Mobile Communications Chapter 8: Network Protocols/Mobile IP

Motivation q Data transfer q Encapsulation q Security q IPv6

Problems q Micro mobility support q DHCP q Ad-hoc networks q Routing protocols

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen Schiller,



Motivation for Mobile IP
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based on IP destination address, network prefix (e.g. 129.13.42) determines physical subnet change of physical subnet => change of IP address to have a topological correct address (standard IP) Problem: does not scale if many mobile hosts or frequent location changes adjust the host IP address depending on the current location DNS updates take to long time Old TCP connections break

Solution: Temporarily change routing table entries for mobile host

Solution: Change mobile host IP-address
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Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen Schiller,



Requirements to Mobile IP (RFC 3344, was: 3220, was: 2002) Transparency
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mobile end-systems keep IP address Continuous service after link interruption point of connection to the fixed network can be changed No changes to current hosts, OS, routers mobile end-systems can communicate with fixed systems authentication of all registration messages only few additional messages to mobile system (low bandwidth) Global support for large number of mobile systems

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Efficiency and scalability
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Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen Schiller,



Terminology Mobile Node (MN) q Laptop.jochenschiller. http://www. etc. helps in forwarding registers current MN MC SS05 8.g.-Ing. Jochen Schiller. PDA. that may move about Router in home network of the MN. Dr.4 . e. via DHCP Node that wants to communicate with MN Home Agent (HA) q q Foreign Agent (FA) q q Care-of Address (COA) q q Correspondent Node (CN) q Prof. tunnels IP datagrams to COA Router in current foreign network of MN forwards tunneled datagrams to the MN address of the current tunnel end-point for the MN (at FA or MN) can be chosen.

http://www.jochenschiller.Example network HA MN router home network Internet (physical home network for the MN) router (current physical network for the MN) mobile end-system FA foreign network CN end-system router MC SS05 8.-Ing.5 . Jochen Schiller. Dr.

Jochen Schiller. Internet MN foreign network 1. HA tunnels packet to COA by encapsulation MC SS05 8. CN router 1. Reverse: Sender sends to IP address of receiver. home network router HA 2. Sender sends to the IP address of MN.6 . http://www. HA intercepts packet 2.jochenschiller.-Ing. FA is default router Prof.Overview COA home network router HA Internet router FA MN foreign network CN router 3. router FA 4. Dr. FA forwards the packet to MN 4.

Dr. HA acknowledges Messeges need to be secured by authentication HA advertises the MN IP address (as for fixed systems) routers adjust their entries.jochenschiller.Network integration Agent Advertisement q q HA and FA periodically send advertisement messages into their subnets MN reads a COA from the FA advertisement messages MN signals COA to the HA via the FA.-Ing. (HA responsible for a long time) All packets to MN are sent to HA Registration (always limited lifetime!) q q Advertisement q q q Prof.7 . Jochen MC SS05 8. http://www.

Jochen Schiller.Registration MN re FA gistr requ ation est regi s requ tration est tion istra reg y repl HA MN re HA gistr requ ation e st tion istra reg y repl t tion stra regi y repl t Prof.8 .de/ MC SS05 8. Dr.jochenschiller. http://www.-Ing.

IP-in-IP-encapsulation (mandatory.-Ing.g. http://www. RFC 2003) tunnel between HA and COA original IP header original data new IP header new data outer header inner header original data Prof.jochenschiller.9 .de/ MC SS05 8. Jochen Schiller.Encapsulation Encapsulation of one packet into another as payload q q e. Dr.

Optimization of packet forwarding Triangular Routing q q sender sends all packets via HA to MN Triangular routes longer.jochenschiller.10 . MC SS05 8. higher latency and network load HA informs a sender about the location of MN sender learns current location of MN direct tunneling to this location big security problems! packets on-the-fly during the change can be lost new FA informs old FA to avoid packet loss old FA forwards remaining packets to new FA Update also enables old FA to release resources for MN “Solutions” q q q q Change of FA q q q q Prof.-Ing. Dr. Jochen Schiller.

without packet loss supported l MN sends the new COA to its old router l old router encapsulates all packets for MN. all routers perform router advertisement MN can signal a sender directly the COA.jochenschiller. Dr. http://www. not add-on. authentication of registration included COA can be assigned via auto-configuration (DHCPv6 is one candidate) every node has address autoconfiguration no need for a separate FA.e.Mobile IP and IPv6 Mobile IP was developed for IPv4. forwards them to new COA l authentication is always granted Prof.11 .de/ MC SS05 8. i. without HA „soft“ hand-over. Jochen Schiller.-Ing. but IPv6 simplifies the protocols q q q q q q security is integrated.

12 . http://www. etc.Problems with mobile IP Security q q q FA typically belongs to another organization authentication with FA problematic patent and export restrictions Firewalls filter based on IP addresses FA encapsulates packets from MN Home firewalls rejects packet from MN (unless reverse tunneling) MN can no longer send packets back to home network Firewalls q q q q QoS. Jochen MC SS05 8.. QoS etc.jochenschiller. are topics of current research and discussions! Prof. Dr. Security. firewalls.

http://www.IP Micro-mobility support Micro-mobility support: q q q Efficient local handover inside foreign domain without involving a home agent Reduces control traffic on backbone Especially needed for route optimization Example approaches: q q q Cellular IP HAWAII Hierarchical Mobile IP (HMIP) Prof.jochenschiller. Jochen MC SS05 8.13 .-Ing. Dr.

Dr. Jochen Schiller.Cellular IP Operation: q q q „CIP Nodes“ maintain routing entries (soft state) for MNs Multiple entries possible Routing entries updated based on update packets sent by MN Mobile IP tunnel endpoint Initial registration processing HAWAII Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 (HMIPv6) Internet Mobile IP CIP Gateway data/control packets from MN 1 CIP Gateway: q q q Other micromobility protocols q q BS BS BS packets from MN2 to MN 1 MN1 MN2 Prof. http://www.jochenschiller.-Ing.14 .de/ MC SS05 8.

Jochen Schiller. DNS server address. domain name.15 . subnet mask.-Ing. enables automatic integration of systems into an Intranet or the Internet. claim back when done Application q q q simplification of installation and maintenance of networked computers supplies systems with all necessary information. default router etc.g WPI has pool of IP addresses it can “lease” to hosts for short term use. such as IP address. can be used to acquire a COA for Mobile IP the client sends via a MAC broadcast a request to the DHCP serve r (might be via a DHCP relay) DHCPDISCOVER DHCPDISCOVER server client relay client Client/Server-Model q Prof.DHCP: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Main idea: E. Dr. MC SS05 8.

de/ MC SS05 8.protocol mechanisms server (not selected) determine the configuration client initialization DHCPDISCOVER DHCPDISCOVER server (selected) determine the configuration DHCPOFFER DHCPOFFER collection of replies time selection of configuration DHCPREQUEST (reject) DHCPREQUEST (options) DHCPACK initialization completed release DHCPRELEASE confirmation of configuration delete context Prof. Dr.16 .DHCP . Jochen Schiller.-Ing. http://www.jochenschiller.

e.DHCP characteristics Server q several servers can be configured for DHCP.17 . Jochen Schiller. manual configuration) IP addresses have to be requested periodically. coordination not yet standardized ( MC SS05 8. http://www.. Dr.-Ing.jochenschiller. simplified protocol no authentication of DHCP information specified Renewal of configurations q Big security problems! q Prof.

18 Prof. routing etc. disaster areas cost can also be argument against infrastructure! no default router available every node should be able to forward Sometimes there is no infrastructure! q q Main topic: routing q q A B C MC SS05 8.-Ing. Dr.Mobile ad hoc networks Standard Mobile IP needs an infrastructure q q Home Agent/Foreign Agent in the fixed network . http://www. Jochen Schiller. not designed for mobility remote areas.jochenschiller. ad-hoc meetings.

http://www. car-to-car networks… Internet: MANET (Mobile Ad-hoc Networking) group MC SS05 8. PDAs in a room.-Ing. Jochen Schiller. gaming devices… q Multi-hop: Cover larger distances.19 .jochenschiller. Dr. one hop apart l Bluetooth piconet. circumvent obstacles l Bluetooth scatternet.Solution: Wireless ad-hoc networks Network without infrastructure q Use components of participants for networking Examples q Single-hop: All partners max. TETRA police network.

jochenschiller.Manet: Mobile Ad-hoc Networking Mobile Router Manet Mobile Devices Mobile IP.-Ing. DHCP Fixed Network Router End system Prof. Dr.20 .de/ MC SS05 8. Jochen Schiller. http://www.

-Ing.21 . 1: Routing Highly dynamic network topology q q Device mobility and varying channel quality Asymmetric connections possible N7 N6 N6 N1 N2 N3 N4 time = t1 good link weak link N4 time = t2 N7 N1 N2 N3 N5 N5 Prof. Jochen Schiller.jochenschiller. MC SS05 8.Problem No. http://www.

DV-Routing every 7.jochenschiller.Traditional routing algorithms Distance Vector q q periodic exchange of cost to everyone else. http://www.5s exchange of routing tables including link quality Receive MC SS05 8.22 . with neighbors selection of shortest path if several paths available periodic notification of all routers about the current cost to neighbors routers get a complete picture of the network. Jochen Schiller.-Ing. run Djikstra’s algorithm ARPA packet radio network (1973). update tables Link State q q Example q q q Prof. Dr.

http://www.jochenschiller. delay. Dr. battery run-time.23 . interference … Stability of logical network.Routing in ad-hoc networks THE big topic in many research projects q q Far > 50 different proposals exist The most simplest one: Flooding! Reasons q q Classical approaches from fixed networks fail l Fast link quality changes. loss MC SS05 8. congestion. time of connectivity … Maximal l Prof. Jochen Schiller. low bandwidth. large overhead Highly dynamic. slow convergence.-Ing. low computing power Metrics for routing q q Minimize l Number of hops.

directional transmission quality Prof. sleep modes difficult limited bandwidth further reduced due to routing info exchange links can be asymmetric. MC SS05 8.jochenschiller. participants Limited performance of mobile systems q q q Periodic routing table updates need energy. connection quality.Problems of traditional routing algorithms Dynamic of the topology q frequent changes of connections.-Ing.24 . Dr. Jochen Schiller.

DSDV (Destination Sequenced Distance Vector) Early work q on demand version: AODV Expansion of distance vector routing Sequence numbers for all routing updates q q assures in-order execution of all updates avoids loops and inconsistencies Decrease of update frequency q q store time between first and best announcement of a path inhibit update if it seems to be unstable (based on the stored time values) Prof. Jochen Schiller.jochenschiller.-Ing. http://www.25 . MC SS05 8.

-Ing.26 .jochenschiller. Dr.Dynamic source routing I Split routing into discovering a path and maintaining a path Discover a path q only if a path for sending packets to a certain destination is needed and no path is currently available Maintaining a path q only while the path is in use one has to make sure that it can be used continuously No periodic updates needed! Prof. Jochen Schiller. MC SS05 8.

append own address and broadcast packet q sender receives packet with the current path (address list) Optimizations q q limit broadcasting if maximum diameter of the network is known caching of address lists ( MC SS05 8.. http://www.e. Jochen Schiller. has the correct destination address) then return packet to the sender (path was collected in the packet) l if the packet already received earlier (identified via ID) then discard the packet l otherwise.Dynamic source routing II Path discovery q q broadcast a packet with destination address and unique ID if a station receives a broadcast packet l if receiver (i.27 .-Ing.e. paths) received l stations can use the cached information for path discovery (own paths or paths for other hosts) Prof. Dr.

de/ MC SS05 8.jochenschiller.Dynamic Source Routing III Maintaining paths q after sending a packet l wait for a layer 2 acknowledgement (if applicable) l listen into the medium to detect if other stations forward the packet (if possible) l request an explicit acknowledgement q if a station encounters problems it can inform the sender of a packet or look-up a new path locally Prof. http://www. Dr. Jochen Schiller.-Ing.28 .

http://www.Examples for interference based routing Routing based on assumptions about interference between signals Examples q Least Interference Routing (LIR) q Max-Min Residual Capacity Routing (MMRCR) q Least Resistance Routing (LRR) Prof.-Ing.29 MC SS05 8. Jochen Schiller. Dr.

A plethora of ad hoc routing protocols Flat q proactive l FSLS – Fuzzy Sighted Link State l FSR – Fisheye State Routing l OLSR – Optimised Link State Routing Protocol l TBRPF – Topology Broadcast Based on Reverse Path Forwarding q reactive l l AODV – Ad hoc On demand Distance Vector DSR – Dynamic Source Routing Hierarchical q q q q CGSR – Clusterhead-Gateway Switch Routing HSR – Hierarchical State Routing LANMAR – Landmark Ad Hoc Routing ZRP – Zone Routing Protocol DREAM – Distance Routing Effect Algorithm for Mobility GeoCast – Geographic Addressing and Routing GPSR – Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing LAR – Location-Aided Routing Geographic position assisted q q q q Prof.jochenschiller. http://www. Jochen Schiller.30 .de/ MC SS05 8. Dr.-Ing.

energy conservation mechanisms Data integrity.31 . MC SS05 8.-Ing.g.Further difficulties and research areas Auto-Configuration q q q q q q q Assignment of addresses. Denial of Service) 10 nodes? 100 nodes? 1000 nodes? 10000 nodes? Service discovery Multicast Quality-of-Service Power control Security Scalability Integration with fixed networks Prof. Discovery of services and service providers Transmission to a selected group of receivers Maintenance of a certain transmission quality Minimizing interference.jochenschiller. Jochen Schiller. Dr. protection from attacks (e.

de/ MC SS05 8.32 . http://www.-Ing. Jochen Schiller.Clustering of ad-hoc networks Internet Base station Cluster head Cluster Super cluster Prof.jochenschiller. Dr.

net Differences from MANETs q q q q q Applications: MANET more powerful. Cost per node … MC SS05 8. higher data rates. Dr. should be energy efficient Example: www.jochenschiller. multi-hop q Typically wireless.-Ing. ID centric ↔ WSN network important. Jochen Schiller. Quality-of Service.scatterweb. more general ↔ WSN more specific Devices: MANET more powerful. . individual node may be dispensable. data centric Mobility patterns. interacting with environment Scale: MANET rather small (some dozen devices) ↔ WSN can be large (thousands) Basic paradigms: MANET individual node important. embedded. more resources ↔ WSN rather limited.33 Prof.The next step: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) Main idea thousands of networked sensors thrown into phenomenon to be sensed Commonalities with MANETs q Self-organization. Energy.

-Ing.34 .jochenschiller. http://www.A typical WSN Integration of Sensor Nodes (SN) and Gateways (GW) SN SN GW SN SN SN SN GW GW S PR G Bluetooth GW SN SN SN SN SN WL AN SN et ern Eth MC SS05 8. Jochen Schiller. Dr.

scatterweb. PIR movement detection. 500 m indoor Software l Embedded Sensor Board Simple programming (C interface) l Optional: operating systems TinyOS. precise timing Communication using 868 MHz radio transceiver l Range up to 2 km MC SS05 Modular Sensor Node Prof. Jochen Schiller.jochenschiller. management.35 . IR sender/receiver. gas. pressure… q q q Microphone/speaker.Example: ScatterWeb Sensor Nodes Embedded Sensor Board q Sensors l Luminosity. http://www. vibration. Dr. camera. Contiki … l Optional: TCP/IP.-Ing. display. flashing … Further information: www. web server … l Routing. noise detection. MC SS05 8.36 . Jochen Schiller. Dr. autonomous networks q q q Use environmental energy sources Embed and forget Self-healing Self-configuring networks q q q Routing Data aggregation Localization Managing wireless sensor networks q q Tools for access and programming Update distribution Scalability.jochenschiller. Quality of Service… Prof. http://www.Sensor Networks: Challenges and Research Areas Long-lived.

http://www.Routing in WSNs is different No IP MC SS05 8. Jochen Schiller.-Ing.jochenschiller.37 . locally valid IDs Example: directed diffusion q Interest Messages l Interest in sensor data: Attribute/Value pair l Gradient: remember direction of interested node q Data Messages l Send back data using gradients l Hop count guarantees shortest path Sink Prof. Dr. but simple.

-Ing.jochenschiller.38 .de/ MC SS05 8. http://www. Jochen Schiller.Energy-aware routing Only sensors with sufficient energy forward data for other nodes Example: Routing via nodes with enough solar power is considered “for free” Prof. Dr.

private homes.-Ing. several gateways Even with special sensors: MC SS05 8. … Law enforcement. protection q q q Sensor networks: cheap and flexible for surveillance Monitoring and protection of goods l l Chemicals. industry. vehicles. containers. Dr. energy conservation. Jochen Schiller. disaster recovery. management Several prototypes for different applications q Environmental monitoring.39 . machines. wildlife monitoring … Many see new possibilities for monitoring. surveillance. body temperature… Basic software l Routing. http://www. industrial automation.Today’s WSNs First generation of WSNs is available q q q Diverse sensor nodes.jochenschiller. food. … Large application area besides military Prof.

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