This white feldspar shows two cleavages (top/bottom and sides) plus the fracture surface (front). Both plagioclase and Kspar are commonly white; the lack of striations suggests that this is K-spar.

The salmon-pink color is typical of K-spar. Note the two cleavage surfaces and one fracture surface.

Here are some of the more common colors of feldspar. Broken feldspars do not always make perfect cleavage blocks for many reasons. Just look to see two planes intersecting at 90°!. The dark and pink samples display the tiny veinlets commonly seen in K-spar. This photo shows the very thin surface striations that are seen on some cleavages of plagioclase, but never in K-spar. Unlike the tiny veinlets of the K-spar sample above, the striations form on the surface of a cleavage plane (the veinlets are internal color variations) and the striations are perfectly parallel.

These are two wellformed feldspar crystals taken from a weathered granite in the Mojave Desert of California. The blocky shape of wellformed crystals plus the two cleavages at right angles to each other mean that feldspar crystals in rocks tend to have straight edges and planar surfaces.




(AlSi3O10) (OH) This silvery clear color is characteristic of thin sheets of muscovite. with darker coppery areas indicating a thick book of muscovite sheets. Mg. Note the one square piece placed over the blade of glass. It's so clear it's hard to spot! On a black background muscovite naturally appears darker. Fe. . but the dark piece on the right is almost this dark on a white background because of its thickness. The big piece of muscovite has a silvery color.ЛИСКУНИ K.

. These sheets of biotite are as thin as in the first muscovite photo above. This large book of biotite (~ 6" across) shows the 6-sided shape of perfect biotite crystals. fresh biotite is distinctly darker. The white mineral is calcite. which is not commonly found with biotite. It is easy to peel off thin black sheets of black biotite to create a pile as in the photo above. but they are black and shiny.No matter how dark muscovite gets. There is a smaller book to the left. not silvery and shiny.

5 due to slippage on cleavage planes.KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2 Luster : nonmetallic (glassy) Cleavage: one perfect plane Hardness: 2 .2. (Si7AlO22) (OH)2 It is tough to see the 60°/120° cleavage plane intersections. The hardness of Muscovite will seem to be less than 2.5 Diagnostic hints: Muscovite mica is most easily identified by its characteristic cleavage and light color. The only other minerals that it could be confused with is Biotite. Mg. which is generally a green-black color. but it is easy to see how dark hornblende is. АМФИБОЛИ Ca. Al. The white is calcite . Fe2+. or Chlorite. which is always dark black. Fe3+.

difficultto-spot cleavage surfaces. Contrast this with the almost mirrorsmooth cleavage surfaces of the micas. hornblende frequently forms rectangular crystals that show highly reflective cleavages. . In a rock. These hornblende pieces show how slightly weathered amphiboles display a splintery appearance. the grayer looking pieces are reflecting more light from their cleavage surfaces. All pieces are black.This close-up of a rough hornblende cleavage surface shows how the many offset but parallel cleavage surfaces reflect the light all at once. augite (a pyroxene) tends to be blocky with dull. In contrast. Click here to see a super-close up (or on the photo for a regular close-up).

it takes careful examination with a hand lens to spot the diagnostic 60°/120° cleavage intersections in an exposure such as this.Crystallization of hornblende (black) in an intrusive igneous rock can form spectacular patterns and even layers (unusual in igneous rocks). Although the highly reflective cleavage surfaces are a good clue. .

Na) (Mg. the cleavages intersect at about 90° (horizontal and vertical surfaces.ПИРОКСЕНИ Аугит (Ca. Fe3+. On the right one ~90° angle is formed by the intersection of the two cleavages. Fe2+. . These three cleavage fragments illustrate three things: the pyroxene cleavage is not great. Note how rough the two cleavage surfaces are compared to the micas or feldspars. Al) (Si. and the cleavage surfaces are not splintery or shiny like hornblende.Al)2O6 This shows the typical very dark green color of augite as well as its typically mediocre cleavage. here viewed looking down on horizontal surface). Ti.

.These are little wellformed crystals illustrate the nearly black color and blocky shape typical of augite. which forms much of the upper mantle.Fe)2 (SiO4) This nugget consists largely of green olivine crystals and black pyroxenes. This is a rock called peridotite (= olivine and pyroxene). It is worth clicking on the image to get a closer look at the typically irregular shape of the olivine grains. ОЛИВИН (Mg.

Note the granular texture made by the many olivine grains that have grown together. When you zoom in on the picture. The individual olivine grains are the size of fine sand. both are . it ripped off this chunk of mantle and brought it to the surface. you can see tiny little bright green grains and some black grains. As the basaltic magma rose through the mantle. Here is another pale-green sample typical of beginning geology labs. This piece of peridotite is still contained within its block of basalt.This lump is more typical of samples seen in beginning geology labs. A rock consisting of pure olivine is called dunite.

pyroxene. ОКСИДИ .

clear quartz. partially intergrown crystals. Rose quartz. but these lack the tiny grooves.КВАРЦ SiO2 One large (3") quartz crystal is surrounded by several smaller. clear quartz. not cleavage planes. A distinctive aspect of quartz crystal faces is that the vertical faces have tiny grooves on their surface (you can see them on a face on the right side). and smoky quartz all display the irregular fractures surfaces and lack of cleavage planes characteristic of quartz. . and smoky quartz. The flat surfaces are crystal faces. Click on the following to get super close-ups of rose quartz. Some crystal shops sell quartz that has been cut and polished to look like a natural crystal.

The orange areas are iron oxide stains. Some quartz appears pale orange due to a thin coating of iron oxides. Close examination reveals sets of curved arches on certain fractures that characterize a conchoidal fracture. МАГНЕТИТ Fe3O4 .This sample shows both the gray color common in igneous rocks and the irregular fracture surface typical of quartz.






КАОЛИНИТ Al2(Si2O5) (OH4) .

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