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World Applied Sciences Journal 16 (9): 1227-1238, 2012 ISSN 1818-4952 © IDOSI Publications, 2012

Application of Well Log Analysis to Assess the Petrophysical Parameters of the Lower Cretaceous Biyad Formation, East Shabowah Oilfields, Masila Basin, Yemen

1,2

Mohammed Hail Hakimi, Mohamed Ragab Shalaby and Wan Hasiah Abdullah

1

1

  • 1 Department of Geology, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

  • 2 Department of Geology, Faculty of Applied Science, Taiz University, 6803 Taiz, Yemen

Abstract: Biyad Formation is mainly made up of clastic sediments that contain substantial amount of proven crude oil in the eastern Yemen. The Byiad clastic is divided into Upper and Lower Biyad clastic units. Several vertical wells have been drilled and penetrated this formation. This study is concerned with the petrophysical evaluation by means of well log data of the Lower Cretaceous rocks at the East Shabowah oilfields, Masila Basin, Yemen. Computer-assisted log analyses were used to evaluate the petrophysical parameters such as the shale volume (V ), total porosity (PHT), effective porosity (PHE), water saturation (Sw), hydrocarbon saturation (S ), flushed zone saturation (S ) and true resistivity (R). Cross-plots of the Petrophysical parameters versus depth were illustrated. The Lower Cretaceous Biyad clastic reservoirs reflect that the matrix components are mainly sandstones, carbonates and shales. Moreover, the lithological-geologic model reflected that these shales are strongly affecting the porosity and consequently the fluid saturation in the Lower Biyad more than the Upper Biyad clastic units. On the basis of petrophysics data, the sediments of Biyad Formation are interpreted as a good quality reservoir rocks which has been confirmed with high effective porosity about 20 % and high hydrocarbon saturation exceeding 55%. The Biyad clastic units reveal promising reservoir characteristics especially Upper Biyad unit which should be taken into consideration during future development of the oilfields area.

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Key words: Well logs % Biyad clastics % Reservoirs % East Shabowah Oilfields % Masila Basin % Yemen

INTRODUCTION performed on the clastic sediments of the Lower

The Masila Basin is one of the most productive basins in the Republic of Yemen (Fig. 1). It is located in the Hadramaut region in East Central Yemen. Well log analysis and interpretation are the most important task to detect the reservoir petrophysical parameters like porosity, water saturation and locating hydrocarbons zones [1, 2]. Well logs have been proved successfully to be used in exploration and development wells as a part of drilling practice, to provide more information and greater accuracy of reserve evaluation [3, 4] and can also be used to identify the depth and thickness of productive zones, to distinguish between oil, gas and water in reservoir and to estimate hydrocarbon reserves [5]. An essential step in the formation evaluation process is the determination of the amount of shale present in the formation because it is necessary to calculate formation porosity and fluid content [6, 7]. Well log analysis was

Cretaceous Biyad Formation, selected from ten wells in the East Shabowah Oilfields (Kharir, Wadi Taribah and NW Atuf) (Figs. 1 and 2). The quality of reservoir in terms of petrophysical parameters like shale volume, effective porosity water and hydrocarbon saturations, has been studied in the Lower Cretaceous Biyad Formation.

Stratigraphic Framework: The Shabowah Oilfields are located in the onshore and occupy the central western part of the Masila Basin (Fig. 1). Mesozoic and Cenozoic units are widely exposed in the region. The lithostratigraphic units of the Masila Basin range in age from Precambrian to Tertiary (Fig. 3) and have been studied by many authors [8-13]. Basement complex of Precambrian age underlie the Jurassic units at a sharp unconformity surface. The Jurassic units comprise clastic, carbonate and minor argillaceous sediments. The Madbi Formation is composed of porous lime grainstone to

World Appl. Sci. J., 16 (9): 1227-1238, 2012

World Appl. Sci. J., 16 (9): 1227-1238, 2012 Fig. 1: Location map of the East Shabowah

Fig. 1: Location map of the East Shabowah oilfields in the Masila Basin, Republic of Yemen

World Appl. Sci. J., 16 (9): 1227-1238, 2012 Fig. 1: Location map of the East Shabowah

Fig. 2: Location map of selected wells in the study area

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World Appl. Sci. J., 16 (9): 1227-1238, 2012 Fig. 3: Stratigraphic column of the Masila Basin

Fig. 3: Stratigraphic column of the Masila Basin including study area

argillaceous lime mudstone [11]. The lithofacies of this unit reflects an open marine environment. The upper part of Madbi Formation is composed of laminated organic rich shale, which is a prolific source rocks in the Masila

Barremian-Aptian time (Qishn Formation Carbonate). The Qishn Formation Carbonate comprises carbonate rocks with red shale beds at the base. These sediments were deposited in deep water under alternating open and

province [14-16]. The Cretaceous units comprise the Saar, closed marine conditions [11]. This formation is

Biyad, Qishn, Harshiat, Fartaq, Mukalla and Sharwayn formations (Mahara Group). The Saar Formation is mainly

considered as seal rock for the main reservoirs (Biyad Clastic reservoir) rocks in the study area.

composed of limestone and dolomite, with mudstone and The Tertiary units comprise homogeneous

sandstone intercalations [11]. The Saar Formation was deposited during transgression in Early Cretaceous time. It is conformably overlies the Naifa Formation. The sea is regressed, causing erosion of the Valanginian deposits. In Late early Cretaceous, braided plain to fluvial and

argillaceous, detritus carbonates and hard, compacted, massive and bedded dolomitized fossiliferous limestone with local chert nodules (Umm er-Raduma Formation) that changes to shales with minor limestone bands in the upper levels (Jeza Formation).

shallow marine sediments deposited in the Masila Basin (mainly Biyad Clastic). Generally, the Biyad Formation is MATERIALS AND METHODS divided into two members, the Lower and Upper Biyad

Clastic Members. The Biyad Clastic is the main reservoir Ten wells have been selected for investigating the

rock for oilfields in the East Shabowah area, Masila Basin. These clastics units are followed by the deposition of shale and carbonate sediments accumulated in the

Lower Cretaceous Biyad clastic reservoir rocks, to evaluate the hydrocarbon potentiality in the study area. Open-hole 1og data including the traditional tools such as

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World Appl. Sci. J., 16 (9): 1227-1238, 2012 Fig. 4: Comparative look at different water saturation

Fig. 4: Comparative look at different water saturation using different approaches (Simandoux (SwSim) and Indonesian (SwInd) methods for KH 2-10 well

resistivity logs shallow and deep (LLD, ILS and MSFL), neutron (PhN), density (PhB) sonic (Pht) and gamma ray (GR) for the studied units were collected and digitized. This study has been carried out through qualitative and quantitative analyses by means of the Interactive Petrophysic (IP) Shulumberger software. Cross-plots were

saturation (S ) was computed with a shale correction using the [17] and with application of Indonesian equation. Simandoux and Indonesian methods gave very similar results in this study (Fig. 4). The resistivity curves used were the long normal from the deep laterolog (R ) (Fig. 4).

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LLD

used to show the lithological and mineralogical component of the Biyad clastic reservoirs. The shale RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

content (V ) was calculated from gamma ray, SP, neutron, neutron-density and resistivity logs. The minimum shale content given by these shale indicators is likely to be close to the actual value of V . The corrected porosity was estimated using a combination of the density and neutron logs after applying various corrections. The water

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Petrophysical Properties: The petrophysics approach has been used to evaluate reservoir properties such as shale volume, porosity and water saturation, to estimate the hydrocarbon potentiality in the studied intervals. The total porosity of the Lower Biyad Clastic ranges from 12%

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Table 1: Petrophysical parameters of Biyad clastic reservoir rocks in the studied ten wells, East Shabowah oilfields

 

Thickness/Net

Porosity

Fluids

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------

 

---------------------

Borehole wells

Depth (m)

Gross (m)

Net reservoir (m)

Net pay (m)

PHT (%)

PHE (%)

V

sh

(%)

S

w

(%)

S

h

(%)

Upper Biyad Clastic Member KH -001

1700

147

90

46

22

14

16

50

50

KH 1-30

1692

191

142

116

17

14

17

48

52

KH 1-23

1708

199

171

121

18

17

14

53

47

KH 2-10

1790

136

102

99

16

15

10

42

58

KH 2-19

1692

191

142

115

13

12

17

46

54

KH 3-05

1724

171

88

87

18

16

20

45

55

KH 3-07

1715

183

145

133

20

19

18

43

57

AT-001

1650

90

71

19

23

16

15

43

57

NWAT-001

1580

80

70

43

20

13

16

40

60

WT-001

1619

104

85

25

23

20

19

55

45

Lower Biyad Clastic Member KH -001

1847

144

100

40

21

13

20

56

44

KH 1-30

1883

119

106

56

15

12

20

56

44

KH 1-23

1907

125

108

53

16

15

19

55

45

KH 2-10

1927

151

83

80

14

12

14

49

51

KH 2-19

1883

127

88

47

12

11

22

54

46

KH 3-05

1895

100

25

24

12

10

34

57

43

KH 3-07

1898

115

91

28

17

14

25

58

42

AT-001

1740

73

52

10

22

13

25

52

48

NWAT-001

1660

100

46

17

23

10

32

55

45

WT-001

1723

96

66

18

23

13

24

58

42

Cutoffs used for net pay: Phi>10%, V <30%, Sw<50% PHT: Total Porosity PHE: Effective porosity

sh

  • V sh

: Shale volume

Sw: Water saturation Sh: Hydrocarbon saturation

to 23% (Table 1), with an average value of 18%. This Rocks are made up of mixtures of minerals,

porosity is commonly of intergranuler more than secondary porosity type (Fig. 5). The Lower Biyad Clastic Member has shale volume relatively higher if compared with the Upper Biyad Clastic Member and range from 14% to 34% with an average value of 24% (Table 1). Therefore, the effective porosity is influenced by the shale volume and ranges from 10% to 15%, with an average value of 12%. The estimated water saturation of this member ranges between 49% and 58%. Meanwhile, the Upper Biyad Clastics have total porosity range of 13% to 23%, with an average value of 19%, which is represented by dominance of intergranular porosity with secondary porosity type (Fig. 5). The shale volume has low values of 10%-20%. Therefore the effective porosity of these clastics is relatively high and ranges between 12% and 20%. Moreover, the estimated water saturation values are relatively low, compared with Lower Biyad Member and range from 40% to 55% with an average 46%. The results confirm the hydrocarbon potentiality of the studied reservoir and highlight the Upper unit of the Biyad

consequently their physica1 properties influence the measured log responses. These log responses are not only functions of the characteristics and their relative percentages present in the rock, but also on the nature and percentages of the fluids occupying the pore spaces

[18].

Lithology and Mineralogy Components: The identification of the matrix components is well defined through different cross-plots where different types of matrix appear by combining different well logs. These cross-plots are porosity, RHOB-NPHI, M- N and apparent matrix volumetric vs. apparent matrix grain density cross-plots. The rock types of the Lower Cretaceous Biyad clastics in the studied wells can be illustrated as follows:

Lower Biyad Clastic Member: The lithological and mineralogical identification of the Lower Biyad clastic Member indicate that, it is composed mainly of sandstone

Formation as main hydrocarbon productive target. with subordinate of shale and carbonates. The cross-plots

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World Appl. Sci. J., 16 (9): 1227-1238, 2012 Fig. 5: Cross-plots of porosity (neutron- density) vs.

Fig. 5: Cross-plots of porosity (neutron- density) vs. (sonic) showing type of porosity in the Upper and Lower Biyad clastics reservoirs

World Appl. Sci. J., 16 (9): 1227-1238, 2012 Fig. 5: Cross-plots of porosity (neutron- density) vs.

Fig. 6: Neutron porosity vs. density porosity cross-plots showing habitat of shale in the Biyad clastic reservoirs in the study area

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World Appl. Sci. J., 16 (9): 1227-1238, 2012 Fig. 7: Apparent matrix volumetric vs. apparent matrix

Fig. 7: Apparent matrix volumetric vs. apparent matrix grain density plots showing mineralogical component of the Biyad clastics reservoirs in the studied borehole wells [19]

of porosity show dispersed and laminated habitats of shale type with little effect of heavy minerals. In these cross-plots, the points shifted upward from the mineral identification due to the gas effect or the organic matter of the shale interbedded with this member (Fig. 6). The matrix volumetric vs. matrix grain density cross-plots indicate that the Lower Biyad clastic comprises mainly quartz with K-feldspar and traces of heavy minerals as well as calcite, dolomite and illite clay minerals (Fig. 7). The M-N cross- plots reflect that the majority of the points are mainly sandstone, while remaining points suggest the existence of shale and some carbonates (Fig. 8). The RHOB-NPHI cross-plots indicate the same interpretation and show that the lithology of Lower Biyad is composed mainly of

well as traces of heavy minerals (Fig. 7). The M-N cross- plots (Fig. 8) proved quartz sandstone, shaly sand and minor carbonates. The shale content lesser amount if compared with Lower Biyad clastic. It is dispersed and laminated habitats as indicated by the porosity cross- plots and the gas effect appears through the shifted plotted zone toward the density axis (Fig. 6). The RHOB-NPHI cross-plots reflect that, the Upper Biyad clastic comprises mainly of sandstone with subordinate amounts of carbonates (Fig. 9).

Reservoir Rock Evaluation: The main target of well log analysis is to evaluate the hydrocarbon potentiality of the reservoir units. In this study, the lithological identification

sandstone with carbonates (Fig. 9). of the Lower Cretaceous Biyad clastics (Fig. 10) reveal

Upper Biyad Clastic Member: The lithological and mineralogical identification of the Upper Biyad clastic indicate that the Upper Biyad clastic comprises mainly quartz sandstone, minor carbonate and clay minerals as

that the majority of sandstone followed by shale and carbonates in lower amount. The shales reduce porosity and influence the hydrocarbon saturations especially in the Lower Biyad Clastic Member. The Lower Biyad limestone and sandstone reservoirs have considerable

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World Appl. Sci. J., 16 (9): 1227-1238, 2012 Fig. 8: M-N plots showing lithological components of

Fig. 8: M-N plots showing lithological components of the Upper and Lower Biyad clastics reservoirs in the selected borehole wells [19]

World Appl. Sci. J., 16 (9): 1227-1238, 2012 Fig. 8: M-N plots showing lithological components of

Fig. 9: Neutron- Density cross-plots showing lithological components of the Upper and Lower Biyad clastics reservoirs in the selected borehole wells [19]

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World Appl. Sci. J., 16 (9): 1227-1238, 2012 Fig. 10: The litho-saturation cross-plots illustrating vertical variations

Fig. 10: The litho-saturation cross-plots illustrating vertical variations in the petrophysical characteristics of the Biyad clastics units studied in the KH 2-10 and 2-19 wells, East Shabowah oilfields.

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World Appl. Sci. J., 16 (9): 1227-1238, 2012 Fig. 11: The litho-saturation cross-plots illustrating vertical variations

Fig. 11: The litho-saturation cross-plots illustrating vertical variations in the petrophysical characteristics of the Biyad clastics units studied in the KH 001 and 3-05 wells, East Shabowah oilfields.

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proportions of hydrocarbon saturation reaching 43%- REFERENCES

51%. On the other hand, the lithological component identification of the Upper Biyad unit in the studied wells (Fig. 10) reflects the relative high percentage of sandstone, followed by shale with minor amounts of carbonates. The sandstones reservoirs in this member have a generally relative high saturation of hydrocarbon content reaching up to 55% in the studied wells (Table 1). On the basis of this analysis, the Biyad clastic sediments have been differentiated into net pay zones. In these zones, the majority of pores are saturated with considerable water and hydrocarbons (Fig. 10).

CONCLUSION

Geological information and the results obtained from well log analysis in the East Shabwah oilfilds have been used to study and evaluat the petrophysical characteristics and hydrocarbon prospective of the Lower Cretaceous Biyad Formation. The Lower Cretaceous Biyad clastic is composed mainly of sandstone with interbedded shale and small amounts of carbonates at different levels. The clays cause a major reduction in the porosity of the sandstone reservoirs especially in the lower part of the Biyad Formation. The formation evaluation system are represented for each zone in litho-saturation cross-plots. These plots reflect that the sandstone matrix materials dominating the studied intervals, with considerable percentages of shale and minor amounts of carbonates intercalated within the matrix material of the Biyad Formation. However, minor amounts of dolomite are intercalated with the matrix of the Biyad Formation. On the other hand, the calculated hydrocarbon saturation indicates that the Biyad Formation is saturated with a considerable amount of hydrocarbons, especially in its Upper Biyad clastic unit, reaching up to 55%. Based on these results, the Biyad clastic units have good reservoir potential and contains many pay zones for hydrocarbon accumulation, which the Upper Biyad clastic Member is the main reservoir with high porosity, low shale contents and water saturation.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors thank the Petroleum Exploration and Production Authority (PEPA) and Total Oil Company, Yemen for supplying the well log data for this study and the University of Malaya for providing Research Grant No. PS339/2008C. The authors also thank World Applied Sciences Journal (WASJ) editorial staff for assistance.

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