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07.06.1

Chapter 07.06

Integrating Discrete Functions

What is integration? Integration is the process of measuring the area under a function plotted on a graph. Why would we want to do so? Among the most common examples are finding the velocity of a body from acceleration functions, and displacement of a body from velocity data. Throughout the engineering fields, there are (what sometimes seems like) countless applications for integral calculus. Sometimes, the evaluation of expressions involving these integrals can become daunting, if not indeterminate. For this reason, a wide variety of numerical methods have been developed to simplify the integral. Here, we will discuss the use of numerical integration with discrete data points, which can involve unequal segments.

Figure 1: Integration of a function INTEGRATING DISCRETE FUNCTIONS The method of integrating discrete functions is shown below using an example. Example 1 The upward velocity of a rocket is given as a function of time in Table 1. Table 1: Velocity as a function of time t s v(t) m/s

INTEGRATING DISCRETE FUNCTIONS

07.06.2

0 10 15 20 22.5 30

0 227.04 362.78 517.35 602.97 901.67 Figure 1: Velocity vs. time data for the rocket example

Determine the distance, s, covered by the rocket from t = 11 to t = 16 using the velocity data

**provided and any applicable numerical technique.
**

Solution Method 1: Average Velocity Method The velocity of the rocket is not provided at t = 11 and t = 16, so we will have to use the interval

that includes [11, 16] to find the average velocity of the rocket within that range. In this case, the interval [10, 20] will suffice. v(10) = 227.04 v(15) = 362.78

v(20) = 517.35

Average Velocity = v (10) + v (15) + v ( 20) 3 227.04 + 362.78 + 517.35 = 3 = 369.06 m / s

Since s = vΔt , we get s = (369.06)(16 − 11) = 1845.3 m Method 2: Trapezoidal Rule If we were finding the distance traveled between times on the data table, we would simply find the area of the trapezoids with the corner points given as the velocity and time data points. For example

20

∫ v(t )dt = ∫ v(t )dt + ∫ v(t )dt

10 15

15

20

10

INTEGRATING DISCRETE FUNCTIONS

07.06.3

and applying the trapezoidal rule over each of the above integrals gives 20 15 − 10 20 − 15 ∫ v(t )dt ≈ 2 [v(10) + v(15)] + 2 [v(15) + v(20)] 10

**The values of v(10), v(15) and v(20) are given in Table 1. However, we are interested in finding
**

16

∫ v(t )dt = ∫ v(t )dt + ∫ v(t )dt

11 15

15

16

11

and applying the trapezoidal rule over each of the above integrals gives 16 15 − 11 16 − 15 ∫ v(t )dt ≈ 2 [v(11) + v(15)] + 2 [v(15) + v(16)] 11 = 15 − 11 16 − 15 ( v(11) + 362.78) + (362.78 + v (16)) 2 2

**How do we find v(11) and v(16)? We use linear interpolation. To find v(11), v(t ) = 227.04 + 27.148(t − 10 ), 10 ≤ t ≤ 15
**

v (11) = 227.04 + 27.148(11 − 10)

**= 254.19 m / s and to find v(16)
**

v (t ) = 362.78 + 30.913(t − 15), v (16) = 362.78 + 30.913(16 − 15)

15 ≤ t ≤ 20

= 393.69 m / s

Then

16

∫ v(t )dt = =

=

11

15 − 11 16 − 15 ( v(11) + 362.78) + (362.78 + v (16)) 2 2 15 − 11 16 − 15 ( 254.19 + 362.78) + (362.78 + 393.69) 2 2

= 1612.2 m Method 3: Polynomial Interpolation to find velocity profile Because we are finding the area under the curve from [10, 20], we must use three points, t = 10,

**t = 15, and t = 20, to fit a quadratic through the data. Using polynomial interpolation, our
**

resulting velocity function is (refer to notes on direct method of interpolation) v(t ) = 12.001 + 17.740t + 0.37637t 2 , 10 ≤ t ≤ 20.

INTEGRATING DISCRETE FUNCTIONS

07.06.4

**Now, we simply take the integral of the quadratic within our limits, giving us
**

16

s≈

11

**∫ (12.001 + 17.740t + 0.37637t )dt
**

2

16

⎡ 17.740t 2 0.37637t 3 ⎤ = ⎢12.001t + + ⎥ 2 3 ⎣ ⎦ 11 17.740 2 0.37637 3 = 12.001(16 − 11) + 16 − 112 + 16 − 113 2 3 = 1604.3 m

(

)

(

)

Method 4: Spline Interpolation to find the velocity profile Fitting quadratic splines (refer to notes on spline method of interpolation) through the data obtains the following set of quadratics v(t ) = 22.704t , = 0.8888t 2 + 4.928t + 88.88, = −0.1356t 2 + 35.66t − 141.61, = 1.6048t 2 − 33.956t + 554.55,

0 ≤ t ≤ 10 10 ≤ t ≤ 15 15 ≤ t ≤ 20 20 ≤ t ≤ 22.5

**= 0.20889t 2 + 28.86t − 152.13, 22.5 ≤ t ≤ 30 The value of the integral would then simply be
**

s = ∫ v(t )dt + ∫ v(t )dt

11 15 15 15 16

≈

11

∫ (0.8888t

2

**+ 4.928t + 88.88 dt + ∫ − 0.1356t 2 + 35.66t − 141.61 dt
**

15

15 16

)

16

(

)

⎤ ⎡ − 0.1356t 3 35.66t 2 ⎤ ⎡ 0.8888t 3 4.928t 2 =⎢ + + 88.88t ⎥ + ⎢ + − 141.61t ⎥ 3 2 3 2 ⎣ ⎦ 11 ⎣ ⎦ 15 0.8888 3 4.928 2 15 − 113 + 15 − 112 + 88.88(15 − 11) 3 2 − 0.1356 3 35.66 2 + 16 − 15 3 + 16 − 15 2 − 141.61(16 − 15) 3 2 =

(

)

(

)

(

)

(

)

= 1595.9 m

Example 2

INTEGRATING DISCRETE FUNCTIONS

07.06.5

What is the absolute relative true error for each of the above four methods if the above data in Table 1 was actually obtained from the velocity profile of 140000 ⎛ ⎞ ⎡ ⎤ v (t ) = ⎜ 2000 ln ⎢ ⎥ − 9.8t ⎟ , where v is given in m/s and t in s. ⎣140000 − 2100t ⎦ ⎝ ⎠

Solution

The distance covered between t=11 and t=16 is 16 ⎛ ⎞ 140000 ⎡ ⎤ s = ∫ ⎜ 2000 ln ⎢ ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ − 9.8t ⎟dt ⎣140000 − 2100t ⎦ ⎠ 11 ⎝

= 1604.9 m

Method 1: The approximate value obtained using average velocity method was 1845.3 m, hence, the absolute relative true error, ∈t , is

∈t = 1604.9 − 1845.3 × 100% 1604.9

= 14.979%

Method 2:

The approximate value obtained using the trapezoidal rule was 1604.9 m, hence, the absolute relative true error, ∈t , is ∈t = 1604.9 − 1612.2 × 100% 1604.9

= 0.455%

Method 3:

The approximate value obtained using the direct polynomial was 1604.3 m, hence, the absolute relative true error, ∈t , is ∈t = 1604.9 − 1604.3 × 100% 1604.9

= 0.037%

Method 4:

The approximate value obtained using the spline interpolation was 1595.9m, hence, the absolute relative true error, ∈t , is ∈t = 1604.9 − 1595.9 × 100% 1604.9

= 0.561%

INTEGRATING DISCRETE FUNCTIONS

07.06.6

**Table 2: Comparison of Discrete Function Methods of Numerical Integration Method Value
**

∈t

**Average Velocity Trapezoidal Rule Polynomial Interpolation Spline Interpolation
**

Appendix

1845.3 1612.2 1604.3 1595.9

14.979% 0.455% 0.037% 0.561%

Trapezoidal Rule for Discrete Functions with Unequal Segments

For a general case of a function given at n data points (x1 , f ( x1 )) , (x 2 , f ( x 2 )) , (x3 , f ( x3 )) , ….., (x n , f ( x n )) , where, x0 , x1 ,....., x n are in an ascending order, the approximate value of the integral ∫ f ( x )dx is given by

x1 xn xn

∫ f (x )dx = ∫ f (x )dx + ∫ f (x )dx + ...... + ∫ f (x )dx

x1 x1 x2 xn −1

x1

x3

xn

**f ( x 2 ) + f ( x3 ) f ( x n −1 ) + f (x n ) f ( x1 ) + f ( x 2 ) + ( x3 − x2 ) + ....... + ( x n − x n −1 ) 2 2 2 This approach uses the trapezoidal rule in the intervals [x1 , x 2 ] , [x 2 , x3 ], ….., [x n −1 , x n ] and then
**

≅ ( x 2 − x1 ) adds the obtained values.

INTEGRATING DISCRETE FUNCTIONS

07.06.7

Example

**The upward velocity of a rocket is given as a function of time in Table 2.
**

Table 1: Velocity as a function of time

t s 0 10 15 20 22.5 30

**v(t) m/s 0 227.04 362.78 517.35 602.97 901.67
**

Figure 2: Velocity vs. time data for the rocket example

Determine the distance, s, covered by the rocket from t = 0 to t = 30 using the velocity data provided and the Trapezoidal rule for discrete data with unequal segments.

Solution

30

∫ v(t )dt = ∫ v(t )dt + ∫ v(t )dt + ∫ v(t )dt +

0 0 10 15

10

15

20

22 −5

∫ v(t )dt +

30

∫ v(t )dt

20

22.5

= (10 − 0)

v(0) + v(10 ) v(10 ) + v(15) + (15 − 10) 2 2 v(15) + v(20) v(20 ) + v(22.5) v(22.5) + v(30 ) + (20 − 15) + (22.5 − 20) + (30 − 22.5) 2 2 2

0 + 227.04 362.78 + 517.35 227.04 + 362.78 517.35 + 602.97 + (5) + (2.5) + (5) 2 2 2 2 602.97 + 901.67 + (7.5) 2 = 1135.2 + 1474.55 + 2200.325 + 1399.9 + 5642.4 = 11852.375m

20

= (10)

Can you find the value of

10

∫ v(t )dt ?

20

Can you find the value of

∫ v(t )dt ?

10

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UsefulNot usefulAmong the most common examples are finding the velocity of a body from acceleration functions, and displacement of a body from velocity data

Among the most common examples are finding the velocity of a body from acceleration functions, and displacement of a body from velocity data

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