Prenatal Development of the Craniofacial Region The Pharyngeal Arches  There are 6 pharyngeal arches  Appear progressively during

the 4th week of embryonic development  Each arch is covered externally by ectoderm, internally by endoderm  A core of mesodermal tissue exists within *Growth is cephalo-caudal The Pharyngeal arches gives rise to a number of structures within the head and neck  1st pharyngeal arches- produce jaws and dentition  2nd pharyngeal arches- forms suprahyoid apparatus of the neck  3rd pharyngeal arches- contributes to infrahyoid region  4th pharyngeal arches- form the laryngeal structures  The 5th pharyngeal arche rapidly degenerates after formation making no contribution towards any permanent structures in the human Expanding V- Principle  Deposition on the inner of the V  Resorption on the outer side Growth Centers  These are special regions characterized by marked growth and remodelling changes  There is active growth in these areas 1. Condyles of the mandible and posterior border of the ramus - Condyles- they maintain articulation while undergoing growth changes at the same time - Posterior border of the ramus- the bone deposition that occurs is the

major factor in the backward growth direction of the mandible 2. Lingual Tuberosity- grows in the posterior direction -follows the posterior relocation of the ramus to maintain its relative position 3. Maxillary Tuberosity- bone deposition in the maxillary tuberosity is responsible for the lengthening of the maxilla and its arch in the posterior direction 4. Alveolar process- comes and goes with the teeth - Grows when teeth erupt - Resorbs when teeth are lost - Remodels and adapts to dental needs

5. Sutures- enlargement of the brain causes displacement of the cranial bones - Connective tissues in the sutures deposit new bone to: o Enlarge the bone itself o Maintain the junctions between the bone 6. Nasal Septum- the interstitial expansion of the nasal septum is responsible for the forward and downward growth movement of the nasomaxillary complex Surfaces- although there are several growth factors, enlargement of the bone is not restricted to theses special regions only all the inner and outer surfaces of the bones are also areas growth responsible for minor changes to harmonize with the changes taking place in the growth changes

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Diffrerential Growth Differential Growth Rate of Facial and Cranial Components  N= 1 (Neural Growth Curve)  A= 2 (Bodily Growth Curve)  B= (Bodily Growth Curve) Years 1 0-5 85% of total growth completed 45% of total growth completed 40% of total growth completed 5-10 96% of total growth completed 65% of total growth completed 65% of total growth completed 10-20 Remaining 4% completed Remaining 35% completed Remaining 35% completed

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Growth Spurs Peak of Growth 1st peak of growth nd 2 peak of growth 3rd peak of growth Male (years) 3 7-9 14-15 Female (Years) 3 6-7 11-12

Dimensions of Growth 1. Height – vertical growth 2. Length (depth)- Antero-posterior growth 3. Width (breadth)- lateral growth Differential Growth  Cranium- Length, width, height  Face- height, length, width

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