You are on page 1of 16

c  

c  8 Ã   


d      
 


MI-Trigger-based Language Modeling



 
 


 
   !"
" #
 $
$

%  &'(
"!  

)

*
* 
 
 +
,-.& /01"$"2"2
2"
3
.
("
  $$

+%(
3
. 
          

Abstract
0d        0    d   d 

 d      d          d  

  dd      
     

  ! d d "# $  "##$
 0      d   
 %
  &  &'  

 d d ##  0   d  


 d d #  0
 
 d    %        d 
  d  
     
 d d 
d    
 0     (     % d     d
  
  )      d d 
  d     
 
        

  d  0  


 d

£eywords
ü  *    0   * d 
 + d 
c , #  *  
   
 
          

1 Introduction

   & &  
 

 &) !"
4"  ! 



& "" 3
)

 ) "2

4$ 
" &) !""

$$
"$&&$ .$$$
$
 &
4"
"$ 3


25
$& ""$
4 &
"6" 7 6)
&72  Ã8 && !. $
 
"

) ) " )

 "
  

 &  

( 
" "$ " 6"  
7 
6)
& $
7 & 
!   "&  "! 4  "
 $"2 "!$&"" &"
 ^ #  -d   .0 

 (
  "&  $$
 )  ""$ 2 ) &! ""$ 
 )    "

63
93
7  6$ 9 "
72 "!$&$ &
4

"  Ã:
!
 2
 &2. ;
$ 
 
 <"
$ &! ""$ 
)   ) "" 
   "

    &! ""$ 
)   2
    
 "
  )  ""$  $  3
 
"
 3!  &   2 =!
$  &    3
)

 
) ) "  
 )    . )
 $  
  !
"
& 


$
      
 $ ". "$ " 
 "
 $ 


$
 3
)


  Ã
22 6$ 9 "
7. 
  $&  


$
 3
)

 >
$(
 
Ã
226" 9
7.  "&" $
Ã
226

9

72 
"
  

"
&   $"

$
" 3 2  
    

"
$  Ã8&
 2
 &2. ? ")
 
 &
  $
& 
 " "$ &
  
"&(
"

$
 3!2#"
 "&
@&""

$
 
                        6 
Ã) 
A& $
A

""
 $/27
    B  

 (
3". 
 &/ 
$"  
 
"  "
Ã6 
 $/7 



2$ !
à 6) 
7 $ "
3>
$(
$&


 
 (
3"Ã  6& $
 7  672  " " 
 )
&&/) 
"  "
à 
 $
  3&
  
  &!""  @&"2 
 
"
$ ")
   
" 3&

 &!""
"& $  3
 $"
 3! $  
  &      

(
3
"   Ã6) 97    
 3>
$
"   Ã6
""972 
Ã: 
  .
 &2.  "
  $  & 
&   &    
 $ &&!"

"  "
"2Ã*"

&*. C"

$$
 
   
" 
 3 "$    3

&

 
4 $       
 3 $/  

$
<" " !2 & 
"
$ $&
" Ã=
 :. ?  Ã3 ! " 2
 &2.
C2 
     #
"
.  )  "  
   
   
 $ $
"2 8
$
. 

 &"
4""




& "" 3
)

 #
"
 $ $
"2 Ã   
 &2. 
&!
 
" "$ &
 
3 #
"
$ $
" "

$
)$ $

) " 3!  / "
   
"
  $ $
 ""$  3 "
   &   2
8

.)
)&&$""





& ""3
)

) "2 
    



$

& ""3
)

) "$ 
4   " " $
 &
" $
2 D&
 %  
&"
 "&
  &  
 
&   (
 3


"$$
""&&!"
"

$
$ 
 "/".
! (
3("
$
$
"2B 
" $
.% 
&"$ &!$ 

" " $



$!) %) 
)) )

 $
&! 
 & 
"  $$ & %     & &  
 " 

   !
/"  


$
"    &&  
 $$  3
!  

)  ))2 D&


 )

$  "
 $(
 & %  
&"  $ 
 
 " " $
 


$!. 

&" $



$!"& &"3

4&
 
&!2  
    
 "
" 
""!




& ""3
)

) "(
 
"  &" $
  "
 
)
&   $$ 
"$

 

#
"
&  
2
 0    ;

    
  - "$ 
" "&&)"
$+

"
$$
 

  2
$ 
 )"
&
$  
  

"$ 3

$?)&

$C

"$ 3
"  
  
"
 
 "
    
   2
$  
"$ 3
" 

 
3 "
 &  
 
&   $2
$  (
" 
4 &
  " &$ "
%E%# $
$(
"2B &&!. " !" 
"(

$;2


- Concept of Trigger Pair

= "

 3(

"$ .)
 (

$
"

 
   "
3 "$$$

 
4 $
)  ""$     ""$ 
)   2   )  · 
" &! ""$ 
 ) 
 )  . 
 Ã · {   " $"

   6 

  7. ) ·  3
 
  
   
  

 ) 2 D
 ·  $$ "  

$
.   
" . $ " "  3 3&!
" 
  $ 
2 ·    $  3

&"
4

  )  "
F
$
"2 B  "&$!. )
 )&& $$
 
  
  


& "" 3
)

 "&
 ) " & 
 
" $  3

4

  &
 ) 
"
F
$
"2
    8)  3&   
3 "
 &  
 
& G  


  )  3&
"  3

"&(

      )"
&
$  
  G
    +  )
"
  
  G
    D
)&&"$""
"
 
&!

4)"
$"2 


´ Selecting Trigger Pair

@(
  )
 $ 
" $   
  
  
   Ã *. !   )

 H  =
 3
"&
) ".
3
"$  ""& 
2
 /  3

"-

($ 3& !2
%
 .&/

$ "
 
3  
&)


3


$"
$(

/ + .
3
  )   "
)   "  ( & 3&
$ "" &) !"$&
"" 
+
)

3) "$$ 
" 
$
" "$  $ / 2  


. 
"
&
$ 
" 3&
 3
  
 " )
&  
   " "     
 
3 "
&  

&2
 ^ #  -d   .0 

´ 1 Window Size


"3(") !$ &
3
  
 
  ""
" $
))
"-
. )$ " 
  4 " $
 3
)

 
  
   2   
  
$
  

" 3&
))"-
.)
"/)) $
" $
 3
)


)) "

 
   
$"  
)    3 3&
"2
    


. )
 

  $" $ 


 &" $
 D  = ÃD= 
&"  
" $
  ƒ .+.222.  2 
 " $
  " "
 "  $ &. "$
 )

4
$ 
"$    
 " $
2D
$

$ &
&
4! 
$
&" $
D=
&2 
    # & 
&
4! "  
"
  
 (

 3
  ""3&
 $$
" 



    $ & " 32 
 $ & 
&
4!   $ & " 3
)$ &
 ! X Ã    "

3
 + X Ã 
2
    # & @ ! " 

 !   $ & " 32 (
 ) 
(  3&
"   . $ & 3 3&! ""$    Ã ,  .    &
 3 3&!  "" $  Ã  . 
 $ &
 !   (
  . XÃ   
"

 "

 Xà   ƒ   . à , .  & +    à ,                                  
,  

à 

    B   & 

 $ ". 
 $ & 
&
4! " " &&!  $   

     $(
!
 3! 
 
& 
 &)
 
 $ & 
&
4!. 


  $(
!" " 3


&2  ""3
$ "


&$ 
"
" $ "  $       .  ) 
(
 $
 !
 " ")"   

$ & 
&
4!2  "     
    "& 3
 "

& (
  

3
    

"  
 
& "   
 
& "   ""&! (

2  8

.

   $ " "
  $
 
 $ & 
&
4! " 
  $ &&!
"


 I 8  
)" $ ". )$  " 3 ; && $ $
"   +  &&
) "2








 0     


" $
 # & " $
 # &

&
4!
&
4!
 +? ; C; 
+ ;  ? 
?   
C ;   
 ?;   
 C   ;C
 3&
 # &
&
4
"  
&" $
D=
&" 
 

" $
" 

    B   3&
  )
    
 $ & 
&
4! " &)
"    J .  
$
"
""$ &! ")
(
 J+.?.C. 2B J;.. . . .

$ &
&
4!$
"
""&&!2  D
$$&
 "$   
4""
&!
& ") "
" !28)
(
."
"")

" $ 4))
"-
 2

´ - Selecting Trigger Pair



D




(
" ©    ©  (

))
 ©     ,  ©  "

4) 0  ©    , ©  $$ " "
)

  

))02
    #"
   $&   
à · {  . )

 

"
  
 $
& 
3
)


)
(
"  ·   2
    H"&
) ! ""
""
"$ $

$
& 3
)


)
(
" · 
  
 
à · {   "
"

 $ "" $ Ã# *2  5


"
 
"
 " 
 & $ 
"
     F &!.)$  " "   3"  "


 "


"·  $
" ·  $
   "·  $ 0  
 

"·  $
" ·  $
Ã+

)


à  .   " 
 $$
$
 
F
$!    )     Ã  .   $$  

))2
 ^ #  -d   .0 

    H&
$ "" $ 
"
""&
."




&!  "
 
  2#"
 &!$
& 
 
  $"")

 ) "Ã { .   $
    &
"" )
&& $
& 
.  3 

$  
   Ãi { — 2 H $$
$
   
 )  6 7Ã &  

 
 (
" 
    3 
 )  67Ã
 )
    $$
$
  

 )  6i 7Ã$  3 
 )   6— 7Ã "
2  %
(

&
"". "$
 
 ) 
6i 7 " &/
&!  3
 $ 
 $  
 
"   .  " (

 &!  ! 3

$
2    )
$   $  
&! 

) 
  " 
 
3 "

&.  
 
  Ãi { —    !3


3&
2
    


.  &
 (
 
"
  

4
$
 3

  (
 3! ·  

$  "
 (

 &  ÃH:  3
)


)

"· $
             · "·  $ 0 "·  $  
"· $" $
"· $
                                          1 "·  $  
"· $" $
" · $
                                          1 " ·  $  
" · $" $
" · $
                                         K " ·  $  
" · $" $
Ã?

    53("&!.@F ? /
"
> 3 3&!$"
2"
"".)

"
 "
F   "
&
$ 
  
   "2 
& 
 ) /".  Ã*"

& *2 C "

"
F  Ã# $2
 &2. "
 (    
 "
  $ &&!

!
 ""$ 
)   "2


ù Measuring Trigger Pair

#"
   
    Ã · {   "
&
$
 3! (

  &   
· Ã · L   " ")  @F  ?.  &     Ã · L  
&
$" 




 


$

& " 3
)


)) "
 
   .)$$ 3

$
 "&&)"

 0    

"·  $
              "·  $ 0                                                             
"· $ 6 " $
ÃC

    '": 4/
&@" Ã:@
.)
$ 



à ·
             à · ƒ 

à ·
·

Ã


à 
             à  ƒ 

à 

Ã


à ·. 
              à ·.  ƒ 

à ·. 
·.

Ã;

)

 
à ·  
à  
 
 
F
$
"  
 ) " ·    $$
 

 $ "
"
$(
&!. 
à ·.   " 
 
F
$!   
 )     Ã ·.  
$$

))2
   
(
& 

"   &  
 

ºm  Ã · L   "


   Ã L · .2
2:" 



2
ºm  ·   



.  
   à ·L  ƒ  2
     
 3(

F ". 
  &     Ã · L  
&
$" 
 $ 
 


    )

)) " ·   
$
& 
2  """ !.

 
 
 ( &
   Ã · L  .
 " 
 ! 
 ) " ·     (
2



. )
 $  "
  &     Ã · L    
"
 
 


$


& "


  
 
   Ã · {  2

5 MI-Trigger-based Modeling

+ ^ #  -d   .0 

H" "$""
 3(
. )
 $ 
" $ 
 3
  
  
   " " 
" 3&

)) "-
. "
&
$ 
  
   " " (

  &     
 
"


 
  "" &  2""
$.)
)&&
"$ 3



 &
3)3&  
3 "

&2H"
 
"
 &!


3! &
  . )
 $ && 
 : 
"2   3&  $$

 : 
 
&. )
 $ " (
3
$"

2 
    53("&!
"
))"-
2H")
 (

" $

 4))"-

.  )
)&&
4

 

))"-
"à  ƒ .+.222.  2 
    H
  $  "  
$
 )

  
"
  : 
  
" $



à ) !     " $



à ) !2 D&
  
: 
 
& " "&
.   : 
 
&  " 
 
 &  
& 

)  ""$  3

  "
4
$
   (
 3

 
  $
 3
$ "
  !  

 
  "
" $



2D
 (
"
"""
"
I8 $ "
+ &&) "3!$
 
4&
 $ ". 
(
!) . 
$  &&
"$$
$
")" $



$$$
$
" "$"2 

4 &
"
")
 B
"   +. )$ ")   6ë ë7Ã6
 
9
 
7  " 
 
"
$
&  )
 
 " $
 " +     6i —  7Ã6$ 9 "
7  " 


" $
&  )
 
 " $
"
   +
"
$(
&!    I 8   $ "2 
H
  &&!3 )"
"  
 
  ".)
 )&&)$$&""
ºm 

 
  ""& !

3
 ( "2
ºm =
 ( "   
   "
 " $



  "& 3
 
"
  
" $



) !2
ºm :"

 & 
""$$
 

F
$!) "2Ãi {—
  "


"
& Ã { 2

 0    ?


Frequency

? C

;+

C C C
+?
 


 + ? C   ;    uistance
B
 
$$
$

F
$!  
)   Ã6ë9ë7 
" $" $


Frequency 
+C 



  
    

 + ? C   ;    uistance

B
+
$$
$

F
$!  
)   Ã6i 9— 7 
" $" $



" $
  + ? C  
%3
  +C +   C ; +
C ^ #  -d   .0 

: 
  " Ãÿ   
 3&
+
3
"  
 
  " 

" $
" 

: 

&














H(

 %3
 H(

 %3
 H(

 %3

: Ã ÿ  ;    
 : Ã ÿ  ;    
  " : Ã ÿ  ;   
 "  

 "
M .+ ?;; M+ .++ ?C? MC .C+ ;?
M+.? +;? M++.+? ?   MC+.C? +;
M?.C ?;+ M+?.+C +  MC?.CC ;;+
MC. C+  M+C.+ + MCC.C ;?
M.  ? M+.+ +CC  MC.C ;
M.; C + M+.+; ++?C MC.C;  
M;. ?;  M+;.+ +  MC;.C C
M.  +? ; M+.+  ? MC.C  + 
M .    M+ .? ; MC . CC
M .  +C M?.?  ; M.   ?
M . + +C+C M? .?+   M .+ C
M +. ? C+ M?+.??  M+.?  
M ?. C ;+; M??.?C C  M?.C ?
M C.  ;;  M?C.? ?; MC. C
M .  C M?.? ; M. ?
M . ;  C M?.?;  M.; C 
M ;.  ? M?;.? + M;. C+
M .  CCC M?.?  ;+ M.  C?+
 0    

M .+ C+  M? .C   M . C +


M+.+  ?  MC.C  ++ NJ +?
 3&
?
3
"  
 
  " 

 (

 &   

  : 

&












: %3
   
 : %3
 
 "  
  "
M.  +++ M .  +? 
M .+ C? M . +  C
M+.? ??+C M +. ? ? 
M?.C +   M ?. C + 
MC. C?  M C.  ? 
M. + M .  C 
M.;  M . ; 
M;. C  M ;.  
M.  + +C M .  
M .  ? NJ  
 3&
C
%3
"  
 
  " 

 &   

: 

&

    $



$"  
 3(
) $ ".  +: 

&"Ã)$
: 

&") ))"-
 
" 

3&"
""2@ $

&
"  

))"-
". )



( & "

) !
 
) !2:
(
. 
"
$ ". 
$: 

&$&
"

" 
3
  
3
" 
  ")&

( &
" &&

)   "
"

2   
4

".  &!
3
" && 
  "
$&
2  @4

"
 


 


$"   

 3
"   
  
   "    
3 "


&)&&3
$$

$2 
 ^ #  -d   .0 

    B  "&$!  "  


. )
 $ 

"
   
    " II  : 
.
$ &&  
3 "

& "
II  : 

&.  )&
II

"
"
     

"
" 
 )) "-
2 B 
4 &
. 
 : 
 
&


"
" " $



: 
3 "

&  ) ))"-
  2
    H&&

&"
 3&
I8 $ "  + &&) "2 
<" /


: 
 
& " 
4 &
2  D
 &
 3 + ÿ + ÿ   &&Ã) "4


 " $
"  ) 3 + #
"
 ) "  
 &
4$ ""3&

" $



)   "2H"  ""
.&!)   " $$$  &
"?
"

 /
2 "
"&"  2; && )    "2 
 "
&
$
 3! (

  &
  .  
3
" &&)   "
/
 " 
  "2  B &&!.
$  

3
"  && : 
   "
 
"
 3!  &   2   " ) !. )

3&  : 
 
& )$ $&
" 
 3
" &&  
   " )$


"
3! &  2 
" "$" 3
: 

&

") 3&
+. 3&
?  3&
C2
"
 3&
"") 
3
 
  " 


" $
".  (

 &    &  
"
$(
&!2
    $

: 
3 "

&"
"

 
  "" &  
)$ &!
&
$" 
 $ 
     $
 )
 
 ) ) "  
  

  
 $
& 
.  )    
& " $3
 ) 
2  (
 
 ƒ © ©+ 222 © .  )
$ 
" 

& $ 3 3&! & Ã     "&&)"
B  " $



: 
3 "

&.               


             &  à   ƒ &  à   


+  4Ã .  
 #   0 Ã  2 {              Ã
ƒ 2 ƒ


    " $



: 
3 "

&.



 & à   ƒ  & à    



+  4Ã .  
    ##   0 Ã  2 {  .  2 
ƒ 2 ƒ

à 

)

   " 
 ))" "-
   2   " 
 " $
 3
)

 
 ) " © 
 © 2 2
 "

$  @F   "
& $ 3 3&!  
 0    ;

" )  


& 
"
$
"
( &
$ 3

: 

  "
: 

&2

6 PINYIN-to-Character conversion

H"  &$ 
: 

&   $.  %E%# $
$(
"
"!"
 " $" $
2   $. %E%# $
 $(
"  " 3
$
 
  

3 "$  3&
"  #
"
 &  
  $
""   " 3

 
 "3>
$"   !

"
$
" 
& " 
$ 
2  


 "
(
& /"    $
" "
  "$  "/". 
$& 
ºm 
 &
" )  


$
 & Ã O2O2 Ã#
 22
 &2. ; )
"
 " 
 &
 
"Ã /  2
 &2. ?2 "   $ "
"! 
&

. 3 
  $$ $! " &
  +P
(
 ) & 
 ) 
$ 
"2 
ºm 
 &
3 "
   $$&&
4$."! $$ "
 $ &
"Ã8"
:22

&2.  ÃE
#22
 &2. Ã8" D22. C2 "   $ " 3&
  "&(
 


& 
&
4$ & 3! 3&

$
&! 
 $$ $!$ 3

 $

 P2 
ºm 
" "$ &   $Ã# O2 2
 &2. Ã   *2. +Ã#
O22 ?Ã
:2E2 ;2"   $"
" & 
$ "$
 
%  
"
"
"
 " "$ &    
 $ & 
&".
22 8::.   
  &    

 & $
  ""3&
 $ $
  "&
"2 
  $$ $! $  3
 
P2
ºm 
 !3    $ " 3 
 &
"  " "$ &   Ã O2O2. 2 

 $$ $!$ 3
$&"
 P2
     " "
$. )
 )&& &! 
 : 
3 "
 
&"  
 &$  
%E%# $
 $(
"2 B 
"
  $ ". 
 %E% $
 "  
 #
"
 "

$
"Ã C #
"
 $ $
"    
   ! "$& #
"


43/"
"
 
"2
    
 %E%# $
$(
" 
"

: 

&"
")
 3&
2

D) -
 " $



 " $




 ?2P ?2P
+ C2CP 2P
? C2;P 2 P
C 2P 2?P
 2+P 2P
 2?P 2P
 ^ #  -d   .0 

; C2 P 2CP
 C2P 2+P
 C2P 2 P
 C2?P 2P
 3&

 %E%# $
$(
" 
"

: 

&"

    "  3&
 
: 

&" (
3


  $
" 

: 

&" 
" 
))"-
2


.




& ""
3
)

 ) " "& 3
 
&
   " $



 ) !2  " &"    

%E%# $
$(
" 
$ 
$ 2P2
    H"  ) " " 
 3(
. && 
 : 
 
&" &! $&
 
 3
"  &&
 
   "2 5
  ! "/ )  " 
" 3&
 3
   
  
   "   
: 

&"&$&
G  8

.)
)&&
4 



$

3
"

 
   " : 
 
&
 %E%# $
$(
" 
"2
D
"

: 

&2
 %E%# $
$(
" 
"
")
 3&
2
%3
  
: 
  "  *
$* 


: 
:
&
 2?P
. 2;P
+. +2P
C. C2+P
. 2P
. 2?P
.. 2P
.+. 2;P
.C. 2P
.. ;2P
.. ;2 P
+.. ;2+P
+.. ;2 P
?.. ;2+P
?.. ;2+P
C.. ;2?P
C.. ;2CP
.. ;2P
.. ;2;P
 3&



$  

3
"  
 
  " 
 0    


: 

&
 %E%# $
$(
" 
"

    D
$ "

  3&
 

$ 
 "
"F$/&!  2;P 2?P
" 
 3
  : 
   " $
"
"   .  .  
  "
"
"&)&!   2P  ;2;P " 
 3
  : 
" $
"
"   .. 
..2 


.  
 3
" .  
   " "&  &
" 3
 $&
  

: 

&2 

7 Conclusion

"  
  "
"  
) : 
3 "
 
&   $  $ 
 
 




& "" 3
)

 ) " 3! " 


 $$
   
   2 
  
   "

"
&
$
 3! (

  &     
"
 3!  &   2 = 

" $



à " $



à : 
3 "
 
&"

$" $
) )) "-
   2  " 
ºm 
  : 
 
&"  (
 3

 
  $
   
  : 
 
&"
  
 " 
 )) "-
2 


. " 3

  
& 
 



& ""
3
)

) " " $





) !2
ºm 
3
  
 
  " : 

&$ 3
/
 
" 3&

"-
)&"$"
&)
2
ºm 
 &" $
 


$! " "
&  &  
 " 3   "&       

&
 
&!  &&  
 $
""2 

8 Reference

=
 :2 ÃO
 ? 6B      
4$ '"
("
 
  
4$ &
! 472c   .Q&
 .%3
+.2+?? 
# O2 2
 &2Ã 6#(
" 
$#
"

4 #" 
" $72 
+ c 3^ 2 ) .2??


#
 22
 &2 Ã ; 6
 #" #(
" H&   #
"
 # $
<" 

$ !3&"  #
"
 # $
72  
&456 3  c 
  . 
. ) .2C?;CC+
#
 O22 Ã ? 6H : 
 $ & :
&   #
"
 7 c   

cd 8  2Q&2;.2;C
# $ 2
 &2 Ã  6@ $
     # # & ) %
) :
"   
@"  3 3&
"@&"= "72 c  d  Q&

.2 C
8 && !  :2 Ã  6
4" "  &"$ &
(
&72    
9+)d

 3!
#2= -
&&.O2#  .:28 && ! *2*3".  
 ^ #  -d   .0 

8&
 2
 &2 Ã: $ ? 6  $ & H3!  
4$ & *
& "72
c    Q&
 .%3
 . 
" ? +
8"
 :22
 &2 Ã   6 H   $ & H  $  #(
 
$ !3&"   
# $
"72  
&454 3  c    2  
.  ) .  
2C?C 
8" D22 Ã C 6#
"
 "   

# $
 #(
" !"
 3 "

 
 $ 
: $7 cd  
cd 8  2
Q&2.%2+.2++;+?
3 ! " 2
 &2Ã C 6H &!""  O  
"
 # %" " #&&$  &  
  72 
c 3^22 ;
 O2O2
 &2 Ã  6
 
(
&
  %
) #
"
  :
#
"
D  
  !"
72 $

" 
  &#
 !". ) .  
2 C; C; 
 O2O2 Ã  6 
$# $
 #(
" !"
   #
"
 '"  
! $$#
$ 3&
 
 $" $
72c   
cd 8
 2Q&2 .%2+.2 + 
 :2E2 Ã ; 6*
( 
 H3!  
$ #
"
  3! *
& 4   

$F
72c   
cd 8  2Q&2?.   2 +C
: 
  2
 &2 Ã  6 "  %  &   
 '" : &     
 "$"72 
*** 4'2 C  
:
!
 2 
 &2 Ã ; 6$  $
4 &

$"  (" & ) 
$72 
*   
 .

 3! 2* 33  2 
2 H$
$
"".


 
*"

&*2ÃH & C6H (
  "$ &  
:
&H: 4@ !  
H  $72  d# 0d# 

:
&&'(
"!
/ 2
 &2Ã ?6H@( &  "& H& " 
:
"  
     >  "& 72 
     
9 Q&2?C. %2 +.  
2+C +C 
   *2
 &2 Ã ? 6H  "$ & :
   B D  = 
"  #
"


472#
 $
""#
"
R5 
 &  
"2Q&2C.%2C.2?? ? 
  *2Ã +6HH&$   "$ &5- )! $  
   
$# $
 #(
"   #
"
72  
+ c 3^
 2    ) .2?; ? 
E
#22
 &2Ã 6*&
3 "
D 
$  :  #
"


$
"H  
'$ H  $7 c   
cd 8  2Q&2.  
%2+.2 ;