ozone's ultraviolet (UV) radiation-absorbing capacity.

assuming 25 years of operation for the solar power satellite. but they would not be expected to have a detectable impact. If we produce the same amount of energy on Earth from oil (energy density about 40 MJ/kg). This means that all the described Earth launched solar power satellites produce about one order of magnitude less CO2 emissions than fossil fuels for the same amount of generated electricity.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 SPS does not cause significant harm to the ozone layer. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 177 . We compare this to the solar power satellite emission results shown in Table 1. we get about 50 kg of CO2 emissions at 100% thermal efficiency and 1oad factor. They generate about 10 MJ of energy per 1 kg of CO2 emissions. but even then would have only a negligible effect on the weather. In this paper we define efficiency as the ratio between the electricity delivered by the rectenna into the terrestrial transmission line and the electricity generated in space as the input to the space microwave transmission system. 11. comparable to the heat released over suburban areas. Slovenia b Jožef Stefan International Postgraduate School. Issue 4. Aleksander Zidanšek et al. The effect of rocket launches on the ionosphere could be mitigated by a depressed launch trajectory. However. JUNE 1992 Effects on the Atmosphere: Weather and climatic effects of waste heat released at a receiving antenna site would be generally small. In its lifetime 1 W of space solar electric power will thus produce about 760 MJ of energy. such a clear advantage of orbital solar power satellites demonstrates that this is indeed a very sound energy technology from a global warming reduction point of view. Optimization of the first stage‘s launch trajectory would reduce the injection of water vapor into the lower atmosphere if hydrogen-oxygen propellants are used. would not be critical. if we assume that it operates 95% of the time. Inadvertent weather modification by rocket effluents in the troposphere. University of Pennsylvania. and may result in undesirable effects if large quantities of water are deposited over an extended time frame. reduce the possibility of hydrogen diffusion into the ionosphere and prevent the formation of noctilucent clouds. The air quality effect of the launch of advanced space transportation vehicles. the emissions are even lower. Among other environmental impacts it is for example important to take into account that the rocket fuel emissions may also destroy ozone. which would increase sulphur dioxide concentration. Volume 36.30. 6. Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics. two orders of magnitude more than for a typical space power station. Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics. Water & Environment Systems Currently we get about 85% of the world energy from fossil fuels. water vapor deposited in the upper atmosphere will have a long residence time. Some acid rain might occur near the launch site if there are significant quantities of sulphur in the fuel. however. Glaser 92 American scientist and aerospace engineer. and it is important to explore the possible effects of microwaves and laser beams on the ionosphere. for example. 5th Dubrovnik Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy. Jamova cesta 39. For a more realistic efficiency of about 30% these emissions are about 150 kg. 40. The absorption of microwave power in the troposphere is expected to increase during heavy rainstorms. The change in the globally averaged ozone layer due to SPS launches would be undetectable as would the effects of nitrogen oxides. because of cumulative effects. Transient clouds at stratosphere and mesosphere altitudes could be induced in the vicinity of the launch site. and the amount of nitric oxides formed would be negligible. if we assume 70% efficiency of the energy transmission system [16]. Nearly all of the carbon monoxide would be oxidized to carbon dioxide. its overall benefits for the environment make it a preferable solution for alternative energy. Even if SPS were to have an impact on the ozone layer. and we would get more than 500 MJ of energy to Earth. Peter E. Ljubljana. VOL.e. All the data in the tables are calculated for the power received at the rectenna on Earth. With this result it is important to keep in mind that CO2 emissions are not the only cost to environment.2010 Jožef Stefan Institute. ―Solar orbital power: Sustainability analysis‖ Elsevier Ltd. a booster returning below an altitude of 75 km would keep the rocket effluents in the turbulent mixing regions of the atmosphere. i. NO. would be possible and would require continuing monitoring of rocket exhaust clouds and the various meteorological conditions to mitigate such effects. If the satellites are built and launched from the Moon. VP of Advanced Technology ―An Overview of the Solar Power Satellite Option‖ IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES. University of Maribor. Department of Physics.

A.HAARP Non-unique – HAARP system already does this and is being used by the US military. HAARP inventor Bernard Eastlund described in his original patent how antenna energy can interact with plumes of atmospheric particles. and even our evolution. journalist at IDAHO Observer.S. Navy and Air Force.electron precipitation from the magnetosphere. Thus. which can also damage the ozone layer and cause earthquakes. operating in Alaska as part of the Strategic Defense Initiative. The precipitated particles can produce secondary ionization. Richard Alan Miller and Iona Miller 03 Schumann's Resonances and Human Psychobiology (extended version): Organization for the Advancement of Knowledge (O. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 178 . [62] HAARP transmissions make holes in the ozone. This results also in electronic rain from the sky -. to modify weather. penetrating everything living and dead. potentially affecting human brainwaves. [61] Operated jointly by the U. Amy Worthington. much to the chagrin of both the European Parliament and the Russian Duma. [64] HAARP is capable of triggering floods. we see that HAARP can be employed for nefarious weather modification. this system won't soon be tested in any possible confrontation in the Middle East. the key to geophysical warfare is the identification of environmental instabilities where adding a small amount of energy can release vastly greater amounts of energy.). used as a lens or focusing device. ―Aerosol and Electromagnetic Weapons In The Age Of Nuclear War‖ Spirit of Ma‘at February 2009 According to University of Ottawa Professor Michael Chossudovsky. the military's High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP). [65] HAARP depletes the ozone layer. and cause significant perturbation in the lower atmosphere. Grants Pass. Thus. It is caused by man-made very low frequency EM waves. including military targets. [63] creating yet another hobgoblin. 2003 Ionospheric heaters deliberately create instabilities in the plasma layer of the ionosphere to rev up the the energy level of charged particles.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 – Ozone Holes . droughts and hurricanes. 09. if Hainsworth is correct. is a powerful tool for weather and climate modification.. emit Xrays. An electronic beam can ionize or de-ionize the atmosphere over a given area. Or. Hopefully. HAARP antennas bombard and heat the ionosphere.K. causing electromagnetic frequencies to bounce back to earth.

The road to keep increasing terrestrial primary electric supply (or replacing today‘s GHG-emitting fossilbased plants) will be open. or lack of generation and transmission (e.ieee. A 3-phase plan is linked to the policy approaches needed to implement it. The experiment was sponsored by Discovery Communications. and with a 30% end-to-end transmission of the power. our Space Power Grid concept addresses the issues of Table 1. Energy and Security Policies‖. The 17-year initial phase will use a constellation of low/mid earth orbit satellites exchanging beamed power between 100 plants. at a cost of less than $1 billion. climate control and space development initiatives.g. Larger satellites with high-intensity converters. http://ieeexplore.org/stamp/stamp. covering everything from the launch vehicles to the ground receivers. To double terrestrial primary energy availability. In Ref. Georgia Institute of Technology. Announcing his results. Mr Mankins thinks this could be done by 2015. ―The Space Power Grid: Synergy Between Space. so the 30% should be compared to the 94% transmission that the US grid claims. School of Aerospace Engineering.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 – Long Timeframe (1/3) Microwaves can penetrate the atmosphere. where large ultralight reflectors in GEO (Phase 3) focus sunlight down to 300-Sun solar-electric converters placed on the Phase 2 satellites that will replace the original waveguide satellites. ―The Space Power Grid: Synergy Between Space. will replace the aging first set. If this can be achieved.ieee. at a cost of about $100m. School of Aerospace Engineering.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5367831&tag=1//jchen The SPG can generate useful revenue at a minimum size of 20 satellites and 12 plants. With that done. magazine. and to test it in low-Earth orbit. receiving focused light from ultralight collectors in a scalable path to space solar power. [5] we showed that with 200GHz transmission.org/stamp/stamp. the SPG integrates terrestrial systems at all size scales from utilities to household micro renewable energy systems SPS pays for itself within 17 years and can supply global energy soon after Narayanan Komerath. Sufficient SPS can be developed within 17 years to power the US Narayanan Komerath. in places where the power fetches high prices due to peak demand.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5367831&tag=1//jchen The dream of abundant solar-powered electricity from Space can be realized through global synergy between renewable energy. Georgia Institute of Technology. After that. under the direction of John Mankins of Managed Energy Technologies. Phase 3 then allows for expansion until the constellation in L/MEO reaches saturation. While technical challenges remain.. a TV company. some 300 square kilometers of ultralight reflectors will be needed in high orbits. 8. economist. 2009 Atlanta Conference on Science and Innovation Policy. The cost of delivered power will then decrease substantially. The experiment was carried out by American and Japanese researchers in only four months. and commercial operation could begin by 2025. then system costs can be recovered in about 17 years. of the kind that would be used to transmit energy to Earth. with the transmission of a microwave beam. as shown in Table 2 below Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 179 . European initiatives for a DC grid to integrate space and terrestrial solar power provide policy guidance. By that time the next phase can start. and technology has since changed radically. 10/3/2009.com The optimistic NSSO report was followed in May 2008 by a milestone for SSP. for a documentary. and the latest we'll have SPS is 2025 The Economist. and for less than $1m. In summary. http://ieeexplore. a full pilot system could be deployed in geostationary orbit. SPG Phase 1 with no power generated in space can be competitive with terrestrial power options. 2009 Atlanta Conference on Science and Innovation Policy. a firm he founded after a long career developing space systems at NASA. "Let the Sun Shine In". The distance was chosen because it is equivalent to the thickness of the atmosphere that a microwave beam from space must penetrate. This assumes that power generation has the same efficiency as any other power. Mr Mankins said that what was needed next was a two-year engineering study of a full SSP system. the next step would be to develop the necessary architecture to make SSP economically viable. 10/3/2009. islands. between two Hawaiian islands 148 kilometres apart. Energy and Security Policies‖. at a cost of $10 billion. and prime time in big cities). Such a study has not been carried out since the 1980s.

and conveyed down to Earth. The Space Power Grid (SPG) approach [6. Carbon credits provide a small continuing revenue stream.mit. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 180 . Large beam divergence. School of Aerospace Engineering. scalable approach to SSP within 25 to 30 years from project start. and compete for premium prices by exchanging power with plants anywhere. 2) As the constellation grows.ieee. this plan assumes a baseline workforce of 300 employees and associated facilities over a time period of 5 years.000km above the equator. In short. ECONOMICS OF THE SPACE POWER GRID The business case is based on 4 features: 1) SPG allows solar and wind power plants to achieve baseload provider status.org/stamp/stamp.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 – Long Timeframe (2/3) SPS breaks even in 17 years of launch – only requires 6 billion dollar initial investment Narayanan Komerath. 3) Use of a constellation as a power grid minimizes the impact of weather by providing transmission alternatives.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5367831&tag=1//jchen I. 15) that a power cost of 30 cents per KWh can be achieved. ―Space-based Solar Power Generation Using a Distributed Network of Satellites and Methods for Efficient Space Power Transmission‖. 2009 Atlanta Conference on Science and Innovation Policy. The economics of Carbon Credits and control of global Climate Change improve the viability of the SPG. immense ground infrastructure and limited coverage beyond 30 degree latitude. while the SPG eliminates the need for megameters of concrete and metal transmission grids that take an enormous amount of energy to develop SBSP‘s first launch could be even be in 5 years McLinko and Sagar. Department of Mathematics. make this a non-starter. 4) Revenue growth occurs early with a few satellites and participating plants. Constellation growth is matched to the commissioning of renewable power plants. have shown (Ref.7. given the first satellite launch in year 6. 6/24/2011 (Ryan and Basant. http://ieeexplore. Most are to beam the power down from large (>100 sq. ―The Space Power Grid: Synergy Between Space. This is with zero government funding. School of Aerospace Engineering. eliminating the huge cost-to-firstpower drawback of GEO-based concepts. antenna size is reduced. eliminating the need for major assembly in orbit. and by reducing the need for backup power generation. the development. Energy and Security Policies‖. and thus minimizing development and launch costs. http://web.km) converters at geo stationary earth orbit (GEO). This paper deals with the interplay of technology. fabrication.edu/basant/www/SSP_McLinko_Sagar. 10/3/2009. Georgia Institute of Technology.3. however this work must eventually be brought in-house to significantly reduce cost. With about $6B invested during the development phase. The cost to first revenue is beyond hope. clean. Georgia Institute of Technology. Detailed calculations of Net Present Value and the Internal Rate of Return (IRR) needed for breakeven in a set number of years. SSP can meet full market demand within 25 years of development Narayanan Komerath.4. breaking even with reasonable IRR of 8% within 23 years from project start. 36.pdf) Finally. and testing of this design must also be considered in the formation of a business plan. INTRODUCTION The dream of Space Solar Power (SSP)[1] is that abundant.ieee. ―The Space Power Grid: Synergy Between Space. Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics.org/stamp/stamp. steady electric power can be generated ―24/365‖ in Space. The current design assumes outsourcing of solar array design and assembly. but also qualifies the system for a much larger initial public investment. Energy and Security Policies‖. Many concepts have been proposed [2. http://ieeexplore. global relations and national public policy involved in making this concept come to fruition.5] to harvest SSP on a massive scale.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5367831&tag=1//jchen IV. 2009 Atlanta Conference on Science and Innovation Policy.8] seeks to break through this problem with an evolutionary. this can be achieved even if system efficiency does not improve much from what is possible today. mass needed at GEO. economics. Fossil power use is reduced by enabling renewable plants in remote locations including islands. 10/3/2009. with a viable business plan and minimal costs to taxpayers. which can be located in ideal locations without need for market proximity.

―New Space Solar Power Report from DoD NSSO‖. who chairs the global warming committee. at least on the level of support for fusion research.org/mambo/index. Rancatore said he‘s yet to identify a member willing to champion this issue in Congress. Alternative Energy Action Network (Arthur. Take other reasonable steps to reduce risks and incentivize development.‖ Right now. And some people think it will be even sooner. He also operates the Spacetoday. and foreign policy. solves three major issues in the US today: employment.‖ In an interview after the press conference. about this issue. The recommendations are for reasonable and appropriate steps taken by the federal government: become an "anchor tenant". Rancatore said he‘s working to ―educate members about what space-based solar power can do for our country. ―The United States is by far the world‘s greatest space power. he said. senior vice president of the NSS. DoD field operations that currently rely on long and deadly supply chains to bring in fuel oil.thespacereview. Co-Founder of the Alternative Energy Network. but it would save us billions on energy imports—paying for itself almost instantly. This military need changes the economic equation. particularly in high-technology areas. ―and yet we‘re not spending any money in this country on space solar power. the same incentive that's been given to nuclear operators for years. That‘s the long-term goal. ―The potential of space solar power is so large that. The energy market is a trillion dollar/year market (just in the US). ―Energy is probably the biggest issue facing the country as well as the world. not the 50 years people sometimes talked of. the editor and publisher of The Space Review. primarily with the House Committee on Energy and Commerce and the Select Committee on Energy Independence and Global Warming.doing this may be key to preventing future wars and disasters. ―It‘s possible in a short time and it‘s possible at a reasonable budget. if it works out. space shuttle. SSP. within 10-15 years the case will close. who added that SSP could allow the US to stop spending hundreds of billions of dollars a year to import energy. So there's DoD interest at a tactical level just for this reason.‖ said Hopkins. The Space Review. and possible create a ‗space-based solar caucus‘ within Congress for them to fully understand the ramifications for our country and the world and start get members involved. Some of that rhetoric being used to win over members of Congress was trotted out at the press conference as well.‖ he said. Loan guarantees for instance. energy independence. In particular. the Apollo. not even including the cost in lives lost. ―A step forward for space solar power‖. http://www. but for now the focus is on near-term incremental progress. he said he‘s met with Congressman Ed Markey (D-MA). 10/10/2007. Investment tax credits for this and for development of reusable launch vehicles. on the issue of SSP. reduce the technical risks. some of it from countries unfriendly to the US.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=129) Miller stated that the SFF believes the US government should initiate a major national project on this. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 181 .‖ said Mark Hopkins. Jeff Foust.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 – Long Timeframe (3/3) We can launch the satellites in a matter of years—not only would space solar power streamline the American economy.‖ Mankins said. 8/15/2008. and ISS will look like college science projects next to the real space age it will bring about. With these reasonable steps. but expects to make progress on that front.altenergyaction. create that dialogue. including establishing the caucus. http://www. There's also DoD interest at the strategic level . They are paying more than that for electricity at some bases in Iraq now. requiring both short.and long-term solutions. The reason the business case can close so soon is the existence of near-term customers who have no other option potentially willing to pay $1-2/kWh for beamed-in power.com/article/1210/1 Rancatore is now spending time meeting with members of Congress and their staffs. when a new Congress convenes in January. Extend pollution offsets and renewables subsidies to this.net web site and the Space Politics and Personal Spaceflight weblogs. ―What we think we‘ve done is to demonstrate that progress is possible. it would transform the American economy to a much greater extent than the auto industry did in the early part of the 20th century. He added that he‘s reached out to the campaigns of John McCain and Barack Obama on this subject as well. The NSSO study shows the possibility of closing the energy business case for some markets within just 10-15 years.‖ A recent study proves that SBSP will be deployed in 10 years Smith. If this takes off.

2011 The cost to deploy the first space-based solar energy system is estimated at approximately $500 million. The costs per kg are higher for expendable than reusable launch vehicles: Proton at $18. A payload capacity to orbit for Proton is lowest at 4. The tech for SSP comes cheap NSS. http://www.500 per kg. even in this initial.600 kg to GTO whereas Falcon 9 Heavy payload to orbit is 12.google. Launch cost for the Russia Proton expendable vehicles is highest at $85 million. these cost goals now appear achievable using the technical approaches described previously Aff would only cost $500 million Rubenchik.200 kg to GTO. 9. I.com/scholar?q=%E2%80%9CThe+cost+to+deploy+the+first+spacebased+solar+energy+system+is+estimated+at+approximately+%24500+million. ―Space Based Solar Power‖. AdAstra. Second. and the United States. SpaceX Falcon 9 Normal/Heavy launch vehicles below (Wertz. the total installed cost of a space solar power system cannot be more than about $10. My launch vehicles tradeoff study in Appendices I and II shows that reusable launch vehicles cost less than expendable launch vehicles. the start-up costs look prohibitively high. reusable launch vehicles are the way to go.nss. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 182 . Since a first article is yet to be designed and built.. scholarworks. Masters Degree from San Jose State University . We believe that our proposed system can be deployed and begin power-beaming operations at a cost of a few hundred of millions of dollars. However.+A+significant+percentage+of+this+cost+is+attribute d+to+the+laser%2C+the+solar+reflector%2Fcollector+systems%E2%80%9D+&hl=en&btnG=Search&as_sdt=1%2C30&as_sdtp=on. Falcon 9 Normal at $10. However.000 per kilowatt of power delivered on the ground. October 2007.) for each kilowatt of energy delivered to the ground. two high-level goals must be achieved.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 – Too Expensive (1/2) American Renewable Launch Vehicles are relatively cheap Tuyet N. I compared the Russian Proton.350 per kg. and Falcon 9 Heavy at $8.pdf Space solar power need not be impossibly cheap to compete. the solar power beaming lift vehicle) to reduce costs. Long March at $11. A significant percentage of this cost is attributed to the laser. the cost for mass in space cannot be greater than about $3. Le. First. Conceptual design of a solar power beaming space system. However. This cost includes a single space. the Chinese Long March. strongly support villages worldwide. The cost to launch future additional vehicles into LEO is estimated to be several times less than the initial launch.org/adastra/AdAstra-SBSP2008.1 compares existing launch vehicles cost for both expendable and reusable. For example. A rough order of magnitude cost for a first system is shown in the following table:Subsequent systems would cost significantly less. Remarkably. it certainly can stimulate the technological development (as an example. Only a few out of those twenty countries have developed reusable launch vehicles. Alexander M Rubenchik.sjsu. it is difficult to estimate with strong confidence the actual cost of our proposed system. 2000).e. Multiple industries would be engaged supporting their areas of expertise to comprise the total required system. such that space-based solar power can be an economic realization in the not too distant future. Eonomic Model of Reusable vs. ―Solar Power Beaming: From Space to Earth‖. the attributes of the system as explained in previous sections. rather low throughput case. and the cost of the laser system is also estimated to be several times less than the first deployed unit. National Space Society. for low cost access to space. Date accessed June 24. the solar reflector/collector systems and the ground receiver/power generation station on Earth.000/kg ($1360/lb). the mass of the system in space cannot be greater than about 3-6 kilograms (7-19 lbs.500 per kg. April 2009. is a physicist at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.edu There are about twenty countries with advanced-launch capabilities. Launch cost for Falcon 9 Normal reusable vehicles is lowest at $35 Million. Table 4.based power beaming system and a single receiver station on Earth.200 per kg. Therefore. Although this initial system may be far from economical. http://scholar. Expendable Launch Vehicles.

A solar power satellite will provide a more than adequate amount of energy. All of these positive outcomes would help the United States and the rest of the world prosper economically.com/scholar?q=%E2%80%9CThe+cost+to+deploy+the+first+spacebased+solar+energy+system+is+estimated+at+approximately+%24500+million. 2011 We have described a fully self-contained space.org/getpdf/servlet/GetPDFServlet?filetype=pdf&id=ASCECP000207041774000176000001&idtype=cvip s&doi=10. For instance receptions could also be placed on the moon and on various planets where the environment is possible suitable for life.google. the money borrowed would be rapidly recovered due to the vast amount of energy beamed back to earth.22. 1994). Cheap? That‘s right. The laser‘s near infrared wavelength (795 nanometers) supports efficient transport through the Earth‘s atmosphere. http://scholar. Instructor at the El Dorado High School. once constructed.05. Significant cost reduction factors include: that the entire space-based solar power system can be deployed into space via a single launch vehicle. A Low Earth Orbit (LEO) has been chosen to facilitate the use of current launch system capabilities. and that the system requires no human intervention to set-up and activate.aip. as well as reducing the laser beam and optical system pointing and alignment requirements. Our philosophy is to take a reasonable first step. It‘ll only cost a couple billion dollars—that‘s nothing in NASA‘s terms G B Leatherwood. 1996. But the necessity of relatively harmless. which could be used for communications and even government uses (Bova. Financing the building of such a large satellite might be a slight problem. Spacefuture. If the loans were used.+A+significant+percentage+of+this+cost+is+attribute d+to+the+laser%2C+the+solar+reflector%2Fcollector+systems%E2%80%9D+&hl=en&btnG=Search&as_sdt=1%2C30&as_sdtp=on. 5/22/2011. yet plentiful energy is obvious. Subsequent systems are estimated to cost several times less. it is clearly beneficial for the general public. ―Space-based Solar Power by 2016?‖. will run on solar solar energy so no fuel will be necessary which will make the operation of the satellite expensive.com/journal/journal. learn from our experience. 1996. and it will galvanize development for existing technological bases. 1993).1061/40177(207)176&prog=normal&bypassSSO=1) The cost of the construction of a solar power satellite would be anywhere from nine hundred million to (fifteen billion dollars (Bova. is a physicist at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Either taxpayers‘ money could be used or long-term. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 183 . ―Solar Power Beaming: From Space to Earth‖. Although many engineering details need to be resolved to make this system a reality. Staff writer for space future.based solar power system capable of efficiently beaming collected solar energy from space to receiver stations located at the Earth‘s surface. 1993). The excess energy could be used to launch an aircraft which would decrease the cost of the launching. the solar power satellite.spacefuture. lightweight laser system that can effectively transmit a coherent laser beam from space to Earth with high efficiency and reliable operation. http://www. Date accessed June 24. The idea of launching a solar power satellite would also increase the amount of exploration done within the next century.solaren_plans_SSP_by_2016 Solaren has always been careful to always just say it will take a few billion dollars to build our first 200 Megawatt (MW) SSP pilot plant for PG&E. We have been able to find wealthy investors who want to do something important by supporting new innovative developments like SSP—that has the potential for changing the future of our world/planet. we believe that all of the major subsystems and components are mature enough to warrant serious support of this concept.1993). First. with the related attribute of requiring a correspondingly very small receiver on Earth. low-interest federal loans could be taken out just as loans were taken out for the large power dams (Bova. make a simple system initially. Alexander M Rubenchik. El Dorado High School (Rebecca. The key technological advancement that supports this concept is the development of a simple. and build on our successes over time to gain increased performance and capability in subsequent systems. There are several motives for the manufacturing of a solar power satellite. April 2009.cgi?art=2011. No link – initial investments would rapidly recover Kluck. This price may seem immense but the truth is this method of collecting and delivering energy from space to earth will become cheaper in the long run. It would also promote international cooperation (Bova. of merely a few meters in diameter. therefore additional and more frequent missions could take place. A deployment timeframe of six to seven years for this initial system is proposed. ―Solar Power Satellites‖http://scitation.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 – Too Expensive (2/2) No link to Spending Rubenchik. A rough order of magnitude cost of $500M for the first space-based solar power beaming system is estimated.

―Early commercial demonstration of space solar power using ultralightweight arrays‖. carbon-neutral. Watanabeb. The of TFSC that produces predicts bare solar arrays with power density 17. http://space. 35. Kusunokia. American Aerospace Advisors. AL. Chapman .. Fujitac and M. T. S.4% efficient and will provide 5950 W/kg and under space heat annealing self-repair conditions. Willenberg. The price paid for these benefits is the need to deploy structures in space that are very large by current spaceflight standards. ―An Isoinertial Solar Dynamic Sunsat‖. in the north or south hemisphere. Electronic steering deflects the beam from the nadir to the target rectenna. Inc. inexhaustible electric power anywhere on Earth.7°. Germany. In-space conditions offer temperatures which have been shown to self-repair a-Si cells by heat annealing. Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). Mass manufacturing required for economies of scale is empirically proven to lower costs International Journal of Impact Engineering. Fukushigea.com/science/article/pii/S0094576509001969//jchen 2. Seestetten. SESCRC/Welsom Space Solar.000 W/kg. S. The array tracks the sun. N. This paper addresses the first of these issues. Issue 12. T. Akahoshia. K. The rectenna. Kevin Reed. is 8. converts the energy received to standard AC. Hosodab. Nakamuraa. rotating once per orbit about the orbit normal.net/papers/PhilChapmanSSP. 12/5/07. Y. Manufacturing capability is critical. December 2008. The ability to make such solar arrays has been demonstrated at laboratory scale in the form of record power density 4300 W/kg. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 184 .5% efficient under room temperature conditions. Osaka University. transmitting power in the form of microwaves to a rectenna (rectifying antenna) on Earth. Whether or not sunsats can be competitive with terrestrial sources thus depends almost entirely on the feasibility of (1) a very light structure. These factors. These same 6 μm thickness a-Si:H TFSC. USA. Furusawaa. Ultra-lightweight carbon-fiber reinforced polymer. A companion paper 3 shows that economies of scale in even a modest sunsat deployment program will permit launch costs of order $300/kg. Vilshofen. and (2) a major reduction in space launch costs. using quite conventional technology. together with the benign operating environment in free fall and vacuum and the delivery of power near the intended load mean that the capital cost of the overall system can be considerably less than for a comparable solar power plant on Earth.pdf//jchen A sunsat consists of a large solar array in geostationary orbit (GSO. December 2008.800 km above the equator). Kouraa. S. Choa Kyushu Institute of Technology.alglobus. JapanVolume 35. Mission Scientist for Apollo 14. There is room in GSO for thousands of them. no technological breakthroughs are required.sciencedirect. the area of the array needed for a given energy output is less than 20% of that for a terrestrial system using the same solar conversion technology – and no energy storage is required. Sunsats could provide clean. T. which are 9. . Because there is no night or weather in GSO. http://www. up to at least 60° latitude. Toyonaka. are 12.5% stabilized efficiency AM0 (1357 standard) thin-film solar cells on 6 μm thickness CP1 polyimide superstrates (polymer film towards the light). physicist and astronautical engineer. low payload volume and low payload mass space solar arrays that are the key enabling technology for SPS. the maximum deflection to anywhere on the visible disk. Depositing these TFSC on 2 μm thickness CP1 or CORIN polyimide will reduce the superstrate weight by and increase the area per kilogram of the array to approximately /kg. and Harvey J. Y. . located near the intended load. While development and deployment of sunsats on a scale commensurate with energy needs would be a major enterprise. Machidaa.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 – Too Expensive: Economies of Scale (1/3) SPS is 5 times more efficient than ground based solar but development requires economies of scale Philip K. thin-film solar cell (CFRP TFSC) arrays provide. while the axis of the microwave antenna remains along the local vertical. Owens Cross Roads. 9.

The RPOs will be implemented through Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs).suchasSSP. Emergent Ventures. in Mankins‘s opinion. Spaceflight is too expensive for SBSP. The Gujarat Government has signed PPAs for 950+MW. As stated earlier. The National Solar Mission employed tariff bidding to allocate 650MW to developers last year. which will drive down the costs of solar generation.org/Overview. power satellites are large compared to anything yet deployed in space. Already. Not a bad outcome from a standing start! These circumstances are leading to a perfect storm in solar. which will trade within a pricing band established by the CERC. The mass production needed for power satellites will reduce these prices to terrestrial levels.‖ he says. the fabrication cost for a power satellite will be much less than for a comparable terrestrial solar power plant. and the utopian spectre of grid parity becomes achievable in the next few years (Figure 1) Fifth. COO and head. http://solarhigh. regardless of the energy technologies that are used. Air travel would be equally expensive if Boeing built only four 777s each year. slated to grow to 3% over the same time frame.500 per kilowatt. ―Solar High: Energy for the 21st Century‖. Carbon Finance and Technology Solutions. 5/29/2011. If the energy needed to launch a payload to low Earth orbit (LEO) could be obtained at the current retail price of electricity. Foreseeable near-term advances are expected to reduce the cost of a Block II satellite to ~$4. Developing SBSP will be a relatively modest but important part of that undertaking. the emergence of a large new commercial market for launches. and massively more effective—none of their evidence assumes this.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 – Too Expensive: Economies of Scale (2/3) Economies of scale reduce cost of SBSP with expansion of energy use Solar High Study Program. With increasing scale comes in yields. In future rounds. several projects aggregating 200-300MW are likely to be commissioned over the next year. including The Cambridge Dictionary of Space. Indian policymakers are committed to supporting the scale-up while also reducing solar costs. ―However. Lastly. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 185 . and if airlines scrapped the aircraft after each flight. over 1. in clean rooms. efficiencies. capital costs for solar projects have dropped from INR 15-16 crore/MW to INR 12-13 crore/MW. The current study by the Solar High Study Group indicates that technology available now permits a Block I power satellite to be built at a hardware cost of ~$8. DEEPAK VERMA. launch costs are driven by markets more than anything else. Building the rectenna would add ~$1000/kW to these figures. POWERSPACE//ZY With launches of five-tonne satellites currently costing upwards of $50m.financialexpress. solar power technologies lend themselves to the scale effect. Note however that the massive effort needed to build generating capacity during the next 25 years will cost trillions of dollars. and launches are so expensive because there are so few of them per year. Within this. the tariffs offered by these programmes will reduce. He is the author of six books. increasingly reliable. Distribution companies and captive consumers will have to source a percentage of their energy from renewable sources. Combine that with increasing costs of conventional energy.000/kW.25%. because the solar array is much smaller. reliability. 2. Financial Express. In fact. Expanding market solves Mark Williamson. and costs of production. While small compared to terrestrial solar arrays of similar output. confirms Mankins. 2010.600 MW of PPAs have already been signed. Satellite equipment is expensive because it is constructed in small quantities. quality. UK-based space-technology consultant to the space industry. in spite of challenges. SBSP provides the launch market needed to escape this Catch 22 Once initially implemented. ―May the power be with you‖.―will bring down the cost dramati. This pricing band will be reviewed periodically and is designed to provide acceptable financial returns to developers (Figure 2). which should result in over 50 GW installed (Figure 3) and over $30 billion invested in solar power (Figure 4) in India by 2022. ―Solar energy gets set to power India‖. All of these work in concert to drive the levelised-cost-of-electricity (LCOE) down.html//jchen Space hardware is expensive. Launch is expensive only because it is infrequent. http://www. March 2011. driven by increasing costs of inputs. This is set at 5% currently and will grow to 15% over the next ten years. related largely to acquiring land and achieving financial closure.cally of getting to space‖. In fact. 3. While many developers are facing significant hurdles. SBSP requires a major expansion of space operations. by hand. several hundred MW are likely to be commissioned within the next year. the cost would be less than $1/kg.com/news/solar-energy-gets-set-to-power-india/796601/0 Fourth. space based solar power technology will become linearly cheaper. Another government initiative that will drive significant capacity addition is the Renewable Purchase Obligation (RPO) that is being implemented across the country. and it is infrequent because it is expensive. ―the cost of launch is certainly a hurdle‖. there is a solar-specific RPO of 0.

and probably one or more smaller one(s) in GEO. In addition to expected increase in employment this makes solar orbital power an important alternative to other sustainable energy sources.A consideration of costs has been made63: ‗‗With an estimated serial launch cost for shuttle-based HLLVs of $500 million to $800 million.75 terawatt-hours of electricity per year. heavier panels). If true. using ion thrusters or nuclear propulsion engines. Christopher J.3 billion (low cost HLLV.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 – Too Expensive: Economies of Scale (3/3) Economies of scale solve back launch costs. Economies of scale on such a large launch program could be as high as 90% (if a learning factor of 30% could be achieved for each doubling of production) over the cost of a single launch today. where it would likely be converted into subassembly solar arrays.000ykg to low Earth orbit. January 2006) and an SPS‘s ability to send its energy to places of greatest demand (depending on rectenna siting issues). Current rates on the Space Shuttle run between $6. ―Solar orbital power: Sustainability analysis‖ Elsevier Ltd. In addition. and total launch costs for alternative HLLVs at $78 million.each satellite would produce $154 billion in excess throughout its lifespan Rhodes. which could be carried on highefficiency ion-engine style rockets to (slowly) reach GEO. The costs of these supporting efforts would also contribute to total costs. there would be the cost of an assembly area in LEO (which could be spread over several power satellites). such as the Falcon 9 Heavy. Ljubljana. it is not necessary to put all of the satellite material directly into the GEO. These effects seem to be the most positive. antenna. He has published more than 200 peer reviewed articles and five books. which are built in a robotic factory on the Moon and then launched into the GEO orbit. Department of Physics. it may turn out to be substantially cheaper to recast on-site steel in GEO.2010 Jožef Stefan Institute.000 tonnes. and is also a published novelist. and so it may prove possible to employ high efficiency (but slower) engines to move SBPS material from a LEO to GEO much more cheaply. then the initial launch cost could be spread over multiple SPS lifespans. Alternative vehicles.22 per kWh (UK. this would equate to $1. Water & Environment Systems One could therefore expect a net positive effect of solar power satellites on sustainability.com/content/stl/sciprg/2010/00000093/00000001/art00003 One problem facing the SBPS programme is that space launches are very expensive especially at GEO altitude. current SPS designs will generate 8. meaning that the solar panels for the same 4 GW capacity station would be reduced in mass to a ‗‗mere‘‘ 4. The concept presented in this paper has some significant advantages over many other proposed concepts for large scale energy production on Earth.g. low weight panels) and $320 billion (‗expensive‘ HLLV. or 175TWh over a 20-year lifetime. given current technology. or the equivalent of between 40 and 80 heavy-lift launch vehicle (HLLV) launches to send the material to LEO. 11. nuclear fusion promises to become a clean and cheap source of energy.30. With current market prices of $0. Professor Chris Rhodes has a visiting position at the University of Reading and is Director of Freshlands Environmental Actions. Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics. SPS becomes less environmentally taxing and cheaper. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 186 . or any significant mass reduction of any focusing mirrors). The scale of the problem may be indicated by assuming an arbitrary solar panel mass of 20kg per kilowatt (without considering the mass of the supporting structure. University of Pennsylvania. journalist and poet. Solar orbital power concept can become operational in less than a decade and produce large amounts of energy in two decades. It is possible that very lightweight designs could achieve 1 kgykW64. are predicted to launch to LEO for approximately $2. March 2010 ―Solar energy: principles and possibilities‖. depending on whose numbers are used.900ykg. For example. 5th Dubrovnik Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy. if thermal power satellites are used. The example 4 GW ‗economy‘ SBPS above could therefore generate in excess of $154 billion over its lifetime. So how much money could an SPS be expected to make? For every one gigawatt rating. http://dartmouthcolnh.ingentaconnect. However. Jamova cesta 39.600ykg and $11.93 billion per year or $38. Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics. Rhodes. Volume 36. on the basis of which a 4 GW power station would weigh about 80. University of Maribor. however even in the best case scenario it can‘t become operational before 2040.‘‘ In the long run. Slovenia b Jožef Stefan International Postgraduate School. than to launch it from Earth. It is also important that the price as well as environmental impact of solar orbital power are expected to decrease with scale. Issue 4. total launch costs would range between $11. e. which would have to be launched from the Earth in its entirety.library. Aleksander Zidanšek et al.000 tonnes. Assuming facilities are available.6 billion over its lifetime.

―In Defense of Space Solar Power‖. land power. ―Space-Based Solar Power: Possible Defense Applications and Opportunities‖. ―Security and Spacepower‖. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 187 . January 2009. Toward a Theory of Spacepower. In the end it will be a contest between teleoperated robots working in the mostly predictable space environment vs. Telerobotics is in its infancy.html//jchen Operation and maintenance no worse than earth-based systems. NDU Press. rain. this is mostly operating one-off custom spacecraft not doing the same things over and over and over as would be the case for SSP. Substantial R&D can overcome operation costs of SSP Al Globus. et. dealing with wind. corrosion. There is some reason to believe that this condition might be within reach of the proposed R&D program. Kwok Cheung. chairman of the Space Settlement Committee of the National Space Society. http://space. And Robert Walters Nathan Smith Wayne Boncyk Michael Brown David Huber//jchen The idea of collecting energy from solar flux in space and transmitting it wirelessly to the ground dates back to the 1960s and is consistent with the laws of physics.alglobus. Michael Mook. 10/23/09.. 2003. Paul Jaffe. In this regard. From a standpoint of providing power to the utility grid.edu/press/space-Ch17. Space systems are at a much earlier point in the learning curve and thus have more potential for improvement.ndu. Glen Henshaw. and an associate director of the Eisenhower Center for Space and Defense Studies at the US Air Force Academy. Space operations costs are very high today.V. Keith Akins. James Armstrong. This condition may well be the most difficult to meet and is by far the most difficult to demonstrate without actually building and operating SSP. so R&D effort should provide significant improvements.net/papers/FetterResponse. Steven Huynh. vandalism and theft on the ground. No need for cost competition – military needs override economic M. John Pasour. but. the economics of deploying such a system have played a prominent role. Smith. Lovelette Robert Bartolo And Keith Williams Mark Dorsey Donald Gubser Philip Jenkins. High-energy Space Environment Branch. Current ground-based costs can be ascertained but ground-based costs can be driven down by R&D and experience gained. http://www. but a more prudent approach is to develop robust space capabilities in addition to airpower. Scott Messenger. the difference between space systems and terrestrial systems is that space systems provide global access and global presence during both war and peace. Economic considerations may force such a compromise. Robert Skalitzky. May 20. It has been suggested that military applications may not be as tightly bound by economics.html//jchen A great fallacy resulting from the prevalent budget-driven integration mindset is the oft-cited statement that "missions will migrate to space when it becomes reasonable to do so. And Frederick Tasker Jill Dahlburg And Michael N. Senior Research Associate for Human Factors Research and Technology at San Jose State University at NASA Ames Research Center. where a critical need may justify the likely added expense of power provided from an initial SBSP system. the concept is feasible. Matthew Long. seapower. dust." This presumes that commanders in forward areas are willing to trade highly flexible organic terrestrial assets for less flexible (and often less capable) space systems that another commander will likely manage as global assets. al.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 – Not Cost Competitive (1/3) Cost competition is irrelevant – military advantages of SBSP outweigh Naval Research Laboratory. Remember. W. and cyberpower assets. Neil Johnson. PhD student of strategic studies at the University of Reading. again. Michael Osborn.

the launch costs from other efforts should be achievable in the near future. author. inflated with gas from a pressurized container. only produce a relatively small amount of energy. SSP would be cost effective Schwab. For example. distinction MBA holder having strong background in telecommunication. Deflated solar collectors could be folded into a compact space on board a spacecraft and once in orbit. at least initially. Harold Martin. Such willingness is usually correlated to the extent of education the participants‘ have received regarding environmental issues. 6/2/2011. To wit. Experiments and even reliable survey data are much less forthcoming in suggesting a specific amount that a consumer might pay as a premium. Date accessed June 25. Given that SBSP can. ―The New Viability of Space Solar Power: Global Mobilization for a Common Human Endeavor‖. This method was used in 1960 with the Echo 1 satellite used to bounce radio waves back to Earth. Professor of Philosophy. 2002.200 per kilogram (one tenth that of current shuttle launches). Martin Schwab.11 dollars per kWh.30 Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 188 . 2011 According to space scientists Martin Hoffert and Seth Potter of New York University. a return to the 1960s era idea of inflatable structures as the platform for solar collection would reduce weight and therefore launch cost. in addition to SSP in general. Second. therefore even an optimistic 10% premium would result in an electricity price of only 0. there are three main considerations to SSP that need to be highlighted when considering the economic viability of SSP. Third. Philosophy School of Humanities. While some of our interviewees proposed a premium of up 15%. the larger SSP satellites would be more ambitious. the price of SBSP electricity is so large that the impact of such a premium on our economic models is negligible. the target launch cost that Lockheed Martin‘s X-33 and Venture Star projects were shooting for was $2. ――SPACE BASED SOLAR POWER‖. April 15. but if NASA were instructed to make inflatable space structures a high priority.. communications satellites could double for space solar power thus making SSP more cost-effective.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 – Not Cost Competitive (2/3) Consumers will buy SPS William Fan. Director of Humanities and Law Minor. http://scholar. It seems significantly more realistic to propose a 5% price premium for green energy. this seems optimistic based on our survey scholarly sources.10 dollars per kilowatt-hours (kWh). While the X-33 and Venture Star were cancelled. the knowledge base to make low mass SPS would evolve rapidly. The typical US household currently pays 0. this premium would have little impact (in absolute dollar terms) on our overall estimates. launch costs would drop as the demand increases for large volumes of material to be put into space on a frequent basis.30&as_ylo=2000.com/scholar?start=40&q=unilateral+solar+powered+satellites&hl=en&as_sdt=0. James Wu. Admittedly.google. Industry and Technology Assessment//zy There is a significant amount of research suggesting that consumers are willing to pay a premium for energy from renewable or 'green' sources. Communications Associate at Acumen Fund. English Professor School of Humanities. as well as typical socioeconomic factors. It was also used in 1996 in the Spartan Inflatable Antenna Experiment where a 14-meter antenna was inflated by a nitrogen gas canister while in orbit (see appendix). given sound budgetary commitment. First. freelance software developer and author. Brian Mok.

in fact. In 2009 one could buy a standard. there is no way to know the ultimate cost of such mirrors.000/kw. The cheapest mirrors might be built in space. require fuel. potential demand for SSP power is multiple orders of magnitude greater enabling economies of scale. not too far off of 750. At the moment. personal communication]) and coal plants are only a few hundred per kw.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 – Not Cost Competitive (3/3) SSP is competitive with nuclear and coal given a federal R&D program Al Globus. orbital vacuum and zero-g. they use inexpensive mirrors and smaller. Current space solar costs are reputed to be $750. A casual google search indicates that nuclear power plants cost up to several thousand dollars per kw ($6.alglobus. Also. it would certainly be worthwhile. While expensive. Is there reason to believe that economies of scale can cost reductions on this order? Consider the computer keyboards used by air traffic controllers. One could use large. They cost approximately $2. developing such a machine may be worthwhile since an enormous mirror area is needed. This is an example of economies of scale. mass-produced computer keyboard at Office Depot for as little as $13.267/kw for a 2008 Florida plant [Barnhard. One only need launch the feedstock for a thin-film mirror production machine that takes advantage of solar heating. and are produced in low volume. The price difference is roughly a factor of 192. As we have seen. this condition may be within reach of the proposed R&D program. not used anywhere else. current demand for new space power is perhaps a few hundred kw a year. Senior Research Associate for Human Factors Research and Technology at San Jose State University at NASA Ames Research Center. There may be. These are custom. As there is some reason to believe that large optimizations are possible.html//jchen This number is provided without references. unlike solar. both of these. and nuclear increases risk of mass casualty terrorist attacks. While the nuclear costs suggest that reaching $1000/kw may not be necessary. To deliver current space solar power to existing satellites is far too small a market to justify the cost of developing a space mirror production machine. However. chairman of the Space Settlement Committee of the National Space Society. SSP will require acres and acres of mirrors. coal has a large environmental cost. so the development costs can be spread out over a large number of systems. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 189 . how the lowest-cost terrestrial solar systems work.500. ―In Defense of Space Solar Power‖. Mirrors built in space wouldn't have to be strong enough to survive launch and would not need to be folded or rolled to fit in a launch vehicle fairing. Such mirrors need be little more than a thin reflecting film. An in-space mirror production facility may be a key portion of the proposed R&D program and a potentially valuable task for the International Space Station (ISS). This is. perhaps we could get the factor of 750. If there are major optimizations in approach. a factor of 750 too high. On the other hand. perhaps only a few atoms thick.net/papers/FetterResponse. January 2009. inexpensive mirrors and relatively small higher cost silicon solar cell areas. On solar energy systems for existing satellites the entire collecting area is expensive semi-conductor cells (and market size is very small). http://space. relatively expensive sunlight-to-electricity conversion systems.

Lovelette Robert Bartolo And Keith Williams Mark Dorsey Donald Gubser Philip Jenkins. Keith Akins. Keith Akins. Matthew Long. et. Many of the scenarios addressed have been posited in previous SBSP discussions and literature.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 – Unstable Energy Supply Combination of space and ground based solar power ensures global energy transmission Naval Research Laboratory. And Robert Walters Nathan Smith Wayne Boncyk Michael Brown David Huber//jchen MILITARY OPERATIONS SCENARIOS These scenarios take as a basic premise that energy from solar flux will be collected in space and beamed wirelessly for use in a defense context. 2008. And Robert Walters Nathan Smith Wayne Boncyk Michael Brown David Huber//jchen 2. High-energy Space Environment Branch. ―Space-Based Solar Power: Possible Defense Applications and Opportunities‖. 10/23/09. Military would provide back-up energy sources – normal means guarantees safety net Naval Research Laboratory. there typically exists a backup means. 10/23/09. John Pasour. any device or receiver system designed to accept SBSP might also function using RF or light energy beamed from terrestrial sources. Robert Skalitzky. Neil Johnson. Michael Mook. While not 10 Johnson et al. James Armstrong.8 Terrestrial Wireless Power Beaming Applications Apart from SBSP In principle. al. Michael Osborn.. technically SBSP. Table 1 is a summary of the results of the SBSP investigation. Michael Mook. near-continuous energy to remote locations anywhere on Earth. In nearly all military scenarios (Table 1). James Armstrong. Glen Henshaw. space-based solar power must not become a source of ―single point failure. et. Michael Osborn. employ related technologies. Wireless power transfer also has utility in circumstances where it is impractical to set up conventional transmission lines or power mains for very short-term duty or across inhospitable territory. High-energy Space Environment Branch. such as HF communications.‖ It has been observed that in the event that satellite communications become unavailable from some reason. Paul Jaffe. Some were discussed during the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) sponsored Military Power Requirements Symposium that was held on the July 1 and 2. And Frederick Tasker Jill Dahlburg And Michael N. W. Paul Jaffe. Steven Huynh. W. ―Space-Based Solar Power: Possible Defense Applications and Opportunities‖. Neil Johnson. Matthew Long. John Pasour. Scott Messenger. This suggests that a network of SBSP and ground-based power transmission can be used to provide significant.. and were deemed worthy of at least a cursory treatment in this report. And Frederick Tasker Jill Dahlburg And Michael N. Glen Henshaw. al. these applications have military utility. Steven Huynh. Scott Messenger. Lovelette Robert Bartolo And Keith Williams Mark Dorsey Donald Gubser Philip Jenkins. Kwok Cheung. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 190 . Robert Skalitzky. Kwok Cheung.

rather than intermittent. 2002. 2) Apply high-volume mass-production assembly-line techniques to spacecraft construction.pdf//jchen A National Security Space Office (NSSO) study 1 concluded in October of 2007 that ―The magnitude of the looming energy and environmental problems is significant enough to warrant consideration of all options. and thus NASA‘s job. The solution to the cost challenge is straightforward: 1) Achieve cheap & reliable access to space. the seasons.‖ o Safe Global Availability — Nuclear power technology cannot be safely shared with most of the countries on this planet because of proliferation concerns. 3) Reduce the technical risk with basic research and technology demonstrations. SRS Technologies. Martin Schwab. Professor of Philosophy. http://otrans. SSP promises reliability. April 15. and beyond. safety. lightweight solar concentrators.‖ This NSSO report also concluded that SSP has ―enormous potential for energy security. development and operation.S.‖ • SSP has Significant Long-Term Advantages: SSP is unusual among renewable energy options as it satisfies all of the following criteria: o Immensely Scalable — SSP can scale to provide the energy needs of the entire human civilization at America‘s standard of living. Philosophy School of Humanities. United Applied Technologies and the Harris Corporation are all developing concepts for large. Some believe the cost of SSP is so high that it will never be economical for baseload power. federal agency. • Economics is the Key Barrier. space-based solar power.. The Stirling converters have the potential to provide very high thermal to electric conversion efficiency.3cdn.‖ We urge the next President of the United States to include SSP as a new start in a balanced federal strategy for energy independence and environmental stewardship.30&as_ylo=2000. federal agency has a specific mandate or clear responsibility to pursue SSP. ―The New Viability of Space Solar Power: Global Mobilization for a Common Human Endeavor‖. the NSSO disagrees. and thus DOE‘s job. and to assign lead responsibility to a U. 11/23/08. It is not subject to the weather.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 – Other Alt Energies Better (1/2) SSP is the best energy source – safer than nuclear and larger scale than coal or alt energies Opengov ―Space Solar Power (SSP) — A Solution for Energy Independence & Climate Change‖. L‘Garde. or the day-night cycle. advancement of general space faring. to include . cost efficiency. We could be the world‘s largest exporter of energy for the 21st and 22nd Centuries. Washington has successfully designed.000 hours to demonstrate long life and reliability. o No Fundamental Breakthroughs — SSP does not require a fundamental breakthrough in either physics or engineering. o Highly Flexible and Optimal for Export — SSP could enable America to become a net energy exporter. More importantly. and overall national security for those nations who construct and possess a (SSP) capability. improved environmental stewardship. • SSP Falls through the Cracks as Nobody is Responsible: No U. Department of Energy (DOE) says SSP is a space project. economic development. 2011 Solar thermal power systems offers a potential alternative to costly and dangerous nuclear power. Stirling Technology Company (STC) in Kennewick. built and operated free-piston converters at 10 watts and 350 watts for terrestrial applications.. Most other near-term renewable options are strictly limited in scalability. Director of Humanities and Law Minor. ILC Dover. http://scholar. o Steady & Assured — SSP is a continuous.S. The U.net/38b615154ce6479749_p9m6bn37b. NASA says SSP is an energy project.50 Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 191 . Date accessed June 25. and is net better than all other alternative energy solutions Schwab. such as those required by fusion. and 4) Adopt proven government approaches to incentivize private industry investment. especially for deep space missions where typical planar PV arrays are not effective for space probes traveling beyond Mars due to the distance of the sun. and has lacked an organizational advocate within the US Government. As the NSSO report states ―A single kilometer-wide band of geosynchronous Earth orbit experiences enough solar flux in one year to nearly equal the amount of energy contained within all known recoverable conventional oil reserves on Earth today. English Professor School of Humanities.google. Never is a long time and we disagree. continued progress in advanced lightweight solar concentrator technology is a necessary first step. STC is conducting endurance testing to over 50. However.S. The extremely high-cost of space transportation and building spacecraft is the principal barrier. The NSSO-report found that SSP ―‘falls through the cracks‘ of federal bureaucracies.com/scholar?start=40&q=unilateral+solar+powered+satellites&hl=en&as_sdt=0. power source. endurance.

But not knowing how long affordable easy energy supplies will remain available and not knowing to what extent terrestrial nuclear fission and renewable energy production can be practically and politically expanded. Whether this will be an improved form of enriched uranium nuclear fission. However. or. Hence.thespacereview. and waste disposal are technically and politically resolved. Unless the US federal government is willing to forego addressing the very real possibility of energy scarcity in dispatchable electrical power generation. Most people would agree that an advanced nuclear generator scalable from tens of megawatts to a few gigawatts. with acceptable environmental impact and adequate security. and the founder and president of the Spacefaring Institute LLC. as such. Of course. Intelligent control of consumer electrical power use to moderate peak demand and improved transmission and distribution systems to more broadly share sustainable generation capacity will certainly help. As a result. http://www. Research into all of these options is proceeding with significant research advancements being achieved. a different fission fuel cycle.. 5/4/2009. until commercialized reactor designs are demonstrated and any environmental and security issues associated with their fueling. such as thorium. ―The vital need for America to develop space solar power‖. operation. We are left with SSP. Three possible energy sources that could achieve sufficient generation capacity to close the 2100 shortfall are methane hydrates. is a desirable long-term sustainable energy solution. reasonableness dictates that the serious engineering development of SSP be started now. The Space Review. being incorporated into such a rational sustainable energy transition plan. beginning the engineering development of SSP now becomes a necessity. Snead. acceptable production solutions have not yet emerged. under permafrost. rapid advancements in advanced nuclear energy or methane hydrate recovery or the emergence of a new industrial-scale sustainable energy source may change the current circumstances favoring the start of the development of SSP. and SSP. Planning and executing a rational US energy policy that undertakes the development of SSP will jump-start America on the path to acquiring the mastery of industrial space operations we need to become a true spacefaring nation. Some experts estimate that the undersea methane hydrate resources are immense and may be able to meet world energy needs for a century or more.E. SSP is the one renewable energy solution capable of beginning engineering development and. and under cold rock formations.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 – Other Alt Energies Better (2/2) All alternatives fail—space solar power is the only energy source that will sustain our long-term energy requirements James M. advanced nuclear energy. While research into practical industrial-scale levels of recovery with acceptable environmental impact is underway. a rational US energy plan cannot yet include methane hydrates as a solution ready to be implemented to avoid future energy scarcity. but 250 million additional Americans and 5 billion additional electrical power consumers worldwide by 2100 will need substantially more assured generation capacity. a rational US energy plan cannot yet include advanced nuclear energy as a solution ready to be implemented to avoid future energy scarcity. P. The unique conditions necessary for forming these hydrates exist at the low temperatures and elevated pressures under water. is a senior member of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) a past chair of the AIAA‘s Space Logistics Technical Committee. the more advanced fusion energy is not yet known. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 192 .com/article/1364/1 A key element of a well-reasoned US energy policy is to maintain an adequate surplus of dispatchable electrical power generation capacity. Why not plan to use methane hydrates? The issues are the technical feasibility of recovering methane at industrialscale levels (tens to hundreds of billions BOE per year) and doing so with acceptable environmental impact. The key planning consideration is: Which of these are now able to enter engineering development and be integrated into an actionable sustainable energy transition plan? Methane hydrate is a combination of methane and water ice where a methane molecule is trapped within water ice crystals.

SBSP holds lower carbon emissions than nuclear NSSO. but there is undeniable interest in options that limit carbon emission. chairman of the Space Settlement Committee of the National Space Society. one could install 60 times the generating capacity. which at this time still provoked significant debate among participants. Overall. 10/10/07. Studies by Asakura et al in 2000 suggest that SBSP lifetime carbon emissions (chiefly in construction) are even more attractive than nuclear power. both of these. unlike solar. January 2009.dtic. http://space.alglobus. but dependence on the exact mix must be carefully managed.pdf//jchen FINDING: The SBSP Study Group found that to the extent the United States decides it wishes to limit its carbon emissions. personal communication]) and coal plants are only a few hundred per kw. it may be of greater concern in unstable areas of rouge states. A casual google search indicates that nuclear power plants cost up to several thousand dollars per kw ($6. National Security Space Office. ―Space‐ Based Solar Power: As an Opportunity for Strategic Security‖. ―Space‐ Based Solar Power: As an Opportunity for Strategic Security‖.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA473860&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc. and nuclear increases risk of mass casualty terrorist attacks.267/kw for a 2008 Florida plant [Barnhard.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 – Nuclear Power Better (1/2) SBSP is safer than nuclear – no risk of weapon proliferation NSSO.html//jchen This number is provided without references. require fuel. one could replace existing generating capacity with 1/60th the lifetime carbon emission of a coal‐ fired plant without CO2 sequestration. Senior Research Associate for Human Factors Research and Technology at San Jose State University at NASA Ames Research Center.net/papers/FetterResponse. coal has a large environmental cost. and that for the same amount of carbon emission.pdf//jchen Both fossil and fissile sources offer significant capabilities to our energy mix. or alternately. having a viable alternative that fills a comparable niche might be attractive. National Security Space Office. While the nuclear costs suggest that reaching $1000/kw may not be necessary. On the other hand. SSP outweighs nuclear – unlimited resources and immune to terrorism Al Globus. http://www. If so. Likewise. 10/10/07.dtic. While increased use of nuclear power is not of particular concern in nations that enjoy the rule of law and have functioning internal security mechanisms. This study does not take a position on anthropogenic climate change.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA473860&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc. http://www. ―In Defense of Space Solar Power‖. the mix abroad may affect domestic security. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 193 . it would certainly be worthwhile. SBSP offers a potential path for long‐ term carbon mitigation. The United States might consider the security challenges of wide proliferation of enrichment‐ based nuclear power abroad undesirable. SBSP offers a hopeful path toward reduced fossil and fissile fuel dependence.

and football-field sized receivers could fit on the larger bases. there is considerable uncertainty and more than a little optimism in these numbers. IR power beams cannot. and operations cost within a factor of four of launch costs.S. This leads to a square PowerSat 210m on a side. Of course. This is a very small fraction of global electrical demand. October 2010. Looking from another angle. the highest price this author could find world wide was $0:29=kwh for industrial users in Italy in 2008.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 – Nuclear Power Better (2/2) SPS is cost competitive with nuclear Al Globus. SpaceX was willing to reduce their launch prices by a factor of 3. At 5MW per system. it is clear that an SSP system based on advanced but reasonably near-term IR power transmission and a thin-film solar cell heliogyro is no more than a factor of a few more expensive than nuclear power. Senior Research Associate for Human Factors Research and Technology at San Jose State University at NASA Ames Research Center. Assuming around 5MW can be delivered to the grid (see below). which is comparable to nuclear life-cycle costs (near $14=w). For commercial customers. A recent DOD report 6 suggests that the U. Solaren.000 launches (100 would probably be sufficient to receive the discount). A 5MW system at this price would provide up to $46 million per year revenue. not multiple orders of magnitude from profitability as asserted by Fetter 5 based on traditional designs.6 if one ordered 1. then such PowerSats would be cost-competitive with nuclear power. which at 45g=m2 for the collection area leaves 2:6tons for all other systems. chairman of the Space Settlement Committee of the National Space Society. However.alglobus. Indeed. enough to pay for the launch in a little over a year. this works out to around $11=w capacity for the launch vehicle. http://space.net/papers/SSI2010SSPpaper.pdf//jchen A Falcon 9 can deliver 4:8tons to GTO (Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit) for $56 million. ground system. consider a PowerSat launched by a Falcon 9 assuming a mass of 100g=m2 . If the launch discount is still available and the PowerSat. ―Towards an Early Profitable PowerSat‖. 1. This could deliver up to $13. It is interesting to note that one commercial company. Assuming 8% sunlight-to-grid-power efficiency (20% solar cell and 40% transmission efficiency) this system would deliver roughly 5:28MW to the grid. military is willing to pay $1=kwh for power beamed to forward bases in Asia.000 launches would generate 5GW. This assumes that the satellite can fly the rest of the way to its final orbit. has a contract with Pacific Gas and Electric to deliver 200MW of space solar power to California beginning in 2016 and their design is based on thin-films Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 194 . given the right market one might be able to build a profitable PowerSat in the relatively near future.4 million per year { requiring a little over three years to pay for the launch. A few years ago. Trucks transporting diesel can be ambushed.

and not at the words. unless an inexpensive means to transmit electrical power between continents by wire is developed. To take a somewhat over-the-top example. thus we compete only at night and when little sunlight reaches the ground. The size of the potential market does not seem to be a problem. meeting this condition does not appear to be a major problem. http://space. SSP is competitive with solar – collects energy during night and mass scale offsets cost Al Globus. ―In Defense of Space Solar Power‖. but there will be large losses for transcontinental transmission-. a significant electrical market. at 10% end to end efficiency SSP could supply the entire 15tw global demand with 115 billion square meters of collecting area. Senior Research Associate for Human Factors Research and Technology at San Jose State University at NASA Ames Research Center. SSP will produce power when the sun is shining and it will make more sense to sell the power at a loss than throw it away.net/papers/FetterResponse. a substantial fraction of which is needed when the sun isn't shining brightly. but not between continents. SSP can be scaled to deliver whatever level desired simply by building more. January 2009. since the first implementations of large-scale power production by photovoltaics will. The simplest architecture for ground solar is to beam power between continents using GEO repeaters. but this is twice as difficult as GEO SSP since power must be beamed up and then down for ground solar. larger PowerSats and receiving antennas.html//jchen For the purpose of this paper we will grant ground solar market dominance when and where the sun is shining brightly. Ground based solar necessarily fails – expansion requires panel location at increasingly inefficient places Geoffrey A. although some have proposed sun-synchronous orbits (SSO) with relay satellites in low earth orbit (LEO). physicist @ NASA Glenn Research Center.5 worse for New England. Landis. but only down for SSP. Obviously a big job. ―In Defense of Space Solar Power‖. or roughly 370 PowerSats each with a radius of 10 km. This is appropriate for the initial phases of solar power. and as much as a factor of 2. In practice. can SSP meet the demand? As the total solar energy available in space is vast. If the market is large. Ground solar is worse by a factor of two for areas of the US outside of southwest. chairman of the Space Settlement Committee of the National Space Society. of course. SSP economics depend on economies of scale so the market must be large to justify SSP development. http://space. In any case. In the relay satellite case. 10/8/09.alglobus. to first order both systems require roughly the same repeater satellite constellation (or network of highaltitude long-duration aircraft). looking into the longer term. demand is rising as billions of people currently have little electricity and wealthier societies are expected to move to plug-in hybrid cars which will tend to charge at night. Thus. Long-distance transmission lines can transmit power on the ground for some distance. Most designs call for PowerSats in geosynchronous orbit (GEO).SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 – Solar Power Better (1/2) SSP is more efficient than intercontinental solar transmission Al Globus. but if one can be built there's plenty of room for more and economies of scale are relevant. be at the best locations.it is not feasible to power produce in the Mojave Desert and use it in New York. However. For this part of the market. of course. chairman of the Space Settlement Committee of the National Space Society.alglobus. ground solar must pay the storage and transmission costs. so ground solar requires beamed power to meet this condition as well. However. Furthermore.net/papers/FetterResponse. not all sites on the ground are ―best‖ sites. Ground solar can transmit using wires. ―SOLAR POWER FROM SPACE: SEPARATING SPECULATION FROM REALITY‖ The discussion so far has compared space location of a solar array with the best locations on the ground. total world energy use is about 15tw per year of which about 2tw is electricity. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 195 . SSP transmission would be electromagnetic at some yet-to-be-determined frequency. January 2009.html//jchen SSP transmission is as good as ground storage and intercontinental transmission. Senior Research Associate for Human Factors Research and Technology at San Jose State University at NASA Ames Research Center.

(In the US.200/kg. as solar capacity grows. http://solarhigh.ieee. Advances in launch vehicles make SBSP competitive with ground based solar in the SQO Solar High Study Program. If the payload of the vehicle is near 50 MT.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5367831&tag=1//jchen I. Many concepts have been proposed [2. the continuous availability of power from space becomes an asset SSP can meet full market demand within 25 years of development Narayanan Komerath. Some modifications but no radical advances in technology would be needed to permit land recovery and reuse with minimal refurbishment. 24 hour power. a Block II satellite supplying 2 GW to the grid is expected to have a mass in LEO of ~12.8] seeks to break through this problem with an evolutionary. Space launch would thus contribute ~$2. At the moment. The transition of solar power from peak to a requirement for power outside of the mid-day peak is typically expected to occur when ground solar reaches ~ 10-15% of the energy market. physicist @ NASA Glenn Research Center. scheduled for first flight in 2012.5] to harvest SSP on a massive scale. The cost to first revenue is beyond hope. The required throughput from Earth to LEO is thus more than 60. Georgia Institute of Technology.html//jchen The SpaceX Falcon 9 can launch more than 10 metric tons (MT) to LEO.000km above the equator. but not with fossil fueled plants. steady electric power can be generated ―24/365‖ in Space. 24-hour power is not an asset. The Space Power Grid (SPG) approach [6. mass needed at GEO.000 MT.400/kW to the cost of the system. ―SOLAR POWER FROM SPACE: SEPARATING SPECULATION FROM REALITY‖//jchen In addition to the potentially higher total amount of power produced.000 MT per year. the launch campaign would involve 3 to 7 launches per day.000/kg. This is twice the payload of the Delta IV Heavy (the heaviest launch vehicle now available) at 20% of the cost per kilogram. this represents about 300 Billion dollars per year total. This paper deals with the interplay of technology. INTRODUCTION The dream of Space Solar Power (SSP)[1] is that abundant. This traffic requires an equatorial launch site.org/Overview. Falcon launch vehicle stages are designed for reuse after landing in the ocean.km) converters at geo stationary earth orbit (GEO). Large beam divergence. ―The Space Power Grid: Synergy Between Space. rather than power peaked at noon and dropping to zero at sunrise and sunset.4.org/stamp/stamp. space solar power may have other virtues. and conveyed down to Earth. Nevertheless. the power demand is very low.7. economics. will deliver >50 MT to LEO at an expected price of $2. make this a non-starter. this production curve will be increasingly mismatched to the demand and eventually solar will need to provide power outside peak solar hours. At these prices. School of Aerospace Engineering. and power available at night sells at very low price. Examination of the cost factors in space launch shows that the economies of scale offered by launching reusable vehicles at the rate required for SBSP will lead to a further reduction in cost to less than $400/kg. March 2011. however. Most are to beam the power down from large (>100 sq. Ground solar produces power that is moderately well matched to the (early afternoon) peak demand. 36. power satellites would be very competitive with terrestrial solar power. Energy and Security Policies‖. although the price-break occurs earlier in the areas where solar is most effectively used). ―Solar High: Energy for the 21st Century‖. with a viable business plan and minimal costs to taxpayers. Most notable of these is that the power is continuous. http://ieeexplore. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 196 .SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 – Solar Power Better (2/2) Solar fails – can‘t capture more than 15% of market without 24 hour supply ability Geoffrey A. immense ground infrastructure and limited coverage beyond 30 degree latitude. 2009 Atlanta Conference on Science and Innovation Policy. scalable approach to SSP within 25 to 30 years from project start. It also permits direct recovery of a reusable upper stage to the launch site after a single orbit. A reasonable SBSP program would grow to a deployment rate of 10 to 20 GW per year by 2020. In that time frame. The recently announced Falcon Heavy. Landis.3. since during the night-time hours. which is large compared to present launch rates but much less than the daily flights from almost any commercial airport. clean. because it is the only location that offers frequent windows for launch to an assembly facility in (equatorial) LEO. including the propellant needed for self-powered low-thrust transfer to GSO. 10/8/09. at a quoted price of $5. 10/3/2009. At this point. global relations and national public policy involved in making this concept come to fruition.

We can also spur the development of solar power satellites to get clean energy from the sun with greater efficiency. May. ―A new space vision for NASA—And for space entrepreneurs too?‖. George Washington University.only a change in priorities is needed to solve for climate change Pelton . http://www. We may even find truly new and visionary ways to get people into space with a minimum of pollution and promote the development of cleaner and faster hypersonic transport to cope with future transportation needs. We can fund competitions and challenges to spur space entrepreneurs to find cheaper and better ways to send people into space.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 SBSP is more efficient than ground solar power. 2010.com/science/article/pii/S0265964610000251 With a change in priorities we can deploy far more spacecraft needed to address the problems of climate change via better Earth observation systems. We can deal more effectively with finding and coping with ―killer‖ asteroids and near earth objects. Space & Advanced Communications Research Institute. Here are just some of the possibilities that are on the horizon of a revitalized commercial space industry.sciencedirect. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 197 . Joseph N. The real key is to unlock the potential of commercial space initiatives while giving a very middle-aged NASA a new lease on life. Pelton.

or hydroelectric dam. The other is the wireless revolution. Brian Mok. and as a consequence. photovoltaics. James Wu. plausible reality. but does not appear to present any fundamental physical barriers or require scientific discoveries to work. provided a plausible solution to the issue of transmitting power from space onto the surface of the Earth.pdf//jchen FINDING: The SBSP Study Group found that Space‐ Based Solar Power is a complex engineering challenge. ―Space‐ Based Solar Power: As an Opportunity for Strategic Security‖. 10/10/07. Industry and Technology Assessment Some important aspects have changed that could lead to SBSP evolving from a futuristic fantasy into a current.. (b) increases in robotics capabilities from simple tele‐ operated manipulators in a few degrees of freedom (1970s) to fully autonomous robotics with insect‐ class intelligence and 30‐ 100 degrees of freedom (2007). New wireless tech enables efficient energy transmission William Fan. National Security Space Office. and many other areas. this does not automatically imply economic viability and affordability—this requires even more stringent technical requirements. and the direction and pace of progress continues to be positive and in many cases accelerating. material science. Harold Martin. Required tech advances are empirically proven possible through past tech innovations NSSO. freelance software developer and author. While the study group believes the case for technical feasibility is very strong. http://www.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA473860&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc. First is the advent of private space launch companies. skyscraper.dtic. ――SPACE BASED SOLAR POWER‖. Communications Associate at Acumen Fund. 6/2/2011. Such widespread use has allowed wireless power transmission to take dramatic leaps forward. Significant relevant advances have occurred in the areas of computational science. http://www. robotics. ―Space‐ Based Solar Power: As an Opportunity for Strategic Security‖.pdf//jchen FINDING: The SBSP Study Group found that significant progress in the underlying technologies has been made since previous government examination of this topic. 10/10/07. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 198 .mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA473860&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc. which aims to launch objects into space at a fraction of the current costs. (c) increases in the efficiency of solid state devices from around 20% (1970s) to as much as 70%‐ 90% (2007). private and commercial space access. The most famous one is SpaceX. and many others These advances have included (a) improvements in PV efficiency from about 10% (1970s) to more than 40% (2007). power management. but requires no fundamental scientific breakthroughs or new physics to become a reality. space maneuverability. Space‐ Based Solar Power is a complicated engineering project with substantial challenges and a complex trade‐ space not unlike construction of a large modern aircraft. National Security Space Office. (d) improvements in materials for structures from simple aluminum (1970s) to advanced composites including nanotechnology composites (2007). author. distinction MBA holder having strong background in telecommunication.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 – No Tech (1/7) SBSP requires no tech breakthroughs – only a matter of affordability NSSO.dtic.

SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 – No Tech (2/7) SPS is technologically feasible – a system of 45 could supply total US energy demands Space Law Journal. an area of approximately 50 sq. http://www.300 miles above the equator. 11 J. 82 (1983) HeinOnline//jchen It is now feasible to begin planning to tap the sun's energy in outer space via solar power satellites (SPS). in collaboration with all NRL interested scientists. sponsors would step forward to fund a detailed system design study. Peter E. 2011 Ideally. funding for SBSP component technologies and experimentation Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 199 .2 He envisioned a gridlike structure in outer space. focused component technology development. An operational SPS of the dimensions described herein would produce twice the useable power generated by Grand Coulee. Smith. It is possible now to build a low-power LEO system experiment or series of experiments that would not require breakthrough technologies and that could be launched on a single launch vehicle. and the NSSO report each propose roadmaps and pathways to operational systems that are largely relevant to both utility grid and defense application SBSP systems. 2009. as appropriate. some 22. JAXA. ―Solar Cells and Concentrator Arrays‖. the largest hydro-electric dam in America. Calculations are that it would take 45 of these fully operational structures to match the current electrical generating power of the United States. Though more challenging. The massive size of the SPS would allow for maximum concentration of sunlight for the purpose of generating electricity. miles) This giant structure would be located in the Earth's geostationary orbit. our recommendations are: Members of the NRL SBSP Study Group. transmission. and to transmit that energy to ground stations on Earth for use as an economically competitive source of electric power. A summary of technologies and research in which NRL is wellpositioned to contribute is shown in Table 12. ―Solar Power Satellites and Security Considerations: The Case for Multilateral Agreements‖. with component technology development with broad applications being funded by a variety of sponsors. etc) including. where it would be transformed back into electricity for use in the national grid. ZI Alferov. Lacking a large goal-driven initiative. Dembling and Delbert D. Date accessed June 25. both nationally and internationally. Little Company in 1968.springerlink. Pursue sponsors to mount compelling demonstrations related to space-based solar power. storage. much work can continue as it has on a smaller scale. Space L. The energy thus generated would be transmitted from the SPS in the form of microwaves to ground stations on the Earth.The USFG should now increase funding for SBSP Alferov. it is possible even without the knowledge gleaned from flight experiments to create today a detailed design of a MW-sized system that would require us to identify technologies that require development. In summary. This would likely speed closure of some of the outstanding technical questions for SBSP and enable iteration toward optimum designs for defense and civilian SBSP systems. Paul G. We have the tech breakthrough.com/content/dx88108509w72032/. Glaser of the Arthur D.2 miles wide. with continued attention to military-specific opportunities. Vice-President of the Russian Academy of Sciences and President of its Saint Petersburg Scientific Center. some 15 miles long and 3. NRL leadership should consider continuing and expanding funding for energy technologies (generation. The idea of SPS was proposed by Dr. or a technology demonstration mission. technologies which are likely to have other useful applications as well. NASA. should: Proceed to maintain meaningful and continuing engagement with the wider SBSP community and its efforts.' Such a power source is projected to be operating on an experimental basis in the United States sometime during the 1990's. This would help focus hardware development work in advanced technologies required by large SBSP systems.

says Mankins. solar power satellites placed in geostationary orbit above the Earth could operate at night and during cloudy conditions. Rachel's Democracy & Health News. Economically unfeasible After conducting preliminary research. advances in photovoltaics. It would then beam power down to Earth in the form of microwaves or a laser. Unlike solar panels based on the ground. which would be collected in antennas on the ground and then converted to electricity. electronics and robotics will bring the size and cost down to a fraction of the original schemes.the Space Solar Alliance for Future Energy. 2007. Since that time. a former NASA research manager and active promoter of space solar power.economically viable Dan Cho. Several technical challenges remain to be overcome. PENTAGON BACKS PLAN TO BEAM SOLAR POWER FROM SPACE Iss. The US currently launches fewer than 15 rockets each year.1 pgs//ZY A futuristic scheme to collect solar energy on satellites and beam it to Earth has gained a large supporter in the US military. "There are no technology hurdles that are show stoppers right now. wind and nuclear power combined.6 Mbyte PDF recommends that the US government spend $10 billion over the next 10 years to build a test satellite capable of beaming 10 megawatts of electric power down to Earth. . Little. where fuel is currently trucked along in dangerous convoys and the cost of electricity for some bases can exceed $1 per kilowatt-hour . A report 3. In spite of these challenges. the NSSO and its supporters say that no fundamental scientific breakthroughs are necessary to proceed with the idea and that space-based solar power will be practical in the next few decades. 929. Sending that material into orbit would require more than a hundred rocket launches." said US Marine Corps lieutenant colonel Paul Damphousse of the NSSO at a press conference yesterday in Washington. over a dozen space advocacy groups announced a new alliance to promote space solar power . Early designs involved solar panel arrays of 50 square kilometres. The report also touts the technology's potential to provide a clean. A satellite capable of supplying the same amount of electric power as a modern fossil-fuel plant would have a mass of about 3000 tonnes .6 Mbyte PDF released yesterday by the National Security Space Office recommends that the US government sponsor projects to demonstrate solar-power.more than 10 times that of the International Space Station. Abundant energy source At the same press conference. These supporters of space-based solar power say the technology has the potential to provide more energy than fossil fuels. "We think we can be a catalyst to make this technology advance. abundant energy source and reduce global competition for oil. required hundreds of astronauts in space to build and were estimated to cost as much as $1 trillion. the US abandoned the idea as economically unfeasible in the 1970s. including the development of lower-cost space launches.generating satellites and provide financial incentives for further private development of the technology. and eliminate the need for humans to assemble the equipment in space.about 10 times what it costs in the US. an engineer at the consulting firm Arthur D. The NSSO report 3. The NSSO report says that solar-power-generating satellites could also solve supply problems in distant places such as Iraq. Space-based solar power would use kilometre-sized solar panel arrays to gather sunlight in orbit. says John Mankins.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 – No Tech (3/7) The technology is feasible and with fg assistants. US. DC. Space-based solar power was first proposed in 1968 by Peter Glaser." said Damphousse Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 200 . Annapolis: Oct 18.

light into electric power by means of highly efficient cascade solar cells is. and also in the foreseeable future. And this pre. as well as solar power plants with steam cycles. only civilian purposes Alferov. for many. There are other alternatives. in the antique times. There are legends to the effect that.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 – No Tech (4/7) SPS tech is ready. For example. The military as. These devices can form a technical basis for large-scale solar power engineering in the future. 2011 At present. Hence. It might be well to point out that the direct conversion of concentrated sun.com/content/dx88108509w72032/. ZI Alferov. as we have seen from the above.C. http://www. Historically. a considerable amount of electrical energy supplying our homes will be generated by heterostructure solar cells illuminated by the sun through the concentrators.lar furnaces for highly refractory materials. safe and inexhaustible reactor – the sun – which sends an abundance of power to the Earth in the form of sunlight? Our task rests ―only‖ on the reasonable and effective use of this power. Thus. the first utili. and the problems of the radioactive waste burial. 2009.trated sunlight during ritual ceremonies for setting the Holy Fire in temples. Quite the contrary. III–V heterostructure solar cells are already widely used for space appli. On the other hand. From that arose the traditional way to set the Olympic Fire.pect of this technology remains quite actual and. one could use atomic energy. a generalized situation with energy could be outlined in the following way. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 201 . harnessing and fostering widespread use of the technology are not burdened by additional risks for humanity. although atomic power plants were also built during a very short period of time. attractive. The Grecian soldiers directed the sunbeams toward the targets using a great number of polished metallic shields. set fire to the ships of Romans who besieged Syracuse in 212 B. hopes have arisen of creating an inexhaustible power source using thermonuclear reactions. This was soon realized with the creation of bombs with unprecedented destructive power. one of the main ways for satisfying the power demands of the mankind. At the very beginning. this will aid in reducing the presently discussed greenhouse effects. on Archimedes‘ initiative. If the risks associated with plausible catastrophes on atomic plants. ―Solar Cells and Concentrator Arrays‖. Why build many dangerous nuclear reactors on our planet Earth if there already exists a huge. Progress in terrestrial applications of III–V solar cells is associated with the development of cells with efficiencies exceeding 45% at the concentrated sunlight.springerlink.but no dual use. this technology was intended to create a new type of weapon. priests used concen. Only in recent history have people again turned to the idea of the practical application of concentrated sunlight. yet also promising technologies for future power generation. are added to the risk of nuclear weapon proliferation. It is significant that at present there is no particular application of this technology for creating weapons – now. Date accessed June 25.tarian use of concentrated sunlight took place for military purposes: Grecians. Vice-President of the Russian Academy of Sciences and President of its Saint Petersburg Scientific Center.cations. creating so. the public anxieties connected with atomic technology development become understandable.carious situation persists today. In this case. development.

while creating an image that low-cost space transportation is impossible‖.power radars – and they found no permanent damage to cells as long as the energy level was less than about 1.nising that technology has advanced significantly since then. NASA. For example. a Pentagon think-tank. He built on the research of William Brown of Raytheon. ―The trouble is that the Department of Energy doesn‘t do space. ―It is very clear that any safety issues are assumed and not real. Nansen also asserts that the projected costs for mass. Nansen told E&T that ―the technology available at the time was advanced enough to proceed with development‖ despite what naysayers believed. Nansen refers to Glaser‘s original proposal: ―The transmitter was based on the work of Bill Brown of Raytheon. (―Coyote‖) Smith of the National Security Space Office (NSSO). The most comprehensive testing has been done by the US military – because they operate high. The Shuttle was ―an unfortunate configuration that has actually inhibited the development of fully reusable launch systems. the large area of expensive and not-very-efficient solar cells required.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 – No Tech (5/7) Prefer our qualified ev it quotes a boeing satellite programmer. economist. Nansen adds that tests on insects. birds and other lifeforms produced no damage with power densities below this heating threshold. Ralph Nansen. and NASA does space. and that standards for SSP systems would be the same as for microwave oven leakage. While recog. the high cost of launching the hardware to geostationary orbit. "Let the Sun Shine In". says Nansen. He is the author of six books. Since the oil shocks of the early 1970s. Whatever the reason. their evidence is old hype Mark Williamson. in 1968. who recently conducted another study of SSP. magazine. ―there is no real safety problem. and big aerospace companies such as Lockheed Martin and Boeing.com The concept of beaming gigawatts of solar power down from space was first put on a sound scientific footing by Peter Glaser of Arthur D. Moreover. fully-reusable flyback system‖ based on Apollo-Saturn rocket stages that could have brought costs down.power satellite programme manager for Boeing and author of the 2009 book ‗Energy Crisis: Solution from Space‘. the unproven technology of wireless power transmission and the safety issues (real or assumed) surrounding the collection of power on the ground. including The Cambridge Dictionary of Space. 16. Finally. 8. proclaims Nansen. has been involved with the concept since the late 1970s when Boeing began its study of a solar. the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Commerce found ―no show-stoppers‖ or ―insurmountable obstacles‖ to the idea. were it not for a ―misguided‖ decision to develop the Space Shuttle instead. industry‘s wish for low-cost access to space remains unfulfilled. this also made them light. For example. UK-based space-technology consultant to the space industry. regarding power transmission. 2010.produced cells were ―low enough to make the satellite energy costcompetitive with other sources‖. Of course. ―May the power be with you‖. not energy. POWERSPACE//ZY Almost as soon as the ink was dry on Glaser‘s patent for a space-based solar power system.power satellite. the idea has been dusted off and re-evaluated every ten years or so by America‘s Department of Energy. the potential ‗technology showstoppers‘ began to take centre stage. Little. who pioneered the transmission of electric power by microwave beams. he cites a proposal to use a ―two-stage. its space agency. an American defence firm. former solar. ―the solar cells we selected for the Boeing satellite were single crystal silicon (only 2mm thick). a consultancy. he says. As for launch costs.‖ he insists. who demonstrated the first successful wireless power trans.mission in 1964 when he powered a model helicopter‖. states Nansen.000W/m2‖. a study published in 1981 by the Department of Energy. among others. These studies usually conclude that there is no technical barrier to implementing SSP.V. NASA. SBSP is technologically feasible The Economist. But further development work has always fallen between the cracks of different agencies.‖ says Colonel M. They included. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 202 .5 per cent efficient. and had a very long potential life in orbit because they were so thin‖.

And satellite technology has also improved: Autonomous computer systems as well as advanced. Va. senior fellows at the Caltech Institute of Space Technology. on Earth and in space. significant cost reductions for future deployments and the total initial system costs as described. http://www. 2011 The technical feasibility of space-based solar power (SBSP) is beyond dispute.pdf. who led the Hawaiian island test as chief operating officer and co-founder of Ashburn. and receiving rectifying antenna (rectenna). The beam control accurately points the transmitter towards the receiver and adjusts the beam amplitude/ phase so that the system can transmit energy with high efficiency. and spending some $80 million. and this result has been confirmed by several major studies since then. Solar High is a team of senior managers and technologists with directly relevant experience who believe that spacebased solar power can solve the problem of bringing clean. 6/2/2011. microwave based technology can be converted much more efficiently and will experience less loss during transmission. and Japanese researchers crossed an important SBSP threshold when they wirelessly transmitted microwave energy between two Hawaiian islands about 90 miles (145 kilometers) apart.pdf What allows Space Based Solar Power to be viable is increased.com/article. beam control. PV cells have been used in space for decades. ―Solar High: Energy for the 21st Century‖. Many other technologies relevant to SBSP have made "enormous progress" in recent years. A little over a decade ago. lightweight building materials have also made leaps and bounds. he says. representing the distance through Earth's atmosphere that a transmission from orbit would have to penetrate. Department of Energy (DoE) does not do space. Editor-in-Chief at Portal to the Universe and freelance science writer. http://www.S. and wireless power transmission has been demonstrated repeatedly. Mankins says. There are two primary options for transferring power from the spacecraft to a receiver: microwave and laser. ―SPACE BASED SOLAR POWER‖. and microwave or laser to prime electrical power at the receiver). 4-16-09. It is also suggested that longer wavelength be used to decrease transmission loses.–based Managed Energy Technologies. says Frank Little. the best photovoltaic efficiency.pickar. LLC. ―Will Space-Based Solar Power Finally See the Light of Day?‖ Scientific American. and the U. now it can reach 40 percent. Space Based Solar Power Page 21 Laser based technology is generally considered to be less viable for space based solar power because of the inefficient conversion from DC to laser to DC again. Date accessed June 24. NASA and the DOE sponsored an extensive study of the subject in the late 1970s that found no show-stoppers.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 – No Tech (6/7) Microwave transmission is a viable means for which SSP energy can be transferred—ever present advancement takes out any solvency deficit William Fan Harold Martin James Wu Brian Mok. scattering. Despite such progress. Caltech.scientificamerican. this could have undesired interference with existing communication systems. However. The microwave technology consists of three parts: the transmitter. former intern at European Southern Observatory. and a mixture of experimental technology and current technology. Finally. The transmitter takes the DC produced by the solar panels and beams it in the form of microwaves. government's drawing board so far. A key reason. U. currently we can hope for 45% transmission efficiency to convert energy from DC to DC when transmitting from space to Earth [5].org/resources/16KwordBrief. associate director of the CSP. solarhigh. One key factor that must be considered to select the optimum technology is conversion efficiency (solar to microwave or laser.cfm?id=will-space-based-solar-power-finally-see-the-light-of-day&page=2 Last year. diffraction. Recent tech advancements make SBSP possible Adam Hadhazy. etc. or sunlight conversion into electricity. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 203 .caltech. That time is now. affordable energy to people anywhere on Earth or in space. 2011. SBSP has not gotten past the U. Also the absorption from the atmosphere makes laser based technology a poor choice.edu/e103/Final%20Exams/Space%20Based%20Solar%20Power.S. says John Mankins.S. Using some laboratory results. We have been waiting for advances in space technology to reduce costs to a competitive level. Some draw backs of microwave technology is that the transmitter and receiver are much larger than that of laser based technology. was 10 percent. Little says: NASA does not do energy. However. We have the technological capability to build Solar Power Satellites Solar High. rapid advancement in wireless power transmission technology. the rectifying antenna receives the microwaves and converts it back to DC. Another factor is the transmission losses due to attenuation.

a 50 kW array could easily be deployed for a total mass of 40 kg. with thickness of 6am and area of 400 m2. leading to in-space testing of kilowatt arrays within a year. it does not always improve the array mass.com/science/article/pii/S0094576509001969#sec5 Specific power density is a critical parameter for increasing the electrical power available to spacecraft systems with launch mass constraints. 2009 ―Early commercial demonstration of space solar power using ultra-lightweight arrays‖. Recent technology advances in the design. with a stowed volume below . for a total specific power (including deployment system) of 1200 W/kg or more. or from SRS CORIN for high atomic oxygen resistance. While efficiency gains improve the array area for a given power output. a-Si:H solar cells have been successfully deposited by Institut de Microtechnique on CP1 substrates manufactured for solar sails by SRS technologies. Progress over the last 20 years has generally been made by increasing solar cell photovoltaic efficiency from 8–10% to 20–24%. This would enable commercial communications satellites to have 50 kWe of power. Even with the relatively low photovoltaic efficiency of these ultra-thin film arrays ( 9–12%). Kevin Reed. have been built with an areal density of .SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 – No Tech (7/7) Tech has come a lot way and is nearly ready Reed. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 204 . manufacturing. with a specific power of 4300 W/kg. works at SESCRC/Welsom Space Solar. Laboratory experiments with a-Si:H cells deposited on 2am substrates have already demonstrated that these cells can be deposited on the ultra-thin polymer films with an efficiency high enough to achieve specific powers in excess of 1 kWe/kg.sciencedirect. Large thin-film structures. or to roll out an extra 20 kWe whenever the original surfaces degrade to their end-of-life efficiency. These thin-film arrays can be stowed in a rolled configuration and deployed in space using carbon-fiber reinforced polymers. followed by demonstration of 50–100 kWe arrays. http://www. Plans are now in place for raising the technology readiness level. These films can be made from CP1TM for high radiation resistance at geosynchronous orbits. and then GWe solar power satellites.03kg/m2. This process appears to be very attractive for eventual scale-up to MWe. with promising progress being made to exceed 40%.5 m3. and deployment of thin film photovoltaic arrays offer a solution to the mass limitations of high power arrays. thereby limiting the power available to commercial communications satellites with current launch vehicles to a value below 20 kWe.

SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 – No Tech: Thin Film (1/2) Thin film PV breakthroughs solve cost efficiency International Journal of Impact Engineering. A number of conceptual design architecture studies have been performed that offer promise for terrestrial electrical power generation by space solar power (SSP). Kusunokia. Osaka University. Akahoshia. Inc. At 100 W/kg. Machidaa. Machidaa. . convert it to laser or microwave beams. Y. Choa Kyushu Institute of Technology. thin-film arrays are much lighter— around 1200 W/kg. and Harvey J. N. Watanabeb. Y. Nakamuraa. Switzerland using LaRCTM-CP1 thin-film substrates produced by SRS Technologies in Huntsville. SESCRC/Welsom Space Solar. S. 12/5/07. . Since these arrays are deployable. and Harvey J. convert that power to electricity [1]. Laboratory test cells have been produced by Institut de Microtechnique at the University of Neuchatel. Y. T. Watanabeb. These new. Germany. T.sciencedirect. Germany. Kevin Reed. Willenberg. in turn. American Aerospace Advisors. Fujitac and M. they can be packaged with minimum mass and volume. JapanVolume 35. Willenberg. Issue 12. . Fukushigea. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 205 . Seestetten.e. To make this concept economically attractive. can provide space solar arrays at 25% of the cost of current rigid solar arrays. T. Vilshofen. Issue 12. K. S. including the deployment systems. Toyonaka. S. December 2008. a constellation of large Earth-orbiting spacecraft that collect solar power.com/science/article/pii/S0094576509001969//jchen Future systems will be even more sensitive to specific power. are so lightweight that they offer specific powers in excess of 1000 W/kg—a factor of 10 or more above the current state-of-the-art. USA. ―Early commercial demonstration of space solar power using ultra-lightweight arrays‖. Owens Cross Roads. A well-designed 50 kW space solar array and deployment system using rolled mechanisms with this specific power would weigh 32 kg with a payload volume the size of a suitcase. Choa Kyushu Institute of Technology. Vilshofen. T. Nakamuraa. This cut costs by 75% International Journal of Impact Engineering. Owens Cross Roads. Fujitac and M. Furusawaa. i. S. T. T. Y.sciencedirect. . Furusawaa. ―Early commercial demonstration of space solar power using ultra-lightweight arrays‖. Kouraa. while the efficiency is only around 9–12%. Osaka University. American Aerospace Advisors. JapanVolume 35. Inc. such a power station must weigh 2– or more—a tall order for launch vehicles that currently place no more than 2– into geosynchronous orbit. Thin-film arrays. and readily deployed in space with near-term demonstrable technologies. These advances allow arrays to be stowed in the launch vehicle in very compact configurations. 12/5/07. N. Recent technology advances in the area of thin film photovoltaic arrays offer a solution to the mass limitations of high power arrays. Kevin Reed. Kouraa. Hosodab. December 2008. Fukushigea. and beam that power to terrestrial collectors that. Seestetten. SESCRC/Welsom Space Solar. Toyonaka. [2] and [3].. Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). and easily deployed to much larger arrays than have heretofore been achievable. combined with high power density. Hosodab. AL that have the highest power/mass ratio on record—4300 W/kg [6]! These thin-film arrays can be stowed in a rolled or folded configuration in the launch vehicle and deployed in space by simple boom extension or roller mechanisms. Akahoshia. http://www. USA. S.. AL. AL. S. Kusunokia. This low mass and payload volume. http://www. Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). K. they must compete with current large power plants by economically generating Gigawatts (GW) of power.com/science/article/pii/S0094576509001969//jchen Recent advances in the ability to place photovoltaic materials on very thin-film substrates have produced a new generation of solar arrays.

For example. Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The complete system. perhaps using high altitude airships (HAAs) as platforms to demonstrate megawatt arrays. and so on are at fault. must he looked at for each mission. Fraas has been active in the development of Solar Cells and Solar. or for processing of materials in the microgravity environment of space. .based solar cells for many years and has developed a-Si:llbased solar cells on polymer substrate made on a high-throughput basis using roll-to-roll deposition technology for space and stratospheric missions. S. JapanVolume 35. With t h i s design. Vilshofen. As the technology matures to the megawatt range. initiating and managing high-risk/high-payoff R&D programs for Varian Medical. interconnects. Kusunokia. Kouraa. All layers were deposited using roll-to-roll production machines on a -1-mil-thick polymer substrate. we have fabricated modules having an initial AMO aperture area efficiency of-9. and Harvey J. for higher data rates or power. from 50 to 200 kWe. they will report on two new developments: ( I ) the monolithieally laserintegrated thin-film module on flexible polymer substrate to attain an initial specific power as high as 2343W/kg at the module level using TJ a-Si alloy solar cells and (2) a new monolithic hybrid module design that marries the advantages of our wire-bonded baseline cell with those of (he advanced laser-integrated module. Furusawaa. History has shown that it is not the cells thai generally fail in an array failure but often. T. T. such as for cellular phones and laptop computers. Facilitated innovation is empirically proven – thin film branched into space hotels and cell phones International Journal of Impact Engineering. Issue 12. Inc. Choa Kyushu Institute of Technology. S. Watanabeb. K. An alternative application would be for much higher-power communications satellites. 50 MWe platforms can be considered as building blocks for the GWe stations that would be required to provide a primary source of power for the electrical power grid. As the technology for high power thin-film arrays matures. A 60 kWe array which can be rolled out in 20 kWe segments would greatly extend the useful lifetime of communications satellites—essentially tripling the array lifetime by rolling out 20 kWe of BOL arrays at the end of the array's useful lifetime.S i : l l > . This would make a thin-film array attractive for still higher-power commercial applications. additional applications appear promising.com/books?id=ds7vnCgmSnMC&pg=PA397&dq=Space+Solar+Power+System&hl=en&ei=cMwDTpqpO8SdgQ ek9r2VDg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDgQ6AEwAjge#v=onepage&q=Space%20Solar%20Power%20Sy stem&f=false//zy High specific power and flexible (liin-f i l m TJ a-Si:H-based solar cells are attractive for space applications. and therefore it is roll-to-roll compatible. SESCRC/Welsom Space Solar. Y. AL. USA. Nakamuraa. Osaka University. Owens Cross Roads. the logical next step would be solar power satellites. Partain. T. American Aerospace Advisors. . S. December 2008.google. A 200 kWe solar array would have a mass of less than 200 kg. including stowed volume as well as the more traditional mass and power requirements. It uses standard size 5-MW cells as the starting material. is Director of Marketing and Advanced Technology. This technology can be developed in stages. Seestetten. PhD. Germany. In this conference. ―Solar Cells and Their Applications‖ http://books.5% and an estimated specific power of-1600W/kg.000 kg to geosynchronous orbit.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 – No Tech: Thin Film (2/2) New breakthroughs in solar cells use thin film tech Larry D. there is no simple answer for projecting the future of thin-film cells in space. Electric Power Systems since 1975 2010. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 206 . Kevin Reed. such as orbiting hotels—with expected demands in the 250 kWe to 1 MWe—and manufacturing sites. Fukushigea. Hosodab. 12/5/07. A unique application may also be realized for recharging mobile batteries. Y. N.com/science/article/pii/S0094576509001969//jchen Deployable thin-film arrays would have immediate applications with communications satellites and with high altitude aircraft.. Fraas.sciencedirect. Willenberg. Dr. Fujitac and M. ( I S O lias championed and pioneered in thin-film a-Si alloy ( a . http://www. ―Early commercial demonstration of space solar power using ultralightweight arrays‖. Akahoshia. Toyonaka. Machidaa. The latter would be either for sites for in-space construction of larger platforms. Lewis M. Such an orbiting power platform may provide a source of electrical power for very distributed demands. Unfortunately. With a launch vehicle capable of placing 50. Our reluctance to utilize new array designs has slowed the progress of using thin-film cells in space. electric thrusters in the megawatt range would be attractive for human transportation to Mars and its moons. deployment mechanisms.

©2010 SPIE--The International Society for Optical Engineering. With robust design and inherent redundancy built-in. SPS key to provide energy in the event of a space debris collision McLinko. Our paper suggests how SSP satellites can be designed small enough to fit within ESPA standards and therefore use rideshare to achieve orbit. Baohua Yang. and beamed propulsion possibilities including far-term concepts as a true interstellar probe such as Dr. and risk of upgrading the system. 76513P-7.and space-based power beaming applications.‖ International Conference on Space Information Technology 2009. Ed. A truly developed Space-Based Solar Power infrastructure would open up entirely new exploration and commercial possibilities. and Basant V.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 – Space Debris SPS infrastructure de-orbits space debris NASA. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 207 . Alternatively. but because of the power available on orbit. Sagar. which would enable concepts as diverse as comet / asteroid protection systems. not only because of the access which will be discussed in the section on infrastructure. ―Space-based solar power generation using a distributed network of satellites and methods for efficient space power transmission. space-to-space power utilities. October 10. 20 09. complexity. China: SPIE. Robert Forward‘s StarWisp Concept. which still require significant transmission arrays to sufficiently focus the beams targeting corresponding ground stations. 2007 (NASA. the ―plug and play‖ nature of this system significantly reduces the cost. The only satellites that are constrained to a significant mass are the beam-down satellites. Ryan M. & Ming Li. The distributed nature of smallsat clusters maximizes the use of economies of scale. larger versions could be launched on Falcon 9s or on Falcon 1s with booster stages. Beijing. ―Space Based Solar Power as an Opportunity for Strategic Security‖ Phase 0 Architecture Feasibility Study. de-orbit of space debris.. Furthermore. power generation and transmission will not be interrupted in the event of mishaps like space debris collision. 2007) The technology to beam power over long distances could lower application satellite weights and expand the envelope for Earth. Xingrui Ma.

http://www. California. Lawrence LivermoreNational Laboratory. W Feldman. no date. ―Optimization Techniques for the Power Beaming Analysis of Microwave Transmissions from a Space-Based Solar Power Satellite‖. but also its robust operation at high temperatures. The objective function has the following form: where the weights W1 and W2 may be chosen by the user to emphasize one of the two requirements. can be evaluated analytically for the chosen basis functions. and Chebychev distribution. The high efficiency of the solar panels and the efficient laser system greatly helps to resolve the problem. http://www. Claremont.maths-in-industry. the radiative losses will be sufficient to support steady-state system operation Spectral method solves efficiency Feldman et al. which makes the spectral method attractive both from an implementation and analytic perspective. It was proved that the power transmission efficiency can approach close to 100%. while simultaneously maximizing the energy transmission efficiency between the two antennas. Harvey Mudd College. we can now implement a numerical code to find the set of coefficients ap for our basis functions hp which produce the optimal distribution H(y). Tech is efficient. Typical WPT is a point-to-point power transmission. about 4 MW of energy must he removed. as well as H′(y). Hence. which finds a constrained minimum of a function of several variables. Note that the energy integrals. 2010 ― Systems For Solar Power Beaming From Space‖. which is about the temperature for the entire system.org/miis/280/ Having posed the spectral method to solve the power beaming problem above.diode pumped technology decreases the radiative losses Rubenchik. if all elements of the system are connected using aluminumcoated inflatable columns. 2009. For embodiments of the present system. A practical way to do this is by thermal radiation from the surfaces of the subsystem components and structure. we will simultaneously have found the compactly supported transmitter distribution needed to produce the corresponding receiver distribution.google. Famous power tapers of the transmitting antenna are Gaussian taper. we had better concentrate power to receiver.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 – Inefficient (1/2) Microwave efficiency can be 100% Naoki Shinohara. These taper of the transmitting antenna is commonly used for suppression of sidelobes. For the WPT. works at the Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere. Department of Mathematics at the Boeing Company. The objective function constructed here aims to balance the competing requirements that the intensity of the received field distribution be as uniformly distributed across the surface of the receiving antenna as possible. since the only available cooling mechanism will be losses via radiation to outer space. Concerning the power transmission efficiency of the WPT. the total radiated energy will be -14 MW. We can more concentrate the transmitted microwave power to the receiver aperture areas with taper method of the transmitting antenna power distribution. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 208 . November 4. Taylor distribution. Alexander M.com/patents?hl=en&lr=&vid=USPATAPP12773036&id=o57YAAAAEBAJ&oi=fnd&dq=efficiency+%22Space+ Based+Solar+Power%22+&printsec=abstract#v=onepage&q=efficiency&f=false Thermal management is a consideration for die present space-based solar power station. The advantage of the diode pumped laser is not only its high efficiency. Once these coefficients have been found for the optimal receiver distribution. there are some good optical approaches in Russia[5][6]. georgiatech. The spectral method was implemented numerically using MATLAB‘s FMINCON routine. Rubenchik. It corresponds to increase the power transmission efficiency. The blackbody radiation flux at this temperature is: Considering only the concentrator area of 3600x2 m2 (taking into account the radiation from the rear surface). assuming good thermal contact of the components.

beamers and sub-beamers is 49%. 10/3/2009.handle.000 km from Earth). Given recent advances in microwave beaming and DC to microwave conversion and vice versa at high efficiency rates.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5367831&tag=1//jchen Technology Challenges The SPG is not without major technical hurdles.google. falling launch cost for satellites. The foremost is the efficiency of generating and converting to and from the 200 GHz regime. where thicker and costlier cabling insulation is needed to carry increases in power flow. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 209 . James Rogers is chairman of the board. ―Space-based solar power generation using a distributed network of satellites and methods for efficient space power transmission‖. Director of Humanities and Law Minor. microwave and laser frequencies. http://ieeexplore. Energy and Security Policies‖. and enables precise beaming to moving satellites. The technology of phased array transmitters is fairly advanced. Philosophy School of Humanities. ―The Space Power Grid: Synergy Between Space. Thermal management systems capable of handling megawatt power levels are a challenge. They are efficient-can be used 24 hours a day Rogers et al. 2009 Atlanta Conference on Science and Innovation Policy. but the overall return on investment is much higher as modularity allows one to put in a large swarm of low-cost satellites in orbit to generate a higher power output. Using the microwave transmitter infrastructure in place on communications satellites. Switching technology in the 200-300GHz regime has advanced. 2006 ―Spaced Based Power System‖. which is transmitted to a power grid for distribution to users. Ryan McLinko is currently a graduate student at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the field of Aerospace Engineering after having received a bachelor‘s degree in the same field at MIT. 2002.g. driven by defense applications. a space solar power system is almost continuously immersed in sunlight-Solar cells.google.30&as_ylo=2000. solar conversion devices* and nuclear power devices on a space power system generate Direct Current (DC) electricity. Rogers.com/patents?hl=en&lr=&vid=USPAT7612284&id=c6bJAAAAEBAJ&oi=fnd&dq=launches+%22Space+Based+S olar+Power%22+&printsec=abstract#v=onepage&q=efficiency&f=false Space-based power systems use the Sims radium power or solar flux to generate energy. but turbinebased approaches have been developed.31 Satellites are efficient now its only a question of developing them . with Radio Frequency (RF) and microwaves. English Professor School of Humanities.ieee.net/1721. and focused by an antenna. president and chief executive officer of Duke Energy.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 – Inefficient (1/2) The tech is ready – breakthroughs have maximized efficiency Narayanan Komerath. This is a marked advantage to electric utility transmission lines. http://hdl. Breakthroughs in millimeter wave electronics have enabled as much as 70% efficiency using microcircuit chips that can be mass manufactured to produce arrays of the required power level. which is converted to a transmission frequency. April 15.magnetrons. The DC electricity is converted into Alternating Current (AC) electricity. The status of the technology is such that it is time to line up the public policy SSP transmission is very efficient Schwab.org/stamp/stamp. the generated electricity is converted to power through conversion devices. Ryan M McLinko. One million square meters or a one square kilometer 40% efficient solar array can generate about 560 megawatts (MW) of power. As a result.com/scholar?start=40&q=unilateral+solar+powered+satellites&hl=en&as_sdt=0. http://scholar. a 1 m2 solar array with a conversion efficiency of 40% can produce about 560 watts of electrical power. August 25. For example.massive return investment McLinko et al . and the operational robustness of the distributed architecture of solar power satellites proposed here. For example. School of Aerospace Engineering. The Sun's solar constant or flux is approximately MkW/m* in earth orbit. Date accessed June 25. http://www.400 miles or 36. in geosynchronous orbit or t iKO (22. 2011 Another way in which SSP could support the concept of power decentralization is by the nature of microwave efficiency. ―The New Viability of Space Solar Power: Global Mobilization for a Common Human Endeavor‖. Georgia Institute of Technology. e.41)0 miles or GEO (22. James E. such as radio.1/57581 The overall efficiency of this distributed satellite array of collectors. Martin Schwab. For example. the time has come to phase out our dependence on fossil fuels and incorporate SSP power into Earth‘s electrical grids. 2009. SSP via a microwave system that is 80 percent efficient at sending 1 kilowatt will still be 80 percent efficient at sending 1 megawatt. some percentage of the solar constant is converted into usable electricity. Professor of Philosophy.

would manage the distribution of benefits from or otherwise monitor such facilities.google. GPS technology has undeniably been transformative. The system was made available for civilian use in the 1980s. it could be used to protect the owner's. with proper equipment. an analysis can be made of the alternative types of multilateral agreements which are available. ―Solar Power Satellites and Security Considerations: The Case for Multilateral Agreements‖. although not part of the management or control of SPS facilities. new international organization with regard to the ownership of the SPS. Mike Nellis.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=NnLQs6D7nLoC&oi=fnd&pg=PA341&dq=civilian+%22solar+powered+satellites%2 2&ots=H5CVE5EyK2&sig=u5kUhgMJS7j0gsVYp_5JAPphL6c#v=onepage&q=%22solar%20powered%20satellites%22&f=false Sociologically.a society to whose organization 'micro-electronic based information and communication technologies' are structurally constitutive. SPS. its other space objects and the State's land mass from attack. since when an abundance of commercial applications hive developed. Paul G. ―Electronic monitoring satellite tracking and public protection‖ http://books. By triangulating with at least three GPS signals from satellites. to within a matter of meters. The premise of this paper is that international multilateral agreements could serve to minimize potential vulnerabilities of the SPS and could also help minimize potential threats attributed to the SPS by foreign States. latitude and altitude (3*D) can be determined. longitude and latitude (2-D) can be determined. but various factors can still affect the quality and accuracy of the GPS signal Atmospheric conditions can affect its speed. given a tendency among developing States to claim portions of the benefits derived from utilization and exploitation of international resources. With the understanding that no agreements are ever absolute assurances against military threats and vulnerabilities. Space L.only civilian purposes Nellis. 82 (1983) HeinOnline//jchen From an "Owner State" point of view. the GPS receiver compares the time a signal was transmitted at the speed of light with the time it was received by the receiver. 14 No duel use.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 – International Perception (1/2) Perceived military threats posed by SPS can be alleviated through multilateral cooperation Space Law Journal. and the mechanics used in formulating such agreements. 2010. would be a target for any space-capable nation with intentions hostile to the interests of that state. Conversely. (Buck 2009a: 2)In terms of its ability to pinpoint objects and individuals on the earth's surface. the massive SPS. with four or more satellites sending data to a GPS receiver. of which there may eventually be many and on which a State may some day depend for a large percentage of its energy needs. the global positioning system (GPS) must he understood as an aspect of Castells* {20O4:3) 'network society' . GPS is a satellite-based navigation system created by the US military in 1974. Mike Nellis is an experienced online political operative currently serving as a senior strategy consultant with BuzzMaker.000 miles above the earth. Smith. the concern is that the huge amount of energy absorbed by the SPS could. four of which are notionally 'visible' at any one time from any terrestrial location. Dembling and Delbert D. However. Defensively. Such a weapon could be used offensively against objects in space or on Earth. using 24 solar-powered satellites orbiting 12. in real time. Specifically. 11 J. there may be pressure to create an international organization which. It works as follows: Essentially. longitude. and given the view that monitoring of SPS facilities should be conducted by an independent authority. be harnessed for use as a tremendously powerful weapon. a non-"Owner State" fears that the SPS could be used for military purposes and that in such case the SPS would pose a threat to its national security. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 210 . This information can then be displayed graphically on a map.

‖ http://www. Military per. ―American leadership in space: leadership through capability. and USAF JOHN E. SIMON P. ―Collective assurance vs. Nixon shuffled the Apollo 11 lunar excursion so that a civilian. it was deliberately a civilian operation. 5/16/11. but military uniforms and titles are seldom shown. Some seem to want to base our future national foundations in space using the important international collaboration piece as the starting point. should focus on advancing American capability and enable a long range strategy for exploration and enhanced military capabilities in space. Precisely because there was nothing of direct value perceived in space — particularly deep space such as the Moon—the ―perception value‖ of the US program being ―peaceful‖ and ―civilian‖ took precedence. Nevertheless. prestige.com/article/1797/1) When it comes to space exploration and development. They are pressing ahead with their goals to step into the vacuum of leadership that the US is allowing through the shutdown of US programs. So much so that US President Richard M. but the US needs to observe that other nations and partnerships such as the EU and Russia appear to be taking an alternate path toward increased domestic space capabilities and expanded infrastructure for national interests. would be the first man to step on the Moon rather than the military offi. What concerns me with this form of ―shaping‖ is that we appear to have changed the definition of American leadership as a nation away from the traditional sense of the word. space is used as a tool for foreign policy and relations more often than not. Friedman‘s assertion that space is ―often‖ overlooked in ―foreign relations and geopolitical strategies‖. Air University Library Although the ―space race‖ of the 1960s was part of the Cold War competition with the Soviet Union. Space policy analyst and strategist. and threaten the very preeminence that we have labored so hard to achieve over the past fifty years.‖ http://www. abandoning capabilities. Space Review (Christopher. and allowing the loss of large numbers of skilled space workers. and wealth as the baseline for any international cooperation they choose to support.sonnel make up a large percentage of NASA‘s astronaut corps. NASA‘s leadership bears a striking legacy of military background in tha a very high number of former and retired military personnel are on the team. The United States‘ goal should be leadership through spacefaring capabilities. Each nation has the right to develop its own nationally-focused ―unilateral‖ space policies that serve to advance their vital interests in security. WORDEN Brigadier General. impact our traditional vital interests of independence and achievement. ambitious space efforts with a national tone (in all sectors) in space will not only hurt the US space industry.com/article/1843/1) As the US current space policy notes. but will harm our nation‘s ability to advance its global interests in space. Achieving and maintaining such leadership through capability will allow for increased space security and opportunities for all and for America to lead the international space community by both technological and political example. Armstrong. the pretense remains that our space exploration effort is overwhelmingly civilian The unilateral space leadership of the US creates multilateralism and cooperation Stone. including national security space and commercial. Our next space policy and strategy.cer. just as our friends the Europeans are pursuing.thespacereview. SHAW Major. 3/14/11. Military involvement was not only submerged. but its perceptions live on. I will say that the US space program has become less of an effort for the advancement of US space power and exploration. then proceed toward shaping the international environment through allied cooperation efforts. If our goal is the advancement of a global exploration program in space. US leadership creates international partnerships Stone.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 – International Perception (2/2) Space exploration is still perceived as civilian. USAF 2002 ―Whither Space Power? Forging a Strategy for the New Century‖ Fairchild Paper. with undeniably military overtones. Space policy analyst and strategist. My contention is that while space is indeed overlooked in national grand geopolitical strategies by many in national leadership. Space Review (Christopher.thespacereview. not military. in all sectors. and is used more as a foreign policy tool to ―shape‖ the strategic environment to what President Obama referred to in his National Security Strategy as ―The World We Seek‖. Neil A. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 211 . I would disagree somewhat with Mr. Failure to invest in bold. every nation has the right to access and use space. independence in national space policies. The Cold War is over. Using space to shape the strategic environment is not a bad thing in and of itself. In fact. while including international efforts of mutual benefit. Air Force colonel Buzz Aldrin. then fine. Traditional national leadership would start by advancing United States‘ space power capabilities and strategies first. it was deliberately downplayed.

perhaps even catch up to the U. May 11.S. the PLA is now attacking it as an attempt to impose Western regulations on China. START delegation in Geneva. I find serious Russian interest in this approach but sadly only intransigence from China. MacDonald. opposition to international agreements on space. United States Institute of space //ZY The PPWT likely serves primarily as a way for China to buy time to enable them to attain a stronger military position.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 – PPWT Violation PPWT is bad. and other steps which I hope the U. With the previous U. Earlier. It is intriguing to note that with the EU and U. MacDonald was a professional staff member on the House Armed Services Committee and was national security adviser to Sen. it also left a diplomatic vacuum that China and Russia skillfully filled with the PPWT. In my conversations with Russian and Chinese counterparts. 20 11. He also worked for the State Department as a nuclear weapons expert in the Bureau of Political-Military Affairs.breaking it prevents dangerous militarization race Bruce W.S.China will use it to militarize space.S. portraying an image of peaceful intentions in space. This code of conduct provides an excellent vehicle to challenge China to support realistic and useful "rules of the road" for space. Dale Bumpers (D-AR). is a consultant in technology and national security management and is currently senior director to the Congressional Commission on the Strategic Posture of the United States. where he led the Interagency START Policy Working Group and served on the U. Testimony before the US-China Economic and Security Review commission on The Implications of China‘s Military and Civil Space Programs. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 212 .S. From 1995 to 1999. MacDonald holds a BSE from Princeton in aerospace engineering and two master's degrees from Princeton— one in aerospace engineering and a second in public and international affairs. in recent months speaking favorably of a draft code of conduct that is a vastly more realistic step than the PPWT. in a field where they were far behind us. he was assistant director for national security at the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy as well as senior director for science and technology on the National Security Council staff.S.. will pursue.

However. 11 J. the development of SPS systems might benefit from the adoption of a unitary multilateral agreement affecting their military role and security." The specified zones established by such proximity rules. similar to the case of direct broadcasting satellites. Space L. would constitute a claim over an ascertainable portion of outer space. proximity rules would have to be reconciled with Article II of the 1967 Outer Space Treaty's which states: "[O]uter space. 82 (1983) HeinOnline//jchen Conclusion It is probable that. Paul G. Although an international agreement may not be entirely effective in the elimination of military vulnerabilities. which would be defined relative to the SPS space facility. As the foregoing discussion indicates. and the majority of States. Smith. SelectedProvisions A recent study on military implications of a SPS system identified two salient subjects for an international SPS agreement. It is of importance that the role of a multilateral agreement for these purposes be addressed now. Paul G."16 and. in return for mechanical and systematic methods to verify. Smith. an international agreement would be very useful in eliminating institutional and international legal vulnerabilities.' -7 However. Dembling and Delbert D. ―Solar Power Satellites and Security Considerations: The Case for Multilateral Agreements‖. before any single nation is committed to the development of an SPS system. it would follow that such specified zones would also not be considered a permanent use. including the moon and other celestial bodies. Since institutional and international legal vulnerabilities will be most critical during the formative stages of the SPS development. One commentator has asserted that the concept of appropriation in Article II suggests the existence of two subsidiary elements: temporary nonexclusive use and permanent exclusive use. to claims that SPS development be banned in order to avoid interference with the established utilization of the radio frequency spectrum for telecommunications purposes. Paul G.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 – Export Controls/Institutional Barriers US would seek multilateral agreements – solves institutional barriers Space Law Journal. monitor and enforce such assurances. The first involves the concept of proximity rules and the second involves the concept of inspection. the United States would achieve the elimination of such vulnerabilities prior to the development of its SPS system. by definition. by means of use or occupation. from the perspective of the United States. is not subject to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty. just as it may not be entirely effective in the elimination of military threats attributed to solar power satellites. ―Solar Power Satellites and Security Considerations: The Case for Multilateral Agreements‖. The United States could personally continue minimization of such vulnerabilities as long as it demonstrates adherence to policies and procedures which reduce or eliminate perceived or real threats. the promise of early elimination of institutional and international legal barriers would be a tangible benefit that foreign nations could offer in return for assurances that the threats attributed to SPS systems will not materialize and. 11 J. Smith. ―Solar Power Satellites and Security Considerations: The Case for Multilateral Agreements‖. Dembling and Delbert D. 82 (1983) HeinOnline//jchen B. Proximity rules have been defined by the study as "specified 'keep out' zones in the vicinity of space facilities which are to be protected. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 213 . Space L. bilateral treaties may be adopted between the space powers on the basis of their unique bargaining positions. Dembling and Delbert D. the beneficial impact for the United States of an international agreement would necessarily take effect early in the developmental process. Space L. an SPS multilateral agreement would be useful to either exempt such zones from the restrictions posed by Article II or to define the word "appropriation" such that the zones would not be within said definition. SPS development prompt multilateral agreements for regulation Space Law Journal. the value of a multilateral agreement will be significant in reducing certain types of vulnerabilities. it is stated that "precedent for such rules exists in the form of offshore territorial limits claimed by various nations. 82 (1983) HeinOnline//jchen It is anticipated that. such zones would be reserved for exclusive use and therefore may constitute an appropriation of a portion of outer space. Thus. SPS will become the subject of both ITU and COPUOS multilateral agreements. Thus. 11 J. The bargaining position between the United States and those States which possess the capabilities of militarily affecting the SPS space segment is quite different from that between the U. or by any other means. In such cases. Multilateral treaties solve zoning and proximity rules Space Law Journal. 19 To the extent that a SPS satellite would not be considered a permanent use of a particular portion of space even though the facility would have a relatively long lifetime. Consequently.S. These institutional and international legal vulnerabilities may range from claims of right to a portion of the power supplied by the SPS system on the basis of the "Common Heritage of Mankind" theory.

SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 – Agent CPs No agency has authority over SBSP – joint cooperation under the federal government is key NSSO. federal agency has a specific mandate to invest in the development of Space‐ Based Solar Power. ―Space‐ Based Solar Power: As an Opportunity for Strategic Security‖. Instead.S. or development related to Space‐ Based Solar Power.dtic. http://www. technology investment. 10/10/07. National Security Space Office. no U. • Lacking a specific mandate and clear responsibility.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA473860&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc. federal agency has an existing or planned program of research.S. the responsibilities for various aspects of SBSP are distributed among various federal agencies.pdf//jchen FINDING: The SBSP Study Group found that no existing U. o Recommendation: The SBSP Study Group recommends that the US Government should task one or more federal agencies for investing in key technologies needed for SBSP Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 214 . The SBSP Partnership Council must be chaired and led by an existing or newly created single‐ purpose civilian federal agency. o Recommendation: The SBSP Study Group recommends that the US Government should form a SBSP Partnership Council that consists of all federal agencies with responsibilities relevant to successfully developing SBSP.

Office of Technology Assessment : for sale by the Supt. payloads. without careful managemeit.C. Off. and engaging on major S & T developments which enable SBSP. Under the best of circumstances there are costs associa ated with doing extensive business across borders. Even if such an increase were to occur. • Numerous technological advances are emerging for each of the technical challenges (example: entrepreneurial private space access ventures. with coordinating efforts in different languages and geographic areas.. The most sophistic cated non-American launch vehicle is ESA‘s Ariane. etc. will tend ger erally to increase the overall costs.. ―Space‐ Based Solar Power: As an Opportunity for Strategic Security‖. of Docs. and eventually expand as appropriate to include all Allied and other potential partner nations. monitoring. and cost effectiveness (at least to LEO). And it is far behind the U. especially since crash programs are necessarily more expensive than ordinary ones: money is traded for time. there is no single entity for identifying and tracking these independent developments for the sole purpose of SBSP applicability. Government and international R&D efforts are independently reducing SBSP technical barriers via S & T development for other goals. whether involving private firms or government agencies. the US is ahead. nat tional and multilateral space programs. 1978. are in place. Government establish a formal activity for cataloguing.dtic. Producing the requisite lift capabilities in an independent program would be extremely costly and timeconsuming. However. Effort should begin with DoD and U. http://www.S.S. Space shuttle in capabilities. The experience of Europ pean collaborative efforts has been that costs rise as the large number of participants: in. its worldwide tracking and relay networks. which is stili being testflown and is scheduled to begin commercial operations in 1982 I he Ariane is a high-quality three-stage expendable booster.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA473860&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc. These are: 1) to share the high costs and risks. these extra inefficiencies can eliminate any advantage gained from intema.S. U. Government activities.S. However. highly efficient concentrator photovoltaics.S. The requisite technical and financial base is available: strong aerospace industries exist. very low‐ weight thin‐ film photovoltaic systems. and above all experience in and development of manned space-vehicles. but it is far smaller than the large U. It is clear that any unilateral SPS program depends on a dramatic and unpredictable inc crease in the sense of urgency about medium and long-term energy supplies.). ESA and Japan are not a threat to SPS development. National Security Space Office. both ESA and lapan lack the depth of U. 2) to expand the global market: 3) to forestall foreign opposition and/or promote internat tional cooperation. D.‘ Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 215 . industry's aerospace expertise.. 10/10/07.tionali7ing the project.creases the managerial superstructure and project comnplexity. o Recommendation: The SBSP Study Group recommends that the U.s.pdf//jchen DoD and other ongoing U. Since the shuttle itself is too small and expensive for full-scale SPS construction. However.S.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 – International Actor CPs Perm solves best – federal action on SBSP is a catalyst for international development NSSO. ESA is at least two generations of vehicles away from being able to develop an SPs unilaterally. Print. Doing the aff multilaterally would be pointless – logistical difficulties proven by European efforts US Congress 81 Solar power satellites Washington.S. it should be realized that an international consortium. : Congress of the U.S. such as the European Space Agency (ESA). Office of Technology Assessment"August 1981 Multilateral Interests ihere are three reasons why interested part iees may wish to abandon their preference for autonomy in favor'of an international effort. such efforts would be very expensive for any one country or region to undertake. and with bal ancing the divergent national interests of foreign partners. US Congress 78 Applications of solar technology Washington : Congress of the United States.: and a high degree of cooperation from the states involved. Govt. Saturn rockets used for the Apollo program.

S. mobility. and so recommended a fenced amount of research and development budget. recommended that the United States boldly pioneer new frontiers in aerospace technology.pdf//jchen The Aerospace Commission recognized that Global U. A spiral development proposal to field a 10 MW continuous pilot plant en route to gigawatts‐ class systems is included in Appendix B. a repeated review finding is that the commercial sector will need Government to accomplish three major tasks to catalyze SBSP development.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA473860&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc. The second challenge is to facilitate the policy. including our industrial base. manufacture and maintain advanced systems and potentially provide expanded capability to the warfighter.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 – Private/Free Market CPs (1/2) Perm solves best – only combination of federal and private efforts ensures aerospace dominance NSSO. which included reducing the cost and time to space by 50%. and significantly increase in the investment in basic aerospace research to increase opportunities to gain experience in the workforce by enabling breakthrough aerospace capabilities through continuous development of new experimental systems with or without a requirement for production. The report called on government and the investment community must become more sensitive to commercial opportunities and problems in space. government‐ commercial. Solving these space access and operations challenges for SBSP will in turn also open space for a host of other activities that include space tourism. legal. The final Government contribution is to become a direct early adopter and to incentivize other early adopters much as is accomplished on a regular basis with other renewable energy systems coming on‐ line today. and government‐ government) needed for this concept to succeed. noting that U. National Security Space Office. It concluded that. 10/10/07. The first is to retire a major portion of the early technical risks. Because DoD would not want to own SBSP satellites.S. the report noted that the federal government is dysfunctional when addressing 21st century issues from a long term. workforce. and that government must commit to increased and sustained investment and must facilitate private investment in our national aerospace sector. Such experimentation was deemed to be essential to sustain the critical skills to conceive. It suggested an increase in public funding for long term research and supporting infrastructure and an acceleration of transition of government research to the aerospace sector. ―Space‐ Based Solar Power: As an Opportunity for Strategic Security‖. This can be accomplished via an incremental research and development program that culminates with a space‐ borne proof‐ of‐ concept demonstration in the next decade. and organizational instruments that will be necessary to create the partnerships and relationships (commercial‐ commercial. lunar or asteroid resource utilization. A top priority was increased investment in basic aerospace research which fosters an efficient. the United States must overcome the obstacles that jeopardize its ability to sustain leadership in space.dtic. 10/10/07. competitive and global marketplace. including the creation of low‐ cost space access and a supporting infrastructure system on Earth and in space. National Security Space Office. It urged the federal government must remove unnecessary barriers to international sales of defense products. commerce and exploration.dtic. national security and procurement policies represent some of the most burdensome restrictions affecting U. manufacturing. but rather just purchase the delivered energy as it currently does via traditional terrestrial utilities. national and global perspective. Recognizing the new realities of a highly dynamic. secure. and quality of life will depend on it. and implement other initiatives that strengthen transnational partnerships to enhance national security. The Commission concluded that the nation will have to be a space‐ faring nation in order to be the global leader in the 21st century—that our freedom. economic benefit and scientific discovery.‖ An SBSP program would be a powerful expression of this imperative. regulatory. http://www.S. Private‐ public partnerships were also to be encouraged. space launch infrastructure. ―Space‐ Based Solar Power: As an Opportunity for Strategic Security‖. industry competitiveness. http://www. and eventually settlement to extend the human race. develop. aerospace leadership can only be achieved through investments in our future. ―America must exploit and explore space to assure national and planetary security. recognizing that government must assist industry by providing insight into its long‐ term research programs. and industry needs to provide to government on its research priorities. and safe aerospace transportation system. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 216 . and therefore. It also noted that without constant vigilance and investment.S. At the same time. Private sector fails – government key to R&D and policy regulation NSSO. They explicitly recommended hat the United States create a space imperative and that NASA and DoD need to make the investments necessary for developing and supporting future launch capabilities to revitalize U.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA473860&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc. long term research and national infrastructure.pdf//jchen Several major challenges will need to be overcome to make SBSP a reality. vital capabilities in our defense industrial base will be lost. and suggested the establishment of national technology demonstration goals. as well as provide Incentives to Commercial Space.

James.dtic. the Department of Commerce‘s Office of Commercial Space. Brian Mok. and the need to more closely examine certain questions so acute. and installations personnel. Harold. the Japan Space Agency. After this point. Activity was so intense that total e‐ mail traffic for the study leads could be as high as 200 SBSP‐ related e‐ mails a day.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:nTmpylEtdUJ:www. study leaders were invited to further expand to an open web log in collaboration with the Space Frontier Foundation. Therefore.caltech. the National Defense Industry Association. and continuing logistics chain. Compared to other ideas either for space exploration or alternative energy. and the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP).‖ and the entrepreneurial space community. http://www.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA473860&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 217 . This group became so large. and Mok. and the sources of interest were very diverse. Wu. Space Development Steering Committee. all of which hosted or participated in events related to this subject during the study period. a dedicated industry group. the Defense Science Board. “ Space Based Solar Power”. William Fan. As word spread and enthusiasm grew in the space advocacy community. Nevertheless.pickar. The subject was an agenda item for the Space Resources Roundtable. and the Chinese government all appear to have interest in developing space based solar power. The company will need to be assisted by the government investment. study leaders were forced to move to an on‐ line collaborative group with nearly daily requests for new account access. National Security Space Office. 10/10/07. in part because it has no organizational advocate within government. National Space Society (NSS). Marines. Space based solar power is high risk and there is no guarantee that there will be acceptable returns. investors will not receive any returns until several decades later. the Energy Consensus Group.pdf//jchen FINDING: The SBSP Study Group found that SBSP is an idea that appears to generate significant interest and support across a broad variety of sectors. and Aerospace Technology Working Group (ATWG). James Wu. vulnerable. investment groups/ venture capitalists are unlikely to fund space based solar power. To cope. Individuals from each of the major American aerospace companies participated and contributed. and especially sources that are agile without a long. the business will start receiving income and there will be greater confidence to invest into space based solar power technology. Martin.edu/e103/Final%2520Exams/Space%2520Based%2520Solar%2520Power.pdf+solar+powered+satellites+ filetype:pdf&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESh4O6RHmrCqT55D8F8D4r74Z7bRNxAMMasl6sgFwKmXrSB2qc71Xt814onC WBnrr_8ccskJFPqPIm2Lw0WAVNBV1A27hDoA7FnZuNI4Oq8o2pvqaAraGqigdBQSjX3q9LFB7Bju&sig=AHIEtbRrKpGRM3LO8uz _jbHRhCEf0uAr0w. As the study progressed the study team was invited to brief in various policy circles and think tanks. and has not received any substantial funding or public attention for a significant period of time. and USAF Security Forces. What began as a small e‐ mail group became unmanageable as the social network & map‐ of‐ expertise expanded and word spread. DoD review team leaders were virtually overwhelmed by the interest in Space‐ Based Solar Power that they discovered. particularly in the Space Frontier Foundation (SFF). The business will have to continue to run on government grants until it can launch a satellite for niche markets. all of which have an interest in clean.William. Harold Martin. There was clear interest from potential military ground customers—the Army. low environmental‐ impact energy sources. http://docs. Interest in the idea was exceptionally strong in the space advocacy community. The amount of media interest was substantial. Brian.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 – Private/Free Market CPs (2/2) SBSP field provides broad areas of cooperation between government private and public NSSO. Because of the long development cycle. There was clear interest from both traditional ―big aerospace. Plan prerequisite to private actors – key source of funding Fan. that the group had to be split into four additional groups. ultimately growing to over 170 aerospace and policy experts all contributing pro‐ bono. 2011 The development of infrastructure and the deployment costs will require a large amount of funding. including the Marshall Institute. Date accessed June 24. Study leaders were made aware of significant and serious discussions between aerospace companies and several major energy and construction companies both in and outside of United States. the Center for the Study of the Presidency. 6/2. Currently organizations such as NASA. Space‐ Based Solar Power is presently not a publicly well‐ known idea. ―Space‐ Based Solar Power: As an Opportunity for Strategic Security‖.

and Space-Based Positioning. has left the U. Spring 2007. space policies. Fundamental shift in government key to synergize space and energy market Narayanan Komerath. 10/3/2009. ROI large enough to attract private capital is not realistic because of the large risk. ―The Space Power Grid: Synergy Between Space. moving towards the Space Power Grid approach requires some fundamental realignments that synergize the Space and Energy enterprises with the environmental / Climate Change control movement. 2009 Atlanta Conference on Science and Innovation Policy. http://ieeexplore. Public financing is also needed to ensure serious intent on the part of governments to complete the project.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA475093&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc. It is significant that the Bush Administration has taken the time and effort to update all of the U. these policies are Space Exploration. U. Space Transportation.S.org/stamp/stamp. It spans many of the issues in building Space infrastructure. Global Collaboration Model Such a system involving global power exchange obviously requires global collaboration. In the United States. reserving the right to defend assets in space. space policy from 1962 to 2006 served to ensure national leadership in space and governance of space activities.ieee. Navigation.S.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 – Tenant Anchor CP (1/2) Only government funding solves – initial capital return is too small for private investment Narayanan Komerath. Commercial Remote Sensing. Georgia Institute of Technology.S. On a national level.S. where member nations and private corporations collaborate to reduce risk. and inspiration. economic prosperity and national security. ―The Final Report: The Space Industry‖ Industrial College of the Armed Forces. Energy and Security Policies‖. http://www. The current Administration has issued five space-specific policies to provide goals and objectives for the U. motivation. including science. probably through an agency such as ―ARPA-E‖.ieee.pdf The U. 9 America‘s success in space is dependent on government involvement. School of Aerospace Engineering.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5367831&tag=1//jchen In Ref [26] we proposed a global public-private Consortium. Energy and Security Policies‖. the Industrial College of the Armed Forces. The private sector fails at R&D – overreliance on feds means govt development is key ICAF. Each policy endeavors to maintain U. make low-interest long-term funding available. partially based on the model for the European Space Agency. arising from current Space Law. 2009 Atlanta Conference on Science and Innovation Policy.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5367831&tag=1//jchen 1. http://ieeexplore. Georgia Institute of Technology. and international collaboration for ground infrastructure and energy trading.S.S. This set up is also shown to open a path towards resolving some of the most vexing obstacles in space resource utilization. School of Aerospace Engineering. The consolidation of the major space industry players and a general down-turn in the commercial space market demand. and organize the construction of major Space infrastructure.S. Space Program. space supremacy. government has long understood that access to space and space capabilities are essential to U. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 218 . exploration. 10/3/2009. and to continue to exploit space for national security and economic prosperity. ―The Space Power Grid: Synergy Between Space. and Timing. coupled with export restrictions. space industry reliant on the government for revenue and technology development.dtic. this requires and alignment of NASA and the Department of Energy. a senior service school providing graduate level educationto sernior members of the US armed forces. In addition to the National Space Policy. and international cooperation.org/stamp/stamp.

It also spends over $1 per kWh on electric power (ten times the domestic civilian price) in battle zones. "Let the Sun Shine In". (The study dismisses the notion that the Pentagon might be interested in SSP as a means of beaming death rays down on enemies: it points out that the beam is nowhere near powerful enough to present a plausible alternative to conventional missiles and other weapons. . . It could be used to power electric vehicles. 21 Knight and Bolkcom. As early as 1993. along with radar stations and other pieces of equipment that currently rely on electrical power from generators. In the meantime. In a report titled Defense Industrial Base: An Overview of an Emerging Issue. Japan. economist. http://www.mil/cgibin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA539894&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.com//jchen The armed forces are America‘s single greatest consumer of oil. it could cut costs and reduce the need for complex and vulnerable supply lines.3m litres) of fuel a day—accounting for 70% by weight of all supplies delivered—to its forces in Iraq alone. . the European Union or Australia. because electricity must often be provided using generators that run on fossil fuels. February 20 09. If some of this fuel could be replaced by power beamed down from space.6m gallons (7. ―Is the United States Air Force Responsible for Preserving the US Aerospace Industrial Base?‖.dtic. the NSSO report argues. and suggests that it could be funded by a consortium involving America and its allies—such as Canada. current commander of the Cryptologic Systems Group. Air Force Air Refueling. all of which have shown interest in SSP in the past.10 the long-term changes in the defense industrial base affect national security. A key reason for this is that defense company officials are understandably concerned with maximizing the returns for investors and are not specifically accountable for how 20 Ibid. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 219 . 22 (emphasis added) The same GAO report also states ―DoD has not taken a strong proactive role in assessing US reliance on foreign sources and foreign investment relating to the defense industrial base. Kinne. The NSSO estimates that this would cost $8 billion-10 billion. but private firms are unlikely to act without a demonstration project to confirm the viability of the scheme. We believe that this is not a realistic strategy for ensuring that government decisions and industry adjustments will result in the industrial and technological capabilities needed to meet future national security requirements.pdf Senator Clinton‗s expression of concern was not new or unique. 25. at a delivered cost per gallon of $5-20. DoD generally does not know whether and to what extent it relies on foreign technology and products to meet its critical needs. the study observes. has previously commanded two different Air Force Materiel Command squadrons.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 – Tenant Anchor CP (2/2) The private sector can‘t solve national security – they aren‘t accountable Christopher E. oversaw development of new space surveillance systems and technologies at the Air Force Space Command‘s Alternate Space Control Center. magazine. the GAO reported DoD has taken the position that free market forces generally will guide the restructuring of the defense industrial base.) Getting SSP off the ground will require the involvement of the private sector. [and] consequently. The Department of Defence delivers 1.‖ 23 (emphasis added) Private sector won‘t act first – needs federal demonstration of success first The Economist. Such information is necessary to assess national security risks. Lieutenant Colonel in the United States Air Force. 8. national security risks related to the US aerospace industry were being identified by the GAO in reports to congressional requestors concerned with the trend of defense industry mergers and acquisitions. NASA is evaluating the possibility of an experiment involving the International Space Station. Air War College.

p16). However. In a query submitted to Charles Williams. Williams said that while politics and technical challenges were factors. the mission costs would be unaffordable because of the measures necessary for safety. economic considerations. national security and foreign policy interests. These economic and technical reasons obviate any need to pursue nuclear power options.fas. Nuclear powered satellites are obsolete – politically contentious. 9. funds for nuclear power devices would not make the priority cut. said Steven Aftergood. Any requests for approval must take into account public safety. Nuclear power offers at least a 100-fold increase in power generation over traditional technologies -. the Congress asked for an investment strategy for space technology. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 220 . Both policies preclude the use of nuclear power in Earth orbit without the specific approval of the president. new battery technologies. 3/2/01. DOD created the Space Technology Guide in response to Congress' request for an overarching guide of investments in key technologies needed for national security space purposes. In his response to Aftergood. http://www. communications and intelligence. Hansen noted there is no DOD requirement for nuclear power sources for spacecraft. Even if we could produce them economically. All of our space-based power needs are being met with alternative methods. Feb.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 – Nuclear Powered Satellites CP Nuclear satellites fail – solar cell advances have gained priority FAS. and the Defense Department released it earlier this month (ITAF. Advances in solar cells are also more than sufficient to maintain ample power supplies. Nuclear power does not appear on the list. Given the severely constrained funding available for space technology development. senior research analyst at the non-profit Federation of American Scientists.html//jchen Budget constraints and recent advances in solar cell technologies have ended what one industry analyst calls the Defense Department's longstanding flirtation with developing nuclear power sources for spacecraft. according to industry and Pentagon sources. a think tank based in Washington. control. an omission he describes as a real shift in DOD policy. Hansen wrote in a statement for Inside the Air Force.html//jchen The National Space Policy and the Defense Department's space policy remain the same. Additionally. and future power technologies such as flywheels. accountable leverage to meet future mission requirements. ―DOD'S 'FLIRTATION' WITH NUCLEAR-POWERED SATELLITES ENDS. These scarce resources are needed to fund technologies that provide real. such as vastly improved and more efficient solar cells. Congress requested the guide in the fiscal year 2000 defense authorization act.such as solar power or heat-based power -. who works on such issues in the office of the assistant secretary of defense for command.fas. dangerous and redundant FAS. ANALYST SAYS‖. http://www. the key reasons for the subject's removal from the guide were funding and public safety. ANALYST SAYS‖. In the STG.S. according to Aftergood. 3/2/01. Aftergood suggested that the official omission of nuclear power in the guide could be the result of political pressures or technical considerations. Williams wrote. Williams added. DC. ―DOD'S 'FLIRTATION' WITH NUCLEAR-POWERED SATELLITES ENDS. The military had an ongoing flirtation with nuclear power for nearly 50 years. electric and plasma thrusters and solar and chemical power generation. The guide includes a list of key enabling technologies for national security space that identifies a need for investment in advances for solid rocket motors.which explains DOD's affinity for the technology as it relies more and more on space-based assets for its operations. Those policies have been in place for quite some time and have not changed. he notes that the Pentagon's recently released Space Technology Guide does not mention nuclear power.org/sgp/news/2001/03/iaf030201. said Pentagon spokeswoman Susan Hansen.org/sgp/news/2001/03/iaf030201. treaty obligations and U. or at least a significant departure. he continued. and now they are saying it is over.

In addition. The conversion efficiency is better than solar conversion efficiency. not the narrow diffraction-limited spot size of a laser. MIT Energy Club Laser transmission removes problem of inherently large sizes. First. use of a PV array for power receiving eliminates the signal advantage of space solar power. for a diode-pumped alkali) A second problem is that PV converter efficiencies are also low. Existing technology lasers might have efficiency approaching ~ 40% (for example. High power semiconductor diode lasers arrays are highly efficient (50% conversion efficiency or higher). but is still lower than rectenna conversion efficiencies. for cloud-free power. Landis. Laser-transmitted space power has less power per solar array area than ground solar Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 221 . 2009. they arent as effective and actually damage human health Geoffrey A. but lasers have their own problems. for lasers with good coherence. eye safety is now a problem. of putting the PV array in space. interstellar propulsion. laser efficiencies are considerably lower than microwave efficiencies.the net result of a high-power laser diode array is that it will have the diffraction pattern characteristic of a flashlight. but are not mutually coherent-. clouds are now a problem. because the beam can be made monochromatic at a wavelength tuned to the optimum conversion wavelength of the cell. working for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on planetary exploration. an American scientist. Overall. solar power and photovoltaics.6 For laser transmission. 50% conversion efficiency is a reasonable efficiency.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 – Laser Powered Transmission CP Lasers cannot do what microwaves do.

At their core. Scenarios are imaginative. but it is not impos. As noted earlier. The scenario process is formal and disciplined in its use of information and analysis. Monterey. detailed visions of future worlds accounting for a wide range of variables. USA. guiding and planning integration across the full range of human space activities in conjunction with evolving terrestrial political conditions. By integrating expertise in these other areas into vision development. science direct//ZY With respect to their utility in guiding policy development. create new contexts for existing decisions. and think rationally about our options. Generative scenarios are particularly well suited to addressing three core challenges: anticipating the technological changes relevant to the full range of the growing human utilization of space that will inevitably unfold over the coming decades. US Naval Postgraduate School. USA. The resulting plausible. It is this last type of scenario-building and analysis that is most appropriate for initiating and continuing dialogue around the future use of space. then. A comprehensive knowledge base and strategies for policy-making are also required. The collaboration entailed in scenario building can also inspire the creativity and imagination of an expert community representing diverse viewpoints on immediate issues. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 222 . can yield feasible policyrelevant ideas for promoting peaceful development of the future human presence in space despite the wide range of possible future developments both in space and on Earth. vision development is only one aspect of long-term planning. hideous. responsive to current realities and robust against future uncertainties. Ontario. in part. 200 9. scenarios are about learning.only the permutation solves Wade L. Scenario building can address these challenges by providing rigorous. and think creatively about options for surmounting obstacles. In examining a decision within the context of a number of different futures. but from their plausibility and the insights they generate. ‗‗thermonuclear war may seem unthinkable. path dependent predic.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 – Kritiks (Generic) Scenario planning is ONLY effective with decision focus (ie the plan) . insane. ―Planning the unplannable: Scenarios on the future of space‖. build common ground among differing perspectives.30 Kahn‘s motivation was. scenarios require us to look behind fixed assumptions. linear predictions or fanciful musings of the future: Scenarios are decision focused. three features distinguish good scenarios from simple speculations. IN. integrated visions.. Canada. They encourage partici. scenario-building exercises can contribute valuable long-term insights to policy debates.tions of the future. 29 Scenarios are logical. Huntley. One common misconception of scenarios is that they are prescient. This approach was reflected in Herman Kahn‘s assertion of the need to ‗‗think the unthinkable‘‘ concerning the possibilities and implications of war in the atomic age. or highly unlikely.Weingartner Consulting. Notre Dame. Scenarios first emerged following World War II as a method of military planning. The creativity and imagination inspired by scenarios can only be as effective as it is based in realistic assessments.sible‘‘. Miranda Weingartner. recognition of the counter-intuitive notion that planning could be a necessary means of avoidance. On the contrary. scenarios are used to order our thoughts amid uncertainty. the process helps clarify that reality. perceptions. In requiring participants to challenge each others‘ thoughts. ‗‗In our times‘‘. Kahn wrote in 1966. Bock. and mind-sets.pants to challenge conventional wisdom. CA. Joseph G. The following section reports the results of one such exercise.opments in both the previous dimensions. The value of a set of scenarios accrues not from their accuracy or likelihood. identifying and responding to the critical uncertainties over the directions and implications of long-term devel. Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies. Successful scenarios begin and end by clarifying the decisions and actions the participants must make if they are to deal successfully with an uncertain future. inevitable change and uncertainty. immoral.

SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 *****POLITICS***** Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 223 .

SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 ***PLAN POPULAR*** Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 224 .

Slashing ARPA-E Illogical Lew Milford. roughly equaling dollars doled out in 2005.9 billion from the White House request for investments in energy efficiency research. federal authorities need to set clear strategic climate change priorities that identify specific roles and responsibilities of key federal entities involved in the enterprise. this version of the bill snips $1. 2011.2 billion. this appropriations legislation is designed to provide annual funding for the various agencies and programs under the Department of Energy.Second. Date accessed June 27. Energy Department Secretary Steven Chu modeled ARPA-E after a similar program at the Department of Defense to support breakthroughs by clean energy entrepreneurs. Coalition members are most alarmed that the GOP engineered a bill that slashes close to $500 million from DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)." To get there. we won't get the big bang of technology benefits to produce jobs and economic benefits in the long run. "The . June 21. "That's what you need for energy technologies to be working and seamlessly connected. The full House will be considering the measure." Milford said. That leaves the office with just 40 percent of the amount Obama asked for when he presented his budget back in February. Savings for the president's budget figure of $520 million would have come from peeling away money for fossil energy research and development. First. As well. as well as the Army Corps of Engineers. the Government Accountability Office has issued a new report recommending what likely seems obvious to even casual observers of congressional politics — the need to replace a piecemeal approach to climate and energy with a national plan. founder and president of the Montpelier. the legislation increases funding for DOE's Fossil Energy Office by $32 million while decreasing designated dollars for Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E) by $80 million." Rep.9 billion from President Obama's request for the budget year beginning in October. In addition. The GOP House bill would jeopardize the relatively new initiative designed to fund early-stage innovation projects that are deemed riskiest and most transformative. is unusual because it serves a customer that will buy at any cost. Vt. But that freedom within the Department of Defense supports a unique model that allows an idea to morph into a prototype that is deployed throughout branches of the military before spilling over into the civilian marketplace. one of 48 members of the coalition. however." Milford said. Milford said." The last actual appropriation for ARPA-E was $389 million for fiscal year 2009. DARPA.com/article/2011/06/21/idUS282235896420110621. http://www. Ed Markey (D-Mass. Briefly."We're cutting off our nose to spite our face." He emphasized that eventually DOE should form ARPA-E partnerships with states because development agencies at that level are looking for niche strategies to boost the clean energy policies they have in place. That's more than 40 percent below current funding levels. the president had called for lopping the fossil office by $417 million. the military program Chu is mimicking. weatherization. which is bordering on 11 percent of the total DOE budget. Elizabeth McGowan is a Washington DC and elections correspondent. wind and geothermal. On the energy front.reuters. those same authorities have to Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 225 . Jared Polis. biomass and other programs.. Those cuts put funding about $1 billion below current levels. including the National Nuclear Security Administration. "To deal with issues such as market demand." Milford told SolveClimate News in an interview about ARPA-E's rocky funding record. the GAO spells out a two-step solution that is probably easier written on paper than actually accomplished. "The clean energy industry is young at 10 to 20 years old when compared to a fossil fuels industry that's more than 100 years old. It rings in at a total of $3."It's not ARPA-E's fault or anybody else's that we're not there yet. abandoning scientific research would cause the United States to lose even more high-tech jobs to our foreign competitors. one of a dozen sweeping federal spending bills. Jeff Flake of Arizona was the sole Republican who joined 19 Democrats in opposing the bill that passed on a 26-20 vote. DOE has to expand its portfolio of options and essentially create customers. foreign energy and increase our energy independence. as well as the Strategic Petroleum Reserve.policymakers understand its key to the economy McGowan .. doubt the Senate will approve such draconian paring of clean energy enterprise. the Bureau of Reclamation. the White House 2012 budget request for EERE programs is the largest ever. "We need a new American energy policy that will lower prices for families. fuel-conserving vehicles." said Colorado Rep."Nitty-Gritty of House Bill Overall.) released the 90-page report by the investigative arm of Congress on Monday. Obama had asked that the chronically underfunded ARPA-E receive about $650 million next year. reduce our reliance on dirty. ―House Bill Would Cut Clean Energy and Efficiency Programs by 40 Percent‖. Energy insiders. 44 percent below 2010 appropriations. Rep. Overall.-based nonprofit Clean Energy Group complimented Chu for recognizing ARPA-E as an avenue for expanding a nascent industry. 2011 "At a time when our economy is already fragile. the sprawling bill slices a total of $5.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Plan Popular – General Plan overwhelmingly popular. funding bill is another glaring example of the widening gap between Republican rhetoric and reality. after Independence Day. Without it. and various regional water and power authorities. That's significant because it's a jump of $983 million — or 44 percent — above 2010 appropriations. "ARPA-E is one of the few public programs that focuses on energy innovation. adding that DOE has wisely signed a memorandum of understanding agreement with the Defense Department to give ARPA-E room to grow. The somewhat clunky title is "Climate Change: Improvements Needed to Clarify National Priorities and Better Align Them with Federal Funding Decisions."GAO: National Strategy Necessary In the midst of this season's budget travails. renewables such as solar. the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

"So far this has been accomplished with little national leadership. the Office and Management and Budget. the Office of Energy and Climate Change Policy. Such "smart and significant" spending reductions were necessary to programs with "massive and unnecessary increases.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 assess how effective they are now at not only defining and reporting federal climate change funding but also lining up that funding with agreed-upon priorities. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 226 . the ranking member of the House Natural Resources Committee." Appropriations Committee Chairman Hal Rogers of Kentucky said. and Office of Science and Technology Policy have to consult with Congress and collaborate with relevant federal agencies and interagency coordinating bodies." said Markey. we need to make sure funding matches national priorities. Authors of the GAO report refer to federal climate change program as complex and crosscutting." Assessment Follows Party LineRepublican leaders had nothing but high praise for the way they reshaped President Obama's original budget request. entities that fall under the executive branch such as the Council on Environmental Quality. In these challenging budgetary times. And that looks to be a daunting challenge if those tasked with GAO's recommendations refer to the baffling maze of a chart on page 13 of the report. Those practices will have to be polished so Congress and the public can fully grasp how the government spends money designated for climate change. The trick is that before embarking on step one. This GAO report shows us we still have work to do." This report shows the significant work the United States government is already taking to understand and address climate change while creating new jobs and industries in America.

which has an operations center in Phoenix that installs solar electricity systems in homes and businesses. loans in jeopardy. "DOE is tasked with seeking out best practices on permitting and inspections. and other conservatives. including Rep. This time around. which gives solar companies a grant equal to 30 percent of the cost of a solar system as an incentive to develop solar projects.com/article/2011/06/08/idUS41670750020110608)//ZY However.000 jobs in his state." Darren Springer.. " GOP Ally for Senator Sanders's 10 Million Solar Roofs Bill ". wrote letters this month asking the House Appropriations Subcommittee on Energy and Water Development to end the loan guarantees. Sanders tweaked the bill so it zeroes in on slicing through the red tape of overpriced permits and inspections that are a barrier to smooth growth of solar. DOE would give preference to grant applicants that have partnered with states. This bill puts federal funds on the table for communities to scale up those best practices. David Schweikert. far less than the $1 billion sought by the administration but enough to keep the program alive. Nev. told SolveClimate News. which has the nation's highest unemployment rate. And Bingaman has to tread much more gently because his 22-member committee has only a 12-10 Democratic advantage. McClintock. "The approach here is really a carrot and not a stick. Reid announced last month that the Energy Department will provide conditional guarantees for the Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project in Tonopah. the California congressman. senior legislative assistant for Sanders. 6/8/11. http://www.azcentral. Sanders serves on that panel but Boozman does not. now that the Senate's Democratic caucus carries a slim 53-47 majority. The program has been crucial to companies such as SolarCity. Solar power funding threatened by Congress. It was intended to help companies that were struggling in the sluggish economy. at best.com/arizonarepublic/news/articles/2011/06/26/20110626solar-power- Solar programs also remain popular in the Senate. Solar lobbyists said they believe at least one of the two sections of the loan-guarantee program will survive. R-Ariz. fought off efforts early this year by the House to end the loan-guarantee program that helps solar companies secure financing for their projects. For instance. congress-funding-cuts. D-Nev. creating nearly 5. energy bills are iffy. The fate is less certain for the Section 1603 Treasury Grant Program. schools and businesses." Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 227 .. although it is not yet clear how much money it will receive. 2011 12:00 AM.reporter at Gannett's Washington Bureau Jun. That money was targeted for a competitive grant program so state and local governments could receive incentives to boost the use of rooftop solar panels and water heaters in homes. 26. where Majority Leader Harry Reid.Reid committed ERIN KELLY.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Plan Popular – Senate Solar power popular in the senate. Last year's bill called for $250 million for fiscal year 2012 and an additional $500 million annually through 2021.reuters. Energy bills have a majority in the senate Reuters 6/8 (Elizabeth McGowan. public utility commissions or other stakeholders to adopt standards that encourage utility interconnection and net metering. Federal grants. The subcommittee approved $160 million for loan guarantees.html//ZY http://www..

" as the climate-change bill was called. She said the legislation‘s purpose –." said Steve Wegman. The demise of cap-and-trade "actually helps.requiring that a greater portion of America's electricity come from renewable energy sources such as wind and solar power. today announced her new manufacturing agenda. Even though they would welcome tighter restrictions on carbon emissions from coal-fired power plants and other sources. 123. Under cap-and-trade. The program provides a 39 percent tax credit for domestic corporations or partnerships that help to supply loans. Kirsten Gillibrand. they said the divisive atmosphere surrounding climate-change legislation stymied progress on other fronts. Gillibrand said that collaboration shows that legislators from both parties will turn to fostering economic growth once issues surrounding the debt ceiling are resolved." said Matt McLarty of the South Dakota chapter of the Environmental Law & Policy Center. The legislation would replace a program that provides a 30 percent tax credit to domestic companies that invest in clean technology with an initiative that would provide both tax credits and grants – extending the current legislation‘s benefits to start-up companies that do not yet have tax liabilities.Dems. ―These ideas are basically good ideas that are not Democratic or Republican. 2011. one of the top five states in terms of wind energy potential. Gillibrand introduced the Make It In America Block Grant Program Act. David Cicilline. Rhode Island Rep. which promotes clean energy and sustainable business. and Gillbrand all are pushing for clean tech Smialek . ―These businesses and these jobs belong to us. which would extend the New Markets Tax Credit program. She said the measure‘s supporters are seeking Republican co-sponsors to foster the bipartisan support it would need to pass the House. Now we can talk about the issues.at least in the short term -.‖ she said.." That would be good news for South Dakota. D-N. ―Gillibrand announces manufacturing agenda‖. It‘s time to see Made in America again. from USAtoday originally The demise of "cap-and-trade. energy producers faced limits on what they emit.timesunion. Rapid City Journal. 2010. Critics said many consumers would have faced higher energy prices -. according to the New York Office of the State Comptroller. June 21. In order to continue growth in these sectors. http://blog. He called a federal renewable electricity standard "something that most people can get behind.‖ she said.000 manufacturing jobs were lost in the state from 2005 to 2010 -– but computer and electronic manufacturing industries increased employment by 9 percent from 2004 to 2008. reporters for USA today.to medium-sized manufacturers in communities with high unemployment." Plan is bipartisan. If they exceeded those limits. Gillibrand also supports the New Markets Tax Credit Extension Act. they would have to pay extra under a market-driven system that determines prices. Republicans.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Plan Popular – Bipartisan Renewable energy is bi-partisan Ledyard King and Larry Bivins. The current program was created by bipartisan legislation with both Democratic and Republican co-sponsors. which aims to bolster high-tech and clean-energy manufacturing through grant and tax-cut programs. one of the main greenhouse gas producers. Jeanna Smialek. is a Democrat. McLarty and other environmental advocates said.com/capitol/archives/71908/sen-kirsten-gillibrand-announcesmanufacturing-agenda/ Sen. investments or financial counseling to low-income communities. Gillibrand said she also aims to help pass the Security in Energy and Manufacturing (SEAM) Act. But the prospects are brighter for a more moderate step -. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 228 . executive director of the South Dakota Wind Energy Association. Major in Journalism and Mass Communication and International and Area Studies. The grants would provide funds for companies to retool their operations and retrain their workforces.largely because about half of the nation's electricity is generated by coal. She added that the Make it in America Act‘s House sponsor.Y. including the adoption of a renewable energy standard.still meaningful. Climate change gets too many emotions involved. "There are not many Republicans or Democrats out there that don't want to see America move toward a more sustainable homegrown source of energy. but with bipartisan support -. and that's the discussion we've never had. disappointed President Obama and other Democrats who supported the measure.and the goal of her other manufacturing-related initiatives -– is to promote the growth of well-paying and employment-generating advanced industries in the United States and specifically in New York. which would create a competitive grant program for small. "We can go back and talk about why you should have energy diversity. According to the New York State Department of Labor. starting right here in New York.

She added that the Make it in America Act‘s House sponsor. She pointed to the example of a French company called Veolia Energy. TEPCO Professor of Atmospheric Science Ronald Prinn. Patrick. First. the cleanest of all fossil fuels. June 21.to medium-sized manufacturers in communities with high unemployment.html In a spirited talk at MIT. D-N. Gillibrand introduced the Make It In America Block Grant Program Act.mit. which aims to bolster high-tech and clean-energy manufacturing through grant and tax-cut programs. astronomy.‖ Massachusetts Gov.‖ ―At MIT.. Major in Journalism and Mass Communication and International and Area Studies. In order to continue growth in these sectors. ―Gillibrand announces manufacturing agenda‖. which would create a competitive grant program for small. earth sciences.000 manufacturing jobs were lost in the state from 2005 to 2010 -– but computer and electronic manufacturing industries increased employment by 9 percent from 2004 to 2008. which would extend the New Markets Tax Credit program. He covers the space program. She said the measure‘s supporters are seeking Republican co-sponsors to foster the bipartisan support it would need to pass the House. A second priority. Dems. The grants would provide funds for companies to retool their operations and retrain their workforces. her organization has identified four specific policy priorities. http://blog. which develops combined heat and power systems that can be up to 90 percent efficient in using natural gas. In searching for what Granholm called ―pragmatic energy policies that can get bipartisan support‖ even in the current highly polarized political debate. In fact. Chandler is a freelance writer and author who has been writing about science since 1975. ―bullish is an understatement. Patrick said his attendance was intended ―to celebrate the leadership of MIT‖ in clean-energy technology. 2011. Granholm pointed out that so much energy is wasted in U. ―A National Push For Energy Innovation‖. Gillibrand said she also aims to help pass the Security in Energy and Manufacturing (SEAM) Act. June 15. ―a national renewable energy standard‖ would call for at least 20 percent of the nation‘s energy to come from renewable sources by 2020. we‘re bullish on clean energy.‖ Granholm. she said. today announced her new manufacturing agenda. Gillibrand also supports the New Markets Tax Credit Extension Act. is a Democrat. Rhode Island Rep. physics. described as a ―unique collaboration between the natural and social sciences. while this country has ―a patchwork‖ of state policies and no strong national program to promote such technologies. Deval Patrick.edu/newsoffice/2011/clean-energy-event-0615.Dems. Introduced by her ―old pal. and MIT President Susan Hockfield. later Health/Science) until he left to pursue book and magazine projects in 2001. He said the Institute ―has gone so far beyond the basic science … to commercialize so many great ideas‖ in clean energy. She said the legislation‘s purpose –. Gillibrand said that collaboration shows that legislators from both parties will turn to fostering economic growth once issues surrounding the debt ceiling are resolved. Kirsten Gillibrand. The program provides a 39 percent tax credit for domestic corporations or partnerships that help to supply loans. Such a policy ―sends a market signal‖ that would help businesses focus on developing needed technologies. investments or financial counseling to low-income communities.and the goal of her other manufacturing-related initiatives -– is to promote the growth of well-paying and employment-generating advanced industries in the United States and specifically in New York. ―These ideas are basically good ideas that are not Democratic or Republican. We‘re maniacs about it!‖ She added that she sees the clean-energy domain as a major area in which to rebuild the nation‘s economy. compared to typical fossil-fuel powerplant efficiencies of around 50 percent. a program that its co-director. and Gillbrand all are pushing for clean tech Smialek . she said. starting right here in New York. The legislation would replace a program that provides a 30 percent tax credit to domestic companies that invest in clean technology with an initiative that would provide both tax credits and grants – extending the current legislation‘s benefits to start-up companies that do not yet have tax liabilities.timesunion. she said. He worked for the Boston Globe from 1980 to 2001. and Republicans all are pushing for green tech Chandler. David Cicilline. 123.‖ she said.‖ she said. powerplants in the form of heat that ―if Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 229 .com/capitol/archives/71908/sen-kirsten-gillibrand-announcesmanufacturing-agenda/ Sen.‖ Hockfield said in her introduction. ―These businesses and these jobs belong to us. who now represents the Pew Charitable Trusts‘ Clean Energy Program. and other areas of science and technology. said other countries have been ―much more aggressive‖ than the United States in pushing for clean energy. 2011. Republicans. Granholm spoke at Tuesday‘s reception on clean-energy innovation. David L.‖ He added that in Massachusetts.Y. and was the Globe's principal science writer from the 1983 inception of the paper's weekly science section (initially Sci-Tech. she said.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Plan is bipartisan. Jeanna Smialek. http://web. The event was hosted by the MIT Energy Initiative and the Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change. former Michigan governor Jennifer Granholm presented a plan for a bipartisan initiative that she said could help the United States regain a world leadership role in the creation of new clean-energy technologies — and the thousands of new jobs that those technologies could provide. is encouraging more energy efficiency in industrial facilities.S. according to the New York Office of the State Comptroller. It‘s time to see Made in America again. ―all the elements align for moving ourselves rapidly to a clean-energy future. computers. According to the New York State Department of Labor. there has been a 60 percent increase in energyrelated employment ―during the worst economy in living memory. The current program was created by bipartisan legislation with both Democratic and Republican co-sponsors. and that in today‘s climate of volatile oil prices.

invest in energy development. the U. ―Every day. she said. Patrick said fostering clean-energy technologies ―is good for us. Department of Energy‘s agency for investment in innovative energy technology. is to ―increase the amount of money we. ―If we boost that to $16 billion. we could really be on the map‖ as a major producer of energy systems. is to push for more electrification of the transportation system — including a 25 percent market share for new electric cars by 2020 — and improved efficiency for non-electric vehicles. businesses make decisions about where to locate. she said. it‘s good for the economy. she said. as a nation.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 you could just capture that waste heat. a recent national survey gives reason for hope.‖ a number that includes 74 percent of Republicans. it‘s good for the environment. but by 2009 China had surged ahead. the country‘s competitive position ―will continue to ratchet down. the United States was number one in production of clean-energy technology.‖ she said. and in 2010 both China and Germany were ahead of the United States.‖ and without a strong clean-energy policy. Granholm said.S. she said. Granholm pointed out that since 2004. In 2008. currently has a budget of $3. which is already ―hiring hundreds of people‖ for its new battery factories. it‘s good for jobs.8 billion per year. and even a majority of Tea Party members.‖ Third. That would help spur the growth of companies such as the MIT-spinoff A123 Systems. So let‘s get on with it!‖ Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 230 . And fourth.‖ ARPA-E. there has been a 630 percent increase in private-sector investment in clean energy worldwide. you could power the entire nation of Japan. ―Eighty-four percent of Americans want to see a national energy policy that encourages renewable energy and efficiency. While some people worry that implementing any national policy on clean energy may be difficult right now given the polarized atmosphere in Washington.

Castor served on the panel in the last Congress.com/blogs/e2wire/677-e2-wire/167865-rep-castor-get-weiners-energy-and-commerce-seat)//ZY House Democrats officially tapped Rep. Weiner resigned from Congress last week.) to take former Rep. preserving public health. " Rep.‖ House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi (D-Calif. 6/22/11. http://thehill. Castor gets Weiner's Energy and Commerce seat ". committed voice to advancing our core goals. Anthony Weiner‘s (D-N. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 231 . pursuing a clean energy future.Y. ―[C]astor will add a strong. and investing in technologies that will drive our economic growth. but lost her seat when Republicans took over the House.) said Wednesday. She is the most senior of the seven Democrats who lost their seats after the 2010 midterm elections.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Plan Popular – Castor Castor will maintain Weiners strong commitment to clean energy Hill (blog) 6/22 (Andrew Restuccia.) seat on the House Energy and Commerce Committee. Kathy Castor (D-Fla. as a party and as a nation: promoting commerce.

―Thanks to the Green Jobs Innovation Fund. energy efficiency. sustainable agriculture. such as solar panel installation.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Plan Popular – Lieberman Lieberman pushed through energy efficient jobs in Connecticut. and Waterbury.com/articles/new-london-unemployed-to-benefit-from-green-jobs-grant)//ZY Senators Lieberman and Blumenthal announce $5. this grant will prove to be a major investment in Connecticut‘s workforce and its environment. " New London Unemployed To Benefit From Green Jobs Grant ". The purpose of the grant is to train employees in careers in green industry. These smart investments in job training are vital to the continual development of good-paying green jobs that are the economic future of our state and our country. Senators Richard Blumenthal and Joe Lieberman announced.supports green energy Patch. 6/23/11. New London. ―I look forward to continuing to provide support to these types of strong grant applications that will foster our economic recovery and put Connecticut back to work.‖ said Blumenthal. part of the Department of Labor Employment and Training Administration.‖ Lieberman said in a joint statement issued by the senators. New Haven. The senators said the funding from the Green Jobs Innovation Fund. will be given to the Connecticut Department of Labor.‖ ―This grant is crucial to the growth of green jobs in Connecticut and to ensuring that our workers have tools they need to compete in this developing sector. Bristol. this program will provide many underemployed and unemployed workers throughout Connecticut with the skills necessary to participate in the growing green energy industry. and Brownfield remediation. Hartford.8 million green jobs grant. http://newlondon. New Britain. ―At a time where jobs are hard to come by.8 million Green Jobs Innovation grant assisting 975 unemployed from seven communities Unemployed workers from New London will be among 975 people receiving benefits from a $5.‖ Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 232 .patch. The grant will be used to train residents from Bridgeport.com 6/23 (Dirk Langeveld.

I'm not in favor of retiring the shuttle and replacing it with nothing. "We regret that NASA appears to be unwilling to cooperate in our efforts to conduct legitimate congressional oversight. the replacement for the shuttle looks like a potential casualty. negotiated by Sen. which is to make sure America maintains its leadership in science and technology driven by a robust space program. That's to be expected. Before Atlantis' last flight. D-Fla. NASA has not fully responded to a May 18 request from the Senate science committee for documents relating to development of that rocket.‖. http://www. shuttle era's legacy debated." Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 233 .com/article/20110624/NEWS02/106240330/NASA-faces-subpoena-heavy-lift-rocket-work//ZY The compromise." Rockefeller and Hutchison wrote Wednesday. one capable of reaching the moon. was enacted by Congress as a law guiding NASA policy.The congressional compromise has been contentious because of competition for scarce federal funding. D-Orlando.com/tech/science/space/2011-06-27-shuttleatlantis-last_n.. said lawmakers and NASA "have the exact same goal. … That is what is going to happen. Amid budget cutting in Congress. Bill Nelson. … I was in favor of retiring the shuttle if that was the price of building a system that could take us back to the moon and beyond. "In spite of repeated requests by committee staff. such as Sen. 6/23/11 ―Standing tall. http://www." Wednesday's letter says science committee staffers spoke with NASA officials on June 7 about why the staffers hadn't received any of 19 drafts of a report about development of the heavy-lift rocket and its crew capsule. Atlantis awaits on launch pad 39A at Cape Canaveral for the final liftoff by a NASA space shuttle." Griffin says. Nelson is a former astronaut and supports space spending. We're not moving on to anything. a former astronaut who has called for more spending on a heavy rocket.6/24/2011. "The regret in retiring the shuttle is not that we're retiring a 30-year-old system. Bill Nelson.usatoday.htm//ZY That has led to clashes with legislators from states loaded with space shuttle jobs.even during budget cuts USA Today. which was intended to help NASA astronauts eventually reach asteroids and Mars.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Plan Popular – Nelson Nelson supports space heg –he‘s negotiated on behalf of NASA before Florida Today. former NASA chief Griffin warns. Congress ordered that NASA leverage its previous investment in the shuttle and Constellation program and build a vehicle that could be operational by end of 2016. and because NASA warned that it probably couldn't make that deadline with the funding being provided." Nelson's spokesman. Dan McLaughlin. NASA has not offered any valid basis for why it is withholding these and other documents that are clearly responsive to our May 18 letter. "The regret is that we're not moving on to something that can do more for us. ―NASA faces subpoena on heavy-lift rocket work‖.floridatoday.

remove the 30% cap for commercial installations and the $2. as governor of Massachusetts." said David Hochschild. She was especially supportive of H. also known as the "Securing America's Energy Independence Act. 550.R. H. worked on a similar plan for Northeastern states.com/politics/pawlenty-running-from-his-past-moves-on-environmental-policy-20110623)//ZY This year.com In a meeting last Wednesday with solar and environmental lobbyists. Staff Writer at the renewable energy world.nationaljournal. House Speaker Nancy Pelosi expressed her support for H.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Plan Popular – Pelosi Pelosi supports alternative energy Stephen Lacey. Pelosi pledged to address climate change National Journal 6/23 (Coral Davenport.S. 550. "Speaker Pelosi stressed the need to work across party lines for long-term support of solar and other renewables. Hochschild was one of the solar advocates who met with Pelosi and Newsom. PV Now. 6/23/11. Executive Director of PV Now. pledging to address climate change. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 234 . was the chief promoter of the Western Climate Initiative. Pelosi and San Francisco Mayor Gavin Newsom met with members of the Vote Solar Initiative.R. renewablenergyworld. 550. Mitt Romney. a plan under which Utah would have joined California and other states in a regional cap-and-trade system. many of the GOP contenders are grappling with past deviations from party doctrine.R. an important bill that would extend the residential and commercial investment tax credit (ITC) for solar and fuel cell equipment for eight years -. though he ultimately refused to sign on.and revise other key tax credits for those industries.000 cap on residential installations and provide three-year accelerated depreciation for commercial solar and fuel cell projects. the Union of Concerned Scientists and the Natural Resources Defense Council at the Mascone Convention Center to discuss legislative priorities for the environment and renewable energy." would extend the residential and commercial ITC for eight years. modify the residential and commercial tax credit for photovoltaic systems to $1.500 per half kilowatt. the House Democratic leader whom Republicans like to demonize as a liberal Cruella De Vil. Jon Huntsman. as governor of Utah. Pelosi Supports Important U. 200 7. Newt Gingrich once made an ad with Nancy Pelosi. Solar and Fuel Cell Bill. http://www. " Pawlenty: Running from His Past Moves on Environmental Policy ". which will do great things for the solar industry.

The fate is less certain for the Section 1603 Treasury Grant Program.html//ZY http://www. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 235 .. wrote letters this month asking the House Appropriations Subcommittee on Energy and Water Development to end the loan guarantees.. R-Ariz.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Plan Popular – Reid Reid supports solar energy ERIN KELLY. D-Nev. where Majority Leader Harry Reid. congress-funding-cuts. fought off efforts early this year by the House to end the loan-guarantee program that helps solar companies secure financing for their projects. David Schweikert. far less than the $1 billion sought by the administration but enough to keep the program alive. and other conservatives.com/arizonarepublic/news/articles/2011/06/26/20110626solar-power- Solar programs also remain popular in the Senate.reporter at Gannett's Washington Bureau Jun. The subcommittee approved $160 million for loan guarantees. the California congressman. 20 11 12:00 AM. creating nearly 5. loans in jeopardy. Solar power funding threatened by Congress. which gives solar companies a grant equal to 30 percent of the cost of a solar system as an incentive to develop solar projects.azcentral. which has the nation's highest unemployment rate. It was intended to help companies that were struggling in the sluggish economy. The program has been crucial to companies such as SolarCity. including Rep.. McClintock. Reid announced last month that the Energy Department will provide conditional guarantees for the Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project in Tonopah. Federal grants.000 jobs in his state. although it is not yet clear how much money it will receive. Nev. which has an operations center in Phoenix that installs solar electricity systems in homes and businesses. Solar lobbyists said they believe at least one of the two sections of the loan-guarantee program will survive. 26.

Charles Schumer (D-N.1 to 3. Schumer suggested that opposition to the stimulus proposal could come because the GOP deliberately wants to scuttle the economy in order to prevent Obama from being reelected. " Dems call for stimulus in debt deal as CBO offers warnings ". and many of them have supported it in the past.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Plan Popular – Schumer Schumer supports clean energy Hill (blog) 6/22 (Erik Wasson. They noted the CBO report warned near-term spending cuts could hurt the economy.‖ Schumer said after a press conference touting the message.9 percent in 2011. predicting it would grow between 2. ―We can have job creation embedded as part of the deficit-reduction package. and that infrastructure spending and support for clean energy are other stimulus measures that should be considered by Congress. and they said they would pay for their stimulus plan with other offsetting spending cuts or tax increases. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 236 .3 percent estimate in April. 6/22/11. but offered no specifics on the proposal.7 and 2. http://thehill. ―It is hard to figure out why Republicans would say no for three reasons: It‘s pro-business. down from an earlier 3. Schumer argued Republicans are focusing on the deficit at the peril of the economy. it‘s a tax cut. He and other Democrats mentioned an expanded and extended payroll tax reduction as one measure that would boost an economy the Federal Reserve says is slowing.) and other Democrats said the slowing economy demands a deficit-reduction package that includes provisions to create jobs.Y. The Fed lowered its outlook on the economy on Wednesday.com/blogs/onthe-money/budget/167965-dems-call-for-stimulus-in-debt-deal-as-cbo-offers-warnings)//ZY Sen.‖ he said.

Peter runs Pennington Asset Management. Peter Holzworth is a self described fiscal conservative. Holzworth will likely close up shop in Florida and seek to finance renewable energy projects in one of the other 40 or so states that are light-years ahead of Florida on renewable energy policies.members of the Tea Party movement are lending their ears. and their cheers. Without a substantial change in the way Florida‘s government gives monopolistic control to the state‘s investor owned utility companies. social libertarian. 6/13.renewable energy. The Tea Party and renewable energy: An odd couple with a lot in common. which proclaims: ―Attention Big Government – get out of the way of individuals wishing to pursue their own purchase or production of renewable energy!‖ supports a goal of advancing renewable energy production through competition and free market principals.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Plan Popular – Tea Party The Tea Party supports free market alternative energy Mike Antheil. the renewable energy industry. the renewable energy finance side of his business is on life support. examiner. Their website.com An 11% unemployment rate and an increasingly uncertain energy supply has led to an inevitable meeting between two different political forces . a South Florida based financial services firm which offers financing to. Although the hedge fund that he runs is booming. to another movement . and avid supporter of free market Tea Party values. Bachelors degree from Jacksonville University. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 237 . among other things.

loans in jeopardy. as Schweikert's opposition to the loan-guarantee program shows. "It's not just California and Arizona . niche industry when it actually creates jobs all across the country. First Solar is based in his district. 26. 20 11 12:00 AM.html//ZY http://www. Alabama.reporter at Gannett's Washington Bureau Jun. Michigan. congress-funding-cuts." Caperton said.com/arizonarepublic/news/articles/2011/06/26/20110626solar-power- Solar advocates say they believe they can change some minds about solar in the House when they point out that there are solar companies in every state in the nation and in many congressional districts. though. That doesn't always work. all over the place. Federal grants. "I think solar is sometimes mistakenly thought of as a small.there are manufacturing companies in Mississippi.azcentral.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Plan Popular – Solar Lobby Solar lobby has influence ERIN KELLY." Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 238 . Solar power funding threatened by Congress.

which is one of the largest companies that converts vehicles to run on natural gas. Clean Energy Fuels owns BAF Technologies. He's lined it all up for personal profit. and Mr. Pickens a fortune. which owns 200 natural gas stations across the country. and the GOP takes a great risk with tea party members if they go through with it.washingtontimes. give the president a victory. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 239 . would make Mr. In supporting the Pickens bill. This bill.com/news/2011/jun/14/republican-energy-crisis/)//ZY Further. Republicans are playing the same Washington game they ran against in 2010.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Plan Popular – Pickens Lobby Pickens has immense sway over republicans.convinced republicans to support clean tech before Washington Times 6/14 (Ned Ryun. T. 6/14/11. Boone Pickens has spent millions courting lawmakers for this legislation. and now just needs the bill to pass and be signed into law.000 acres believed to have significant natural gas reserves. He also just happens to be the largest shareholder in Clean Energy Fuels. ". if enacted. the bill is a perfect example of crony capitalism. " RYUN: Republican energy crisis http://www. insert government further into the marketplace and hand the taxpayers a huge bill. Pickens also owns the mineral rights to almost 200.

Military While the fossil fuel industry is busy talking down to the public.‖ which has just launched a new campaign proclaiming that more C02 is good because ―it supports all plant life. and policy offered by the U.S. U. military is going full steam ahead into a cleaner. which has just announced its latest solar power installation with cheery pride.‖ Hey. Baby Talk from the Fossil Fuel Industry In contrast to the hard data. the military is taking action on every clean energy front. mountaintop coal mining (literally. Another example of this condescending attitude is the ―Faces of Coal‖ campaign. military completes yet another project to reduce CO2 emissions. Air Force.S. Renewable Energy and National Security The military isn‘t pushing clean energy just to needle the fossil fuel industry.S.com/article.S. versus an industry group called ―CO2 is Green.) is touted as something that improves mountains that used to be ―straight up and down‖ and makes the landscape ―more visually pleasing.S.cfm?id=us-military-vaults-into-clean-energ-2010-07//ZY There they go again: right when the U. http://www. The CO2 is Green website is one example. Based partly on its considerable collection of hard data on climate change.S. This week‘s matchup involved our own U. and that clean renewable energy is vital to a strong national defense strategy.‖ Grown-Up Action from the U. July 17. that continued reliance on fossil fuels puts our troops needlessly at risk in military operations. Military Vaults into Clean Energy Future Despite Fossil Fuel Lobby. the fossil fuel industry plays Debbie Downer. and not to continue providing billions in tax breaks and subsidies for fossil fuels that have outlived their time Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 240 . The fossil fuel industry may be entitled to fight for its life but meanwhile the U. the fossil fuel industry is serving up pablum. modern national defense policy. That‘s where our tax dollars should be going – to support a strong. safer renewable energy future. 2010. research. blowing up mountains right here in the U. but energy technology changes over time and sooner or later fossil fuels are destined to give way to new energy sources and energy storage solutions that serve modern military purposes far more effectively. military. In its effort to weaken public support for federal climate legislation that would support CO2 reduction. the U. the website descends to a reading level more appropriate to elementary school than serious adult conversation. achieved global military advantage primarily due to fossil fuels. and far less expensively. Observations like ―more CO2 results in a greener earth‖ and ―man-made CO2 contributes to plant growth‖ are just a couple of examples.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Plan Popular – A2 Fuel Lobbies Clean renewable energy thrives despite fuel lobbies best efforts Clean Technica.S.S. from high tech energy efficient office buildings to the largest solar power installation in North America. the military has been right up front in stating that climate change is a national security risk.scientificamerican. in which. whose corner should we be in? Throughout the last century.

Logan. and the House passed on February 19. loans in jeopardy. Georgetown International Environmental Law Review. the Continuing Resolution (a) reduces by $25 billion the total principal amount for DOE loan guarantee commitments available for projects. The President urged Americans ―to out-innovate. http://www.html//ZY Ally found in Obama The solar industry has an ally in Obama. with respect to clean energy. cleanenergylawreport.‖ President Obama emphasized two clean energy-related goals for the United States in his address: (a) to become the first country to have a million electric vehicles on the road by 2015 and (b) to have 80 percent of the country‘s electricity be generated from clean energy sources. Although there is little chance that Congress will approve that ambitious goal. Among other budget cuts. who has called for a national clean-energy standard with a goal of generating 80 percent of the nation's electricity from clean sources by 2035. 2007 magna cum laude. other than nuclear projects.1 billion (11. Resch said.azcentral.your link is not unique ERIN KELLY. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 241 . 26. 2011. the administration could take steps on its own to help the solar industry by allowing federal agencies to enter into long-term agreements to purchase solar power. Federal grants. to support early-stage clean energy research projects. and (c) $650 million (including $100 million from the Wireless Innovation and Infrastructure Initiative) for the Advanced Research Projects Agency – Energy (ARPA-E). In stark contrast. see Latham‘s Client Alerts on this topic) (Section 3001). a Continuing Resolution (H. a $3.8 percent) increase from the DOE‘s FY 2010 budget.com/arizonarepublic/news/articles/2011/06/26/20110626solar-powercongress-funding-cuts. 1) (PDF).reporter at Gannett's Washington Bureau Jun. Order of the Coif. JD.com Clean energy development and deployment was one of the central themes of President Barack Obama‘s State of the Union address. (b) rescinds all unobligated balances (as of February 11. Democrats.R. Department of Energy (DOE) submitted to Congress (PDF) the President‘s Fiscal Year 2012 budget request of $29. 20 11 12:00 AM. under the Omnibus Appropriations Act of 2009 (PDF) (which made a total principal amount of up to $47 billion available) (Section 1425). among other things. Republicans illustrate contrasting stances on federal support for clean energy. 2/25. and out-build the rest of the world‖ and stressed that. Solar power funding threatened by Congress. Obama already came out and supported solar power. out-educate. Republicans in the House recently introduced. the U. which the DOE estimates should support an additional $1 billion to $2 billion in loan guarantees. and (c) reduces from $250 million to $50 million the budget for ARPA-E (Section 1417). ―this is our generation‘s Sputnik moment. Georgetown University Law Center. which. including funds to pay credit subsidy costs for loan guarantees under Section 1705 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 for renewable energy and electric transmission projects (for more information on Section 1705 loan guarantees. 2011) of discretionary appropriations under Division A of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (PDF). (b) up to $36 billion in additional loan guarantee authority for nuclear power projects.5 billion. Included in the proposed budget are (a) an additional $200 million to pay the credit subsidy costs for loan guarantees for innovative energy efficiency and renewable energy projects under Section 1703 of Title XVII of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (PDF). proposes over $100 billion in cuts from the President‘s FY 2011 budget request. Executive Editor. Following the State of the Union address.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 A2 – Flip Flop Obama wants clean-energy but the 2 parties are split Suzanne M.S.

8 percent in March. U. the figures fueled further partisan acrimony.that clean energy. As a whole. Obama said." Obama acknowledged in his address to employees. But I‘m still not satisfied. While the Bureau of Labor Statistics said the slight shift in May means that the unemployment picture was "essentially unchanged" compared to the prior month.greenbiz. commitments last week by the private sector. is an editor at GreenBizz."Job growth and the economy are vulnerable points for Obama and his administration. Leslie Guevarra. unemployment rate edged up to 9." said Obama. "Right now. the opposite is true. He also convened his Council on Jobs and Competitiveness at Cree and pointed out the growth that the host firm has experienced in the past three years. colleges and the National Association of Manufacturers will "make it possible for 500. And he recapped progress that has occurred since he came to office.so nearby. the single most serious economic problem we face is getting people back to work.S. 2011. June 26. June 14. Obama talked of what his administration has done to back education opportunities. the country is not producing enough talent to fill the high-tech and highly skilled jobs that are available today. Green Jobs and Training‖.000 community college students to earn industry-accepted credentials for manufacturing jobs that companies across America are looking to fill.S. however."Today. Duke and North Carolina State University -." he said."We stabilized the economy.the alma mater of Cree's founders -. "The technology at this company is growing in leaps and bounds. jobs were the subject of the first question in the televised debate last night among seven Republicans who are vying for the party's nomination in the 2012 presidential race."Also. As expected. "But when it comes to science and high-tech fields. Obama promoted a plan he outlined Friday in which the government would join with universities and corporations to reignite the manufacturing sector with an emphasis on cutting-edge research and technologies. the presidential hopefuls slammed the incumbent on the issues of jobs and the economy. http://articles."To that end. Obama wants TECH AP.While visiting Cree and Research Triangle Park in North Carolina. added a new lighting production line and broken ground for a new facility on its campus. ―Obama Pushes for More Cleantech..‘‘ Obama said in the address. training and other efforts to create jobs.But the president also took the opportunity to resound key tenets of his administration -.com. who first visited Cree during his primary campaign in May 2008.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Obama backing Guevarra. Obama said. the president and the jobs council unveiled an "all-hands-on-deck strategy" yesterday that he said will enable 10. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 242 .com/news/2011/06/14/obama-pushes-more-clean-tech-green-jobs-and-training?page=0%2C1 Facing heavy criticism for a sluggish economic recovery. which boosted capacity and capabilities. the manufacturer of energy efficient lighting has filled almost 750 full-time positions.. 2011."This company has made amazing progress.boston. ―Obama pushes high-tech agenda‖." Obama said. We‘ve added more than 2 million private sector jobs over the last 15 months alone . President Barack Obama brought his talk about the importance of growing more green jobs to a thriving LED factory in North Carolina Monday. Associated Press. and a podcaster. having been 8. an associate producer and public affairs program host on television.1 percent in May from 9 percent in April. was bolstered by $39 million in cleantech manufacturingrelated tax credits. In fact. "We prevented a financial meltdown.Cree and other businesses in the innovation hub of Research Triangle Park have a rich academic base to draw from for recruits with the University of North Carolina. I will not be satisfied until everyone who wants a good job that offers some security has a good job that offers security. The businesses represented here tell me they‘re having a hard time finding high-skilled workers to fill their job openings. ―Their mission is to come up with a way to get ideas from the drawing board to the manufacturing floor to the marketplace as swiftly as possible. business leaders and others gathered yesterday afternoon at Cree Inc. http://www. energy efficiency and the industries and innovations supporting them are key to the country's economic recovery. President Obama said during his weekly radio and Internet address yesterday. there are more than four job-seekers for every job opening in America. in Durham. The production line expansion project.com/2011-06-26/news/29706451_1_iowa-poll-michele-bachmann-caucus-goers WASHINGTON — Technological innovations can help create jobs and spur growth in clean energy and advanced manufacturing. An economy that was shrinking is now growing. The U." In the past two years.000 new American engineers to be trained every year. which will help create quality jobs and make our businesses more competitive. She has been a reporter and editor online and in print.

SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 ***PLAN UNPOPULAR*** Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 243 .

he would be working with us to develop American oil and gas by American workers for American consumers. Obama specifically proposes to eliminate roughly $4 billion a year in more than a half-dozen tax exemptions for oil and gas companies and an additional $200 million a year in preferences for coal. He has supported favored tax treatment for wind and solar power as well as a 50 percent increase in federal research spending on other alternative energy sources. environmentalists and conservative economists NYT. an energy and climate change analyst at the Council on Foreign Relations.‖ Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 244 . we should deal with the problem and cap them.‖ he added.‖ Mr.‖ he added. many environmentalists argue. ―From my perspective. Mr. and while most nations endorsed the idea in theory. a private equity firm that invests in clean-technology ventures. little has been done. Obama‘s policies encourage utilities to switch from coal to cleaner-burning natural gas to generate electricity. that studies global energy subsidies.‖ ―If we‘re really concerned about greenhouse gases. ―This is a tired old argument we‘ve been hearing for two years now. his policies continue to provide for substantial aid to oil and gas companies as well as billions of dollars in subsidies for coal. The head of the oil and gas lobby in Washington contends that the president has it backward — that the industry subsidizes the government. who argue that such tax treatment is necessary to keep drillers drilling and miners mining. nuclear and other energy sources with large and long-lasting environmental impacts. He also has proposed as much as $50 billion in federal loan guarantees for nuclear power plant construction. BRODER. many of which are hugely wasteful. preferences or loan guarantees — spans the ideological spectrum. from conservative economists who believe such breaks distort the marketplace to environmentalists who believe that renewable energy sources will always lose out in subsidy fights because of the power of the entrenched fossil fuel industries. said calls for an end to energy subsidies missed a broader point: that embryonic energy technologies will need some government help to gain a foothold against the fossil fuel lobbies. through billions of dollars in taxes and royalties. ―The plan the president outlined would establish a clear goal for clean energy and let utilities achieve that in the most cost-effective way possible. not the other way around. Jeffrey Leonard. A White House spokesman put it a bit more benignly.‖ the official said. ―I‘d love to find a quick fix for America‘s energy problems just as much as the next guy. Opposition to such subsidies — often euphemistically referred to as incentives. coal.‖ said Jack Gerard. if you subsidize carbon capture and storage. that‘s a big subsidy for coal. He calls for scrapping all subsidies and letting fuel sources compete on equal ground. ―But an effort to eliminate all energy subsidies without instituting better alternative policies should be understood for what it is: a recipe for cementing the dominance of traditional fossil fuels against their competitors. ―If the president were serious about job creation. Koplow said. argues that the federal government should take its thumb off the scale by eliminating subsidies for all forms of energy.‖ Michael Levi. money he believes is needed because the private market is unwilling to assume the potential costs of a catastrophic accident.‖ Mr.‖ said Douglas Koplow. hydropower. The president proposed a global end to such subsidies at the Group of 20 meeting in 2009. tax credits.‖ Mr. Published: January 31. The oil industry subsidizes the federal government at a rate of $95 million a day. It‘s hard to justify these technologies that can‘t make it on their own. Obama‘s proposal rekindles a long-running debate over federal subsidies for energy of all kinds.‖ H. founder of Earth Track.‖ Mr. nuclear power and corn-based ethanol. Obama‘s Bid to End Oil Subsidies Revives http://www.‖ Dr. Kreutzer said. ―My view is the country is better off on having a neutral playing field for all forms of energy. including petroleum. solar and biofuels. every day that goes by without a policy to put a price on carbon emissions from all sources is a day in which the federal government subsidizes energy producers by socializing the long-term health and environmental costs of their products. adding: ―The federal government by no stretch of the imagination subsidizes the oil industry. an energy economist at the conservative Heritage Foundation.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Plan Unpopular – General Subsidizing solar would create a firestorm of controversy. ―Instead. By JOHN M. president of the Global Environment Fund. coal with carbon capture. a group in Cambridge. said that the current subsidy structure was the legacy of 60 years of lobbying and political jockeying in Washington that largely benefits oil. ―President Obama defines ‗clean fuels‘ as natural gas. 2011. The president is also proposing to spend hundreds of millions of dollars to develop technology to capture and store carbon dioxide emissions from coal plants and oil refineries. David W. ―We know that petroleum and coal survive just fine in places where there are no subsidies. Mr. And.html//ZY Previous efforts have run up against bipartisan opposition in Congress and heavy lobbying from producers of oil. ―I‘d also be delighted to have a reason to cut subsidies. Gerard noted that there was bipartisan opposition to lifting the tax breaks. I don‘t know if that‘s true for wind and solar now. Obama is not willing to go that far. wind. president of the American Petroleum Institute. Nuclear is massively subsidized through a risk transfer from shareholders to ratepayers. forcing utilities to shift to the government‘s preferred sources of energy on the government‘s timetable. Mr.. Obama will have a tough fight trying to get even these relatively modest proposals enacted over the objections of the oil and coal industries. nuclear. although leaving to them the choice of fuels. when the price comes down. coal.com/2011/02/01/science/earth/01subsidy. Kreutzer. Levi wrote last week on his blog. Energy economists say that the president‘s call in the State of the Union address for doubling the amount of electricity produced from cleaner technology by 2035 is designed to manipulate energy markets. The tax breaks for oil have a long history — the socalled percentage depletion allowance for oil and natural gas wells dates to the 1920s — and have withstood repeated efforts to kill them. which simply substitutes one fossil fuel for another and helps subsidize natural gas exploration and distribution.powerful lobbies. politicians and lobbyists want to carve out policies for their own industries. natural gas and coal. even it if means slowing development of cleaner-burning fuel sources. ―We would like to get rid of all subsidies. industry leaders. another hidden subsidy for fossil fuels. Mass.nytimes. but someday it will be. But even as the president says he wants to do away with incentives for fossil fuels. the oil and gas industry‘s main lobby in Washington. And Mr.

com/article/1147/1 But there‘s also another factor at work: naïveté.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Plan Unpopular – Congress DOD space projects are extremely unpopular Dwayne A. coupled with an idealistic impression of its management compared to NASA. For instance. Space activists tend to have little understanding of military space. they fail to realize that the military space program is currently in no better shape. and military space has a bad reputation in Congress.thespacereview. ―Knights in shining armor‖ The Space Review. Although NASA has a bad public record for cost overruns. expensive new program to be started Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 245 . the DoD‘s less-public record is far worse. http://www. than NASA. 6-9-2008. The majority of large military space acquisition programs have experienced major problems. whom many space activists have come to despise. in many cases cost growth in excess of 100%. and in many cases worse shape. American space historian and policy analyst and served as an investigator for the Columbia Accident Investigation Board. Day. which would never allow such a big.

all of the recent progress made by the solar industry could be derailed.. Without it.S.reporter at Gannett's Washington Bureau Jun. "We've spent billions on technology and research and subsidies. managing director of Suntech America Inc. The industry grew 67 percent last year . but future Abengoa projects could be. president and CEO of the Solar Energy Industries Association. Read more: http://www." But critics say it's time for the solar industry to stand on its own and to compete in the free market without any help from struggling American taxpayers. gas. senior adviser for U. The federal loan-guarantee program is essential. sending companies scrambling to save federal programs that have helped finance the creation of a massive solar plant in Gila Bend and other projects throughout the nation.. the association said. operations for Abengoa Solar of Spain. loans in jeopardy. a national trade group with about 1. Part of that loan program is slated to end Oct. which added 30 jobs in May at its manufacturing plant in Goodyear. but we're going to stall." Solar costs dropping Solar power and offshore wind power are the most expensive ways to generate electricity.000 solar companies as members. "The government has been involved in energy from day one. Also threatened: an Energy Department loan-guarantee program that provided a $1. "We need to be fiscally disciplined as a country. Since Solana is under way. "The commercial banks today cannot lend money long-term at acceptable rates.taxes ERIN KELLY.000 people nationwide. 1. said Nicolas Loris." said Rep. R-Calif. A conservative House bent on slashing federal spending and philosophically opposed to subsidizing solar power and clean energy is trying to reduce or eliminate federal programs that offer grants and loans to the solar industry." said Roger Efird.S. Federal grants.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Plan Unpopular – Republicans Republicans are ideologically opposed." Morse said." A better solution may be to get rid of all federal subsidies for energy. according to the Solar Energy Industries Association. but we shouldn't be foolhardy by eliminating programs that create jobs. business or power plant fell more than 20 percent nationwide from the beginning of 2010 to the end of the year. an energy analyst with the conservative Heritage Foundation. all it's going to do is put clean energy at an even bigger competitive disadvantage. Solana would not be built. which is building the plant and will operate it for APS. "The loan has to be at a rate that will leave us with enough revenue to pay off the debt." said Richard Caperton. federally financed dams to generate hydroelectric power and research funding for nuclear power and clean-coal technologies.html#ixzz1QX9IuHUo On the endangered list is a U. "If you take a gun and force taxpayers to hand over their earnings to a solar company." Solana would not have been possible without the loan-guarantee program.html//ZY WASHINGTON . which has solar panels made from Tempe-based First Solar Inc." said Rhone Resch. it's job creation that will reduce our national debt. and a conditional guarantee of nearly $1 billion to build the Agua Caliente power plant in Yuma County. If Congress does not renew the programs. set to expire in December. according to the Solar Energy Industries Association. which will be one of the world's largest solar plants. The history of subsidies includes tax incentives to drill for oil. that solar companies say has kept them alive through the economic downturn. there's no doubt about that.and employs about 100. an energy analyst with the Center for American Progress. Transmission lines to coal-fired power plants were built with taxpayer subsidies. "Ultimately. said Fred Morse.com/arizonarepublic/news/articles/2011/06/26/20110626solar-powercongress-funding-cuts. that solar company is going to do very well.faster than any other U.azcentral. it will not be affected if Congress ends or cuts the two sections of the Department of Energy's Loan Guarantee Program. a liberal think tank.45billion guarantee for the Solana project in Gila Bend.azcentral. "The government has always played a role in the energy mix through providing incentives to certain technologies or making it easier to use certain technologies. Solar power funding threatened by Congress. Tom McClintock. Treasury grant program. The average price of an installed solar system in a home.com/arizonarepublic/news/articles/2011/06/26/20110626solar-power-congress-fundingcuts. But solar advocates argue that the government's investment is paying off. coal and nuclear industries for decades. "Is the solar industry going to die if we lose these programs? No.Congress is threatening to turn off power to the solar-energy industry. energy subsidies is not an area where we need to be spending money." he said. http://www. who has led efforts by House conservatives to end loan guarantees and grants for the solar industry and other renewable-energy industries. that could boost the use of solar power also is fading in a Congress that takes a dim view of government mandates about what kind of energy Americans should use." Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 246 . advocated by President Barack Obama. according to the U. If we stop spending money on some very cost-effective programs for clean energy. And the potential for a national clean-energy standard. "Given the financial situation of our government. but the taxpayers end up getting screwed with nothing to show for it at the end of the day. And analysts say it's unfair to talk about solar standing on its own when the federal government has been subsidizing the oil. 26.S. But the cost of solar energy is dropping as the technology becomes more efficient and the industry expands. industry . "We'll certainly lose a lot of jobs. 20 11 12:00 AM.S. and it's still the most expensive way of generating electricity. Energy Information Administration.

Many Republicans hate the act. in all honesty. Last week. http://www." House republicans hate clean tech ERIN KELLY.html//ZY Extending the program will be tough in the House because the grant was part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. 2011. has invested billions in energy innovation and job creation and could benefit from similar presidential attention. we're concerned with what kind of due diligence the administration did before throwing out that kind of money and attention.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Clean Energy legislation is massively unpopular. The oil and gas industry.Va. a senior analyst and project manager with the Futron Corporation of Bethesda. Obama has visited 22 clean-tech projects on 19 separate trips. Durbin. loans in jeopardy. Monday. Obama's unwavering focus has helped him fulfill a campaign pledge to push clean tech. all emphasizing economic recovery and a $90 billion stimulus program to promote energy independence.C. he stood among workers at a small Wisconsin lighting company and dubbed it a "model for the future. self praising administration and unfair company advantages upset republicans Jeff Foust. Republicans and outside critics also have honed in on the political connections of some companies that have received federal help. The national space policy. saying it is "helping to lead a clean-energy revolution. in April. Federal grants. Executives of some struggling start-ups ask whether the administration rigorously examines companies and their products before endorsing a favored few." said Efird of Suntech. where he has worked since late 200 edit and publisher of the space review." helped by government incentives offering a "leg up to renewable-energy companies. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 247 . vice president of Trojan Battery.thespacereview. saying it spent billions of dollars of taxpayer money while creating few jobs." He praised workers for "helping to point the way" to a cleaner future while visiting a Charlotte company that makes an electric-car battery component. the administration's attention to certain cleantech companies has led to some industry concerns. "Generally." This month. His praise for renewable-energy projects has been effusive. "He's missing an incredible opportunity he has to join with us to make a difference in economic growth.-. he lauded a start-up for "growing by leaps and bounds" as it markets a machine that converts waste heat into electricity. which the president says will lead the nation back to economic prosperity." Durbin said. one year later. for example.com/article/1873/1//ZY CHARLESTON.With trips that began two months after he took office. A day after this year's State of the Union address. N. only weeks after it became public that independent auditors had questioned whether it could remain a "going concern. But it also has come with political exposure: By emphasizing a sector in which the risks are high. the stimulus bill passed by the Democrat-led House in 2009. 20 11 12:00 AM. 26." In all..azcentral. from solar energy and wind power to electric vehicles. http://www. a congressional energy subcommittee chairman accused the administration of picking clean-tech "winners and losers" by pouring government money into a sector best determined by free-market forces. a Silicon Valley solar company that ran into financial trouble after receiving a $535 million federal loan guarantee commitment. the president has prompted questions on Capitol Hill and from industry about the wisdom of his singular strategy and his political ties to some of the companies chosen for federal attention. national security and clean technology. which faced the prospect of higher prices for Polypore products. The most attention has focused on Solyndra. "If you went and added up the number of jobs at these clean-tech companies he visited. I think you're going to find a very modest number of jobs.. Solar power funding threatened by Congress. "They are giving some companies massive advantages over others. company that makes energy-efficient lighting. Republicans on the House Energy and Commerce Committee pressed the Office of Management and Budget to account for its role in the selection. Nev. Obama visited Solyndra's factory in May 2010. job creation." Along with Capitol Hill fallout. Maryland. June 27.com/arizonarepublic/news/articles/2011/06/26/20110626solar-powercongress-funding-cuts. In Reno. He used similar words a few weeks ago at a Durham.reporter at Gannett's Washington Bureau Jun. President Obama has devoted more than half of his out-of-town private-business visits to promoting a single industry: clean technology.recent controversy." said Bryan Godber. The president has underscored his support by singling out specific companies in speeches and White House radio addresses. "I think we've got a 50-50 chance of getting the grant program renewed. said Martin J. executive vice president of the American Petroleum Institute. W.

Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 248 . June 18. Department of Energy‘s (DOE) budget by way of the proposed 2012 Energy and Water Appropriations bill. Caleb Denison. including the National Nuclear Security Administration. appears to have been approved by the committee. A statement recently released by the Appropriations Committee chairman. http://www. responsible for the largest growth in the solar and wind power industries ever recorded. in part. one of which provides $1 billion in emergency funding to the Army Corps of Engineers for relief efforts to flood victims and future disaster preparedness efforts. who later added. Rogers refers to is. according to recent reports from the Solar Energy Industries Association and the American Wind Energy Association-factors which many would argue contribute to economic growth and security. takes a pretty big swing at some of the DOE programs that support renewable energy such as loan guarantee programs and scientific research and development.‖ states Rogers. However. which provides the annual funding for the various agencies and programs under the Department of Energy. It now appears that the bill. Hal Rogers.com/2011/06/gopofficially-slashes-clean-energys-tires/ Earlier this month we took a look at what the GOP controlled House of Representatives Appropriation Committee has in store for the U. ―The bill rightly prioritized programs with tangible effects on urgent public safety needs and our economic competitiveness. ―We‘ve made smart and significant spending reductions in areas that have seen massive and unnecessary increases. 2011. criticizing some of the economic programs the administration has supported while defending budget changes under the auspices of public safety and energy security measures.‖ It is apparent that there are some hard feelings between the Appropriations Committee and the Obama administration evidenced by some of the language that has been used during the announcement and defense of this new budget legislation. the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.earthtechling.S. In a description of the amendment. with some fresh new amendments added. the Bureau of Reclamation. Army Corps of Engineers. This legislation. the ―massive and unnecessary increases‖ in funding that Mr.‖ Subcommittee Chairman Rodney Frelinghuysen proposed two of the bill‘s amendments.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 GOP will backlash against the plan Denison. ―GOP Goons Slash Clean Energy‘s Tires‖. goes into some details about the amendments that were implemented and also spends some time taking shots at the Obama Administration‘s use of funds from the previous budget cycle. the committee explains the source of the considerable funding allowance saying it was ―offset by a rescission of the remaining emergency High Speed Rail funding that was originally approved in the failed ―stimulus‖ bill.

The appropriators targeted some of the energy efficiency and research spending that has been a priority for the Obama administration. released details on the 2012 Appropriations energy and water subcommittee draft bill in advance of a Thursday committee meeting. while cutting back funding for programs that we simply cannot afford or that are not performing up to snuff. The Republican-led House has been critical of DOE's loan guarantee program. DOE requested a 12% increase for fiscal 2012 to $29.2 billion requested. On the endangered list is a U. a $321 million to building energy efficiency funding. which funds energy-efficiency improvements to the homes of low-income families. sending companies scrambling to save federal programs that have helped finance the creation of a massive solar plant in Gila Bend and other projects throughout the nation. Derek Sands received his Bachelor of Engineering in Electrical Engineering with First Class Honours from the University of Technology.9 billion cut for the agency's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office. The panel also proposed cutting funding for DOE's Office of Science by $616 million below the requested $5. The subcommittee did not detail what science programs would be cut. And the potential for a national clean-energy standard. Erin Kelly. up from $26." Rogers said. set to expire in December.5 billion by $5.platts. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 249 . 2011.com/news/articles/2011/06/26/20110626solar-power-congress-funding-cuts.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Plan unpopular. a $200 million cut to an electric-vehicle deployment program. Treasury grant program.House Appropriations Chairman Hal Rogers.Congress is threatening to turn off power to the solar-energy industry. http://www. which was the reference point the Obama administration used when it proposed the fiscal 2012 budget earlier this year. advocated by President Barack Obama.9 billion.com/RSSFeedDetailedNews/RSSFeed/ElectricPower/6148275 The US House of Representatives Energy and Water Development Appropriations Subcommittee Wednesday proposed slashing the Department of Energy's fiscal 2012 budget request of $29.06 billion sought. down 60% from the $3. and a $287 million cut to the Weatherization Assistance Program. Those cuts would target a wide range of initiatives that have been a priority for the White House. June 26. the proposal would cut DOE's budget $900 million below current spending levels. including a $290 million cut to solar power." In addition to failing to fund the full administration request for 2012.html WASHINGTON .S."The committee has taken a hard look at each and every line in this bill to make sure that we are prioritizing taxpayer dollars in programs that have the most benefit to the American people.5 billion. that solar companies say has kept them alive through the economic downturn.GOP hate solar power Kelly . ―Solar power funding threatened by Congress‖. Sydney.4 billion in 2010. ―US House spending panel proposes deep cuts in DOE budget‖.azcentral. June 1. a Kentucky Republican.GOP wants spending cuts Sands. At that time. a Kentucky Republican. Plan massively unpopular.4 billion. A conservative House bent on slashing federal spending and philosophically opposed to subsidizing solar power and clean energy is trying to reduce or eliminate federal programs that offer grants and loans to the solar industry. writer for Arizona Central. "In this time of budget crisis. 2011. http://www. Mr. writer for Platts. providing only $160 million of the $1. Derek Sands. that could boost the use of solar power also is fading in a Congress that takes a dim view of government mandates about what kind of energy Americans should use. Congress had not yet agreed on government funding for fiscal 2011.House Appropriations Chairman Hal Rogers. we have to make tough. Some of the major program cuts include a $1. and the appropriations bill released Wednesday would almost eliminate the administration's entire funding request. sometimes unpopular decisions to rein in budgets in order to get our economy back on track. released details on the 2012 Appropriations energy and water subcommittee draft bill in advance of a Thursday committee meeting.

and it is driven primarily by rent seeking. Which all goes to show (as we've seen for the last year and a half) that space policy is truly non-partisan. solesource pork-based one in the interest of his state. in which the Democratic senators from California are fighting for a competitive approach (in the interest. against a "conservative" Republican senator from Utah who insists on a wasteful. " Space politics makes strange bedfellows http://washingtonexaminer. 6/8/11. Monday's press release lauding the two senators' action. even as wealth is destroyed. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 250 . But the good news is that this may delay things sufficiently long that an expensive. unnecessary rocket never gets built at all. Hence.com/blogs/opinion-zone/2011/06/space-politics-makes-strange-bedfellows)//ZY These words were music to the ears of both the Competitive Space Task Force (full disclosure: of which I am chairman) and Tea Party in Space. and non-ideological. a Florida-based group that promotes a vigorous but fiscally responsible space program (something exactly the opposite of what those who make space policy on the Hill seem to want). not a desire to open up space to humanity. ". Interestingly and ironically.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Plan Unpopular – Partisan Solar power creates infighting amongst dems and reps over technicalities Washington Examiner (blog) 6/8 (Rand Simberg. it will continue to be subject to the petty politics of those whose states and districts benefit from the jobs created. of their own home state contractor). of course. As long as space policy remains unimportant. it sets up a potential battle in the upper chamber over space policy.

which has no possibility of commercialization this century.sspi.‘ and we would see spectacular growth in the industry‘s revenues and job creation.‖ said Mount. the real way to assemble SSP.com/0611/1017spotlight. page 51. Solar trackers have been successfully used for many years in the European solar industry but solar trackers have only recently become the standard for large utility scale projects in the United States. " Solar Energy Systems ". Cox. which have dropped to less than half of what they were five years ago. former member of the Board of Directors of the National Space Society and systems analyst. This is why SSP has been unfunded since it was invented in 1968. (The Space Station is inside the Van Allen Belts) People are also too expensive to use for SSP construction. did not exist in 1979. diminished the potential of the passage of a Clean Energy Act. Large commercial projects in the States and Canada are now adding solar trackers to improve their project economics. 6/1/11. and gas energy providers.shtml)//ZY ―Although the industry has experienced notable expansion recently. But half are right. space transportation costs have stayed too high because there is no market large enough to support a Reusable Launch Vehicle fleet. ‗grid parity.americanrecycler.‖ Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 251 . After the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA). then the solar industry might become instantly ‗bankable.edu/sunsatcorpfaq. Carter pushed through the SSP reference study in 1979-1980.) Most crucially. but the fossil fuel lobby proved formidable. He quit space transportation and decided to work on Mars.pdf Changing our nation and our world‘s baseload energy generation sources to introduce SSP is a massive battle.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Plan Unpopular – Oil/Fossil Fuel Lobby Oil and fossil fuel lobbies hate the plan – that saps capital Darel Preble. Now it is used in heart surgery every day worldwide and for a thousand other uses. coal. The current oil. Perhaps half the studies are wrong. once again. i. industry growth would have expanded faster under better economic conditions. That is their right.. Robert Zubrin mentions this battle and perspective in ―Entering Space‖. Fossil fuel lobby hates solar power. there was significant progress in Congress toward clean energy legislation.‘ In recent years.empirically block legislation American Recycler Newspaper 6/1 (Mary M. ―Introduction to the motion to the National Space Society Board of Directors‖ Space Solar Power Institute. A lack of energy legislation passage has also been a challenge for the solar industry. If a Federal Clean Energy mandate were to occur.gatech. (The fossil fuel industry has battled environmentalists every inch during our struggle to understand climate change effects. ―The PV industry has been focused on reducing the price of energy production to a cost at or below that of conventional generation technologies. physicist and chair of the Space Solar Power Workshop since 1997. You can‘t make an omelet without breaking a few eggs. but PV trackers can provide a superior method to greatly improve the energy production of PV systems in moving solar power costs closer to grid parity. are not eager to see their baseload investments face competition from SSP. but space transportation costs were far too high. He added. Telerobotics. http://www. which has zero fuel costs and zero and a billion years of steady supply projected. cost reductions have been driven by reduction in the price of PV panels. Equipment manufacturers also continue to provide small increases to the solar equipment efficiencies. This is detailed in the Space Transportation chapter on the SSPW website also. and they were forced to plan to use astronauts to bolt it together. http://www. and.e. This is too dangerous for astronauts outside the protection of the Van Allen Radiation Belts. nuclear as well. 12-15-2006. SSP IS just such a massive market.

The group says in a TV ad that the price of coal is one-third that of other fuels.comes when opposition to new coal plants is mounting because they generate greenhouse gases. A woman asks: "How can we become less dependent on foreign resources? What fuels will keep power bills reasonable and be environmentally responsible?" A man responds. those emissions have dropped more modestly as plants have become more efficient. there is a saying that you don't get to be president unless you go through Iowa." Reid said last fall." Sen.‖ Coal Mounts New Campaign To Head Off Climate Legislation‖. Barack Obama (Ill. ." Sen. One of its television ads shows a power cord being plugged into a lump of coal. it underground are expensive.) did not commit himself on coal plants but said Americans had to make their buildings. It increased the budget of the National Mining Association. where a state agency rejected a permit for two proposed coal plants. director of Sierra Club's national coal campaign. The group's message -.Duke Energy. "Big coal may launch a 'Harry and Louise'-style disinformation campaign to sink global warming solutions in Congress. instead of engaging in a real debate about the true costs of coal and clean energy alternatives. produced by the same firm that made "what happens here stays here" ads to promote Las Vegas to tourists. The group. "They're all dirty.massive budget increases and public outreach The Washington Post. 18. Jan. That sentiment." Lucas is working on that." The ads note that half of U. The controversy over coal has been especially heated in Nevada. And I want big demonstration projects to figure out how we would capture and sequester carbon. who represents the state." said Daniel J.). and the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association. "I believe we need a moratorium on the building of any more coal-fired power plants unless and until we have the ability to capture and sequester the carbon in the ground. the energy they produce cannot be easily stored. Environmentalists are also worried that the ads aired by ABEC so far are just the beginning of what could be a much bigger offensive once Congress gets down to work on a climate change bill sponsored by Sens. We'd like to say that you don't get to be president unless you understand how complicated this issue is. clean technology. called Americans for Balanced Energy Choices. said Wednesday night during a stopover en route from Nevada to South Carolina. "But even as we become more efficient." The ads being run by Americans for Balanced Energy Choices talk about "clean coal. some supporters of the Lieberman-Warner bill fear that the coal industry may use a similar strategy to kill legislation aimed at slowing climate change by stressing potential consumer costs and not the societal benefits. Unfortunately ABEC is spending millions of dollars on misinformation about our energy choices .7 million. John Edwards said. newspaper." Many environmentalists argue that until that time. where environmental groups and Senate Majority Leader Harry M. An ad targeting that bill is currently being shown on video monitors at the baggage carousels at Dulles International Airport." Lucas said. by 20 percent this year.) and John W. which it calls "an American resource that will help us with vital energy security" and "the fuel that powers our way of life. the industry's main lobbying group. and that more of them are needed to meet the growing demand for electricity -." Joe Lucas. On Wednesday. Last year. D0. the issue came up during the debate among the three leading Democratic presidential candidates. the industry also boosted the budget of Americans for Balanced Energy Choices more than fourfold. . the United States should focus on renewable energy such as solar and wind. Former Sen." Lucas said. which are not yet regulated. "We have many questions for our candidates. The group's newspaper ads avoid that distinction.S. many of them paid." That does not refer to carbon dioxide. to $19. lighting and appliances "more efficient. "We welcome a vigorous debate about our energy future and solving global warming. experimental and not in commercial use. we do need to be more energy efficient. New coal-plant technologies that might capture carbon dioxide and store. One of the coal industry group's radio ads hints at those themes.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Plan Unpopular – Coal Lobby Coal lobbies are forceful. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 252 . On Tuesday. But climate change is linked to carbon dioxide emissions. plus soaring construction costs and uncertainty about federal climate change legislation. Warner (R-Va. Nevada and South Carolina. according to a report issued yesterday by the American Wind Energy Association. electricity comes from coal-fired plants. the group's views were quoted approvingly in an editorial in the Las Vegas Review-Journal . ABEC's ads.Y. The group has also deployed teams on the campaign trail. (Last year. Joseph I. the group's executive director. It's nearing a point where it's real. also talk about "affordable" energy." said Bruce Nilles." "Yes. wind made up 30 percent of all new electricity generating capacity. But Lucas says carbon capture and storage "is no longer a pipe dream. we're plugging more things into the wall.S. have opposed construction of three new coal-fired power plants. But coal prices have risen. or sequester." New power plants are cleaner than they used to be because they must meet more stringent federal regulations limiting such pollutants as nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide. has spent $1. The roster of backers includes 28 companies and trade associations such as Peabody Energy. Weiss. Last September. The coal mining industry is fighting back. and coal has to be part of the discussion.) On Tuesday night. He urged utilities to rely on energy efficiency and solar and wind power. albeit not as much as oil. opinion polls show that roughly two out of three people opposed the plants.) said. "We're getting the message out. "In Iowa. about 50 people. And environmentalists and economists argue that the price of coal does not include substantial environmental costs. senior fellow and director of climate strategy for the Center for American Progress. last year prompted U. Now. In 1993. "I have said we should not be siting any more coal-powered plants unless they can have the most modern. he appeared on Nevada public radio. so far. television and radio ads in Iowa. Coal Industry Plugs Into the Campaign//ZY A group backed by the coal industry and its utility allies is waging a $35 million campaign in primary and caucus states to rally public support for coal-fired electricity and to fuel opposition to legislation that Congress is crafting to slow climate change. Southern Co. Lieberman (I-Conn. Hillary Rodham Clinton (N. an ad campaign by the health-care industry featuring a fictional couple named Harry and Louise helped torpedo the Clinton administration's health-care proposal. Reid. 2008. In Kansas .that coal-fired power plants can be clean.3 million on billboard. Coal advocates say those energy sources cannot be relied on 24 hours a day and. They say that today's carbon-fired plants are "70 percent cleaner based on regulated emissions per unit of energy produced. walked around as human billboards and handed out leaflets outside Tuesday's Democratic debate in Nevada with questions for voters to ask the candidates. Arch Coal. he wrote letters that appeared in a dozen newspapers. companies to abandon or postpone plans to build dozens of new coal plants.

cap and trade legislation would only further cripple our economy.2454 . Congressional Summary:Extends the tax credit for producing electricity from renewable resources: (1) through 2009 for wind facilities. The R&D tax credit is important. 2008 Voted NO on tax incentives for renewable energy. trash combustion. Sec. biomass. We do not support this kind of suicide for the American economy. Why is this our only option? Because the Senate. but those consequences are devastating for the future of the economy of this country. CONGRESSIONAL SUMMARY: Renewable Energy and Energy Conservation Tax Act of 2008: Production Incentives: Extends through 2011 the tax credit for the production of electricity from renewable resources (e. MI-4): We are conducting another purely political exercise on a tax bill that is doomed in the other body because of our House majority's insistence on adhering to the misguided PAYGO rules. geothermal. It sets ambitious and achievable standards for energy efficiency and renewable energy from solar. Bill HR6049 . MA-2): This bill contains extensions of popular tax incentives that expired at the end of last year. which has labored long and hard to develop that compromise. small irrigation power. landfill gas. this is a jobs bill.R. It's a fantasy that this legislation will turn down the thermostat of the world by reducing CO2 gas emissions when China & India & other nations are pumping more CO2 gas into the atmosphere all the time. Allows a new tax credit for the production of qualified plug-in electric drive motor vehicles. Congress Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 253 .g. 16.5% in 2014. Congressional Summary:Requires utilities to supply an increasing percentage of their demand from a combination of energy efficiency savings and renewable energy (6% in 2012. Proponent's argument to vote Yes: Rep. but contain more offsets than Republicans would like.org Explanation:This bill passed the House but was killed in the Senate on a rejected Cloture Motion. SUPPORTER'S ARGUMENT FOR VOTING YES:Rep. Provides for: issuing. Transportation fringe benefit to bicycle commuters. wind. Reference: American Clean Energy and Security Act. however. OPPONENT'S ARGUMENT FOR VOTING NO:Rep. 20% of America's energy will be clean. and hydropower). Bill H. Ontheissues. as many Democrats would prefer. trading. or any related products. geothermal. vote number 2008-H649 on Sep 26. They approved a comprehensive tax relief package containing extenders provisions that are not fully offset. Sec. has indicated in no uncertain terms that it is not going to reconsider these issues again this year.hes voted against it every time. This bill includes a number of popular and forward-thinking incentives for energy efficiency. 13% in 2016. wind. Amends the Clean Air Act (CAA) to set forth a national strategy to address barriers to the commercial-scale deployment of carbon capture and sequestration. and hydropower facilities. The Senate acted on a bipartisan basis to find common ground on this issue. with PAYGO offsets. 146. BOB GOODLATTE (R.2010.com Voted NO on enforcing limits on CO2 global warming pollution. Proponent's argument to vote Yes:Rep. and (2) through FY2011 for closed and open-loop biomass. Credit for new qualified plug-in electric drive motor vehicles. VA-6): I agree that this bill has very important consequences.5% in 2018. and 20% in 2021). 2008 Voted NO on tax incentives for energy production and conservation. vote number 2008-344 on May 21. We support the effort for energy efficiency.. Bill H. Extends through 2010 the tax credits for biodiesel (including agri-biodiesel) Allows an alcohol fuels tax credit for the production of qualified cellulosic alcohol fuel. RICHARD NEAL (D.R. MATSUI: Today's debate is about investing in renewable energy. geothermal. Opponent's argument to vote No:Rep. we will put enforceable limits on global warming pollution. Today's legislation will transfer some of the massive profits enjoyed by these oil companies and invest them in renewable resources that will power our economy in the future. Database of Political leaders and their stances. Allows a new tax credit for the production of plug-in hybrid vehicles. This bill restores balance to our energy policy after years of a tax structure that favors huge oil companies. ED MARKEY (D. MA-7): For the first time in the history of our country. and verifying renewable electricity credits. and it delays an international tax break that hasn't gone into effect yet. Unfortunately. and prescribing standards to define and measure electricity savings from energy efficiency and energy conservation measures. 2009 Voted NO on tax credits for renewable electricity. This needs to get under way. Includes cellulosic biofuel within the definition of "biomass ethanol plant property" for purposes of bonus depreciation. gas. 124. It asks that hedge fund managers pay a bit more.7060 . DAVE CAMP (R. biomass so that by 2020. vote number 2009-H477 on Jun 26. Qualified green building and sustainable design project Reference: Renewable Energy and Job Creation Act. SMITH of Texas: I oppose H. Includes marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy as a renewable resource for purposes of such tax credit. It is responsible legislation. This is a very balanced bill which does no harm to the Federal Treasury. At its core. 9. Extends through 2016 the energy tax credit for investment in solar energy and fuel cell property. While it is well and good to encourage alternative energy development. Denies the tax deduction for income attributable to domestic production of oil. It will create millions of new. Opponent's argument to vote No:Rep. 5351. Senate rollcall #150Congressional Summary:A bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to provide Tax incen Credits for biodiesel and renewable diesel. clean-energy jobs in whole new industries with incentives to drive competition in the energy marketplace. On the Issues. OnTheIssues. 127.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Plan Unpopular – Boehner Boehner doesnt like alternative Energy.R. Sec. [The bill was killed in the Senate]. Reference: Renewable Energy and Job Creation Tax Act. We would be far better served with legislation that devotes itself to developing new technologies before we slam the door on our traditional sources of energy like coal and oil and and nuclear power. which will chart a new direction for our country's energy policy.

2008 Voted NO on investing in homegrown biofuel. not twice. We must aggressively pursue technologies to capture and store the carbon dioxide. They are hitting them at the pump.000 people per year can benefit from vocational education for "green-collar jobs" that can provide living wages & upward mobility. oil and natural gas provided 58% of our domestic energy supply. In contrast. We should focus on domestic policies to affect gas prices. We are raising dollars supposedly for renewable resources. developing innovative new technologies. just as it would be for any company engaging in the same conduct. But what we are doing here today is taxing our domestic oil. Furthermore. Opponents support voting NO because: I am wearing this red shirt today. and they are hitting them with royalty holidays put into oil in 1995 and again in 2005. 2007 Voted NO on removing oil & gas exploration subsidies. but three times. OPEC oil exports represent 70% of all the oil traded internationally. It attempts to break up this cartel and subject these colluders and their anticompetitive practices to the antitrust scrutiny that they so richly deserve. and providing tax incentives for the production of renewable energy and energy conservation. Opponents recommend voting NO because: Rep. and it should be decided in court. almost 2 million Americans are directly employed in the oil and natural gas industry. not international state-run cartels. No coal. topping even the 1981 spike. Bill H R 2264 . vote number 2007-040 on Jan 18. Reference: No Oil Producing and Exporting Cartels Act (NOPEC). Amends the Sherman Anti-Trust Act to declare it to be illegal for any foreign states to act collectively to limit the US price or distribution of oil.R. OPEC's price-fixing conspiracy has unfairly driven up the price and cost of imported crude oil to satisfy the greed of oil exporters. H. We have long decried OPEC. Proponents support voting YES because: Rep. not to the Middle East. The numbers don't lie. That would raise your money for renewable resources. at a time of record prices at the gas pump and record oil industry profits. reducing carbon emissions. No soy diesel. The time has come. or their related primary products. In 2006 all renewable energy sources provided only 6% of the US domestic energy supply. Bill HR3221 . The Sherman Anti-Trust Act was designed for US monopolies. TIERNEY: This bill incorporates the Green Jobs Act. Rep. why increase taxes and make it harder to produce American oil and gas? That makes no sense. Bill H. to vote for the end of corporate welfare. $3. Energy security? We have our soldiers deployed in the Middle East because it's an important national security interest.R. What about coal-to-liquid jobs? Those are real jobs with great wages. and Consumer Protection Act: Moving toward greater energy independence and security. Defeat this bill. yet we are still burning fossil fuels. We cannot respond to a short-term crisis with a long-term response. It will go to court. natural gas. How do we decrease that importance of the Persian Gulf region? We move to coal-to-liquid technologies. This bill makes fixing oil prices or illegal under US law. modernizing our energy infrastructure. Title III: Strategic Energy Efficiency And Renewables Reserve--makes the Reserve available to accelerate the use of clean domestic renewable energy resources and alternative fuels. We will send our energy dollars to middle America. communist red. We know that America's farmers will fuel America's independence. 236-182 Reference: Renewable Energy and Energy Conservation Tax Act. creating green jobs. For years now. Big Oil is hitting the American taxpayer not once. but we have to deal with it diplomatically. vote number 08-HR5351 on Feb 12. or any other petroleum product. but the fact is that coal produces half of our electricity for the foreseeable future. 2007 Voted NO on keeping moratorium on drilling for oil offshore. 2007 Voted NO on criminalizing oil cartels like OPEC. No expansion. Proponents support voting YES because: This legislation seeks to end the unwarranted tax breaks & subsidies which have been lavished on Big Oil over the last several years. Oil and natural gas fuel our economy and sustain our way of life. It is time to vote for the integrity of America's resources. Why? We know why. Creating Long-term Energy Alternatives for the Nation (CLEAN) Act Title I: Ending Subsidies for Big Oil Act--denying a deduction for income attributable to domestic production of oil. LEGISLATIVE OUTCOME:Bill passed House. PELOSI: This bill makes the largest investment in homegrown biofuels in history. We can talk about biofuels all we want. So the result of this bill would be to hurt US companies while not affecting OPEC itself. OPEC is a cartel. 35. protecting consumers. Punishing one of our Nation's most important industries does not constitute a national energy policy.27 a gallon. increasing clean renewable energy production.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 should not do so by damaging our domestic oil and gas industry. because this shirt is the color of the bill that we are debating. RAHALL: [This bill omits a] framework to sequester carbon dioxide to ensure the future use of coal in an environmentally responsible fashion. Denies a foreign state engaged in such conduct sovereign immunity from the jurisdiction of US courts Proponents support voting YES because: Gas prices have now reached an alltime record high. No ethanol. What is wrong with this bill? Everything. Opponents support voting NO because: We can only affect OPEC subsidiaries in the US. Reference: Creating Long-Term Energy Alternatives for the Nation(CLEAN). vote number 2007-398 on May 22. Reference: New Direction for Energy Independence. National Security. which will make $120 million a year available to begin training workers in the clean energy sector.5351 . Crude oil. Nothing on nuclear energy. Bill HR 6 ("First 100 hours") . Title II: Royalty Relief for American Consumers Act--to incorporate specified price thresholds for royalties on oil & gas leases in the Gulf of Mexico. It is a taking. If the problem is foreign oil. We should insert taxes on all foreign oil imported. This won't be the end of these skyrocketing price hikes either. vote number 2007-0832 on Aug 4. natural gas. to vote for a new era in the management of our public energy resources. Vote to amend a bill providing for Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 254 . SHIMKUS: I'm upset about the bill because it has no coal provisions.3221: New Direction for Energy Independence. Rep. they are hitting them through the Tax Code. There is no supply in this bill. but have done little or nothing to stop this. This bill will increase the competitive edge of foreign oil imported to this country.

We must make build new refineries to meet our current demand and to prevent a loss of capacity due to another hurricane. to create clean natural gas in this country. Proponents of the resolution say: Over the last several years. and for other purposes including: Authorizing the President to designate sites on Federal land for construction of new oil refineries. Proponents support voting YES because: This amendment would preserve the longstanding moratorium so important to coastal States.5 billion for "clean coal" programs. and market existing programs Authorizing any facility to use biomass debris as fuel if it meets certain standards. The bill would also ease the restrictions on utility ownership and mergers. this bill represents another missed opportunity for strategic long-term national energy policy. Requires that at least one such site be designated as potentially suitable for construction of a refinery to refine biomass in order to produce biofuel. including at least three on closed military bases Allowing the Secretary of Energy to enter into contracts with non-Federal entities to construct or restore new refineries that use crude oil or coal to produce gasoline or other fuel Establishing a program to encourage carpools by giving grants to states and to evaluate the use of the Internet to link riders with carpools. Reference: Refinery Permit Process Schedule Act. vote number 2004-241 on Jun 15. it will destroy the environment. $2. these will help America move towards energy independence. Energy Omnibus bill: Vote to adopt the conference report on the bill that would put into practice a comprehensive national policy for energy conservation. assist employers establish carpool programs. The people who work in oil and gas. The tax breaks would include $11.5254. and we produce 45% of the world's automotive carbon dioxide emissions. vote number 2005-519 on Oct 7. Bill HR 3893 . and work to develop renewable sources of fuel. Unfortunately. 2006 Voted YES on scheduling permitting for new oil refinieries. and $1. $2. vote number 2006-354 on Jun 29. Voting YES would allow floor debate on H. Makers of the gasoline additive MTBE would be protected from liability. Bill HR 5254 resolution H RES 842 . their jobs are in the Middle East or Canada. Opponents support voting NO because: For 30 years. 2004 Voted YES on implementing Bush-Cheney national energy policy.2 billion in incentives for alternative motor vehicles. The bill would authorize o $25. A natural gas pipeline from Alaska would be authorized an $18 billion loan guarantee.9 billion to promote oil and gas production.7 billion tax break over a 10-year period. The bill would authorize a $25. we are going to send the rest of them. They would be required though to cease production of the additive by 2015. The amendment would also preserve the underlying bill's one redeeming feature. but so is global warming. A natural gas pipeline from Alaska would be authorized an $18 billion loan guarantee. Reference: Energy Policy Act of 2004. through this bill. $2. 2006 Voted YES on authorizing construction of new oil refineries. shall provide scheduling and financial assistance relevant to consideration of federal refinery authorizations. The tax breaks would include $11. There have been no new refineries built in the US since 1976. If this amendment passes.7 billion tax break over a 10-year period. vote number 2006-228 on Jun 7. but 30% of the world's automobiles. It is a callous disregard for the jobs that have been lost over the last 30 years of following an anti-energy policy. The underlying bill revises the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act's guidelines for natural gas lease administration. To expedite the construction of new refining capacity in the United States. research and development.9 billion to promote oil and gas production. This underlying bill attempts to bribe coastal States into drilling off their shores by promising them a lot more money. the Refinery Permit Process Schedule Act. And we are going to stop providing subsidies to companies that are making record profits. and establish incentives to renegotiate existing leases that fail to include market-based price caps. the renegotiating of the cash-cow leases now pouring billions of dollars into already stuffed oil industry coffers. Voting YES on the amendment would maintain the 25-year moratorium on oil and gas drilling in environmentally sensitive areas offshore. or a terrorist attack Opponents of the resolution say: $3 a gallon gas is a problem. upon the request of a state governor. opponents of American energy have cloaked their arguments in an environmental apocalypse. such as resulting from a major disaster $2. The President shall designate at least three closed military installations as potentially suitable for the construction of a refinery. Bill H R 4761 . we have seen gasoline prices increase steadily In the last 24 years. but there has not been one convincing example of a situation where the permitting process prevented construction of a refinery. our economy and our national security. and $1. This addiction harms our environment. We have only 5% of the world's population. 2005 Voted YES on passage of the Bush Administration national energy policy. and so is our dependence on fossil fuels. It would add to the requirement that gasoline sold in the United States contain a specified volume of ethanol. Bill HR 4503 .SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 exploration & production of mineral resources on the outer Continental Shelf. Voting NO on the amendment would lift the 25-year moratorium. Vote to pass a bill that would put into practice a comprehensive national policy for energy conservation. We should know how important it is to create jobs in this country.5 billion for "clean coal" programs.8 billion for the electric power industry and other businesses.8 billion for the electric power industry and other businesses. Taken together. so that it can be the bridge to the future.5 million to create an education campaign about gasoline conservation Reference: Gasoline for Americas Security Act. We have exported their jobs. our refinery capacity has dropped from 19 million barrels a day to less than 17 million barrels a day. Reference: Deep Ocean Energy Resources Act. We should reduce demand by promoting energy conservation and fuel efficient forms of transportation. $2.2 billion in incentives for alternative motor vehicles. Reliability standards would be imposed for electricity transmissions networks. to provide reliable and affordable energy for the American people. They have tried to make the argument that no matter what we do. This amendment takes out all of the energy production. which provides for the following: The EPA. research and development.R. The Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 255 .

Bill HR 4690 . Require a combined corporate average fuel efficiency [CAFE] standard for passenger automobiles and light trucks. Vote on an amendment that would allow the implementation of the portions of the Kyoto climate change treaty that are already allowed under law. Boehner scores 0% by CAF on energy issues Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 256 . It also would offer incentives for alternative fuel vehicles. through this bill. Reference: Amendment sponsored by Olver.6 . 2001 Voted NO on prohibiting oil drilling & development in ANWR. Amendment to maintain the current prohibition on oil drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge by striking language opening the reserve up to development. D-MA. particularly the Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] to implement procedures already allowed under law that are also part of the Kyoto accord before the treaty is ratified by Congress.5 mpg in 2007. indicating opposition to energy independence. including sport utility vehicles. The Kyoto protocol of 1997. vote number 2001-311 on Aug 1. Bill HR 4 . of 26 mpg in 2005 and of 27. has not been ratified by the United States. Reference: Bill sponsored by Tauzin. vote number 2000-323 on Jun 26. vote number 2003-630 on Nov 18. 2001 Voted NO on starting implementation of Kyoto Protocol. vote number 2001-317 on Aug 1. 2003 Voted NO on raising CAFE standards. which aims to reduce emissions of certain greenhouse gases. R-LA. Makers of the gasoline additive MTBE would be protected from liability. 2000 Rated 0% by the CAF. particularly carbon dioxide.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 bill would call for producers of Ethanol to double their output. Bill HR. The amendment would allow federal agencies. Reliability standards would be imposed for electricity transmissions networks. The bill would also ease the restrictions on utility ownership and mergers. Bill HR 4 . incentives for alternative fuels. They would be required though to cease production of the additive by 2015.

' '.au/commentary/whosanti-energy)//ZY On June 2. solar power.climatespectator. says: 'We should not follow the president's poor planning in increasing the funding for these anti-energy boondoggles'. Tom McClintock. " Who's anti-energy? ". nine House GOP representatives signed a letter sent to the House Subcommittee on Energy and Water Development. is a fairly standard exemplar of contemporary Tea Party Republicanism.The letter. China poured a record $US54.com. Is China anti-energy? Then again. reports the Denver Post. McClintock. Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 257 . it's really not a shock to see research that might improve solar panel or wind turbine efficiency described as a boondoggle." "Anti-energy boondoggles" seems like a strange way to talk about research into wind turbines. The most recent numbers tell us that In 2010.. Colorado: "The lawmakers ask that funding in the 2012 budget be eliminated for the Department of Energy's Office of Science and Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy programs because they 'have failed to live up to their supposed potential. who represents one of California's most conservative congressional districts.4 billion of private and public money in clean energy sector investment. written by California US Rep. geothermal and biofuel technologies. In that universe. by a large margin. http://www. in the world. 6/7/11. ranking it number one.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Plan Unpopular – McClintock McClintock avidly opposes government subsidies of energy Climate Spectator 6/7 (Andrew Leonard.. requesting the elimination of federal funding for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden.

was now driving the Republican Party.‖ Some GOP strategists say that Pawlenty risks losing more by abandoning causes he appeared to believe in deeply than he would by sticking to his positions and alienating ultra-conservatives. though he ultimately refused to sign on.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Plan Unpopular – Pawlenty Pawlenty will never support climate change legislation. some years ago—flirted with it. as governor of Massachusetts. of the first Senate cap-and-trade bill. Mitt Romney. Joe Lieberman of Connecticut. Supporters of action against climate change have always been a small minority among Republicans. ―Nobody‘s perfect.‖ Republican strategist Mike McKenna.… He disowned his accomplishments to pander to one segment of the Republican Party. many of the GOP contenders are grappling with past deviations from party doctrine. was the chief promoter of the Western Climate Initiative. Pawlenty became almost silent on clean-energy and climate issues—not to be heard from again until this year. with Democratic Sen.… It would be harmful to the economy. put it more bluntly.‖ he said in an interview last month on CNBC. It is totemic. ―But I‘ve just admitted my mistake and said I was wrong. ―He‘s been involved enough in the issue to truly understand the realities of it. now ridicules similar Democratic proposals as ―cap-and-tax. The Next Generation Energy Act that Pawlenty signed in 2007 specifically required state agencies to recommend a ―regulatory system that imposes a cap on the aggregate air-pollutant emissions … and allows for marketbased trading‖ of emission allowances. Pawlenty abjectly apologized for his old positions. was an unabashed believer in the reality of climate change and a coauthor in 2003. vice president for government and political affairs for Republicans for Environmental Protection.‖ said David Jenkins. Newt Gingrich once made an ad with Nancy Pelosi. it was clear that a rising conservative tide. which would ultimately turn into the tea party juggernaut. It‘s based on flawed science. and I‘m sorry. who advises GOP leaders on energy policy and strategy. We all. " Pawlenty: Running from His Past Moves on Environmental Policy ". recently dismissing his efforts to ―look at it‖ as misguided and slamming carbon limits as ―burdensome on the economy.immense republican backlash and pressure from recent flip flop and National Journal 6/23 (Coral Davenport. In January. all of the GOP candidates vow to fight anything that even hints of restrictions on fossil fuels and carbon emissions.‖ Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 258 . their current positions. By 2009. it was a mistake.‖ Huntsman and Romney say they still believe in global warming but insist that this is not the time for new emissions rules. ―Guys like Pawlenty now look like what they are—opportunists without authentic beliefs. John McCain. ―I was wrong. ―We never did sign a bill relating to cap-and-trade or putting that into Minnesota.‖ he told Wallace. ―Being that deeply involved. as governor of Utah. Today. Pawlenty denied on Fox News Sunday With Chris Wallace that he had even signed a bill to promote cap-and-trade policies. and everybody here and everybody else who‘s going to be running for president … if you‘ve been in an executive position. We all do. In the Republican presidential candidates‘ first debate earlier this year. you‘re going to have some battle scars. Jon Huntsman.‖ he said. ―I looked at [cap-and-trade]. You‘re going to have a few clunkers in your record. ―That is why the issue is so damaging. pledging to address climate change. for sure.com/politics/pawlenty-running-from-his-past-moves-on-environmental-policy-20110623)//ZY Tim Pawlenty has been apologizing to anyone who will listen for his so-called flirtation with cap-and-trade climate policy. http://www. This year. the House Democratic leader whom Republicans like to demonize as a liberal Cruella De Vil. Gingrich. But they weren’t always considered heretics. 6/23/11. when he went on the airwaves slamming the climate work he had once championed. who explicitly supported cap-and-trade policies in 2007.nationaljournal. and their party‘s increasingly rigid dogma. and we should throw it out the window.‖ he wrote in an e-mail to National Journal. the Republican presidential nominee in 2008. worked on a similar plan for Northeastern states. That was false.‖ The former Minnesota governor has even renounced his previous conviction about the validity of climate science and now asserts that the research is ―faulty‖ and can‘t be trusted. a plan under which Utah would have joined California and other states in a regional capand-trade system. you can‘t come away without a deep understanding of the science.‖ Pawlenty‘s public squirming over climate change—an issue on which he was once viewed as an emerging national leader—highlights the deeply uncomfortable dance that top GOP contenders will have to execute as they seek to reconcile their past records. like most of the other leading candidates did. on Fox.

work force and hardware but only "to the extent practicable. Recently.com/breaking/2011/06/shelby_voices_concerns_to_nasa." Shelby's office has no problem with using the solid boosters for test flights while the liquid engines are being developed." Last printed 7/17/2012 4:44:00 PM 259 . Teledyne Brown announced it had formed a partnership with Aerojet to bid on building liquid fuel engines for the heavy lift rocket. But Shelby noted that the plans for the SLS include a space shuttle booster system. The senator wrote that the 2010 NASA Authorization Act calls for using existing contracts. (The Huntsville Times/Glenn Baeske) This year. I believe it will ultimately result in a more efficient SLS development effort at lower cost to the taxpayer.S.com 6/16 (Budd McLaughlin." There have been other concerns. Shelby wrote that he was also concerned that the space shuttle booster system "ties NASA. 6/16/11. In his letter to Bolden. http://blog.html)//ZY HUNTSVILLE. that introducing competition will slow the program down. R-Tuscaloosa. Shelby. Alabama -.competition and tax money al. the senator wrote he has not seen any evidence "that foregoing competition for the booster system will speed development of SLS or. too. NASA named Marshall to lead the development of the heavy-lift Space Launch System. Sen. conversely. " Shelby voices concerns to NASA over bidding for booster system ". to the high fixed costs associated with segmented solids. the nation's next manned rocket. once again." Sen.al." "I strongly encourage you to initiate a competition for the Space Launch System booster. that opening the boosters to competitive bidding would lead the space agency to delay the program past its congressionally mandated target date of 2016. Richard Shelby urges NASA to open bidding process for Space Launch System booster rockets.SPS Affirmative DDW 2011 1 Plan Unpopular – Shelby Shelby opposes government subsidizing space exploration. But. said he was concerned that the current plan for the booster system may go "without a meaningful competitive process.U. Richard Shelby has sent a letter to NASA Administrator Charles Bolden "strongly" encouraging competitive bidding for the Space Launch System booster.