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Ideas for Building Local Sustainability After a Natural Disaster
HOLISTIC DISASTER RECOVERY
IDEAS FOR BUILDING LOCAL SUSTAINABILITY AFTER A NATURAL DISASTER
482 UCB Boulder, Colorado 80309-0482 (303) 492-6818 (303) 492-2151 (fax) www.colorado.edu/hazards/
with funding from the
Public Entity Risk Institute
11350 Random Hills Rd. Fairfax, Virginia 22030 (703) 352-1846 (703) 352-6339 (fax) www.riskinstitute.org
Revised December 2005
This handbook was originally produced in 2001 as a guide for local practitioners on how to build sustainability into a community during the recovery period after a disaster. In the fall of 2005, after witnessing the catastrophic devastation of the Gulf Coast of the United States from Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, and as the nation was embarking on a recovery period of unprecedented scale in its history, the Natural Hazards Center at the University of Colorado took a second look at Holistic Disaster Recovery and how it could be improved to help communities take a comprehensive and long-term approach to recovery. This revised version of the handbook includes updated sources of information, new examples of recovery success stories, and more specific attention to information related to the Hurricane Katrina recovery. The document’s text has also been streamlined to make the handbook easier to use and more practical and valuable to those managing the recovery decisions and activities on the ground. This handbook is intended to be used by local government officials and staff, state planners, activists, emergency management professionals, disaster recovery experts, mitigation specialists, and others who help a community during disaster recovery. It is geared mainly toward small- to medium-sized communities. It presents managers and decision makers with a variety of strategies for using the recovery period to help a community make itself a better place to live, protect its natural environment, improve its resilience to future disasters, be more attractive to business, better manage growth, and preserve its history and culture for future generations. Whether a community is just getting over the emergency period after a hurricane, earthquake, flood, or other disaster, or whether it is looking ahead to better prepare for a disaster and its aftermath, this handbook provides guidance, examples, and information resources. The first chapter introduces the concept of sustainability and defines its usefulness in the context of recovery. The second chapter explores the planning process for a sustainable, holistic disaster recovery. The next six chapters describe each of the fundamental principles of sustainability as applied to specific disaster recovery situations and the recovery planning process. At the end of each chapter are examples of successful projects in other communities and a list of resources for finding more information on that topic. At the end of the handbook is a summary, list of references, and glossary of terms. Every community is unique and every disaster different. Recovery strategies should be specific and practical for the particular place and people involved. This handbook illustrates a range of options and is intended to complement other documents already available on recovery, reconstruction, planning, mitigation, and related local concerns. Communities along the Gulf Coast are confronting difficult decisions about where and how to rebuild and must find common ground and shared goals in the face of complex value conflicts. In the rush to rebuild, communities must not fail to use the long-term and holistic approach needed to capitalize on the opportunities to reduce vulnerabilities, reassess land use patterns, forge new partnerships, increase local capacity, and involve all residents in rebuilding safer, more livable, and sustainable communities.
As with any major undertaking. Catherine Bauman. French Wetmore. new case studies identified. Michelle Steinberg. Environmental Quality Chapter VIII. Windell Curole. Erica Kuligowski. a number other people contributed in various ways. Ann Patton. Deborah Needham. Scott Porter. Arrietta Chakos. H. The Disaster Recovery Process Chapter III. Duane Holmes. John Clouse. The 2005 revisions were undertaken by Julie Baxter. Dennis Sigrist. iii . Bev Collings. and chapters restructured to recognize the changes in the hazards and disasters literature and institutions over the past five years. Philip Paradice. Those experts became the contributing authors: • • • • • • • • Jacquelyn Monday Clancy Philipsborn Sarah Michaels Ann-Margaret Esnard Charles Eadie Brenda Phillips Rod E. Marjorie Greene. this work is largely the success of their efforts. Angus Jennings. Disaster Resilience The contributing authors were critical to the process of generating this handbook and although some modifications have been made. Thus.Acknowledgments This guide was originally produced under a 20-month project funded by the Public Entity Risk Institute entitled AA Project to Develop Guidance and Expertise on Sustainable Recovery from Disaster for Communities. Kent Lim. Quality of Life Chapter V. Participatory Process Chapter IV. Immediately after Hurricane Katrina stuck the Gulf Coast in late August 2005. Ward Huffman. the Natural Hazards Center began an extensive review of the resources and guidance available through the guidebook. Diana McClure. Don Webber. The Center wishes to extend a special thank you to: Terry Baker. Laurie Johnson. and Sarah Stapleton. and Calah Young. Felix Kloman. James Russell. Bob Cox. Bob Hart. but errors and omissions are the Center=s own. Christa Rabenold. Greg Guibert. Emmer David Salvesen Chapter I. the Natural Hazards Center originally contracted with professionals with expertise in the various aspects of sustainability and recovery.@ The intent of this work was to consolidate what is known about sustainable recovery at the local level and to fill in the gaps by suggesting methods for future innovation. Introduction to Sustainability Chapter II. credit goes to the contributors. Economic Vitality Chapter VI. Claire Rubin. To produce this handbook. both with the original publication and then again with the revision and reprint. Social and Intergenerational Equity Chapter VII. H. Mark Darienzo. Stephen Baruch. Jeff Rubin. Eve Passerini. Jennifer Miller. Patty Rueter. George Houston. Darrin Punchard. Gene Juve. Links and resources were updated. Floyd Shoemaker. asking each of them to draft a chapter on their specialty that would combined with others into this manual or handbook.
......................................... 1-5 Where to Find More Information..................................................... 4-2 Tools for Enhancing Quality of Life.................................................... 3-5 Monitoring the Participatory Process..................................................................................................................................................................... 1-2 Six Principles of Sustainability................................................................................ 2-3 Holistic Disaster Recovery Planning: The 10-Step Process ........................ 4-1 Recovery Strategies for Enhancing Quality of Life........................................... 4-9 Monitoring Quality of Life ............................. 3-1 Examples of Success....................... 5-3 Tools for Economic Vitality ........................ iv ................. 4-10 BUILDING ECONOMIC VITALITY INTO RECOVERY Economic Challenges and Opportunities after a Disaster.............................................................................................. iii 1............. 4-10 Where to Find More Information................ 1-2 The Consequences of Business as Usual .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5-15 2...................................................................................................................................................................... 4-7 Examples of Success.. 3................................... INTRODUCTION TO SUSTAINABILITY What Does It Mean for a Community to Be Sustainable?.......................................................................................... 2-11 Where to Find More Information.............................................. 3-7 USING DISASTER RECOVERY TO MAINTAIN AND ENHANCE QUALITY OF LIFE How Disasters Disrupt Quality of Life ..................................... 1-4 Considering Sustainability after a Disaster......................................... 1-6 THE DISASTER RECOVERY PROCESS The Holistic Disaster Recovery Process ......... 3-7 Where to Find More Information. 4-4 Actions to Enhance Quality of Life in the 10-Step Recovery Process ................................................................................... ii Acknowledgments......... 2-9 Making Sustainability Permanent .................................................. 5-12 Where to Find More Information........................................... 5-6 Actions to Build Economic Vitality in the 10-Step Recovery Process.......Contents Preface............................................................................................................................................................................................ 5-1 Recovery Strategies for Building Economic Vitality ...................................... 3-7 Conclusion ................................................................................... 5.................. 4.......................................................................................................................................... 2-2 Recognizing Short-term and Long-term Disaster Recovery................................................................. 1-4 Matrix of Opportunities ........................................................................................... 2-12 PARTICIPATORY PROCESSES IN DISASTER RECOVERY Undertaking a Participatory Approach ........................................................................................ 5-8 Examples of Success..............
............................................ 7-2 Recovery Strategies for Protecting Environmental Quality......................................................... 9-1 A 10-Step Process for Holistic Disaster Recovery ........................................................................................................................................ 11-1 v .. 6-5 Actions to Promote Equity in the 10-Step Recovery Process................................................................................................................................................... 6-9 Conclusion ... 8-14 Conclusion .. 9.................................................................................................... PROMOTING SOCIAL AND INTERGENERATIONAL EQUITY DURING DISASTER RECOVERY Understanding Social Inequity in Disaster Recovery ...... References........ 9-2 A Final Word ................................................................ 6-8 Monitoring Social and Intergenerational Equity................ 6-6 Examples of Success............ 6-1 Recovery Strategies for Promoting Social and Intergenerational Equity .............................................................................................................. 8-12 Monitoring Disaster Resilience............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 10-1 Glossary .. 7-13 Monitoring Environmental Quality......... 6-3 Tools for Promoting Equity ....................... 8-4 Actions to Incorporate Disaster Resilience in the 10-Step Recovery Process.................. 7-15 INCORPORATING DISASTER RESILIENCE INTO DISASTER RECOVERY Recovery Strategies to Build a Disaster-Resilient Community........................ 7-10 Examples of Success..................................................................... 6-10 PROTECTING ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY DURING DISASTER RECOVERY Multiobjective Management for Hazards and the Environment.......................................................................... 7-2 Tools for Protecting Environmental Quality................................................................................... 8..................................................... 7-15 Where to Find More Information................................. 7-3 Actions to Protect Environmental Quality in the 10-Step Recovery Process........................ 9-6 7...........................6........................................................................................ 8-9 Examples of Success....................................................................................................................................................................... 6-9 Where to Find More Information........................................................ 7-14 Conclusion ................................................................................................... 8-15 Where to Find More Information............................................................................................................ 8-2 Tools for Implementing Disaster Resilience................................................................................................ 8-15 SUMMARY Sustainability...............................................
holistic approach to recovery can be a complex undertaking given competing demands. reconstructing housing. When using this approach. a community can maximize long-term benefits by addressing these tasks with a more comprehensive and sustainable approach. This handbook is written for managers or decision makers with higher aspirations for the kinds of communities that people live in and for the types of lives they have access to. economic opportunity. In this handbook. reopening businesses. or parish. Sustainability is an all-encompassing concept that provides a framework for many of the forward-looking decisions or activities a community is already doing (or wants to do). city. the term “community” is used to mean the local entities by which most people are organized—a neighborhood. How can a community take advantage of the opportunities available during disaster recovery? This handbook advocates following a framework for sustainable and holistic recovery in which the principles of sustainability become decision making criteria applied in every recovery decision. county. Whether it consists of 200 people or a half-million. and reinstituting social and medical services. involving improvements in quality of life. village. Instead of simply rebuilding back the way things were before. restoring environmental resources. safety. it is a community because the people that live there are connected by their interactions with each other and their physical location. sustainable development. Incorporating a sustainable. Holistic disaster recovery is really “sustainable redevelopment. political and economic hurdles.Chapter 1 Introduction to Sustainability Introduction A community faces numerous tasks when recovering from a disaster: rebuilding roads and bridges. and the bewildering array of ideas and special interests at play. the tasks of disaster recovery become opportunities for improving the community. but instead it is just one piece of the pie. The remainder of this chapter provides an introduction to what it means for a community to be sustainable and describes six main principles of sustainability and some of their key benefits. Some readers may have past experience with a natural disaster and have come away thinking that there must be a better way to cope with such events than simply rebuilding and hoping it will not happen again. repairing utility services.” which is a subset of a larger issue. The final part of the chapter discusses the opportunities for sustainability during disaster . or the mitigation of natural hazards. environmental protection. It is not the end all.
the character of these three spheres—society. practicing religion. including the visible landscape and natural resources. Build local economic vitality. • A healthy and diverse ecological system that performs life-sustaining functions and provides essential resources for humans and all other species. enjoying family. sharing cultural identities. 3. The Six Principles of Sustainability T 1. and recognizes social and ecological limits. a community must maintain the balance and integration of its social. physical setting in which the community exists.Introduction to Sustainability recovery and includes a matrix of opportunities that may arise when recovering from certain situations. transactions. but they are intimately related. and • A healthy and diverse economy that adapts to change. 4. The environmental sphere is the natural. Maintain and enhance quality of life. Use a consensus-building. and considers the needs of future generations. provides long-term security to residents. 1-2 . environmental. participatory process when making decisions. Incorporate disaster resilience and mitigation. respects cultural diversity. and economic spheres. such as damaged infrastructure or economic disruption. an environmental sphere. A town could not exist for long if people depleted or contaminated the groundwater. What Does It Mean for a Community to Be Sustainable? A sustainable community thrives from generation to generation due to: • A social foundation that provides for the health of all community members. 5. 2. and an economic sphere. and economy— will be different. and soil. The principles described below can be used as a guide to identify where a community wants or needs to improve its sustainability and how it can do so. and solving problems. Promote social and intergenerational equity. Adapted from Mileti. The economic sphere consists of all the activities. It would not be a nice place to live if some people were made to endure poverty-level living conditions so that others could enjoy economic success. These spheres can appear separate from one another. such as groundwater. environment. Protect environmental quality. 1999. The social sphere consists of all the interactions among people—cooperating in neighborhood activities. Six Principles of Sustainability In every community. 6. A community can be thought of as made up of three spheres: a social sphere. air. and decisions related to producing and exchanging goods and services with each other and outsiders. To be sustainable.
Embracing sustainability in the local economy means paying attention to qualitative factors within the economy. housing. not just the bottom line. disaster. morality. A sustainable community does not exhaust its resources. A truly sustainable local economy is diversified and less easily disrupted by internal or external events or disasters. legal rights. Economic vitality and its applicability to disaster recovery are discussed in Chapter 5. education. It requires a community to attract. Present day decision makers sometimes overlook the stake that future generations have in today’s decisions. and a few people do not profit at the expense of others. effectively use. pollution. Quality of Life What a community thinks of as quality of life or livability has many components: income. or nonrenewable resources. One town may be proud of its safe streets. A Participatory Process A participatory process seeks wide participation from all individuals who have a stake in the outcome of a decision. while another prizes its job opportunities and historical heritage. The local government needs a stable tax base and revenue to provide and maintain infrastructure and services that keep the community operating effectively. It involves identifying concerns and issues. and fosters ownership on the part of the community in the ultimate decisions. improves the quality and dissemination of information. Quality of life and its applicability to disaster recovery are discussed in Chapter 4. high consumption rates. 4. Economic vitality has numerous advantages for a community in working toward sustainability and other goals. gender. Different communities have different priorities. high quality schools. and rural atmosphere. 3. sustainable economy does not simply shift the costs of its good health onto other regions. The point is that every locality can decide and plan for itself how best to enhance quality of life within its boundaries for current and future generations. Social and Intergenerational Equity In an ideal community.Introduction to Sustainability 1. This means resources and opportunities are equally available to all. disease. allowing the generation of ideas for potential solutions. destroy natural 1-3 . The participatory process and its applicability to disaster recovery are discussed in Chapter 3. and other risks. A vital. health care. is fundamentally an economic proposition. such as in the floodplain or over a historic toxic waste site. Economic Vitality Job opportunities and an attractive business climate are critical to the citizens of a community. Engaging in a participatory process produces ideas that may not have been considered otherwise. for example. cultural background. It also means that the housing options of people of limited economic means are not reduced to the most dangerous sites in town. each citizen is treated fairly. Recovery from disaster. 2. and sustain the flow of investment capital from a multitude of sources through the rebuilding process. nor is it reliant on unlimited population growth. regardless of ethnicity. employment. and exposure to crime. or other characteristics. and facilitating consensus on decisions and actions. age.
earthquakes. Government policies are becoming stricter. or pass along unnecessary hazards to its great grandchildren. 5. and loss of lives and to ensure that quality of life remains at (or quickly returns to) predisaster levels. Equity and its applicability to disaster recovery are discussed in Chapter 6. 6. can become defining points of community identity. and the educational opportunities provided by nature. Disaster resilience and its applicability to disaster recovery are discussed in Chapter 8. A sustainable community views natural hazards as an inherent part of the larger environment in which it exists and takes responsibility for identifying and planning for its risks and for its recovery when disaster strikes. Disaster Resilience For a community to thrive in the future and retain its special character and livability. or mountain settings. Considering Sustainability after a Disaster In an ideal world. such as local wetlands. Environmental quality and its applicability to disaster recovery are discussed in Chapter 7. requiring that communities help themselves before they are eligible for federal assistance. The Consequences of Business as Usual Neglecting opportunities to rebuild more sustainably and to incorporate sustainability into the fabric of the community may have negative consequences. A community can take positive steps toward a sustainable future by replacing detrimental local practices with those that allow ecosystems to renew themselves. hurricanes. communities would use a long-term approach in their planning and management processes and incorporate the various principles of sustainability. social conditions. earthquakes. In reality. wildlife habitat. and economic situations. it must be resilient in the face of natural disasters like tornados.Introduction to Sustainability systems. and other natural hazards when normally these issues are not high on the priority list. and drought. such as the deterioration of water quality and the loss of natural spaces. and by reclaiming or restoring damaged areas. 1-4 . Poor local conditions will only worsen when not addressed. because disasters shake-up the status quo and present opportunities to build back in a better way. such as the loss of employment opportunities when businesses relocate to other towns. The period of recovery after a disaster is a good time to start. All taxpayers pay when the federal government provides (sometimes repeatedly) large amounts of financial relief for rebuilding. This includes environmental conditions. tornadoes. More residents are demanding open spaces. landslides. parks. Disaster losses continue to increase nationwide. Environmental Quality The natural features of a community. there are many actions a community can take to reduce property damage. natural areas. • The public and local decision makers are thinking about the problems of floods. social equity. floods. or livability. beaches. Communities that help themselves now will be in a better position later on. such as unfair distribution of risk. by redirecting human activities and development to less sensitive areas. economic disruptions. such as rivers. Although these events cannot be prevented. many communities have not formally considered the broader issues of environmental quality. Unsustainable relationships with the environment are expensive for everyone.
Communities should develop their own matrix tailored to their own unique situation. The Matrix of Opportunities on the next page can be used as a guide to holistic disaster recovery decision making. Once a community is well along in its recovery. For example. or flood may damage or destroy aging. A monitoring section in each chapter discusses ways that different aspects of sustainability could be monitored over time. a tornado. Each chapter concludes with a Where to Find More Information section that lists additional resources. The remainder of this handbook discusses a variety of options. The vertical axis of the matrix lists the six sustainability principles and some options for applying them. or unsafe buildings or infrastructure. Federal. The horizontal axis lists typical problem situations a community could face during disaster recovery. A community is forced to make difficult decisions. and private programs are available to provide technical. economic. At the intersection of the problem and the principle are opportunities to devise a recovery strategy that furthers sustainability. expert. earthquake. the disaster does some of the work already.Introduction to Sustainability • • • • In some cases. and actions for addressing each of the principles of sustainability in disaster recovery situations. state. dilapidated. This matrix is just a sample of a hypothetical disaster in a hypothetical community. Programs designed to help a community mitigate disasters can be used to strengthen overall sustainability and resiliency to other social. Examples of success in other communities are provided. such as damaged housing or utilities. These are marked with an x. 1-5 . it will want to periodically assess its progress. and/or financial assistance to both public and private projects. and environmental problems. tools.
daycare disrupted Commercial buildings damaged/destroyed Roads. and related infrastructure Unemployment Public spaces Phone lines Power lines Schools Other Other Other Other Other Other 1 Use a Participatory Process 2 Maintain and Enhance Quality of Life Make housing available/affordable/better Provide education opportunities Ensure mobility Provide health and other services Provide employment opportunities Provide for recreation Maintain safe/healthy environs Have opportunities for civic engagement Others 3 Build Economic Vitality Support redevelopment and revitalization Attract/retain businesses Attract/retain work force Enhance economic functionality Develop/redevelop recreational. water. rapid transit Harbor. x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x 4 Promote Social and Intergenerational Equity Preserve/conserve natural. CBD.Introduction to Sustainability Matrix of Opportunities (x = an opportunity to devise a recovery strategy that furthers sustainability) DAMAGED TRANSPORT DAMAGED PUBLIC FACILITIES DAMAGED UTILITIES DAMAGED HOUSING ECONOMIC DISRUPTION ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE DISRUPTION TO HEALTH/SAFETY OTHER Riverine. population traumatized x x x x x x x x x x x x x Toxic air. airport Loss of work force The Principles of Sustainability and Some Options for Applying Them Social and family services. port. soil. tourist attractions Others Use a participatory process along with all the other principles of sustainability and in every disaster recovery situation in which it is appropriate. historic. beach. bridges. wellheads Medical facilities damaged Houses to be repaired Tree loss. historic district Victims. power plant Houses damaged beyond repair Downtown. cultural. and dune erosion Stormwater system. habitat loss Water treatment plant Businesses disrupted Subway. historical resources Adopt a long-term focus for all planning Avoid/remedy disproportionate impacts on groups Consider future generations' quality of life Value diversity Preserve social connections in and among groups Others 5 Protect Environmental Quality Preserve/conserve/restore natural resources Protect open space Manage stormwater Prevent/remediate pollution Others 6 Incorporate Disaster Resilience/Mitigation Make buildings and infrastructure damageresistant Avoid development in hazardous areas Manage stormwater Protect natural areas insurance Others x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x 1-6 Other .
and procedures for planning. and community success stories on a variety of topics from community energy to sustainable business to disaster planning. Smart Communities Network The Smart Communities Network was developed by the U. concrete suggestions for policy reform. Department of Energy.edu/catalog/5785.org/. They also lay out a vision of sustainability. The Next Bottom Line: Making Sustainable Development Tangible.shtm. and information on how to get started. Visit http://www.html. Matthew B. 1998. case studies. and Articles Arnold. Environmental Protection Agency Green Communities Program This Web site identifies five steps to community sustainability and under each step provides tools. editor. DC: WRI Publications. sustainable development.gov/fima/linkmitliv. http:// www. Its authors seek to break down the abstract ideals of sustainable development into ideas small enough to grasp and powerful enough to lead to new business opportunities. http://www. 1-7 .gov/greenkit/index. DC: FEMA. and livability and describes the linkages among these concepts. It shows how communities that undertake hazards mitigation planning become more disaster resilient and reap further benefits. Visit http://www. This Web site provides resources. This report tries to bring sustainable development down to earth for a business audience. Raymond J. links to articles and publications. The book has an excellent bibliography on local land use planning and management for natural hazard mitigation.rprogress. The authors offer a road map for businesses to find financial success in the solutions to our environmental and social challenges.smartcommunities. The authors follow the history of land use planning and identify key components of sustainable planning for hazards. Guidebooks. Books..Introduction to Sustainability Where to Find More Information Web Resources Redefining Progress Redefining Progress is an organization that works with a broad array of partners to shift the economy and public policy towards sustainability. Burby. and Robert M. U. Information about the group’s programs on sustainability indicators and sustainable economics can be found on their Web site. This book focuses on the breakdown in sustainability that follows disaster.S. Day. They explain why sustainability and land use have not been taken into account in the formulation of public policy.S. DC: The Joseph Henry Press. Planning for a Sustainable Future: The Link between Hazard Mitigation and Livability.epa.org/. Visit http://www. Cooperating with Nature: Confronting Natural Hazards with Land Use Planning for Sustainable Communities. 2000. tools. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). FEMA Report 364. Washington.ncat. 1998.fema. Washington. Washington. This booklet is about hazards mitigation. disaster resilience.nap.html. links.
social well-being. Indicators of sustainable community are ways to measure how well a community is meeting the needs and expectations of its present and future members. Maureen. 2000. and state levels. DC: American Planning Association Planning Advisory Service.Introduction to Sustainability Hazards mitigation links disaster resilience to broad community objectives of economic health. MA: Hart Environmental Data. concepts. evaluates progress at the global. State emergency management officials.fema. Rebuilding for a More Sustainable Future: An Operational Framework. plus links and contact information for sources of assistance and advice. FEMA Report 365. 1-8 . Guide to Sustainable Community Indicators. The Web site contains the information in the document. http://www. The author explains what indicators are. along with a list of communities in the United States that are developing indicators of sustainability. It describes the history. 1999. The book includes case studies of sustainable development initiatives in five communities.sustainablemeasures. Krizek.gov/fima/rebuilding. how to identify good indicators of sustainability.shtm. DC: FEMA. 1996.com. Washington. and proposes strategies to help planners become more actively involved in local sustainable development programs. national. http://www. Planners Guide to Sustainable Development. Chicago. and how indicators can be used to measure progress toward building a sustainable community. This report urges planners to incorporate sustainable development objectives into their everyday work. and Joe Power. FEMA. 2nd edition. how indicators relate to sustainability. Hart. IL and Washington. Kevin J. This document provides guidance to FEMA planners in the postdisaster response and recovery process. and environmental protection. North Andover. and theories behind sustainable development. local jurisdictions. and other FEMA staff may also use it as a reference during nondisaster time.
Rather. However. response activities and recovery activities are often uncoordinated. are made under intense pressure and scrutiny. and after a disastrous event. or quality of life. and may overlap or conflict with one another. their economy. and it is impossible to take into account the views of all stakeholders. working with different . This chapter focuses on the disaster recovery process. short-term and long-term aspects of recovery. Decisions affecting community welfare. occur concurrently. As a consequence. and disposal • Utilities and communications restoration • Reestablishment of major transport linkages When disaster strikes. disaster recovery is a set of loosely related activities that occur before. These activities may include the following: • Financial management • Warning and ongoing public information • Temporary housing • Economic impact analyses • Detailed building inspections • Redevelopment planning • Environmental assessments • Demolition • Reconstruction • Hazards mitigation • Preparation for the next disaster • Evacuation and sheltering • Search and rescue • Damage assessments • Debris clearance. the environment. Management responsibility for these activities may be assigned to people unfamiliar with them. a community may miss opportunities to improve infrastructure. the disaster recovery process is not a set of orderly actions triggered by the impact of a disaster upon a community. some with long-lasting impacts. It describes the concept of predisaster planning for recovery. removal.Chapter 2 The Disaster Recovery Process Introduction Disaster recovery is viewed by some people as a fight against Mother Nature to restore order in a community. during.
which is based on the 10-step model for local government planning action and will be used as a framework for presenting planning recommendations throughout the remaining chapters of this handbook. and the obstacles and enablers to holistic disaster recovery. communities may even preplan debris removal. The question is. and the management of donations and volunteers. and politically charged atmosphere and is based upon incomplete information. It has both immediate and lasting impacts that are self-supporting and make a community better off than it was before.The Disaster Recovery Process perspectives in recovery. and sheltering. disproportionate needs. It is a holistic disaster recovery. how can a decision maker reshape a process that operates within an emotional. Planning Ahead for Disaster Recovery Disaster recovery actually begins before a disaster occurs. and the worst working conditions imaginable? There are two important steps to get a community started. reactionary. A community should strive to fully coordinate available assistance and funding while seeking ways to accomplish other community goals and priorities. time-sensitive. expensive. a community needs to identify and adopt new strategies that coordinate. In an ideal disaster recovery process. using the disaster recovery process as the catalyst. lead. Emergency managers refer to this as preparedness—the phase during which people get ready for the onslaught and aftermath of disaster by planning with such activities as warning. In disaster-prone regions. Secondly. utility restoration. The first is identifying and understanding the obstacles that prevent a holistic disaster recovery from occurring. evacuation. the community proactively manages the following: • Recovery and redevelopment decisions to balance competing interests so constituents are treated equitably and long-term community benefits are not sacrificed for short-term individual gains • Multiple financial resources to achieve broad-based community support • Reconstruction and redevelopment opportunities to enhance economic and community vitality • Environmental and natural resource opportunities to enhance natural functions and maximize community benefits • Exposure to risk to reduce it to less than the predisaster level This ideal disaster recovery process is consensus-based and compatible with long-term community goals. and it takes into account all the principles of sustainability described in Chapter 1. and manage postdisaster decisions in a way that starts to overcome these obstacles. The Holistic Disaster Recovery Process The ideal disaster recovery process recognizes the possibilities of the situation and manages the necessary activities to create solutions not additional problems. 2-2 . These predisaster activities have a dramatic impact upon a community’s ability to respond and recover from a disaster. The chapter also presents the 10-Step Process for Disaster Recovery.
This concept has been called preevent planning for postevent recovery or “PEPPER” (Spangle. The six principles of sustainability can be integrated into postdisaster plans. eight years after discussions were initiated. Because the disaster recovery process begins before the disaster. began the recovery process are often lost. clear the roads of debris from an event that they “should have known” would occur sooner or later.and postdisaster responsibilities.. addressing its severe exposure to coastal Holistic disaster recovery is about change. rapidly reestablishing the preexisting risk without taking into account why the power lines came down (often because trees fell across them) or why the poles themselves failed (blown down by wind. but there is a better chance for implementation—because of timing and a lesspressured decision-making environment—if they are addressed beforehand. warning.The Disaster Recovery Process A community’s response to a disaster lays the groundwork for both short-term and long-term recovery. which posed more frequent and disruptive problems than the occasional major hurricane. developed its Pre-Disaster Recovery and Mitigation Plan as a means of avoiding the similar controversies neighboring communities faced while recovering from Hurricane Hugo in 1989. In the immediate postdisaster period. to return power quickly.e. Hilton Head wisely focused its efforts on stormwater and floodplain management. Nags Head. public input. or undermined by erosion) in the first place. downed lines are often immediately restrung on poles. evacuation. An opportunity is missed to relocate power lines underground to protect them from similar events in the future or to improve aesthetics. its credibility suffers. including building moratoriums and reconstruction priorities and guidelines. it is within this same timeframe that decisions affecting repairs and restoration are made. If a local government cannot reestablish power quickly. or too timeconsuming. burned by wildfire. In 1990-91. For example. Over the next decade. 1987). or provide temporary housing in a timely manner. debris management) before the more advanced concepts of holistic recovery. and thus the opportunities Planning for Recovery to integrate the principles of sustainability into In 1981. and cost-benefit analysis. Recognizing Short-Term and Long-Term Disaster Recovery Usually. However. If a community fails to adequately respond to a disaster. power restoration. communities think of preparing for a disaster before its onset and responding to and recovering from disaster as activities for after the 2-3 . then constituents may not trust that same government to manage more complex longterm recovery issues. During disaster recovery communities tend to focus first on improving response activities (i. people often think that mitigation activities may not work or that coupling community improvements with repairs may be too expensive. storms and subsequent erosion by developing a postdisaster recovery plan that included a Recovery and Reconstruction Task Force with identified pre. By studying mitigation options before disaster strikes. a community is better prepared for recovery and decision making can take place in a less-fettered environment with appropriate funding. South Carolina. too disruptive. This loss of credibility can become a barrier to implementing a holistic disaster recovery. North Carolina. The controversial nature of this effort is best demonstrated by its 1989 adoption date. Hilton Head. the best chance to foster postdisaster change is to include sustainability issues in local predisaster planning.
and disaster assistance issues 2-4 . temporary housing. are considered. most people are recovering emotionally. and social network rehabilitation. homes. short-term and long-term recovery phases may be significantly different than in disasters of lesser magnitude. Long-term recovery begins when a community starts to repair or replace roads. and create reconstruction policies. Communities respond quickly and with increasing resolve to reestablish utilities. that is. it is during the long-term recovery period that most changes in preexisting conditions can and do occur. and this takes place at a slower pace than the external. However. For example. followed by a longer period of disillusionment as personal. there is time to notify people of the impending danger. It is also the period where improvement and changes for the better. are examples of mitigation (discussed in more detail in Chapter 8). Short-term recovery activities can continue for months. Response actions are taken before anything happens. take some protective measures. like slow-rise riverine flooding or most hurricanes. postevent disaster recovery occurs in short-term and long-term phases. Different Perspectives on Disaster Recovery It is important to recognize that not everyone within a community will have the same perspective or understanding of disaster recovery. Changes such as improving traffic circulation or supplementing affordable housing units are examples of improvements in a community’s quality of life (see Chapter 4). such as strengthening building codes. Whether they are considered during predisaster planning or short-term postdisaster recovery. family. the activities that need to be managed in order for a local government to recover to an equal or improved state. utility restoration. vocational retraining. sometimes communities do respond before disaster happens. provide access. community recovery. in predictable events. job. seriously impacting the ability to integrate long-term recovery and mitigation opportunities into early decision making. such as the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami or Hurricane Katrina in 2005. and stores. Changes that include sustained efforts to reduce loss of life and property from the next disaster. Traditional. Long-term postdisaster recovery may begin with the repopulation of displaced residents and with participatory processes for visioning the future that may occur at scales ranging from neighborhood to regional. The issues discussed thus far are presented from a community recovery point of view. bridges. The recovery of severely impacted communities may also include economic revitalization. mass care. How they occur will affect how some longer-term decisions are made. However.The Disaster Recovery Process event. there are also perspectives of the individual and of community economics that need to be taken into account. In catastrophic disasters. during which people come together to help and comfort each other. The individual perspective is important because as a community starts its recovery. and debris clearance are essential elements of short-term recovery. Individuals experience a short period of cohesion. improving transportation corridors. management of donations and volunteers. changing land use and zoning designations. and evacuate safely. reducing the need to respond further and reducing some elements of short-term recovery that might otherwise be necessary. public information. insurance. Search and rescue. such as changes to building codes and land use designations. damage assessment. and replacing affordable housing stock.
these they can impede holistic recovery. the greater the problems for local government (e. Regulations. Louisiana. If these obstacles are ignored. There is also an increased reliance of business upon local government. loss of business services). the availability of insurance. In New Orleans.g. and transportation services and the uncertainty related to issues such as building regulations. after Hurricane Katrina. consumers. programmatic funding rules and applicable codes and standards (e. It is this economic perspective that highlights the interrelationship and interdependency between local governments and the business community. However. This creates a disconnect between community recovery and individual recovery that leads to frustration. Thus. As a result. funding made available through government disaster relief programs provides the means to jump-start the recovery process. infrastructure design standards) will drive the decisions to repair or replace damaged facilities and affect a community’s ability to make changes. from small mom-and-pop to big box national chains. 2-5 . loss of sales taxes. The lack of housing. People forced to stand in line for water and ice. misunderstanding. the longer it takes for businesses to recover.. building codes. utilities. The businesses often reach out to their employees to help them recover as individuals. Rules. Businesses. Without access to their facilities or power and water to run equipment and bathrooms. there is an economic perspective that differs from both that of the community and the individual. causing layoffs and further restricting services when they were most needed. and policies that accompany the funding can often alter priorities. unemployment. It is important to recognize the differing perspectives and agendas in order to tailor recovery actions that address these conflicts and barriers as much as possible. employees. Everyone in the community has a stake in disaster recovery and the differing perspectives and interdependencies of individuals. the postdisaster environment can create a cycle of decline that is difficult to break.g. the rules. are primarily concerned with minimizing their down time. and production capacity further stifled the economy. Similarly. regulations. Local politics also can become a barrier to the holistic recovery. there are often more alternatives for correcting poor past decisions than there would be if only slight repairs are needed. insurance appointments. government. and curtail creative solutions. and disaster assistance find it difficult to return to work to help their “other family” at the same time. and Policies—On the positive side.The Disaster Recovery Process take their toll. Obstacles to Holistic Disaster Recovery There are many obstacles to a successful recovery that may slow down or sidetrack the recovery process. A few common obstacles are described below. and business can create conflicts over priorities and timing. When facilities require full replacement. because they need them as employees to help manage the business recovery. Conversely. business recovery is hindered. limit opportunities. and disillusionment.. the economy struggled to recover in the absence of decisions regarding the repair of levees. city revenues continued to decline. Degree of Damage—After presidential disaster declarations. and access to education.
and boating is becoming more commonplace. However. 2-6 . and building pressure reach new heights as local officials try codes. Otherwise unaffected property owners may choose to oppose redevelopment plans.The Disaster Recovery Process Property Rights. government busily adopted changes to the location of Additionally. and Land Use—These issues affect how and when communities make recovery decisions. coordination. often requiring different mixes of skills than those to which officials are accustomed. property ownership. New Mexico. Drive to Return to Normal—Proposed postdisaster changes in land use. such as the National Response Plan Eight months after a wildfire disaster. Development. and redevelopment plans always take time and are often costly to those impacted. Job functions change. repetitive damage. and some vision of an improved future. utility restoration digging up neighborhood roads. The county was acutely aware of these circumstances and through concentrated and ongoing communication made use of newsletters. increased risk. and decreasing property values. Alamos County. arguing that government should not assist those who knowingly accepted the risk. new terminology. after a flood. were frustrated by unresolved government normally provides. The idea of establishing a riverfront park that combines flood loss reduction with a pedestrian/bicycle corridor and public access for picnicking. code changes requiring Searching for an Extraordinary Solution to what Appears an Extraordinary Problem— Most extraordinary problems are actually problems that governments deal with routinely: picking up debris. The residents affected by the fire. permitting new reconstruction design modifications. In other cases. procedures. public scrutiny and political utilities. Immediate Changes in the Roles and Procedures of Local Government Officials— Postdisaster government roles. leadership. For example. and the work involves new players. These changes can be seen as unnecessary delays and expensive deterrents in an already slow and costly recovery. fishing. the Los and National Incident Management System. A “bigger is better” redevelopment trend has been documented following earthquakes and wildfires. “survivor” meetings. political will. and escalating personal losses. planning. Lack of Awareness of the True Redevelopment Possibilities—People may be unaware of how other communities have made substantial community improvements by using a disaster to initiate the process. conducting building inspections. building codes. densities. and even new Communicating with the Public structures. These attitudes can be obstacles to using recovery opportunities for community improvement. to maintain the day-to-day functions that however. disaster claims. zoning designations. infrastructure. natural resource protection. and priorities change. workloads increase dramatically. a community may identify an opportunity to enhance economic development. and it is difficult to change their primary focus without significant preplanning. communities are often surprised to discover that many owners of flooded homes not only want to return to their riverfront vistas but also intend to take the opportunity to replace the structures with larger. and the county Web site to diffuse a difficult situation. damaged properties represent the least desirable housing in the community due to location. and the quality of life by limiting redevelopment in certain areas. more modern units. Others are more concerned with their own personal world than with the larger picture of community improvement.
Through leadership and incentives. repeated losses. The Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act. There needs to be a comprehensive. such as FEMA’s Project Impact and the Institute for Business & Home Safety’s Disaster Resistant Communities. They must protect the health. environmental preservation. preexisting conditions are often reestablished. and establish the priorities to make it happen. and the Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000. as amended. provide the direction to get there. FEMA helped bring about this change by sequentially conditioning disaster assistance upon the requirement to rebuild to applicable codes and standards. When public decisions are swayed by the immediacy of constituent needs. the search for the extraordinary solution will only slow them down. A few enablers for holistic disaster recovery and how they might be used are described below. along with initiatives. safety. Communities need to break down the problems into those that they are already accustomed to resolving and then use standard procedures. Otherwise. quality of life. have also helped to make these improvements predisaster priorities. and influence of those who promote short-sighted solutions. few decisions are analyzed to the extent that their direct and indirect consequences can be foreseen.The Disaster Recovery Process development. Unless this occurs. Lack of Systematic Communication between Decision Makers. They must develop and create a will that is infectious among community politicians and constituents alike. and social justice. Departments. to reduce future exposure to risk. and welfare of the community from the desires. community safety and improvement have become standard postdisaster priorities. ongoing. to purchase and maintain hazards insurance. systematic series of checkpoints at which every decision is weighed against its impact on hazards vulnerability. managing grants and loans. The situation becomes extraordinary because all these functions are happening at the same time and with greater demands. These requirements are accompanied by substantial financial and technical resources and trainings to provide the catalyst for successful community disaster recovery. and to develop mitigation plans. Enablers for Holistic Disaster Recovery Disaster recovery has evolved from meaning helping communities replace what they had to helping communities prepare and protect themselves from preventable. 2-7 . the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968. and Stakeholders—Communities need to develop a mechanism that ensures that the principles of sustainability are incorporated into every decision. Local leaders must define a vision of the future. and providing public information. and to minimize repetitive impacts to the taxpayers. Lack of Political Will to Do the Right Thing—Addressing long-term needs and determining methods to prevent a recurrence are often goals unintentionally sacrificed due to lack of appropriate support. power. economic vitality. Disaster recovery managers must juxtapose short-term and long-term community needs against the quick and easy fix or the perceived rights of select property owners. They need to foster personal and community responsibility for recovery decisions that will affect their community for years to come.
demonstrate commitment to public knowledge and input. In holistic disaster recovery. while others may benefit from the multiobjective element of the action. failure to act is another. or improved transportation corridors. Not having the state-empowered local authority to act (e. such as affordable housing. From a holistic recovery perspective. Vision—It has been said. and to get the job done. “you can’t get somewhere if you don’t know where you’re going!” Creating a vision of what kind of place a community wants to be in the future provides direction otherwise lacking in disaster recovery. Promoting multiple objectives and benefits broadens constituent support and helps to create the public investment critical to long-term implementation and success. and protect the long-term public interest.g. Making development changes in a community can be difficult and controversial for those with the authority to implement change. More information on participatory processes is provided in Chapter 3.. business. and articulate a vision of the future that reflects the values and goals of community members. For example. Authority—Authority is the ability to use appropriate tools to support the needs of the community. and protect downstream businesses from flooding. and organization that may be affected by a potential decision and include them in the decision-making process. It is the willingness to make the tough decisions. a community can order its actions to maximize outcomes. Prioritization—Through prioritization.The Disaster Recovery Process Stakeholder Perception—Be aware of every person. Assigning a weighted decision making factor capitalizes upon additional and nontraditional disaster recovery resources while maintaining an overall implementation framework. adopting land use measures) is one thing. a detention pond that contains a playground within its boundaries may provide protection to some and recreation opportunities to others. the community can use disaster recovery to reduce vulnerability and improve overall quality of life. as well as other aspects of sustainability. to maintain the overall focus. With a vision of the future. 2-8 . Community Endorsement—Community support and buy-in builds public expectations and confidence. agency. the detention pond may also contribute to improved water quality. access to recreation. Leadership/Local Champion—The presence of a leader or local champion plays a fundamental role in building community support. Build as wide a supporting constituent base as possible and include them in the decision-making process. establishing priorities allows communities to double up on other goals. evaluate the alternatives. Leaders have the ability to effectively deal with value conflicts. A local champion is the person who devotes time and energy to building a coalition of interests and advocating holistic recovery to the community. Some may benefit directly from the action being taken. wildlife habitat. Political Will—This includes the willingness to analyze the issues.
Planning—whether it be for smart growth. and other issues are coordinated through comprehensive planning initiated ahead of time. In the ideal disaster recovery. Step 1: Get Organized—The community can demonstrate its commitment to the process through the resources it provides for the planning process. takes similar approaches. a community’s goals for economic development. The process is described in detail from a flood mitigation perspective in Flood Mitigation Planning: The CRS Approach by French Wetmore and Gil Jamieson (1999). sustainable development. Holistic disaster recovery can be incorporated into this process as follows. Even if a community is not preparing a formal recovery plan. and faces similar barriers. environmental protection. Three Approaches to Community Planning Sustainability Participatory Process Quality of Life Economic Vitality Social Equity Environmental Quality Disaster Resilience Natural Hazards Mitigation Planning Avoidance Strengthening Conserving Limiting Communication Smart Growth Comprehensive Planning Compact Urban Areas Mixed Land Uses Transportation Options Staged Infrastructure Human-Scale Design Predictable Development Review Holistic Disaster Recovery Planning: The 10-Step Process Most communities complete their recovery and mitigation plans in the postdisaster setting by following FEMA’s mitigation planning initiatives. and incentives. They are advised to follow what has become known as the 10-step mitigation planning process. disaster resilience. the name given to state-of-the-art community planning strategies. Experience has demonstrated that a key to successful hazards mitigation is multiobjective planning.S. requirements.The Disaster Recovery Process Multiobjective Planning for Natural Hazards Holistic disaster recovery does not occur by itself. or hazards mitigation—adopts similar goals. The multiobjective opportunities commonly identified during hazard mitigation planning resemble the principles of sustainable development and smart growth. Below are listed the principal elements of each of these three community planning approaches. Introduce the holistic disaster 2-9 . This is the same planning process that is recommended in the guidance for the National Flood Insurance Program’s Community Rating System and also is recognized in some U. the 10-step process is a useful guide to action. Army Corps of Engineers’ local flood control initiatives.
academia. or social services personnel. Get agreement on the action plan. Step 2: Involve the Public—The sustainability principle of using a participatory process is readily addressed by including the stakeholders directly. 3. and economic status. recovery concept. Get organized. the overall quality of life. Explore all alternative strategies. races. encourage staff commitment and input. evaluate. the six principles of sustainability are included among the criteria that assist the team in deciding which actions to take and in which order. outline planning. 8. Departments.The Disaster Recovery Process The 10-Step Process for Local Planning and Action 1. and groups. and recreation plans. Step 7: Explore All Alternatives—The recovery team reviews the options and tools available to achieve the selected goals and objectives. and people of different ages. 6. As part of this review. Step 6: Set Goals and Objectives—The recovery team can use the Matrix of Opportunities presented in Chapter 1 to identify and incorporate short. economic development directors. Step 4: Identification of Problems and Step 5: Evaluate the Problems—Recovery team members should consider how the potential impacts might affect economic activities. and gather needed resources during this step. The recovery team needs to be sure that the actions agreed upon do not undermine any of the aspects of sustainability. Implement. The team should also adopt a long-term viewpoint so that intergenerational equity is considered.and long-term recovery issues into the evolving plan. 10. Step 3: Coordinate with Other Agencies. 9. The criteria should clearly identify proposed actions that support sustainability as having high community value. See Chapters 3 and 6 for more discussion of who to include and how to do it. and revise. This step becomes the true litmus test for choosing activities that will help integrate sustainability into the community during its recovery. and Groups—A community can expand representation on the central recovery committee or task force to include those who can contribute expertise on each of the principles of sustainability. Identify the problem situation. 2. Coordination with other community plans and programs at this point will help integrate disaster recovery issues with existing comprehensive. Involve the public. development. This could include state or local parks or wildlife departments. Evaluate the problem and identify opportunities. for example. departments. the business community. Set goals. Coordinate with other agencies. drainage. Plan for action. housing. 2-10 . capital improvement. 7. 4. transportation. 5. natural resources.
Disasters are simply catalysts for change.. 9. Making Sustainability Permanent Disaster recovery provides the opportunity to introduce sustainability into a community. nor should it be. However. It is important that the plan does not sit on the shelf but is written as a practical and specific guide for action.The Disaster Recovery Process Steps 8. a community should not wait for a disaster to pursue principles of sustainability that may provide solutions to other problems it faces. the agreed upon actions are summarized into a plan that is adopted by a local elected governing body. Disaster recovery provides an opportunity to correct unsustainable choices of the past. Although. but including the principles as decision-making criteria ensures that they will at least be considered. The American Planning Association provides a model natural hazards element for local comprehensive plans in Appendix E of the Planning for Post-Disaster Recovery and Reconstruction guidebook (Schwab et al. there are many other ways. It is not the driving force behind implementation of sustainability. Adopting a natural hazards element within a local comprehensive plan is one of the most effective ways to incorporate sustainability into a community by ensuring that every development/redevelopment decision is subject to the principles of sustainability. the dramatic nature of disasters and the frequent need for rebuilding provide opportunities to substantially improve the character of the community in ways that rarely occur otherwise. The rest of the chapters in this handbook provide more details about how to incorporate different aspects of sustainability into the appropriate phases of the 10-step process. This 10-step process does not guarantee that every sustainability principle will be addressed in the recovery. and 10: Write. and Implement the Plan—In these final steps. Adopt. 2-11 . 1998).
Decision makers and their families are likely to be victims themselves. The resident version of this course is designed for local disaster recovery teams. and federal regulations define boundaries for recovery options. Having experienced a disaster does not make a community immune. feel their disaster was the catalyst for making many improvements that otherwise may never have occurred. political. There is never enough time. planning. building inspectors.. architecture). and 2-12 . and disaster recovery consultants. The issues will be complex. changing. Different programs from different agencies often do not mesh well. Local. amended. supplemental assistance. Disaster recovery programs and procedures seem like moving targets. there is never enough money. professional organizations (e. During the first months and for years thereafter it will address rebuilding. consisting of emergency managers.” Many communities.” FEMA E210. and improving what was lost and addressing financial. Emergency Management Institute. The operating procedures of critical recovery agencies will be unfamiliar. Help is available from state and federal disaster officials. decision makers from other communities that have been impacted by disaster. in retrospect.gov/EMIWeb/. During the first months it will address restoration of community services. If it happened once. There is a “silver lining. state. public works directors. Political interests often respond with additional. Disaster recovery takes years. Decision makers should learn from experiences by evaluating what worked and what did not. and environmental issues. Incorporating mitigation into disaster recovery protects a community from the next disaster. replacing. There is a lot of help available for disaster recovery. Where to Find More Information Training Courses and Workshops Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). During the first weeks the community will address emergency actions. Local decision makers do not need to reinvent the wheel.fema. elected city/county/parish administrators. Re-creating a predisaster level of services and quality of life is not guaranteed. Decision makers should share their lessons learned and successes with others.The Disaster Recovery Process Maxims for Disaster Recovery Disaster recovery is not easy. These teams. it can happen again. There are many possible outcomes to disaster recovery. Maryland.g. or replaced. and fueled by competing interests. National Emergency Training Center. engineering. “Recovery from Disaster. Emmitsburg. Local leadership and vision are determinants of recovery outcomes. The community will be understaffed. Disaster assistance policies are frequently changed. http://training.
Extension Disaster Education Network (EDEN) EDEN is a collaborative. Web Resources American Planning Association The American Planning Association (APA) is a nonprofit organization representing practicing planners. Visit http://www. and exercises to allow for structured decision making in a learning.” http://www. preparedness. This section provides information on the response and assistance program coordinated by the APA in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. Their Web site is an excellent source of books about community planning that incorporate the principles of sustainable development. This section lists online educational materials and articles related to natural hazards.fema.and long-term programming 2-13 . and citizens involved with urban and rural planning issues.gov/rrr/. Asian Disaster Preparedness Center. E932/S932.html. response.planning. Their Web site serves primarily extension agents and educators by providing them access to resources on disaster mitigation. “Integrated Emergency Management Courses (IEMC) for Specific Communities. Visit http://www.” http://www. The three classes are E930/S390 IEMC/Community Specific/All Hazards: Response and Recovery.org/katrina/resources.org/katrina/. Visit http://www. They are tailored to fit the community and are based on a selected hazard type. are taught how to develop a disaster recovery plan. environment. These courses place emphasis on community response and short-term recovery issues.adpc. multistate effort by extension services across the country to improve the delivery of services to citizens affected by disasters. FEMA Response and Recovery This section of FEMA’s Web site includes information on individual and public assistance and access to the Response and Recovery Library. E931/S391. and E932/S932 IEMC/Earthquake: Response and Recovery. and recovery that will enhance their short.” FEMA Courses E930/S390. E931/S931 IEMC/Community Specific/Hurricane: Response and Recovery. “Response to Hurricane Katrina. planning sessions. APA’s mission is to encourage planning that will contribute to public well-being by developing communities and environments that meet the needs of people and society more effectively. yet realistic.The Disaster Recovery Process community planners.planning.net/infores/dsituation/webtsunami/pages/information. officials.org/. Indian Ocean Tsunami Disaster Information Resources This Web page of the Asian Disaster Preparedness Center provides links to several assessment reports and other publications related to recovery and reconstruction in areas affected by the Indian Ocean Tsunami of 2004. Participants are given the opportunity to develop their own recovery plan outline during the course.htm. A key outcome is to help with the transition from response to short-term recovery.planning. “Disaster and Hazards Resources. The courses use classroom instruction.
development. and redevelopment problems for public. The ULI’s Advisory Services offers fee-based expert analysis and advice on how to solve difficult land use.org/. and research reports that date back to 1989. Visit http://www. Louisiana Recovery Authority The Louisiana Recovery Authority (LRA) is the planning and coordinating body at the state level implementing the governor’s vision for the recovery of Louisiana. economic losses. Institute for Business & Home Safety The Institute for Business & Home Safety (IBHS) is a nonprofit association that engages in communication. November 12–18.ibhs. videos.html. Louisiana.htm. property damage. A Strategy for Rebuilding New Orleans. education.louisiana.com/catalog. Mississippi.com/.and long-term needs of the recovery. Visit http://www. Their Web site provides information on the nine recovery teams established by the LRA and on priorities for short. Louisiana. http://www.rothstein. Visit http://www. The Web site also includes a link to final team reports from the commission’s Mississippi Renewal Forum. Their draft report.org/.lra. Mississippi Governor’s Commission: Recovery. engineering.eden. software. Rothstein Catalog on Disaster Recovery This is a catalog of books. and nonprofit organizations. as well as links to many other organizations. Rebuilding. Urban Land Institute The Urban Land Institute (ULI) initiates research that anticipates emerging land use trends and issues. “Community Land Use Planning. Renewal The Governor’s Commission on Recovery. private. and Renewal was formed shortly after Hurricane Katrina to develop a broad vision for a better Gulf Coast and South Mississippi. 2005. and research with the mission to reduce deaths. This section provides information on the link between land use planning and hazard mitigation and how to get natural hazards considered in land use decisions.The Disaster Recovery Process efforts but also provides hurricane resources for Louisiana. and Articles Active Learning Network for Accountability and Performance in Humanitarian Action (ALNAP) and the Provention Consortium. Visit http://www.gov/.alnap. South Asia Earthquake 2005: Learning from Previous Recovery Operations. and human suffering caused by natural disasters. Rebuilding. The commission focuses on giving local leaders access to ideas and information that will help them decide what their region will look like in the future. injuries. A ULI advisory service panel was asked to make recommendations for the rebuilding of New Orleans. Visit http://www.lsu. UK: ALNAP. London.” http://www.uli.edu/.org/land_use_planning/. 2-14 .ibhs.org/lessons_earthquake. Guidebooks.governorscommission. is available online. 2005. Visit http://www. and Texas. in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. Books.
The Disaster Recovery Process This briefing paper provides a synthesis of key lessons from postdisaster recovery programs. The briefing covers targeting, participation, assessment, shelter and housing, risk reduction and policy and attempts to draw out main lessons in each area while highlighting critical sources for further reference. American Planning Association (APA). 2002. Growing Smart Legislative Handbook: Model Statues for Planning and the Management of Change. Chicago, IL: APA. This new edition includes a CD-ROM, user manual, and new materials address the siting of controversial facilities, authorization for all types of local land development regulation, adequate public facilities requirements, urban growth areas, unified development permit reviews, design review, traditional neighborhood development, and transfer of purchase rights. The APA has developed a model natural hazards element for local comprehensive plans. The model incorporates practices taken from numerous state statutes, combining them to create a mechanism whereby hazards mitigation, a stepping stone for holistic disaster recovery, may be institutionalized. Association of State Floodplain Managers. 1996. Using Multi-Objective Management to Reduce Flood Losses in Your Watershed. Madison, WI: Association of State Floodplain Managers. http://www.floods.org/PDF/Using_mom_in_watershed.pdf. This publication explores planning and implementation techniques for multiobjective watershed management. It provides a general introduction to multiobjective management and the planning process that helps a community select the flood loss reduction measures most suitable to its situation. It explains how to define problems and goals, build partnerships, combine needs and solutions creatively, and begin formal implementation procedures. Both riverine and coastal flood watersheds are examined. Much of the document focuses on multiobjective management planning details, involving subjects such as fish and wildlife issues, water supply, housing improvement, transportation, and lifelines. Preparation of a multiobjective management plan involves problem definition, involvement of nonlocal groups, and public and official acceptance of the plan. Becker, William S. and Roberta F. Stauffer. 1994. Rebuilding the Future–A Guide to Sustainable Redevelopment for Disaster-Affected Communities. Golden, CO: U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Center of Excellence for Sustainable Development. This document summarizes why sustainability is important and gives an example of sustainable development in one community, Soldiers Grove, Wisconsin. The reader is walked step-by-step through the holistic recovery process. The last chapter discusses real-life problems that the planner may encounter. There is an appendix to the report with a comprehensive list of resources. Berke, Philip R., Jack D. Kartez, and Dennis E. Wenger. 1993. “Recovery after Disaster: Achieving Sustainable Development, Mitigation and Equity.” Disasters 17 (2): 93-109. Emergency Management Australia. 1996. Australian Emergency Manual Disaster Recovery. Dickson, ACT: Emergency Management Australia.
The Disaster Recovery Process http://www.ema.gov.au/agd/ema/rwpattach.nsf/viewasattachmentPersonal/DF6CC0E03B57 D6FCCA256C8D00558574/$file/disaster_recovery_manual.pdf. The aim of this manual is to provide disaster managers and practitioners with a comprehensive guide on recovery at all levels. The manual is divided into four main sections: 1) concepts and principles which underpin the recovery process, 2) insights into the likely impact a disaster may have upon the community, 3) structures within which disaster recovery is managed and planning and operational guidelines, and 4) specific services which may be provided. FEMA. 1997. Framework for Federal Action to Help Build a Healthy Recovery and Safer Future in Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota. Washington, DC: FEMA. This document identifies and explains the wide range of grants, loans, and technical assistance that the federal government can offer to meet the recovery needs of people and communities. Although the document summarizes these programs for the states of Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota, the descriptions are applicable to other areas recovering from flooding. Programs summarized include comprehensive flood hazard mitigation; housing repairs, rehabilitation, reconstruction, and replacement financing; the National Flood Insurance Program; economic recovery programs; agriculture programs; infrastructure programs; health and mental health programs; and programs for special needs populations. FEMA. 2000. Rebuilding for a More Sustainable Future: An Operational Framework. FEMA Report 365. Washington, DC: FEMA. http://www.fema.gov/fima/rebuilding.shtm. This document provides guidance to planners in the postdisaster response and recovery process. State emergency management officials, local jurisdictions, and other FEMA staff also may use it as a reference during nondisaster time. Mileti, Dennis S. 1999. Disasters by Design. Washington, DC: The Joseph Henry Press. This book is a summary volume of the Second National Assessment of Research on Natural Hazards with the formal mission of summarizing what is known in the various fields of science and engineering that is applicable to natural and related technological hazards in the United States and making some research and policy recommendations for the future. It summarizes the hazards research findings from the last two decades, synthesizes what has been learned, and outlines a proposed shift in direction in research and policy for natural and related technological hazards. Disasters by Design is intended for a general audience including policy makers and practitioners. The annotated bibliography is available online at http://www.colorado.edu/hazards/assessbib.html. Minnesota Department of Public Safety. Recovery from Disaster Handbook. St. Paul, MN: State of Minnesota. http://www.hsem.state.mn.us/HSem_view_Article.asp?docid=313&catid=4. This handbook provides local governments with guidance in long-term recovery after a disaster. The restoration process places great demands on government and the private sector. The manual also provides answers and advice to many questions that arise during recovery. Tool kits at the end of each chapter provide additional information. Petterson, Jeannine. 1999. A Review of the Literature and Programs on Local Recovery from Disaster. Natural Hazards Research Working Paper #102. Boulder, CO: Natural Hazards Center. http://www.colorado.edu/hazards/wp/wp102/wp102.html.
The Disaster Recovery Process This literature review explores what is known about community recovery from disasters as it relates to the design of a program of technical assistance to help communities plan and implement a long-term, sustainable recovery. Rubin, Claire B. Martin D. Saperstein, and Daniel G. Barbee. 1985. Community Recovery from a Major Natural Disaster. Monograph No. 41. Boulder, CO: Natural Hazards Center. This publication describes what was learned by a team that spent four years observing how 14 communities coped with the deleterious effects of disasters. The focus of the research was on the ways in which local governments’ activities, as well as their interactions with other levels of government, affected the speed and/or efficiency of recovery. The roles of community officials in recovery and postdisaster mitigation, the kind of disaster agents involved, the levels of emergency planning and preparedness, and the communities’ sense of themselves and their futures are all analyzed. Schwab, Jim et al. 1998. Planning for Post-Disaster Recovery and Reconstruction. PAS Report No. 483/484. Chicago, IL: American Planning Association. This document helps community leaders and planners educate their constituents on how informed decisions and choices can affect the rebuilding process and yield a safer, more sustainable community. The report introduces planners to their roles in postdisaster reconstruction and recovery and provides guidance on how to plan for postdisaster reconstruction side by side with all other players involved. A key theme throughout this report is to rebuild to create a more disaster-resilient community. Vale, Lawrence J. and Thomas J. Campanella, editors. 2001. The Resilient City: How Modern Cities Recover from Disaster. Cary, NC: Oxford University Press. For as long as they have existed, cities have been destroyed—sacked, shaken, burnt, bombed, flooded, starved, irradiated, and pillaged—in almost every case they have risen again. Rarely in modern times has a city not been rebuilt following destruction, be it natural or otherwise. This book explores urban disasters from around the globe and the ongoing restoration of urban life. It examines why cities are rebuilt, how a vision for the future gets incorporated into a new urban landscape, and how disasters have been interpreted and commemorated in built form. Featured disasters include the Oklahoma City bombing, the Chicago Fire, San Francisco’s 1906 earthquake, Mexico City’s 1985 earthquake, China’s Tangshan earthquake, and more.
The participation of stakeholders and citizens in the decision-making process allows for mutual learning to occur between participants and local staff and officials and for more creative ideas and solutions to emerge. Undertaking a Participatory Approach Undertaking a participatory approach requires political and financial commitment. Many of the benefits of public involvement result from the interaction and exchange of perspectives among stakeholders and the public. Public buy-in is essential to avoid making decisions in the immediate aftermath of a disaster that may compromise what the community might achieve in the long term (Schwab et al. basic needs. This chapter focuses on the importance of using a participatory approach in the holistic disaster recovery process. the chapter discusses the benefits of a participatory approach. In the case of the Vermillion Basin. 1998). Processes that fail to satisfy participants have long-term negative consequences for working relationships within a community and can set the community back from achieving its goals. A communitywide participatory process is unlikely to be feasible in the immediate aftermath of a disaster because people are occupied with immediate. In addition. South Dakota. Examples of success from other communities are highlighted and a variety of expert resources for finding more information on designing a participatory process are provided at the end of the chapter. (discussed below) the participatory process took place a year after the 1993 flood. The chapter is not a how-to kit for designing a public participation process— there are a multitude of forms the process can take.Chapter 3 Participatory Processes in Disaster Recovery Introduction The opportunity for public involvement in decision making is immense when a community is faced with the myriad of problems of recovering from a disaster. Instead. and the obstacles that may present themselves. Also. It also requires commitment on the part of the recovery team and local policy makers to allow public input to truly influence the decision-making process. how to select among techniques. . Engaging the public is crucial to achieving a holistic and sustainable recovery from a disaster. it takes time for leaders to set up a constructive process. the policies and plans developed through a public involvement process will benefit from higher levels of credibility and support..
If not. People are invited to participate based on the understanding that they are embarking on a search for the reconciliation of competing interests (Daniels and Walker. removing the structures. and potential solutions. The community held a town meeting to determine the best course of action and called upon the local media and volunteer flood recovery teams from local churches and civic groups. problems. an activity that more easily accommodates disagreement. Because elevating homes would not be cost effective. flooded in 2003. or reject any or part of the outcome? If it is likely that the outcome will be implemented reasonably intact. Will the Outcomes Be Implemented? If Yes. Local officials may choose a combination of techniques that best matches the character of the community and the goals and objectives of the process. in deciding which approach to use. For example. a planning exercise will be feasible. community members took steps to protect themselves. Public Meetings Public meetings are used to exchange information and obtain ideas from residents about goals. such as collaborative learning. By Whom? Do the implementers have the right to review. it is important to consider the following: How Much Agreement Is Likely to Be Reached through the Process? If there is a strong likelihood that consensus will be reached. Indiana.Participatory Processes The recovery phase of a disaster cycle is often a time when people are more open to messages about change. others are used less often and are associated with particular approaches. it was agreed that buying the flood damaged properties. They should only be used if citizen information is likely to influence decisions. a planning exercise is warranted. after an area in Kokomo. accept. modify. 1996). If not. 3-2 . may be more useful. Making an effort to reach out and include them as active participants enhances the likelihood of a long-term. Techniques for Participatory Processes Some of the techniques described below are common practices used by community leaders in public participation processes. shared learning may be a better way to generate an array of options. The extent of acceptable disagreement during the search and on its outcomes is what distinguishes one participatory approach from another. Deciding among Participatory Approaches Negotiation is at the heart of all participatory processes. and rebuilding damaged homes required stricter codes and added cost. Consequently. How Inclusive Is the Approach Being Considered? Can the approach be structured to facilitate the contribution of marginalized groups? Historically marginalized and excluded groups may not believe they are able to affect change and may need opportunities to develop their collective strengths to be able to buy into the recovery process. and converting the area into green space was the best option. sustainable outcome.
• Post notices in conspicuous places. Encouraging Participation Engaging appropriate individuals and representatives of agencies and organizations is critical to the success of any form of participatory process. Live Call-in Radio Live call-in radio may be used get immediate feedback on potential solutions. simple. Each presentation should include a question and answer session. discussions are commonly held with panelists representing critical stakeholder groups.Participatory Processes Issue Presentations The purpose of issue presentations is for experts to provide information on scientific. • Write press releases and arrange for press coverage from the local media. technical and legal dimensions of a problem. It is essential that people are informed of their opportunity to participate and of how their input will be used. and three activities that involve generating ideas. There are several practical steps that a community can take to increase public participation and to improve the quality of the input. Charette A classic planning technique. 3-3 . often on predetermined themes. Field Trips Field trips are helpful for viewing problems first hand and speaking to people who cannot attend gatherings in a given place. Publicity—Make the effort to reach as many people as possible with invitations to participate. To maximize participation. open process for participation. Organized and unorganized groups of citizens need to be included if they can provide useful information for resolving the issue or if they could affect implementation by accepting or rejecting it. Panelists talk briefly about their viewpoints and concerns and those of the groups they represent. Workshops Workshops consist of an interactive format in which participants’ views and ideas are explicitly solicited. • Get the message out in as many languages and formats as appropriate. and problem solving. A question and answer discussion period with all participants may follow. such as public buildings and community centers. attendees may be invited to work in subgroups. and supported with photographs or illustrations. real-time chat rooms and virtual forums may be useful. decision making. • Send information to people who have been affected or will be affected. A typical charette is characterized by a structured schedule. • Make use of existing newsletters or consider establishing a new one for the project. If there is widespread Internet access. • Make the messages clear. a charette is an intense effort to solve problems in a limited amount of time. Panel Discussions After issue presentations.
weekends). • Provide childcare. The following are a variety of suggestions for financing participatory processes: • Presidential disaster declarations make funds available from federal. This may be remedied by a public information campaign that presents technical issues. Accept and learn from failure. • Food and refreshments for public meetings might be donated by area businesses or corporations wishing to assist in the recovery. Decisions not to participate also may stem from the three factors described below. • Supply refreshments. and leading consensus-building initiatives. residents. These funds could provide for special projects. such as developing a participatory process that cannot be funded through other channels. Financing a Participatory Process Public and stakeholder involvement processes will require considerable financial and staff resources. and out-of-town groups often donate to local relief funds. or consider offering duplicate sessions at several locations and times. Consider citizen attitudes toward institutional goals. Work to build relationships. • Select a convenient. • After a disaster. • Schedule sessions during a time that is likely to work for most people (week days. Source: Thomas. Avoid viewing public involvement as good or bad. Define ahead of time what can and cannot be negotiated. 1995. each of • which has different roots and requires different • responses. avoid either/or terms. local businesses. Select an appropriate decision making form. a comprehensive public information campaign may provide enough information to determine whether the decision does or does not have personal importance. and encourages wider participation (Creighton. 1999). • Lack of awareness of their stake in the decision or viewing it as being of minor importance to them. 1983). • Provide translation services (City of Denton. facilitation. and possibly private sources. such as a neighborhood association or environmental public interest group. Dos and Don’ts for Encouraging Participation • • • • • • • Anticipate issues rather than having them imposed. state. accessible location. Recognize that public involvement requires sharing decision making authority. • • Assumptions that their views are • adequately represented by an active group. week evenings. Technical assistance also becomes available from federal and state agencies that may include the loan of personnel skilled in planning. lays out the proposed process of public involvement. 3-4 .Participatory Processes Logistics—Take into account people’s busy schedules and the competing demands on their time. Define ahead of time which “publics” to involve. Define issues in terms amenable to resolution. • Some people will be too busy securing the basics • of life. Keep in mind the specific objectives of the public process. Keep an eye on the public interest. • Disbelief that they can influence the outcome of the process. In this case. Use more than one approach. Making participation as easy as possible for them will increase attendance. Not everyone will be able or willing to participate.
and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) decided to have a public brainstorming session to bring together as many people and agencies as possible from inside and outside the basin to consider how to improve quality of life. Examples of Success Vermillion River Basin. Define the basin’s flood-related problems and goals. without waiting for massive federal assistance. South Dakota The Vermillion River basin drains 2. cultural and historic resources. At the time of the 1993 flooding of the Vermillion River basin. After a series of exploratory phone calls. Meeting space could be obtained free from area businesses or nonprofit organizations. Specify sources of technical assistance and funding for each idea and how to obtain it.185 square miles in the southeast corner of South Dakota into the Missouri River near Burbank. List sensible ideas for solving each problem. the TLC (Turner. South Dakota. The outcome of the session would be a plan that residents could realistically use. 1. Local radio or television stations could donate on-air time for public service announcements or for live broadcast of meetings. The flood caused $250 million in damages and provided a catalyst for undertaking a multiobjective flood mitigation plan. the South Dakota Division of Emergency Management. 1994). Identify ways to reach other basin goals that coincide with or complement the potential solutions to the flood problems. 5. Local agencies and interested individuals drew up a preliminary list of 17 issues. 1994. make recommendations. 6. and national organizations. and transportation systems • Economic development and sustainability. They used a four-step planning process (note similarity to Steps 4. drainage. while one-third were from local. 3. to reduce vulnerability to flooding and to address other issues residents thought important (Zahn et al. in Parker. and 7 of the 10-step process for holistic recovery described in Chapter 2). and Clay counties) Water Project District. that they thought a planning workshop should address: • Flood hazard management. Lincoln. 3-5 . and housing • Fish and wildlife • Outdoor recreation and open space • Water quality and erosion Organizers recruited individuals from different agencies and groups with the expertise necessary to understand local concerns. state. grouped into the five categories below.. 4. 2. the population density of the area was 25-35 people per square mile. About 150 people participated in the planning workshop June 20-24. South Dakota. the National Park Service (NPS). Two-thirds of participants were residents of the basin. and suggest sources and methods of implementation assistance and funding.Participatory Processes • • • The local government might be able to tap its own budget for public education or other goals to supply outreach materials.
Participatory Processes Step 1 was accomplished on Monday. The document. Tropical Storm Allison flooded 35 communities in Texas. which is part of Harris County. A draft plan was produced Thursday night for presentation to public officials in the basin on Friday. reports. On Tuesday. participants broke out into five planning teams. The team invited all 35 communities to participate in the mapping process to generate community involvement in the project. educational resources. listed possible solutions to each of those concerns. in a large public meeting.200 miles of stream in 22 watersheds (encompassing all 35 flooded communities in Texas). and guidance documents • Publications • Community visits by the Harris County Flood Control District Communication Department • A public outreach consultant to lead media and public relations • Clear. the first day. outlined concerns as expressed by the participants. They created the Tropical Storm Allison Recovery Project (TSARP). MultiObjective Flood Mitigation Plan—Vermillion River Basin South Dakota (listed in the resources section at the end of this chapter) was not intended to be adopted as a formal plan. homeowner associations. These tools are listed here: • A Web site for posting presentations. and identified ways in which those solutions could be tackled. one for each issue. FEMA and the Harris County Flood Control District partnered to conduct flood studies that remapped 1. The basin was successful in getting enabling legislation passed at the state level that makes it possible for a river basin district to be formally established to plan for and implement solutions to basinwide problems. 3-6 . but it has served as a foundation for subsequent efforts by residents and business people to address multiple objectives. The TSARP used many different tools for effective community outreach and credits these tools with helping people to understand and eventually support the idea that updated and more accurate maps help reduce the impacts of future flooding. The storm caused $5 billion in damage in the city of Houston alone. and business and environmental groups throughout Harris County Those involved with the map modernization project believed the coordinated outreach plan involving all of the affected communities was a key to its success. Tropical Storm Allison in Texas In June 2001. The process resulted in a planning document (published with technical and financial assistance from the NPS and FEMA that described the background and physical characteristics of the basin. the last day of the workshop. real estate groups. The TSARP held frequent meetings and communities participated in advisory committees and stakeholder groups. concise messages to specific audiences • Training courses for flood insurance agents • Presentations to civic organizations.
1995). Committing to a participatory approach characterized by transparency and mutual learning builds trust in the integrity of the process and reduces suspicion of the motives of agencies or the influence of powerful interests. At a minimum. Project managers are able to manage large volumes of public comment. involvement may not be continuous or predictable. classify. and generate reports that categorize.asp. 1997). moderate questions. Documenting the experience of participation is essential for monitoring and evaluation. roles in the community. Although it is not without pitfalls. Ideally. People participate because they have some interest in the outcome and remain involved as long as that interest persists. and characterize public responses. Planners and decision makers must be willing and able to make modifications. CDs. and their enthusiasm can fade when it turns out that other people disagree (Cornwall and Jewkes. Visit http://www.com/disasterpreparedness. Feedback should be obtained immediately following the activity and again after enough time has lapsed to assess the outcomes (City of Denton. 1999). 1995). the participating public will express inconsistent preferences that lead to conflict and leave decision makers with mixed signals about what to do (Steelman and Ascher. Allowing for an open dialogue and for the time needed to work through issues will result in more legitimate and sustainable outcomes. Even when people do participate. Where to Find More Information Videos.publiccomment. 3-7 . Decisions about what aspects will be evaluated should be made while designing the participatory process. both participants and those managing and financing the endeavor should evaluate it. Commitment and interest wanes as people tire of the task. In addition. it is important to ask participants during the process if midcourse corrections are needed. and Software The IBM Neighborhood America Public Comment Service This service supports the management of public comment collected both online and by traditional means. They may have preconceived ideas about desirable outcomes. Conclusion There is no guarantee that a participatory process will lead to successful outcomes. and willingness and ability to commit time and energy inevitably lead to different levels of involvement. Differences in technical expertise. People may participate in some stages of the process more than others. a well-chosen and appropriately employed participatory process can make the difference in the successful implementation and effectiveness of recovery strategies over time.Participatory Processes Monitoring the Participatory Process The sophistication and extent of monitoring will vary with the type of participatory process chosen. Broader public interests may be neglected in favor of the special interests of specific publics who accept the invitation to become involved (Thomas. This helps to ensure that activities are focused and goals are clear.
S.S. The organization develops tools that work for both citizens and decision makers and designs and facilitates large-scale town meetings on public policy issues. Visit http://www. Environmental Protection Agency Green Communities Program The Green Communities program of the U. Washington DC: American Red Cross.pdf.org/. Their Web site includes resources for multiracial organizing in the southern United States.org/freepub/land_use/participation_tools/index.gov/greenkit/index.Participatory Processes Web Resources AmericaSpeaks AmericaSpeaks is a nonprofit organization that engages citizens in the public decisions that impact their lives.htm. projects. the use of community surveys. vision statement. Community Planning Web Site This Web site shows how a variety of participation methods can be used in different scenarios ranging from disaster management to village revival. http://www.com/redcross/library/DisasterResistantNeighborhoodHandbook. and other resources. U. Visit http://www. Local Government Commission Center for Livable Communities The Web site of the Local Government Commission provides explanations of why public participation is important in community planning. and participatory land use mapping. trends analysis. Creighton and Creighton This Web site provides an annotated list of links about public involvement.html.highlandercenter. Books. Environmental Protection Agency identifies five steps to community sustainability: community assessment. Their Web site provides information on history.americaspeaks. Under each step. This handbook outlines a step-by-step action plan.tallytown. and implementation.creightonandcreighton. the Tools section explains methods for community involvement.lgc. Visit http://www. to assist planners in working with neighborhood associations to help them become better prepared for the next disaster. Building Disaster Resistant Neighborhoods Handbook. 3-8 . Visit http://www. and Articles American Red Cross.communityplanning. with examples. the use of computer simulation in public participation. The Highlander Education and Research Center This group specializes in participatory education and action research and stakeholder involvement. Guidebooks.com/. Visit http://www.asp. Visit http://www.org/default. The site offers checklists and templates as well as general principles and resource listings.html. sustainable action plans.epa.net/index.
CO: U. It provides an introduction to the principles and practices of sustainable development and explains the need for sustainable actions to be incorporated into the postdisaster recovery process. Peterson. This link is Chapter 1: Building Support for Mitigation Planning. DC: FEMA.shtm. FEMA. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. and worksheets for assessing project needs and participation processes. 2003. Mary and Robert Kweit. organizing public participation activities. 2000.smartcommunities. Krajeski. “Citizen Participation and Citizen Evaluation in Disaster Recovery. DC: FEMA.ncat. techniques for fulfilling project objectives. This book contains information on how citizen participation works. Section 3: Focus on the Community provides different approaches to public involvement and describes recent initiatives taken by communities to create a more sustainable future.shtm. Rebuilding for a More Sustainable Future.fema. It includes a toolkit for designing a participation process. Stauffer. Washington. William S. “‘But She Is a Woman and This Is a Man’s Job’: Lessons for Participatory Research and Participatory Recovery. The reader is walked step-by-step through the holistic recovery process. California: Jossey-Bass.ipmp-bleiker. Citizen Participation Handbook for Public Officials and Other Professionals Serving the Public.” International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 17(1): 123-130. Monterey. and evaluating the program. 1999. Hans and Annemarie Bleiker. community leaders.sagepub. Creighton. Richard L. and developing a public education campaign. Department of Energy. 1994. 3-9 .Participatory Processes Becker. San Francisco.gov/fima/rebuilding. http://www. this guide is written for government officials. the public. State and Local Mitigation Planning How-To-Guide.gov/pdf/fima/how1_step_3. This document provides guidance in the postdisaster response and recovery process. Center of Excellence for Sustainable Development.” American Review of Public Administration 34 (4): 354-373. Step 3: Engage the Public. Washington. http://www. Wisconsin. Golden. This document summarizes why sustainability is important and gives an example of sustainable development in one community. http://arp.pdf.fema. Access the full document at http://www. and professional facilitators.com/cgi/content/abstract/34/4/354. Kweit. The Public Participation Handbook: Making Better Decisions through Citizen Involvement.S. James. A practical guide to designing and facilitating participation of the public in environmental and public policy decision making. CA: The Institute for Participatory Management and Planning. working with the media.org/articles/RFTF1.com/cphand.htm. Bleiker.fema.shtml. and Kristina J. 2000. http://www. 2004. and Roberta F.gov/fima/resources. Rebuilding the Future–A Guide to Sustainable Redevelopment for Disaster-Affected Communities. 2005. http://www. selecting techniques to encourage participation. Soldiers Grove. Chapter 4 provides information on citizen involvement. facilitating successful public meetings. which offers procedures and techniques for identifying the public. FEMA.
had on their evaluation of the success of the recovery.” was designed for community activists and professionals in the United Kingdom but has many useful resources for those in the United States interested in fostering community participation as well. http://www. Community Participation Methods in Design and Planning. North Dakota. 2000. Washington DC: National Disaster Education Coalition. The National Disaster Education Coalition has reviewed and updated this guide for standard messages. Talking about Disaster: A Guide for Standard Messages. New York. 1994. H. and tsunamis. tornadoes. “The Guide to Effective Participation. hazardous materials incidents. hurricanes and tropical storms. Wilcox. The purpose of the guide is to assist those who provide disaster safety information to the general public. National Disaster Education Coalition. This online guide.org. heat. including drought. fires.html. http://www. UK: Partnerships Online. Sanoff. This how-to guide to community design provides tools and techniques for bringing community members into the design process successfully and productively.htm. David. 2004.org/guide.disastereducation.partnerships. NY: John Wiley and Sons.Participatory Processes This article examines the effects citizens’ perceptions of the public participation process following the flooding in East Grand Forks and Grand Forks. earthquakes.uk/guide/index. 3-10 . It contains awareness and action messages intended to help people reduce their risk of injury or loss in the event of natural and human-caused disasters. The Guide to Effective Participation. floods.
health. It may be defined as “the product of the interplay among social. lifelines. economic. greenways. and environmental conditions that affect human and social development. diseases. employment. community groups.” (Shookner. such as: • Housing—home ownership. healthy ecosystems. open spaces. • Damaged infrastructure causes reduced mobility and access to services • Damaged utilities (power lines. local business owners. and recreational facilities • Environment—minimal pollution. vibrant downtowns and business districts • Recreation—well-designed public spaces. and the economy and also dramatically affect the health and safety of community residents. affordable homes and rental properties. the environment. and disasters • Equity and Civic Engagement—ability for residents. appreciating property values • Education—adequate and safe public education • Mobility—transportation alternatives and efficient flow of traffic • Health Care—access to high-quality and affordable health care facilities and services • Employment—suitable job opportunities and low unemployment rates • Economics—economic vitality. The disaster recovery period presents an opportunity to maintain and enhance quality of life elements in a community. housing. and public facilities that are protected from or able to withstand impacts of natural hazards How Disasters Disrupt Quality of Life Disasters create sudden changes to social networks. affordable products and services.Chapter 4 Using Disaster Recovery to Maintain and Enhance Quality of Life Introduction Quality of life means different things to different individuals. and communities. parks. and resource and energy efficient residential and commercial buildings • Public Safety—little exposure to crime. transportation. water treatment plants) reduce communication and increase threat of disease . The following scenarios demonstrate some of these changes and how disasters impact communities each year. and the private sector to participate in planning and development efforts • Disaster Resilience—housing. phone lines. 1997). households.
family services. Some of the options and recovery strategies a community could use to improve quality of life when faced with disaster are listed below. the sample strategies below suggest ways in which some options and disasters could be combined to help a community improve its quality of life. historic districts. power plants. when tornadoes struck Stroud. and even the nation. a rural community southwest of Tulsa. region. The hurricane also knocked power out to the pipelines that transported petroleum to the Midwest and the East Coast. airports. Recovery Strategies for Enhancing Quality of Life Communities may begin to enhance quality of life during the disaster recovery process. recreation. Large cities may have the ability to absorb the negative effects of disasters. Source: Geotimes 2005. 2000). and daycare cause further personal trauma Hurricane Katrina Drives Up Gas Prices Nationwide After Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf Coast in 2005. harbors. These options are not exhaustive but instead illustrate the range of possibilities. A community can start with the situations that exist after a disaster. pick and choose among the options for improving its quality of life. and public safety Damaged or uninhabitable housing leads to loss of possessions and homelessness Damaged businesses cause economic disruption and spur unemployment.Enhancing Quality of Life • • • • • • • Damaged public facilities (schools. loss of tax base. gasoline prices rose across the United States and some stations ran dry or experienced long lines at the gas pumps. The high prices were related to the impact of the storm on oil refineries and pipelines along the Gulf Coast. employment. its only hospital permanently closed (Baruch and Baruch. select implementation tools to pursue each of those options. Likewise. employment. and as a result. three of its top four employers were devastated. Disruption may extend to other communities in the area. recreation. Ten percent of the nation’s refining capacity was lost due to the storm. Suddenly. the town’s tax base dissolved. and a shortage of basic supplies Damaged schools and universities reduce access to learning. the economy. and develop strategies that are specially tailored to its own needs. For example. Oklahoma. stormwater systems. child care. but rural communities are not always as resilient. telecommunication centers) affect education. Disasters also have effects far beyond their immediate geographic impact zone. 4-2 . and customers Unemployment severs access to health insurance and other benefits Environmental damage may result in erosion and pollution of air and water Damaged medical facilities and limited access to social services. central business districts and downtowns. Katrina shut down ten refineries and slowed service at six others.
Situation: Damaged housing Recovery Strategies: • Rezone parts of the community for affordable housing. and meetings. sports. Provide health and other services. Create connecting paths and greenways for pedestrians and cyclists with some common nodes for social interaction. Ensure that schools have recreational facilities and meeting rooms to host sports tournaments and other activities. Create opportunities for civic engagement.Enhancing Quality of Life Options for Maintaining and Enhancing Quality of Life • • • • • • • • Make housing available/affordable. Provide educational opportunities. Ensure mobility. • Beautify the parking lots of public facilities. Community residents can be asked to compete in design competitions or tree planting and maintenance programs. Situation: Damaged utilities Recovery Strategies: • Relocate critical facilities and equipment out of known hazard zones or retrofit the facilities to minimize disruption of services. modernization. and recreation as well as effective evacuation. Upgrade outdoor parking lot facilities to integrate greening concepts and improve aesthetics. Consider buyouts of these properties to eliminate eyesores and reduce potential negative impacts on property values. and upgrades should focus on structural safety and energy efficiency. Provide employment opportunities. Situation: Damaged transportation facilities Recovery Strategies: • Rebuild to increase mobility. Move public facilities out of known hazard zones (see Chapter 8 on mitigation). 4-3 . • Enhance educational opportunities by rebuilding or upgrading schools. • Allow for alternative modes of transit. Rebuilding efforts should not threaten neighborhood integrity. • Inventory damaged housing with a history of abandonment and tax delinquency. such as walking and cycling. historic and cultural resources. Situation: Damaged public facilities Recovery Strategies: • Make public facilities less vulnerable to future hazards. • Enhance public facilities and access to them by designing or redesigning schools to be magnets for recreation. Repairs. work. Circulation patterns should allow efficient and safe movement between home. Provide recreational opportunities. Maintain safe/healthy environments. or environmental quality. but first study the impact of their new locations on future growth and transportation patterns in the community.
There also may be standing local committees that address such issues as housing. Upgrade building codes so that new construction will be built with a higher standard. Community members may be willing to lead a task force or committee with a specific quality of life improvement goal. and hazards mitigation. infrastructure. Buy out homes in known danger zones and use the space as parkland. social services. Members of these committees can serve as liaisons to the public. Provide educational forums and advice for home and business owners on techniques and funding sources to replace aging. Situation: Disruption of health and safety Recovery Strategies: • Use the opportunity to identify gaps in family services. In different communities. people will interpret these traits to mean different things and will place varying levels of importance on them.Enhancing Quality of Life • • • Encourage energy efficient buildings. communities with a good quality of life have certain traits in common: social ties are strong. Therefore. Create maps that show locations of different population segments and their potential vulnerability to future hazards. educating other community members about the importance of disaster 4-4 . or other public open spaces that will promote social interaction and recreation for all residents. the economy is healthy. Tools for Enhancing Quality of Life Conceptually. Provide public spaces for social interaction and recreation. community gardens. the built environment supports a comfortable lifestyle. Tools for Enhancing Quality of Life • • • • • • Public participation Zoning and land use planning Historic preservation Property acquisition Special protection of critical infrastructure Environmental improvements Public Participation Public participation in decision making is essential for identifying what quality of life issues are important to residents and for obtaining local support for improvements. Some tools that could be used during recovery (or any time) to enhance quality of life are listed below. and environmental quality is preserved. damaged heating and cooling equipment with the latest techniques and equipment to lower costs. the tools used after a disaster to enhance a community’s quality of life should reflect residents’ needs and priorities for community improvement. economic development. • Consider whether staff in the health and social service sectors are representative of the wider community. • Create or update the community’s database of housing locations of vulnerable populations for evacuation and rescue purposes. and health care facilities and ensure that emergency plans have defined strategies and policies for short-term and long-term sheltering for residents with special needs. especially with regard to spoken languages (see Chapter 6).
and intensity of new development. Examples of zoning techniques that traditionally have been used to restrict development in hazardous areas are floodplain regulations. the NPS provides matching grants to states to assist state. Brownfields can be reclaimed for new development through a program of the U.Enhancing Quality of Life mitigation in improving quality of life. and open space. Smart growth refers to a development approach in which growth or economic development is in balance with the environment and quality of life. agricultural land. Brownfields are areas of land that were previously developed. Minimum density zoning requires that development densities stay above a certain level by mandating average or maximum lot sizes. promotes mixed-use development. replacement. Smart growth directs new development to limited areas. It also may be used to for urban renewal purposes. or tribal governments for use in the repair. and tribal governments expand and accelerate their 4-5 . Infill development encourages more concentrated development in areas already served by infrastructure. Urban growth boundaries are used to limit urban sprawl into surrounding rural communities. or restoration of historic structures damaged by disasters. Zoning has been used in many communities to restrict growth in high-hazard areas. Both the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the National Park Service (NPS) administer programs to help communities preserve historic buildings. and land use patterns that reduce reliance on automobiles for travel. transportation. However. Urban areas are allowed denser development than rural ones and are designed to have mixed-use development. Infill development refers to the development of vacant or less-developed parcels of land in already developed areas. The goal of minimum density zoning is to use land efficiently. Through its Historic Preservation Grants-in-Aid. and other municipal services.S. type.epa. and hillside development regulations. and encourages renovation of older areas. FEMA’s Public Assistance Grant Program provides federal assistance to state. local. visit http://www. Environmental Protection Agency known as the Brownfields Economic Redevelopment Initiative. New kinds of sustainable land use planning techniques and tools can improve both quality of life and disaster resilience. Brownfield remediation and redevelopment improves the overall health and safety of the community but can be a very timely process. historic buildings may be vulnerable to hazards or may have deteriorated to the point that they are unsafe. infill development.gov/brownfields/. local. which can also improve quality of life by increasing safety. such as smart growth principles. Historic Preservation Preserving a community’s historic architecture and design adds to its aesthetic appeal and unique sense of identity. and brownfields development. (Public participation is discussed in detail in Chapter 3). Zoning and Land Use Planning Zoning ordinances are the development tools that regulate the location. infill development. Towns looking for places to house residents after a disaster might consider infilling existing urban areas. fault-line and coastal setbacks. urban growth boundaries. For more information. but environmental concerns now hinder new development. minimum density zoning.
The Rails to Trails Conservancy allows communities to use old railroad right-of-ways for bike or walking paths.gov/programadmin/erelief. The Transportation Emergency Relief Program of the Federal Highway Administration provides aid for the repair of federal-aid highways and roads on federal lands that have suffered major damage. and shelter during a disaster. Property Acquisition Alternative transportation and recreation are two quality of life goals that can go hand-in-hand with disaster mitigation. Because many railroads were built on the lowest ground available. Reducing energy needs could be a critical first step to ensuring that a community has energy reserves to accommodate the next heat wave or cold snap. FEMA’s Hazard Mitigation Grant Program allows for the acquisition and relocation of damaged properties. energy.html.nps. Maintaining these areas as trail corridors. A community might consider high R-value insulation in walls or ceilings. For example.org/. improve surface water quality. can save money when the next flood occurs and provide recreation and transportation opportunities in the meantime.dot. underground power lines that are not as susceptible to damage during storms as hanging lines. they are often in floodplains. The NPS operates a Land and Water Conservation Grant program that allows for the acquisition and development of land for outdoor recreation areas. and may be resistant to wildfire. There are several groups and programs that can assist with environmental improvements. Environmental Improvements A healthy environment and access to natural areas enhances the quality of life in a community by providing recreational and educational opportunities and improving aesthetics. Wetlands store floodwater. decreases erosion. energy efficient windows and appliances.fhwa. Other environmental enhancement programs are discussed in Chapter 7.gov/lwcf/. efficient design in size and scale of buildings. ventilation.Enhancing Quality of Life historic preservation activities and expand the National Register of Historic Places. Native vegetation breaks the force of wind. rather than developing them. 4-6 . and provide wildlife habitat. Special Protection of Critical Infrastructure Communities must plan for the availability of water. and air-conditioning systems. For more information. visit http://www. These funds can be used to improve the quality and lifespan of roads. retrofitting of heating. and conversion to alternative fuels. visit http://www. For more information. visit http://www. which in turn allows the land to be converted to public open space.railtrails. while also improving disaster resilience. For more information. Energy needs can be reduced by retrofitting existing buildings and encouraging the use of new techniques in new construction. the National Arbor Day Foundation has several programs that encourage communities to plant trees.
and the Internet) to reach the public. a community of 157 people. Be prepared to share this information with the public and make comparisons with the local situation. Actions: As part of a community meeting. the following activities will help ensure that quality of life is improved during the disaster recovery process. posters. find funding. local television stations. Missouri Rhineland. select feasible tools. and move toward implementation. Rhineland’s sources of funding included the following: • Community Development Block Grants • Economic Development Administration • FEMA • Missouri Housing Development Commission • Village of Rhineland Actions: Organize meetings at convenient times and venues and make sure to provide transportation. child care.Enhancing Quality of Life Actions to Enhance Quality of Life in the 10-Step Recovery Process Once the recovery ideas or strategies are identified. After the meeting. formulate details. This information may already be available if the community recently completed a master plan or other project that engaged residents in a visioning process. Within the 10-step process described in Chapter 2. Step 2: Involve the Public The recovery period presents a vast opportunity to improve local civic capacity and bring together diverse segments of a community. was relocated to a 49-acre plot adjacent to its previous location after being flooded four times in 1993. Steps 4 and 5: Identify and Evaluate the Problem Use the postdisaster window of opportunity to discuss predisaster conditions that detracted from the community’s quality of life and how they now may be improved upon. get approval. plan for action. Use different media (flyers. and food. Missouri. locate technical assistance. Review this manual and other resources to identify examples of other communities that have successfully incorporated principles of sustainability during disaster recovery. Chapter 3 provides information about different approaches to maximize participation and Chapter 6 discusses how to identify and involve people that may have been overlooked in the past. Do not reinvent the wheel. which problems are different? • Which problems must be addressed to enhance quality of life in the community? 4-7 . ask participants to voice what they like and dislike about their community. This project boasted a 96 percent participation rate and a well-planned redevelopment phasing process. the community will need to explore them through a systematic process to determine the best approach. planners should be able to articulate the following: • What were the predisaster problems? • What are the postdisaster problems? • Which problems are common. Relocation of Rhineland. local newspaper.
Step 7: Explore All Alternative Strategies Besides considering different ways to incorporate quality of life concerns. resilience and quality of life. and the options and tools described in this chapter. It is important at this juncture to confirm that any alternative selected does not detract from other principles of sustainability. and mitigation objectives. social. 4-8 . Prepare a simple form so that residents can place a check mark next to the elements they feel are important to maintain and enhance. The strategies will need to be expanded and tailored to meet the needs of the community. greenways. work to consolidate multiple sustainability objectives. and parks Sustainability and Disaster• Energy and/or water efficiency Resilience in North Carolina • Natural resources North Carolina’s Division of Emergency • Disaster-resilient. Actions: Prepare a map of the community that shows major landmarks and roads. and recreation • Sustainable housing • Easy flowing traffic and planned • Sustainable business evacuation routes • Sustainable critical infrastructure • Public transit • Sustainable environment • Community centers Source: North Carolina Division of Prepare a final map of the community from Emergency Management and the Federal the exercises completed in the prior steps. Try to reach additional residents. Select from the opportunities identified under Step 5. Emergency Management Agency 2005. particularly those from different groups. Possible examples include the following: • Agriculture and related industries • Historic and rural character • Economic vitality and new business • Open space. Leave blank spaces for them to add in others. As part of a meeting. the goals and objectives set in Step 6. such as economic. public officials should engage the community in a visioning process to identify the quality of life elements that they wish to maintain and enhance. and distribute a one-page flyer to participants and the media as part of a follow-up meeting to discuss and review potential strategies and actions.Enhancing Quality of Life Step 6: Set Goals and Objectives In setting goals. ask residents to list their address and place a square on the map to indicate where they live and an “x” where they work. affordable housing Management provides communities with • Low unemployment rates guiding principles of sustainability and related • Good public education strategies and indicators to improve disaster • Easy access to centers of employment. summarize the main outcomes. environmental. The goals are categorized as: education.
budgets. Others have used the recovery period to remedy their affordable housing problem. and policies. The city also forged some creative partnerships by incorporating public funds not traditionally applied to mitigation. public works improvement. However. The project’s three primary strategies demonstrate the city’s commitment to incorporating multiple objectives into its mitigation planning: housing retrofits. nonprofit organizations. HUD. San Francisco. decided to demolish rather than repair an earthquake-damaged elevated freeway along its Embarcadero waterfront area. The city provided a range of options for homeowners whose properties were located in flood prone areas. 22-home subdivision in the Mississippi River delta town of Louise. Financing Affordable Housing in Quincy. Examples of Success Communities have used the long-term recovery and reconstruction period to replace aging and damaged buildings with new structures built with the latest techniques to lower heating and cooling costs. the Massachusetts Department of Housing and Community Development. The redesigned public space has contributed to a major economic revitalization of the immediate area. Massachusetts The recovery period after disaster declarations for Nor’easters in 1991 and 1992 gave the city of Quincy. Relocating Residents in Louise. some of these resources are listed at the end of the chapter. Mississippi Department of Economic and Community Development. Research institutions. relocation. Mississippi Gill Quarter. Mississippi. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). and local lenders. and the South Delta Planning and Development District completed a project to provide Hazard Mitigation Grant funds and Community Development Block Grant funds to acquire the structures and relocate the residents to new affordable housing and rental units. California After years of debate. the Town of Louise. who granted it a Local Best Practice Award in 2000. and FEMA can provide resources and advice on design and building options that are both safe and affordable. Beginning in 1999. and Revise Because recovery is a long-term process. Signers of the memorandum included the City of Quincy Department of Planning and Community Development. the Mississippi Emergency Management Agency. The success of the city’s First Time Home Buyer/Local Lender Memorandum of Understanding was recognized by the U. rules. Sustainable Urban Design and Mitigation in San Francisco.S. The goal was to reduce vulnerability through retrofit. a low-income. is located in the Silver Creek floodway. Seasonal floods caused great damage to homes. Affordable housing and home ownership have emerged as top priorities in many rebuilding efforts. the goals and policies formulated early in the process must be implemented gradually with ongoing funding and through institutionalization of appropriate procedures. and housing acquisition and demolition. the opportunity to address its goal of increasing the availability of financing for affordable housing within the city. and structural improvements. California. Evaluate. Massachusetts.Enhancing Quality of Life Step 10: Implement. new affordable housing should also be disaster resilient. which 4-9 .
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (DNR). Using a multiobjective planning and management strategy. and federal initiatives related to smart growth. and transportation. short-term reconstruction efforts affect the overall long-term efforts to maintain and enhance a community’s quality of life? It is important for the recovery team to keep track of the immediate postdisaster recovery. WI. 5. social interaction. Multiobjective Management—How is this process promoting multiobjective management? Quality of life should already be a guiding principle inherent in many ongoing local. and health and safety. employed and unemployed. these five indicators can be used to monitor progress toward goals. and reconstruction activities. Consistency with Other Local Planning Efforts—Do the quality of life elements envisioned by the community complement other locally-driven planning and development initiatives? Where appropriate. set goals that are consistent with a recent comprehensive plan. officials and citizens. state. 4) 4-10 . environmental quality. in partnership with government agencies and private entities. opportunities for civic engagement and community building. education. Make sure the comprehensive plan takes into account vulnerable areas. Join forces with these other programs. affordable housing. economic development. 2.Enhancing Quality of Life also includes the new privately funded waterfront baseball park that is home to the San Francisco Giants. business owners and consumers). housing. recreation and pleasure. 3) acquire and relocate commercial properties at risk. homeowners and renters. Long-Term Recovery Activities—How do the immediate. Monitoring Quality of Life As public officials work to maintain and enhance quality of life. energy efficiency. young and old. 1997. 3. 2) restore community pride. 4. CDs. identified six goals: 1) preserve the historic character of the downtown. Consideration of Current and Future Residents—Is the redevelopment process contributing to an improved quality of life for current and future generations? Aim to improve the following factors and conditions: employment opportunities. This video is about the efforts of a small rural Wisconsin community to reverse the effects of neglect and disinvestment in its historic downtown area following repeated flooding and economic change. Public participation should be a continuous process as different groups move in and out of the area. Where to Find More Information Videos. repair. and Software Mitigation Revitalizes a Floodplain Community: The Darlington Story. A Vision Shared by Community Residents—How is this process promoting participation by everyone? Quality of life should be a shared vision of community residents from diverse backgrounds (rich and poor. Madison. Short-Term vs. 1. They should not jeopardize long-term sustainability efforts. equity.
and recovery. The video follows the mitigation process from early meetings through floodproofing and relocation.fl. which includes information about the task force. museums. WI 53707-7921. Their long-term hurricane recovery initiatives are highlighted on this Web site. Local Government Commission The Local Government Commission (LGC) is a nonprofit organization working to build livable communities in California. LGC organizes a variety of conferences.gov/ehp/.dca.org/. 4-11 . Heritage Preservation. recovery updates. recovery. partnering with conservators. The program helps agency staff and nonfederal partners anticipate and accomplish environmental and historic preservation review required by federal laws and executive orders.org/. Florida Long-Term Hurricane Recovery Initiatives The Florida Department of Community Affairs in coordination with FEMA is working to help Florida communities hit hardest by Hurricanes Charley and Ivan prepare plans for recovery. wildfires. and training sessions on land use and transportation-related issues. and hurricane salvage information. The resources link to federal funding for cultural institutions. (608) 264-9200. 5) stimulate investment downtown. and community suggestions. mitigation.Enhancing Quality of Life elevate and flood proof commercial and residential structures. workshops. response. The organization also publishes a monthly newsletter and has a resources library with a catalog of videos and slides. civic groups. The National Institute for Conservation Heritage Preservation is working to save the objects that embody our history. their site links to the Heritage Emergency National Task Force. Visit http://www. FEMA Historic Preservation and Cultural Resources Program The Environmental.blueprintforsafety. response. Visit http://www. hurricanes. and mitigation. and concerned individuals across the nation who care about preserving pieces of our shared and individual pasts. and windstorms. education. and a hurricane resource page. Available free from Wisconsin DNR.us/recovery/index. and how to become involved. and Cultural Resources Programs integrate environmental and historic preservation considerations into FEMA’s mission of preparedness. and 6) pursue tourism as an economic strategy. In addition. Visit http://www. among other types of advice. Visit http://www. This Web site provides an overview of how FEMA integrates environmental and historic preservation considerations into agency programs and provides resources that FEMA’s nonfederal partners can use in disaster preparedness. and reliable information about disaster safety building techniques and features to help families become better prepared for floods. their response to Hurricanes Rita and Katrina. PO Box 7921. Web Resources Federal Alliance for Safe Homes (FLASH) Blueprint for Safety Program This Web site offers an educational program that is designed to provide accurate.fema. current. preparation.state. rapid building and site condition assessment. recovery meeting minutes.cfm. Madison. which includes recovery plans. Historic Preservation. The Web site contains information on conservation.heritagepreservation.
Enhancing Quality of Life Visit http://www.lgc.org/center/. North Carolina State Historic Preservation Office Information for Owners of Damaged Buildings following a Natural Disaster In recent years hurricanes, tornados, and other natural disasters have inflicted enormous suffering and property damage across parts of North Carolina. The State Historic Preservation Office offers information sheets to assist historic property owners in recovering from a natural disaster. Visit http://www.hpo.dcr.state.nc.us/disaster.htm. Operation Fresh Start, Rebuilding Your Home and Community Planning sections This Web site is designed to empower individuals and communities as they recover from natural disasters by providing resources and tools that can help rebuild communities, businesses, and homes using sustainable principles and technologies. The site also links to redevelopment overviews, government resources, nonprofit organizations, manuals, magazines, and newsletters. Visit http://freshstart.ncat.org/. Smart Communities Network This Web site created by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Smart Communities Network includes a section on disaster planning that provides information on key principles, case studies, publications, educational materials, and other resources. Visit http://smartcommunities.ncat.org/disaster/disintro.shtml. Smart Growth America, Rebuilding after Katrina Smart Growth America’s coalition is actively engaged in helping the Gulf Coast recover from Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Their Web site provides key principles and recommendations for redevelopment as well as related articles and commentary. Visit http://www.smartgrowthamerica.org/katrina.html. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development Disaster Recovery Assistance This page provides an overview of the housing and community development assistance for disaster recovery that can be obtained through HUD. Visit http://www.hud.gov/offices/cpd/communitydevelopment/programs/dri/.
Books, Guidebooks, and Articles
American Planning Association (APA). 2004. Safe Growth America Checklist. Washington, DC: APA. http://www.planning.org/symposium/pdf/SafeGrowthAmericaChecklist.pdf. The goal of APA’s Safe Growth America initiative is to build environments that are safe for current and future generations of people and to protect structures, transportation and utility infrastructures, and the natural environment from damage. This checklist provides a series of questions to examine the safety of neighborhoods. Central U.S. Earthquake Consortium Journal 7(1). Fall 2000. http://www.cusec.org/Library/cusec/Newsletter/Fall00/Fall00_nsltr.htm. This special issue focused on the economic vulnerability of rural communities and on disaster recovery for small businesses.
Enhancing Quality of Life Disaster Planning for Florida’s Historic Resources. Tallahassee, FL: 1000 Friends of Florida. http://www.1000fof.org/Dos-Dem_PilotProject/DisasterTalkMay19Final.pdf. This manual focuses on steps that local communities can take in coordination with FEMA, Florida Division of Emergency Management, and Florida Division of Historical Resources to ensure that local historic resources are appropriately considered in emergency management activities. FEMA. 2005. Before and After Disasters: Federal Funding for Cultural Institutions. FEMA 533. Washington, DC: FEMA. http://www.heritagepreservation.org/PDFS/Disaster.pdf. This guide is an updated and expanded version of Resources for Recovery: Post-Disaster Aid for Cultural Institutions, first developed in 1992 by Heritage Preservation and then revised in 2000. Before and After Disasters includes summary descriptions and contact information for 15 federal grant and loan programs—almost double the number of resources in the previous edition. It covers sources of federal assistance for preparedness, mitigation, and response, as well as for recovery. Sample projects in disaster planning, training, treatment research, and restoration illustrate the funding guidelines. FEMA. 2005. How-To Guide #6 Integrating Historic Property and Cultural Resource Considerations into Hazard Mitigation Planning. Washington, DC: FEMA. http://www.fema.gov/fima/howto6.shtm. The importance of integrating historic property and cultural resource considerations into mitigation planning has been made all too apparent in disasters that have occurred in recent years, such as the Northridge earthquake or the Midwest floods. Whether a disaster impacts a major community museum, a historic main street, or collections of family photographs, the sudden loss of historic properties and cultural resources can negatively impact a community’s character and economy, and can affect the overall ability of the community to recover from a disaster event. This guide shows communities, step-by-step, how to develop and then implement a predisaster planning strategy for their historic properties and cultural resources. It provides community planners with the tools and resources they need to consider historic properties in mitigation planning activities. While the emphasis is on the built environment, this guide has made a special effort to include cultural institutions to address the mitigation of cultural heritage, including museum collections, works of art, and books and documents. Geis, D.E. 2000. “By Design: The Disaster Resistant and Quality of Life Community.” Natural Hazards Review 1(3): 151-160. According to this author, the present approach to designing and building communities is inadequate and is inflicting great and growing harm—physically, environmentally, socially, economically, and emotionally—that we can no longer tolerate. The disaster resilient community concept, the first step toward creating quality of life communities, was created specifically to provide a new way of thinking. A number of basic questions need to be addressed. What are disaster resistant communities? Why are they important? What are the benefits? What is the relationship between a disaster resistant community and a sustainable quality of life community? And, most importantly, how do we go about creating them? This article provides the answers to these questions so that the concept can be better understood and used to its fullest potential. “Lessons from Disaster.” 2000. Rural Voices 5(4). http://www.ruralhome.org/manager/uploads/VoicesFall2000.pdf. 4-13
Enhancing Quality of Life This special issue produced by the Housing Assistance Council featured several stories on the “Lessons from Disaster.” The Housing Resource Council has also written a guide that explains resources available from federal and state governments for rebuilding housing after a disaster both on a temporary basis and for the long term. National Trust for Historic Preservation. 1993. Treatment of Flood-Damaged Older and Historic Homes. Information Booklet No. 82. Washington, DC: National Trust for Historic Preservation. http://www.nationaltrust.org/hurricane/flood_booklet.pdf. This guide provides information on treatment of flood-damaged older and historic buildings, including technical information, where to go for assistance, and a checklist of practical considerations. U.S. National Task Force on Emergency Response. 1997. Emergency Response and Salvage Wheel. Washington, DC: National Task Force on Emergency Response. https://www.heritagepreservation.org/catalog/Wheel1.htm. Much of America’s cultural heritage is in the care of museums, libraries, art institutions, and other organizations, and protecting these valuable resources can be difficult under the best of conditions. In a disaster, collections that have been carefully built over many years can be damaged, endangering national treasures. The National Task Force on Emergency Response recently created this tool to guide caretakers in protecting and salvaging their collections. It outlines steps to take in preparing for, responding to, and recovering from disasters and discusses creating disaster plans, working with emergency management agencies in the community, and obtaining assistance from national conservation organizations. The wheel also provides information on responding to a disaster warning, taking protective action during a disaster, initiating recovery activities away from the site, stabilizing a building and its environment, handling documentation, retrieving and protecting artifacts, assessing damage; prioritizing salvage activities, revitalizing historic buildings, and restoring photographs, books, papers, and other materials.
Economic vitality is the engine that drives recovery. Embracing sustainability in the local economy means addressing environmental. • Create new visions for their communities rather than attempting to restore what existed before the disaster. social equity. This chapter focuses on the challenges and opportunities of economic changes after a disaster and discusses how to create a balance between short-term and long-term survival. but also with nongovernmental organizations. Economically successful communities: • Respond to community values in economic planning. and actions for building economic vitality during disaster recovery are presented along with examples of success stories. and quality of life factors within the economy—not just the bottom line. such as redevelopment authority. Private capital must be directed into business recovery and housing. Communities that have successfully recovered and sustained their economic vitality have demonstrated an ability to synchronize their local goals with larger market forces and to act on opportunities to create new partnerships not only with businesses and investors. • Find ways to transform business districts into more interesting and diverse places. • Creatively utilize traditional economic revitalization tools. Economic Challenges and Opportunities after a Disaster Recovery from a disaster is fundamentally an economic proposition and requires that substantial capital be reinvested into the community. disasterresilience. • Formulate short-term survival strategies to maintain continuity in the economy while long-term recovery takes place. Insurance . tools. and other segments of the community. insurers. • Proactively seek and involve investment and technical assistance partners from within and outside the community. educational institutions. • Establish positive images to attract investors. Strategies. Public capital must repair and rebuild facilities and infrastructure.Chapter 5 Building Economic Vitality into Disaster Recovery Introduction A vibrant local economy is a vital component of community sustainability.
urban wildfire recovery was primarily residential in scope. therefore. The pace and success of recovery will be determined by how well the community attracts. California.Building Economic Vitality funds also provide another source of capital for recovery. At the same time. a disaster might involve only a cursory look at economic policy. the economic setting was changed in fundamental ways by the disaster. This has the potential to recreate the same unsustainable. and East Grand Forks. no growth. Yet there may be potentially higher short-term costs associated with sustainable redevelopment. For example. 1997). Recovery demanded that the communities create new opportunities and build economic components into their postdisaster recovery plans that reflected underlying changes in the local and regional economies. policies. and programs with principles of sustainability. Regional indebtedness and long-term losses from a disaster have been shown to decrease inversely relative to the share of outside capital that finances recovery (Chang. there is pressure to move fast and furiously after a disaster. These considerations are important because research indicates that the percentage of reconstruction that is financed by sources outside the region is one of the most influential variables determining the success of recovery. For example. Private and public investment may be focused on limiting front-end construction costs (first costs) at the expense of long-term sustainability (lower life cycle costs for buildings). or earthquake recovery in Santa Cruz and Watsonville. effectively utilizes. social equity. such as for buyouts of flood-prone properties or for costs associated with the adoption and implementation of higher development standards or building codes. Outside sources can both spur sustainability and undermine it. the Oakland Hills. vulnerable conditions that turned the natural event into a community disaster in the first place. Minnesota. The trick during recovery. 5-2 . is to demonstrate the long-term economic benefit of sustainable development (or redevelopment) while fully supporting short-term economic activity and to infuse postdisaster plans. and other elements of sustainability. Achieving a Balancing Act The process of rebuilding a more sustainable economy entails a critical balancing act. and sustains the flow of investment capital from a multitude of sources through the rebuilding period. In some cases. The community faces a substantial challenge in ensuring that sources of capital from outside the region align with local goals for sustainable development. In other instances. The policies and requirements for using insurance funds in disaster recovery are another variable that can have major consequences for sustainability. On the one hand. North Dakota. This pressure can result in economic development being pursued without careful attention to environmental planning. public assistance programs can mandate mitigation but impose requirements that limit a community’s options. there is no recovery without economic vitality—no investment. The postdisaster situation forces a community to reassess its economic situation. California. such as flood recovery in Grand Forks.
Economic Changes in the Aftermath of a Disaster In the postdisaster setting the investment calculations may change dramatically. Japan. the sample strategies below suggest ways in which some options and disaster-induced situations could be combined to help a community improve its economy. A community can start with the situations that exist after a disaster and pick and choose among the options for improving its economy and among the tools available to pursue each of those options to develop strategies that are specially tailored to its own needs. and emerging outside forces. they are meant to give an idea of the range of possibilities. and support long-term implementation. as in Kobe. delay can be debilitating. Economic vitality can be understood by examining the component parts of the local economy and assessing trends and opportunities within each sector. Recovery Strategies to Build Economic Vitality Building economic vitality can start—or continue—during disaster recovery. Having pertinent knowledge available from prevent planning can make it easier for community members to understand choices. recovery can move ahead more quickly. and Northridge. California. and the tools listed below. For example. The overall health of the local economy will rise and fall with the fortunes of the specific economic sectors that are present in the community. Factors such as employment. are not exhaustive. Conversely. such as the business cycle and industry wide trends. projected growth. Will competing areas forever take market share away from a local facility? How quickly will other businesses reopen to establish critical mass? How soon will infrastructure be in place? Will enough housing be available to sustain neighborhood-serving small businesses? How different will the new economic context be? Each community has a unique economic context and a specific set of economic drivers in the local economy. thereby making reinvestment unprofitable. On the positive side. a loss of local population centers may devastate local or neighborhood-serving small businesses. the disaster can provide new opportunities for economic development that were not possible previously. make decisions. Or. rather.Building Economic Vitality Predisaster planning and recovery policies can be especially important in achieving this balance and ensuring a holistic recovery. The situations and options shown on the matrix. For example. if there is already a database of at-risk properties and plans for buyouts. Notice how each of the strategies suggested below uses one or more of the options listed on the Matrix of Opportunities under the third sustainability principle. Economic Vitality. Likewise. a major retailer or manufacturing facility that was perfectly happy with the return on investment in the predisaster setting might not be willing to reinvest after the disaster because the cost of repairing or rebuilding may be substantially higher. collectively establish the relative vitality of the local economy. 5-3 . relative significance of particular sectors within the total economy. Uncertainty compounds and heightens postdisaster economic recovery challenges. The Matrix of Opportunities in Chapter 1 shows some of the options a recovering community could use to further economic vitality while it addresses other disaster-induced challenges.
After a disaster. there can be greater openness to new ideas and to considering different perspectives. Develop/redevelop recreational. Situation: Damaged transportation facilities Recovery Strategies to Build Economic Vitality: • Rebuild to enhance capacity. Create a different circulation pattern or create and/or expand transit. quality of life. community awareness about the value and need for mitigation is extraordinary. Demolish an unneeded overhead freeway to reestablish a stronger urban pattern as a key element of economic revitalization of a district. because the status quo is no longer an option. Form partnerships between the city and the school district to rebuild the high school auditorium as a community performing arts facility. Establish a community center for displaced families and others to meet social goals and create higher activity levels in support of economic goals. Here are some illustrations of how recovery strategies addressing specific disaster situations can help support economic sustainability. Moreover. • Upgrade public spaces to support economic revitalization.Building Economic Vitality Options for Building Economic Vitality • • • • • Support area redevelopment/revitalization. social equity. Situation: Damaged public facilities Recovery Strategies: • Rebuild to transform/expand school facilities in support of economic strategies. • Locate new public uses into a damaged area. This facilitates the opportunity to move beyond old stereotypes and create new community political alliances. • Rebuild to improve functionality. Attract/retain work force. Create new sidewalks and street furniture and plant street trees to create a downtown “civic living room” to enhance the pedestrian experience and increase commercial activity. Attract/retain businesses. Establish a community college branch in a downtown to expand activity and population. historic. Change land use to promote mixed uses and more concentrated development to reduce dependence on automobile transportation systems. A disaster can provide a community with unprecedented opportunities to bring together economic. and environmental goals. 5-4 . Enhance economic functionality. Nearly every aspect of the urban fabric can play a role in the functionality and success of the local economy. • Rebuild to promote more sustainable transportation systems. • Undo past mistakes and support redevelopment. tourist attractions. Increase the ability to bring people into a business district and to move goods in and out of a community.
in flood-prone areas to mitigate hazards and attract people into a business district. Establish new schools or parks to improve neighborhood vitality.Building Economic Vitality • Rebuild key economic facilities to improve economic and environmental functionality. restoration of environmental features. establish stormwater systems where none existed. Situation: Damaged utilities Recovery Strategies: • Create new infrastructure that supports economic growth while incorporating sustainable features. Rebuild a damaged telecommunications system for increased capacity. Establish housing near job centers and in keeping with the housing needs and preferences of workers. increase capacities of water. 5-5 . enhanced pollution controls. window/display area. and disaster-resilient design. reduced energy consumption. • Relocate housing out of hazards zones. Rebuild retail buildings to have increased floor-to-ceiling ratios. Situation: Environmental damage Recovery Strategies: • Restore damaged environmental features in ways that support other economic goals. • Improve neighborhoods to attract or retain businesses. wastewater. Upgrade housing that was not damaged but could benefit from higher levels of mitigation or quality. • Create new housing stock to serve specialized needs in the economy. Upgrade damaged river levees with improved walkway connections and linkages with a downtown commercial area. • Form partnerships with utility companies to upgrade systems. Consider adding improved public pedestrian access along the coastline to encourage tourism while repairing coastal erosion damage. • Create housing to attract or retain businesses. • Establish and/or improve mitigation features. use disaster-resilient designs. and better floor layouts. such as parks and recreation facilities. Rebuild commercial/industrial facilities in flood-prone areas with elevated electrical elements and ability to seal out water during flooding. Leverage housing reconstruction assistance to alleviate farm-worker housing shortages. • Integrate natural features into business district recovery. Situation: Damaged housing Recovery Strategies: • Create new housing opportunities to support area redevelopment. Create new public attractions. Build temporary retail spaces consolidating multiple businesses in shared facilities. Rebuild a port facility with state-of-the-art characteristics resulting in greater capacity. Create interim commercial facilities. Situation: Damaged commercial/industrial facilities Recovery Strategies: • Rebuild commercial buildings with enhanced features to support businesses. Establish new housing stock in a rebuilding area to support neighborhood-serving businesses. or power facilities to meet future economic needs. Add fiber optics or other advanced technologies in infrastructure when it is rebuilt.
Memorialize people or events in new greenbelt areas. liquefaction. commercial. a community might consider redevelopment of existing areas by infilling and converting buildings to other uses. Because economic recovery is recognized as one of the most important and difficult aspects of disaster recovery. The redevelopment stage of recovery is also a good time to plan for affordable housing. so planning for affordable housing makes sense for the economic vitality of the community as a whole. Tools for Economic Vitality Although long-term economic recovery is never an easy task. Establish memorials or tributes. the recovery team and local planners have many resources at their disposal. especially for small communities struck by disaster. 5-6 . many federal agencies have programs to help communities get back on their feet. Relocate a damaged hospital while repairing and reusing the previous structure for mixed-use housing. Situation: Disruption of health and safety Recovery Strategies: • Relocate and reuse medical facilities to support economic as well as health objectives. Communities that are economically diverse tend to be healthier economically. Disasters can also provide opportunities to redevelop economically depressed areas. Set up an “earthquake park” focused around dramatic examples of faulting. Tools for Building Economic Vitality • • • • • • Redevelopment and housing Economic incentives Loan programs Public-private partnerships Capital improvements Redistricting Redevelopment and Housing Housing is essential for economic recovery because a consumer base is necessary to support the businesses in any community. doing so may leave poor residents unable to afford new housing. Rather than developing pristine land.Building Economic Vitality • • Establish new tourism opportunities based on interest in understanding natural systems. Infilling involves filling in undeveloped or less developed parcels of land in order to use the land more efficiently and to encourage mixed-use development. and although property acquisition is a good idea for mitigating future natural hazards. or landslides. Hazardprone land is often inexpensive land. or office uses.
For individuals and businesses impacted by a disaster in either a rural or urban setting. Another option is to assess impact fees. The U. The U. The USDA’s Rural Development Agency offers loans and grants to promote rural business development and recovery. and mortgage and rental assistance. nonprofit organizations. police stations.S. One is tax increment financing (TIF) districts. Additional links to various grant and loan opportunities are presented at the end of this chapter. Physical Disaster Loans. and economic recovery after a major disaster. community. libraries. The FEMA Community Disaster Loan Program is designed to provide assistance in covering the operational costs of a local government that has sustained significant loss of revenue because of a presidentially declared disaster. Grant and Loan Programs There are many sources of loans and grants to help individuals and small businesses recover. Economic Incentives State and local governments can use economic incentives to encourage sustainable redevelopment. A TIF district establishes a current base level of taxation determined by existing property values and assigns additional increments resulting from increases in property values to a special fund used to pay for infrastructure improvements within the district. The idea is to make development pay the costs of infrastructure expansion. These fees can pay for new schools. Government involvement can range from brokering deals and 5-7 . and other services. The use of this tool is likely to be heavily dependent on state law.S. Small Business Administration provides Home and Property Loans. TIF districts are one mechanism for financing economic recovery in an area badly devastated by a disaster. This list is by no means comprehensive. Many of the early investments in economic recovery require new efforts by the local government to reach out and establish new partnerships. minimal home repairs.Building Economic Vitality The Federal Emergency Management Agency’s (FEMA) Disaster Housing Program provides for assistance with lodging expense reimbursement. there are many grant and loan resources available. so its use in a given locality should be thoroughly investigated. Differential taxation is a mechanism that can be used by a local government that seeks to retain undeveloped land in a hazard-prone area. The Economic Development Administration (EDA) of the U. and Economic Injury Loans to individuals and businesses. For those individuals and small businesses in rural communities seeking recovery assistance. Individuals are responsible for application and the type of assistance received is determined after a home inspection.S. Department of Commerce has a number of revolving loan fund programs designed to aid state and local governments in financing business. the following programs might be of interest. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Farm Service Agency provides low-interest loans to family farmers and ranchers for production losses and physical damage through the Farm Loan Program. and individuals to repair or replace uninsured property losses caused by disaster. Public-Private Partnerships A community should consider benefits the local government can provide to the private sector in exchange for the sector’s participation in mitigation and other sustainability activities. These are direct loans to businesses. Some loans and grants are specific to rural or urban communities.
Soldiers Grove. A few communities have moved their main economic districts away from the path of danger. Capital Improvements A local government’s spending authority should not be overlooked after a disaster. moved its downtown business district away from the Kickapoo River in the early 1980s. get approval. it will need to explore them through a systematic process to decide on the best approach. A community’s sustainable redevelopment plan should specifically not allow the siting of public facilities in hazard-prone areas. or assessments in the affected area. FEMA’s Public Assistance Program or Hazard Mitigation Grant Program funds can be used to retrofit or move damaged infrastructure. economic planning must be structured so that key stakeholders and the broader community are all involved in the process of identifying and resolving issues. or restore disaster damaged. If mitigation is necessary. and move toward implementation. replace. Actions to Build Economic Vitality in the 10-Step Recovery Process Once a community identifies potential recovery strategies. and other facilities out of the way of natural hazards is a sensible use of local funds. the following activities will help build economic vitality during a community’s disaster recovery. find funding. plan for action. fees. formulate details. Redistricting Local governments can send a market signal to developers and home buyers by establishing the principle that special services. Making capital improvements to existing infrastructure can promote economic development and vitality. publicly owned facilities. Wisconsin. Native American tribes.g. Moving existing schools. Specifically.. such as those likely to be used during and after a disaster. Pattonsburg. such as an anchor retailer in a damaged central business district.Building Economic Vitality bringing potential partners together to political persuasion (e. locate technical assistance. moved the entire town to higher ground after the 1993 Midwest floods. cajoling reinvestment in a damaged area) to financial involvement with key economic players. fire stations. must be supported through special taxes. In either case. and certain private nonprofit organizations repair. or there may be a need for a more comprehensive plan. California set a precedent for this kind of redistricting by establishing Geological Hazard Abatement Districts. the Public Assistance Program provides supplemental funding to help state and local governments. Mississippi. Within the 10-step process described in Chapter 2. Step 1: Get Organized Economic recovery may be accomplished through a series of focused planning endeavors. 5-8 . Local governments in the state can establish special assessment districts in an area of known geologic hazards and collect fees from property owners to finance repairs from landslides and implement geologic hazards mitigation measures. select feasible tools.
Consider sponsoring training sessions for small business owners to inform them of what they may be facing during disaster recovery that they might not realize—both problems and opportunities—and the types of assistance that may be available to them. The potential impact of 5-9 . Actions: Get expert analysis of trends. and Groups Both professionals and the general public need to be included in considering economic sustainability. Conduct an impact analysis of the disaster on various aspects of the local economy. but there must be a demonstrated commitment to community involvement and a viable participatory process to sustain it. Include the business community and insurance industry. Publicize the sustainability and economic factors that will drive decision making. openness to new ideas. Make sure key business stakeholders are represented on recovery planning committees. organizations. Be open to new formats for participation (lectures. Step 2: Involve the Public and Step 3: Coordinate with Other Agencies. For example. The desire to participate. Use specialists (local and/or outside expertise). Disasters can have the effect of compressing and accelerating previous trends. and community leaders to plan a recovery process for the various components of the local economy. The Matrix of Opportunities in Chapter 1 can be used as a starting point for identifying what changes the disaster may have brought. New learning can take place in the recovery planning process as competing factions and perspectives from within the community become united by a common goal. Actions: Design public participation into various components of recovery. the disaster might fast-forward this negative trend and compound it. Conversely. See Chapter 3 for additional information on participatory processes during recovery. Take advantage of technology for disseminating information and soliciting ideas and feedback. and willingness to compromise may be high. Request planning grants and technical assistance from federal and/or state sources. Steps 4 and 5: Identify and Evaluate the Problems Assess the postdisaster economy. costs of rebuilding. Step 7: Explore All Alternatives While the pressure is on to act quickly. Departments. and opportunities for economic growth. workshops. if a downtown is in a slow decline. new opportunities may emerge.Building Economic Vitality Actions: Consult with businesses. The Disaster Planning Toolkit developed by the Institute for Business & Home Safety is a good basis for such a workshop (see the resources at the end of this chapter). and other activities beyond the traditional public hearing and town meeting formats). the recovery period offers an opportunity to address new understanding of environmental hazards and community vulnerabilities.
Actions: Make sure that plans. social equity. and manufacturing areas. goals and policies formulated early in the process must be consistently implemented over time with ongoing funding and by institutionalizing appropriate regulations and procedures. Actions: Work with businesses directly on interim operating strategies. such as commercial locations. and policies have implementation plans and mechanisms associated with them that ensure consistent attention over time. Evaluate and compare the economic outcomes of various planning options. and administrative capacity. Government involvement can range from bringing potential partners together to financial involvement with key economic players. technical. make sure that the critical components of the local economy are as functional as possible. Identify economic and other consequences of not rebuilding in environmentally and socially sustainable ways. Establish funding sources and administrative capacity to reconstruct damaged facilities or set up temporary ones. Keep the Economy Going in the Short Term While long-term planning is taking place. and environmental perspectives in the community. goals. this list focuses on the needs and objectives particular to economic recovery.Building Economic Vitality each alternative should be considered from the economic. Although some elements overlap with other principles of sustainability. The following additional suggestions will help a community structure its approach to economic recovery. Because recovery takes place in a series of small increments. Devise strategies and funding to create interim facilities. Build Capacity for the Long Haul Recovery of the economy can be a long-term proposition. Establish New Partnerships Many of the early investments in economic recovery require new efforts by the local government to reach out and establish new partnerships. The nonprofit sector also can be a significant source of financial. as is the inclusion of more sustainable land use and design decisions. 5-10 . quality of life. Actions: Establish sustainability principles as part of economic recovery planning. port facilities.
Avoid lengthy delays. or other local and regional economic heavy hitters to discuss and formulate mutually supportive and sustainable economic strategies. regional. and processing offers of economic assistance. and environmental or professional organizations to find ways to focus new resources into recovery. Successful economic recovery maximizes these potential opportunities by moving quickly and responsively to take advantage of them. Local resources can provide a flexible solution to these dilemmas. Do not focus solely on FEMA’s reimbursement process or the assistance provided by the federal government under the Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act. Other resources and tools can be extremely helpful. Actions: Set up procedures and have sufficient staff time devoted to receiving. housing or economic development corporations. many offers of assistance are forthcoming from public and private sources. These sometimes involve cumbersome procedures that can cause delays or lead to funding gaps in specific projects.g. This window of opportunity closes as attention drifts elsewhere. Develop New Local Recovery Resources Public funds for recovery come with conditions and requirements. and national nonprofit groups. Be creative in seeking out grant funding and technical assistance and in asking for assistance from agencies with which the community already has established relationships. expanding a predisaster project or investment by leveraging postdisaster assistance). pursuing.Building Economic Vitality Actions: Begin discussions immediately with key retail. educational. insurance. Be Opportunistic and Move Quickly In the initial aftermath of a disaster. Early “wins” can be especially critical by setting a positive tone to the recovery and encouraging further investment. such as community foundations. manufacturing. Actions: Identify and prioritize projects that would be especially valuable in jump-starting the recovery or in demonstrating environmentally responsible economic development. Encourage an entrepreneurial environment to promote creative recovery strategies. recognizing that some approaches will pan out and others will be discarded. it is important to move in parallel on multiple fronts. Work with local. Strategize with state and federal elected officials to create and support intergovernmental and public/private partnerships. 5-11 . Tolerate false starts so as not to discourage risk taking. Look for ways in which the goals and objectives of other organizations can be focused to support local economic recovery actions (e. Pursue Multiple Strategies and Momentum-Building Projects With so much uncertainty in the recovery process. Sometimes these funds cannot be applied in ways that would be most effective in the context of the local community..
The Neuse River in Kinston crested at 38. such as a temporary sales tax surcharge. 10 feet above flood stage. Community Development Block Grant funds. disrupted traffic circulation. three mobile home parks. because they do not fully understand the changed economic context and do not adjust their business plans accordingly. Determine how such resources could be supported politically and adopted. More than 400 residential structures. and strategies for temporary relocation of businesses. Supporting Small Businesses Small businesses typically have a much harder time sustaining themselves after a disaster than do large businesses or corporate entities.8 feet. shortage of employees. locally controlled sources of supplemental financial assistance. Examples of Success Flood Recovery in North Carolina In September 1999. More than 75 percent of the homes in the floodplain were damaged or destroyed. they exhaust personal and business sources of capital). lack of capital. Businesses and public infrastructure sustained substantial flood damage. Small businesses. what they can afford) • The relative demand for their goods and services in the postdisaster setting • How the disaster affects their key suppliers • Competitive advantages that other areas possess and the likelihood of market share shifting elsewhere as a result • New opportunities in the postdisaster setting that can be maximized by the small business • What the government will do with respect to short. such as loan or grant programs. and loss of suppliers. Kinston. would be well advised to make a new business plan that is fully cognizant of the above factors in formulating their own postdisaster recovery strategy.S Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Disaster Recovery Initiative funds. Small businesses may suffer a host of burdens.and long-term recovery plans and how these plans might support their particular business. Economic Revitalization • The structures and lots most at risk to flooding were acquired using funds from the Hazard Mitigation Grant Program. and in the process to improve their quality of life. and 68 vacant lots were acquired to permanently eliminate repeated flood zones. North Carolina. was devastated by record levels of flooding as a result of Hurricanes Dennis and Floyd. Local governments can support small business recovery by generating and disseminating economic analyses that businesses can use in their own planning. The recovery process was guided by two objectives: 1) to substantially or permanently reduce flood hazards in Kinston-Lenoir County and 2) to revitalize existing residential neighborhoods and business development in a long-term effort to empower citizens to be self-sufficient.Building Economic Vitality Actions: Consider local resources. cash flow problems. Businesses need to know the following: • How the disaster affected their customer base (who is left. meanwhile. This kind of information can be a critical component of the local support package that should also include restoration of utilities and infrastructure. Some highlights of the efforts to meet these objectives are described below. financial support. even after obtaining forms of assistance.g. and total losses were estimated in the tens of millions of dollars.. and the U. Sometimes business owners who work hard to recover end up worse off than those who pulled out (e. 5-12 . such as loss of immediate population (locally focused market). to provide flexible.
Building Economic Vitality • • • Those residents displaced by the acquisition program were relocated as entire neighborhoods so that social networks could be retained.S. Wisconsin. Santa Cruz. was created to secure funding. North Carolina. passive recreation. and active recreation. The plan considers three types of open space: heritage tourism. and manage the leasing of temporary pavilions erected on city parking lots. the Conservation Fund. The community used geographic information systems (GIS) to map flood-prone areas and determine which areas were suitable for development and which should remain open space. Upon the realization that a much-anticipated levee would cost $3. Highway 61 to increase activity. 1999. a declining economy. community leaders suggested that the federal government spend that money to help relocate the town instead. a new nonprofit entity. and stronger linkages between natural systems and the built environment (State of North Carolina. the Phoenix Partnership. • The old floodplain was developed as a municipal park. Soldiers Grove Marches On The relocation of Soldiers Grove. and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. took place from 1979 to 1983 and was used as a community heart transplant to eliminate flooding and realize other social and economic goals. and a blighted downtown (Smart Communities Network. greater public amenities. some of the pavilions were 5-13 . oversee construction. • Water and sewer services were extended to new development sites along the highway to encourage development. Short-Term Survival Collaborative efforts to establish short-term locations for businesses have been successfully deployed in numerous postdisaster settings. The success story of the postflood recovery of Kinston. The community used the relocation/redevelopment phase to get out of the hazardous floodplain and address problems of a dwindling population (due to outmigration of youth to urban areas). • The downtown and main street were moved closer to U. stop-gap measure.5 million to protect $1 million worth of property. 2005). Most residents opted to move into Kinston proper. Organized campaigns to maintain retail trade in damaged areas also can be critical. illustrates how investment in a sustainable economy is interwoven into all facets of the recovery effort. 2005). These involve business-to-business cooperation as well as government support. California In Santa Cruz. FEMA. The community implemented focused economic strategies in concert with long-term mitigation efforts that incorporated improved urban design. Although initially intended to be a six-month. A green infrastructure plan was developed through cooperation between the City of Kinston. GIS was used to map the floodplain and determine the suitability of locations for the three types of open space. which prevented erosion of the economic base. • The critical facilities and buildings (the fire station) were relocated out of the floodplain.
Downtown Revitalization Several key elements consistently have been demonstrated as critical to successful and sustainable downtown revitalization. the community was able to begin the recovery process quickly. fund. 5-14 . Kobe. Kobe’s loss of market share to other Asian ports. incorporating knowledge from the Main Street Approach. Los Gatos. Funding from loans administered by Main Street and Community Development Block Grants allowed the community to seismically retrofit buildings while preserving the historic nature of the downtown area and attracting a strong economic base.Building Economic Vitality needed for several years. California. including housing in or near downtown • Historic preservation • Pedestrian character • Linkage to natural features (e. When the earthquake struck in December of 2002. Japan The Port of Kobe restructured labor agreements and established 24-hour shipping in makeshift facilities to maintain some level of shipping trade while the port was being rebuilt. California After the 1995 Northridge earthquake. Paso Robles. and private sources.000 passports with coupons for local businesses. Without this effort. adopted the Main Street Approach to revitalize their downtown area and restore historic buildings. Fillmore. would have been even worse. California Prior to the 2002 earthquake. Disaster recovery provides an opportunity to embrace. which was substantial. used a preearthquake downtown specific plan aimed at stimulating its struggling historic downtown as its recovery blueprint. Santa Cruz also developed a “Buy Santa Cruz” campaign with events and publicity and pledges by local residents to spend their Christmas dollars in the recovering downtown. Paso Robles. Having a plan in place helped accelerate the recovery and secure postdisaster funding from federal. not suburban. building forms and land use patterns • Strict and enforced design and signage policies • High densities • Street level activity • Functional circulation and parking balancing auto and other transportation modes Fillmore.g. California Los Gatos instituted a “Passport to Shop” program involving newspaper distribution of 50. California.. river corridors) • Active civic public spaces and community centers • Anchor retail • Public space/streetscape design reinforcing historic character • Urban. and pursue these features: • Mixed use development. state.
desyne.dcnonline.tallytown. This publication is available only on CD and provides information on how to financially survive an extreme event as a small business owner or a nonprofit organization. The EDA and FEMA developed this course to help small and medium-sized communities protect their economies from the effects of catastrophic events. 2004. the construction community. Each loan program is designed to meet specific needs and community goals.Building Economic Vitality Where to Find More Information Trainings and Workshops FEMA Emergency Management Institute. Videos.org/. Their Web site also links to the Economic 5-15 . Durham. state and federal emergency management organizations. Available from North Carolina Department of Emergency Management.” Course Code: E464. “Disaster Resistant Jobs: Strategies for Community Emergency and Economic Risk (CEER) Management.html. http://training. This 20-minute video was produced by the state in the aftermath of Hurricane Floyd to introduce and educate local and state officials about approaches to recovering from the disaster and at the same time address other local concerns. 2000. Visit http://fl.com/redcross/empw-01. such as environmental quality. Horizon Video Productions. This online activity sponsored by the Red Cross is designed to help businesses identify the hazards they face and develop comprehensive plans to prepare for and recover from disasters. and Software Quality Redevelopment of Eastern North Carolina. NC. Raleigh. Disaster Contractors Network The Disaster Contractors Network is a virtual organization of construction-related associations.gov/EMIWeb/. The Web site includes a library and online learning site. NC 27699. Vulnerability Assessment and Disaster Planning Initiative for the Workplace.S. Building a Disaster Resistant Business: A Hazard Identification. CDs. during. and disaster mitigation. and regulatory agencies with the purpose of facilitating information sharing and resource matching among government. (919) 751-8000. Economic Development Association The Economic Development Association in the U. and after disasters.htm?cat=1&item=20. National Emergency Training Center. http://bookstore.com/siteshopper. Web Resources American Red Cross. sense of community. Visit http://www. economic vitality. Maryland. It introduced a framework espoused by the state for sustainable community action and features the governor explaining the tenets of quality redevelopment and how it can—and did—benefit North Carolina communities and can help ensure a better future for the state’s citizens. and home and business owners before. housing. 1830-B Tillery Place. Public Risk Entity Institute. Emmitsburg. Department of Commerce offers revolving loans to state and local governments to assist in disaster recovery efforts.fema. business and job opportunities. Surviving Extreme Events: A Guide to Help Small Businesses Recover from Extreme Events.
org/business_protection/.xml. The Business Recovery section provides information on planning. and veteran-owned businesses. Louisiana Governor’s Office of Rural Development This Web site provides a list of grant and loan programs available for individuals and communities.mainstreet. a disaster planning toolkit for the small business owner.freshstart. recovery.fema.rebuildingthegulfcoast. minority-. 5-16 . and financial assistance programs.org/. EDA grantees. interactive property protection and planning tool. It is meant to serve economic development practitioners. Visit http://www.S. Visit http://www. associations. and the Getting Back to Business guide for small business owners following a disaster.ncat.Building Economic Vitality Development Directory. an information tool to facilitate communication between the various program components of the EDA.gov/rrr/pa/fs_cdl.htm.com/. FEMA Community Disaster Loan Program The Community Disaster Loan Program is designed to aid local governments with operational funding when a community has suffered significant loss of revenue due to a presidentially declared disaster. Main Street. Operation Fresh Start The National Center for Applied Technology hosts this Web site providing information and networking for rebuilding businesses and communities in a sustainable manner after a disaster strikes. Department of Commerce about federal contracting opportunities in the Gulf states following Hurricane Katrina for small and medium sized businesses. state. and others who are seeking information on EDA’s economic development activities in the United States. The list includes federal. a disaster plan folder.rurallouisiana. This resource page includes an online. Hurricane Contracting Information Center This site is an information center provided by the U. The site contains a special section on recovery from the 2005 Gulf Coast hurricanes. Visit http://www.gov/AboutEDA/Edevdirectory.eda. Visit http://www.org The National Trust Main Street Center is a program of the National Trust for Historic Preservation and advocates historic preservation with economic development to restore vitality to downtown districts and surrounding neighborhoods.shtm. Institute for Business & Home Safety Open for Business Resource Page The Institute for Business & Home Safety offers a variety of tools in its Open for Business series for small business owners to both reduce their potential for loss should disaster strike and to reopen quickly should they be forced to close. Visit http://www. and private enterprise resources. It emphasizes tools for women-. Visit http://www.gov/. Visit http://www.ibhs.org/business.
U. Cheryl and Brenda Phillips.riskinstitute. and Robert Nagy. Daniel.usda. This report provides an overview of land use and transportation trends in seven states—Alabama. Visit http://www. health. Casey-Lefkowitz.htm. 1999. http://www2. conservation.htm. 1998.com/mainwebsite_html/home.html. Quick Response Report #109. Sustainable Development or Transformative Development? Arkadelphia. After the Disaster…What Should I Do Now? Information to Help Small Business Owners Make Post-Disaster Business Decisions. Susan. The site also provides ideas and information on incorporating sustainability into business disaster resilience. after an F-4 tornado had destroyed much of its downtown and three residential neighborhoods. North Carolina. recommends steps to take during a disaster.gov/rbs/busp/bprogs. Small Business Administration The Small Business Administration provides a number of direct loans to individuals and businesses to repair or replace uninsured property losses caused by disaster.htm. and discusses resources for recovery from a disaster. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Rural Development Program The USDA Rural Development Program provides a number of grants and loans that promote rural business development and recovery. Arkansas. and Articles Alesch. Arkansas after the Tornado.Building Economic Vitality Surviving a Disaster—A Small Business Disaster Management Toolkit This resource helps businesses prepare for disaster.sba.S. DC: Environmental Law Institute Research Publications. Boulder. Georgia.businessdisasterplan.S. Childers. Fairfax. 5-17 . Rarely can business continue as usual as the surrounding community is always changed by a disaster.eli. The following programs might be of interest: Home and Property Loans.pdf. South Carolina. Smart Growth in the Southeast: New Approaches for Guiding Development.colorado. The southeastern United States has been trying to find ways to continue to reap the benefits of the region’s bustling economy without the mounting fiscal. http://www. Elliott Mittler. CO: Natural Hazards Center. This guide was written with community change in mind. Florida. Physical Disaster Loans. U. http://www. Visit http://www. Books. Washington. and environmental costs of poorly planned development.org/ptrdocs/AftertheDisaster. The researchers interviewed 31 individuals representing organizations from the national level to the local level and ranging from paid staff to volunteers. The authors visited the small town of Arkadelphia.rurdev. Tennessee. VA: Public Risk Entity Institute. James Holly. and Economic Injury Loans.gov/disaster_recov/loaninfo/property.edu/hazards/qr/qr159/qr159. Guidebooks.html. Visit http://www.org/research/sul. and transportation alternatives. This guide is designed to help small business owners decide the appropriate steps to take after a disaster strikes. Leaders of this town characterized the rebuilding effort as sustainable. and Virginia—and shows how these states are beginning to shape the pace and location of development by promoting community revitalization.
gov/pdf/library/haz_pbo.fema. needs. Toolkits give information specific to each topic. http://www.hsem. 5-18 . Minnesota Department of Public Safety.us/Hsem_view_Article. DC: FEMA. forms.asp?docid=313&catid=4.pdf.state. Also.mn. FEMA. This report is a collection of case studies highlighting businesses that have reduced their risks to natural hazards. The businesses that have been subjected to a natural hazard event since taking mitigation action have benefited from substantial returns on their investment. St. and information to share with the victims of disaster as they recover. that residents of impacted communities apply sustainable development as it fits their understanding. This manual will lessen the stress by providing answers and advice to many questions that arise from those who have dealt with recovery from disasters. 1998. The restoration process places great demands on government and the private sector. the term began to mean different things to different people as recovery ensued. http://www. Protecting Business Operations: Second Report on Costs and Benefits of Natural Hazard Mitigation. Washington.Building Economic Vitality They determined. Recovery from Disaster Handbook. as an initial finding. Paul. This handbook provides local units of government with guidance in long-term recovery after a disaster. and interests. MN: State of Minnesota.
Chapter 6 Promoting Social and Intergenerational Equity during Disaster Recovery Introduction This chapter discusses how the sustainability principle of promoting social and intergenerational equity can be pursued during disaster recovery. A “one size fits all” approach to postdisaster recovery and planning can alienate important constituencies and may have severe repercussions for the long-term viability of a community’s sustainable recovery efforts. and social needs during the recovery period. city manager. religion. economic. Social inequities exist in nearly every community. sexual orientation. concerted effort to secure equal access to resources. A community is composed of a diverse set of residents. for instance. Each community leader. facilities. navigate. The destruction of sensitive coastal wetlands for sprawling residential development. removes the opportunity for future community residents to harness the protective power of the wetlands and burdens them with higher stormwater runoff. Intergenerational equity is an important concept that can be addressed by simply considering and adopting sensible redevelopment strategies that consider the long-term consequences. Reaching out to . Understanding Social Inequity in Disaster Recovery In the broadest sense. or class. medical. Existing racial or class issues. will impact trust in governmental institutions. More affordable short-term options may need to be rejected in favor of long-term. These built-in inequalities have a profound impact on some residents’ ability to prepare and respond to disaster and also influence their postdisaster experience. significant infrastructure maintenance costs. As has been mentioned before. for example. and the ability of marginalized community members to understand. and higher vulnerability to catastrophic storm surge events. Intergenerational equity refers to the belief that our actions today should not impair or impede the options of future generations. and input for each individual community member regardless of race. gender. interpretation of official messages. disasters offer a number of opportunities to affect positive change in a community and ensure social equity is part of building back better. methods of communication. and participate in the recovery process. many of whom will have specific cultural. sustainable options that ensure community safety and well-being for generations to come. planner. ensuring social equity during a recovery means to make a positive. whether community members are aware of them or not. opportunities. and emergency management official should familiarize themselves with the issues of social and economic vulnerability.
Community leaders should also be aware of how relief and recovery workers may exacerbate racial and class tensions. and community managers and emergency management officials have a responsibility to ensure that everyone’s rights are respected. and after an event. for example. physical. Women. generating a feeling of loss and disenfranchisement in racial and ethnic minority communities. Some religious prohibitions may complicate emergency sheltering options. housing. and the infirm are often less able to cope with the employment. for instance. can foster the feeling of criminality among disaster victims and alienate them from further participation in the recovery process. Many relief and charitable organizations have religious missions in addition to their humanitarian objectives that can create uncomfortable situations during an already traumatic period. the elderly.Promoting Social and Intergenerational Equity traditionally underrepresented groups during recovery planning through an effective public participation process is a crucial step in the difficult and lengthy rebuilding process. and these seemingly small concerns in the face of major catastrophe can handicap the social. during. and demographic makeup that will inform their own postdisaster outreach efforts. Each community will need to independently assess the needs of their own vulnerable populations to fully understand the level of increased risk and develop plans and strategies before. It is also important to keep in mind that no particular group should automatically be considered vulnerable. It can be easy to overlook community members that may have increased vulnerability to disasters. and local officials. The visible use of weaponry to secure a disaster area. community leaders and activists may be dispersed. income disparity. and mental well-being of community members. often face a different set of challenges than men—whether as the head of a household or a member of an extended. children. socioeconomic status. access to female health resources. Low-income households. or institutional problems generated by disasters. 6-2 . Although a thorough review of the postdisaster issues faced by vulnerable populations is beyond the scope of this handbook. If a major evacuation is a component of the disaster response. Groups Particularly Susceptible to Inequity Some groups or community members are particularly susceptible to social inequalities and may have a long history of being neglected or marginalized. people who do not speak or understand English. for instance. and equal access to the public decision-making process are all concerns (among many) identified as issues faced by women in a postdisaster environment. medical. It is also important to understand how social and cultural norms may need to be proactively identified and addressed by federal. It is essential that all community members feel that their beliefs and values will be honored. only through a concerted outreach and public participation process will recovery officials come to understand the depth and extent of issues that community members are facing. Child care. lacking trust in governmental institutions. state. or simply financially unable to evacuate and return without assistance. close knit family—but specific awareness of issues they face is rarely incorporated into hazards planning. They may be resistant to formal methods of communication. it is important to recognize that some residents are more likely to need attention and access to additional resources than others. Each community has different experiences based on history.
Situation: Damaged transportation Recovery Strategies: • Consider where roadways and bridges are being built. Recovery Strategies for Promoting Equity The most important step toward promoting equity in the recovery process is to first recognize that inequities need to be identified and addressed. pick and choose among the options for improving its quality of life. allow community groups to appoint or anoint their own leader or representative and take care to address emerging issues of resource disparity as quickly as possible. To the extent possible. Avoid/remedy disproportionate impacts on groups.Promoting Social and Intergenerational Equity Finally. Consider future generations’ quality of life. 6-3 . • Consider the role that alternative forms of transportation can play in enhancing access to economic opportunities for low-income residents. Options for Promoting Social and Intergenerational Equity • • • • • • Preserve social connections in and among groups. Adopt a long-term focus for all planning. disaster recovery can provide an opening for a fresh start and the development of new relationships. Activists and leaders may be dislocated or missing. The Matrix of Opportunities in Chapter 1 shows some of the options a recovering community could use to work on equity issues while it addresses disaster-induced challenges. and develop strategies that are specially tailored to its own needs. and historical resources. or unintentionally through the uneven distribution of goods and services. the relief and recovery phases of a disaster can dramatically alter the social and economic composition of a community. Likewise. Notice how each of the strategies suggested below uses one or more of the options listed on the Matrix of Opportunities under the fourth sustainability principle. If roadways or rail lines need to be moved. select implementation tools to pursue each of those options. Social and Intergenerational Equity. cultural. Community managers and recovery officials should take care to refrain from imposing a new leadership structure. generating a new class of haves and have-nots. either intentionally while seeking a point of contact person. seek to preserve neighborhood integrity. Preserve natural. Value diversity. the sample strategies below suggest ways in which some options and disaster situations could be combined to address social issues. creating gaps in community leadership. A community can start with the situations that exist after a disaster. Although ideally this is an ongoing process in a community. The situations and options are not exhaustive but instead illustrate the range of possibilities.
unsanitary conditions. Situation: Environmental damage Preserving and restoring natural. Low-income residents are more likely to spend time in government-sponsored relief housing and should be treated in a supportive and humane manner. and who is being allowed to rebuild. The period after a disaster is one of extreme vulnerability and insecurity for many community members and deliberate. and archaeological resources can help preserve social connections between and within groups as well as save important features for future generations.e. Loss of this support network can have lasting repercussions for the physical and mental health of entire communities. Recovery Strategies: • Identify and prioritize resources. mobile homes) with similar vulnerable housing. For example. • Recognize the value of places and objects as sources of identity and connection. • Assess the impact of a loss in tax base to services for vulnerable groups. • Value diversity across natural. Situation: Economic disruption Recovery Strategies: • Consider the impacts of economic disruption on jobs for vulnerable groups. • Find funding and resources to restore and mitigate future impacts. • Be aware of the public perception of new rules and regulations. 6-4 . a community should consider who is being bought out. cultural. the use of eminent domain for the relocation of public facilities can generate significant public opposition. resulting in overcrowding.Promoting Social and Intergenerational Equity Situation: Damaged public facilities Recovery Strategies: • Assess the impacts of redevelopment decisions on vulnerable populations and be sure to rebuild critical public support facilities in reach of those communities that need them the most. cemeteries. cultural and archaeological resources. historical. the local challenge of providing affordable rental and low-income housing is often aggravated. Situation: Damaged housing After a disaster. historical. where they are moving to. Recovery Strategies: • Create a local grant-writing group to help acquire resources to rehabilitate homes whose owners cannot afford such projects. • Although buyouts of flood-prone property can be beneficial. well-publicized steps should be taken to rebuild feelings of safety and security.. museums. and sacred places. and a decrease in morale and social well-being. such as parks. Situation: Disruption to health and safety The restoration of public health facilities should be a primary objective of any recovery effort. • Avoid replacing a devastated section of housing (i.
Information. Public Education and Awareness Campaigns and Events Predisaster planning presents one opportunity to reach out to groups or individuals that may not be aware of natural hazards risks. A neighborhood group formed to combat crime might 6-5 . Workshops. Important public meetings should be held at a multiple times and locations to ensure access to the greatest number of participants. and marginalized groups. Examples of these groups might include the elderly. and evaluation activities will help the recovery team understand the culture and needs of these groups. implementation. for example. • Take advantage of opportunities to raise awareness.Promoting Social and Intergenerational Equity Recovery Strategies: • Coordinate with organizations such as the American Red Cross to lead hazards-related educational efforts using materials designed for a variety of users: non-English speakers. such as poor and transient populations. the disabled. illiterate individuals. and Invitations Invitations to involve members of marginalized or minority groups throughout planning. more equitable. information. each October the United Nations’ International Strategy for Disaster Reduction holds an “International Day for Disaster Reduction. Use this day to plan a community disaster drill and involve local organizations that support disabled persons in evacuation and rescue drills. Special outreach to activist. and invitations Existing community activities Programs to assist populations at risk Tools for Promoting Equity The opportunities for promoting social equity are as numerous as they are varied. decision-making.” which could also become a community awareness event. For example. Existing Community Activities Any and all community-building activities can be used as a basis for building a stronger. A community should try to plan ahead of a disaster how to assist these populations and use its educational campaigns to engage these groups in planning for their protection and/or evacuation during a disaster event. Assess which tools work best for your community and/or develop new tools to achieve specific objectives. or civic leaders may be necessary to reach everyone in a meaningful way. the mentally ill (and their caregivers). disaster-resilient community. religious. children. Tools for Promoting Social and Intergenerational Equity • • • • • Public education and awareness campaigns and events Public-private partnerships and networks Targeted workshops. and the elderly.
Department of Health and Human Services operates the Disaster Technical Assistance Center to help states deal with mental health issues in times of disaster. When neighbors know and care about each other. formulate details. locate technical assistance. for example. get approval.Promoting Social and Intergenerational Equity use the social capital gained in its interactions to help one another in a disaster situation. Step 1: Get Organized Efforts to assess the distribution of risk begin with getting to know different segments of the community and incorporating everyone into the recovery process. age. and move toward implementation. The National Organization on Disability operates the Emergency Preparedness Initiative to help inform emergency managers of the special needs and concerns of disabled individuals in times of disasters. The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration through the U. the community will need to explore them through a systematic process in order to decide on the best approach. Programs to Assist Populations at Risk There are several government programs whose purpose is to help at-risk populations mitigate or recover from disaster. select feasible tools. immigrant communities. 6-6 . technical assistance. the following activities will help provide a framework for including social equity considerations in a community’s disaster recovery. The Veterans Administration will mediate disputes between lenders and borrowers and encourage lenders to extend forbearance to loan holders who have experienced disaster and are in distress. The program also works with disability advocacy organizations to ensure that individuals with disabilities are prepared for emergencies. gender. Forbearance on Veterans Administration Home Loans is also available. language barriers in lowincome. Actions to Promote Social and Intergenerational Equity in the 10-Step Recovery Process Once the recovery strategies for addressing social equity are identified.S. The Crisis Counseling and Training Assistance Program provides grants to states to assist in training. they are likely to pull together in a crisis. so social services agencies should also be contacted for information. Actions: Start by looking at census data and learning about recorded diversity: race. plan for action. ethnicity. and housing. Many states have agencies dedicated to elderly populations and will provide assistance in applying for grants and loans from the SBA and FEMA after a disaster. income. Census data often misses people. find funding. and shortterm counseling assistance after a federally declared disaster. and the Small Business Administration (SBA) work together to provide information on the disaster resources available for older Americans. Within the 10-step process described in Chapter 2. the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The Administration on Aging. Consider equity issues as they intersect groups.
especially barriers to effective recovery. Actions: Seek out existing community organizations working with vulnerable groups and actively solicit information about where victims are gathering and what they see as important recovery issues. additional resources and expertise can be brought to bear on these complex issues. By partnering with other organizations. Volunteer for community organization activities. or represent these constituencies. Actions: Invite a wide variety of persons. safety. See Chapter 3 for more information on participatory processes during recovery. Those that do not may not reflect the realities of vulnerable groups and may create new. Assess how those problems affect marginalized groups. and suggestions on who is at risk and how they relate to sustainable disaster recovery. Departments. This will build a broader base of knowledge and support for recovery decisions. and Groups Involving a wide variety of recovery partners improves the diversity of ideas and potential solutions. Part of this outreach process involves looking for hidden equity issues. and increases creative problem solving. Which groups are at risk and in what ways? Are there individuals with significant medical and health needs who live in isolated conditions? What languages are used for warnings and are they consistent with local needs? Is there a plan for child care so that single parents can participate in recovery efforts? Is there an interpreter for the deaf community? 6-7 . etc. pedestrian orientation. Allow marginalized groups to identify policies. Steps 4 and 5: Identify and Evaluate the Problem Recovery efforts should rely on affected populations to identify problems. insights. unintended complications. and organizations to offer input. Actions: Identify what local populations see as their recovery problems. enhances the labor pool. Step 3: Coordinate with Other Agencies. groups. People who believe they are economically or politically powerless to affect change may need opportunities to develop their collective strengths to become empowered. Develop and maintain formal and informal relationships with community leaders. including issues of access. public space. Attend ethnic festivals. plans. Develop a broad range of questions and issues to be explored and evaluated. and programs that they believe will help in the recovery process. Hold neighborhood-based meetings to help citizens visualize their homes and streets after the recovery. serve. Step 2: Involve the Public Historically marginalized and excluded groups may believe they are not able to affect change.Promoting Social and Intergenerational Equity Identify agencies and organizations that work with.
Alternative strategies should be assessed in terms of who will be excluded or detrimentally impacted as a result of a decision. Develop appropriate output materials in needed languages. and interests of vulnerable groups? Steps 8. groups. realities. Examples of Success Regional Guidance for Promoting Equity The Association of Bay Area Governments (ABAG) in California advocates recovery efforts that “encourage open discussion on the resolution of racial/ethnic problems in all aspects of community life. Actions: Determine what criteria are being used to choose and prioritize the alternatives. ABAG’s indicators also “encourage citizens. including housing and employment.Promoting Social and Intergenerational Equity Step 7: Explore All Alternative Strategies Build upon information gained and relationships and partnerships built in earlier steps to develop strategies to adopt social equity policies and strategies in a sensitive and appropriate way. A recovery strategy to maintain and enhance social equity in housing was adopted and implemented by the city. following the Loma Prieta earthquake in 1989 was primarily concentrated in Latino residential areas near downtown. business and civic organizations. 9. and Implement When working with historically disadvantaged and/or vulnerable populations. Invite stakeholders to participate in the political process at all stages of recovery. and 10: Plan for Action. Do they reflect the opinions. lenders. business groups. Housing shortages and overcrowded conditions were a major problem prior to the earthquake.” For example.” Disaster Provides Opportunity to Improve Housing Equity Damage to housing in Watsonville. and the real estate community. consistency. Vulnerable groups are likely to be watching to see if planners and decision makers keep promises and deliver appropriate resources.” Equally important to postdisaster housing recovery. This should be a broad-based effort involving schools. Train neighborhood groups and give talks. and follow-through are critical. Network with local organizations. Actions: Keep vulnerable persons. religious and community organizations. Invite stakeholders to participate in annual reviews and to assist with developing indicators as well as assessments (see section on monitoring). “advocate for a federal educational loan program that would facilitate efforts by low-skill/low-wage workers to train for higher skill/higher paid positions” and “encourage businesses to offer their employees financial and other incentives to continually upgrade their work skills. Get Agreement. California. sincerity. and local governments to pressure financial institutions to invest in housing and employment developments in the low-income communities they serve. which passed an ordinance requiring that 25 percent of all postdisaster housing be affordable. In doing 6-8 . and organizations informed and involved.
Indicators should be interconnected and tied to community development that is equitable in both disaster and nondisaster contexts.Promoting Social and Intergenerational Equity so. removed. managers. they not only augmented the city’s affordable housing stock. religious. Monitoring Social and Intergenerational Equity Gauging the success of hazards mitigation. community planners. Poverty • Percentage of people living below the poverty line • Unemployment rate • Debt to income ratio Gender Equality • Disparity between men’s and women’s wages • Percentage of women with access to childcare and reproductive health facilities • Incidence of domestic violence Housing • Square footage per person • Redevelopment of affordable housing units • Percentage of high-risk structures retrofitted. The development of indicators allows a community to measure against a benchmark whether they are achieving their goals and objectives for disaster risk reduction or other aspects of sustainable long-term recovery. but also made it possible for many community members to return after the disaster. sustainable development. or reinhabited Health Care • Percentage of the community with access to primary-care facilities • Immunization rate • Access to clean. Some examples are given below. or social equity projects or initiatives is extremely challenging. uncontaminated water Conclusion Racial. It is essential for the long-term health and well-being of a community that all citizens have a chair at the table during the recovery planning and community redevelopment stages. Ideally. Tracking and verifying information for social indicators is often difficult because of the lack of hard data and the unique characteristics of any given community. and gender equality issues are difficult to address due to the sensitive nature of the underlying issues but also because of their deep interconnectedness and complexity. a community will begin to address social equity issues prior to a disaster or extreme event but a community rebuilding 6-9 . and emergency management officials must proactively identify vulnerable populations and address their concerns. class. Effective indicators are typically based on accessible data that is easy to interpret and apply to other localities and across time for comparative purposes. Nevertheless.
FEMA “FEMA for Kids” has excellent resources in English and Spanish with stories for all children.org/help. Visit http://www.org/ and http://www.net/.html.mds.redcross. Visit www. and then quietly leave. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) The NAACP established the NAACP Disaster Relief Fund to aid African Americans in recovering from the effects of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Visit http://www. Katrina Legal Aid Resource Center This site is a collaborative effort of the American Bar Association and other legal organizations to provide legal information and assistance to individuals and businesses affected by Hurricane Katrina.aspx.” Visit http://www.naacp. Their site contains information to help the aging populations prepare for and recover from disasters. Gender and Disaster Network The Gender and Disaster Network provides comprehensive information about the impacts of disasters on women and children.cfm. and/or individuals with disabilities with postdisaster cleanup and building repair. the elderly. Available resources on the site include “Gender Sensitive Practice Checklist” and “Promoting Social Justice in Disaster Reconstruction: Guidelines For Gender-Sensitive And Community-Based Planning” Visit http://online. Among the topics covered are “Dealing with the Elderly and Disasters” and “Masters of Disasters Curriculum for Children. assist those with low-incomes. Mennonite Disaster Services The Mennonites will appear quietly in a community.northumbria. The NAACP is also working to ensure that African Americans are full participants in the rebuilding process.fema.katrinalegalaid.org/pubs/dspubs/cde.redcross.ac. 6-10 .Promoting Social and Intergenerational Equity effort forges new partnerships and relationships that can be leveraged to tackle deep social inequalities.mennonite.mfaaa. Where to Find More Information Web Resources American Red Cross The Red Cross provides community disaster education materials. Visit http://www.org/. Mid-Florida Agency on Aging Disaster Preparedness This agency works with service agencies in counties in north-central Florida to provide disasterrelated information and referral services.org/emergency.gov/kids/.uk/geography_research/gdn/. Visit http://www.
Visit http://www. CA: California Governor’s Office of Emergency Services. Visit http://www.preparenow. education. http://www. Information is available in a number of languages.nod. The site contains a preparedness library with information in several languages and a compendium of resources.Promoting Social and Intergenerational Equity National Organization on Disabilities The Emergency Preparedness Initiative of the National Organization on Disability’s Web site is dedicated to providing information and resources to help disabled individuals and communities prepare for and recover from disasters. Prepare. National Voluntary Organizations Active in Disaster This organization coordinates planning efforts by volunteer organizations responding to disasters.org is a site run by the American Red Cross that contains disaster preparedness information. such as children and disabled individuals.ssrc.oes.org/images/pdfs/preparedness/A4497. The key goal of the site is to address the needs of vulnerable populations. Guidebooks. Its premise is that a cooperative relationship between government and community-based organizations provides the best assurance that the needs of underserved people and the needs of the community for long-term recovery will be fully addressed. This booklet was designed to help the elderly and people with mobility impairments or hearing. Some of those issues include vulnerable populations and the impacts of race on response and recovery.pdf.gov/Operational/OESHome.org/. or learning disabilities prepare for natural disasters and their consequences.org/. 2000. Preparing for Disaster for People with Disabilities and other Special Needs. 2004. DC: American Red Cross. Meeting the Needs of Vulnerable People in Times of Disaster: A Guide for Emergency Managers.ca. This handbook is a useful guide to the special situations faced by marginalized groups in the wake of hazardous events.redcross. Sacramento. Visit http://www. mitigation efforts. and Articles American Red Cross and FEMA. Prepare Now Prepare Now is an alliance of San Francisco Area organizations dedicated to helping vulnerable populations prepare for and recover from disasters. California Governor’s Office of Emergency Services.nvoad.prepare. and other areas of disaster response and preparedness.org/.PDF. http://www. Books.org/. Visit http://understandingkatrina.org Prepare. Understanding Katrina—Social Science Research Council The essays on this site are dedicated to exploring various issues surrounding Hurricane Katrina. Washington. The organization acts as a forum for communication between organizations.org/.nsf/PDF/Vulnerable%20Populations/$file/Vul nerable%20Populations. seeing. It then proceeds 6-11 . Visit http://www.
and recovery and offers steps that can be used to increase women’s participation in the community. Alice. The report presents a model for communitywide vulnerability and capacity assessments to help emergency managers incorporate vulnerable populations into emergency plans. Todd. Ethnicity and Disasters in the United States: A Review of the Literature. This paper examines failures in Hurricane Katrina and Rita emergency response and the lessons for transportation planning in other communities.uk/geography_research/gdn/wot_practical. 2005. Katrina’s evacuation plan failed to serve people who depend on public transit. resulting in traffic congestion and fuel shortages. http://ww3. Washington. and JoAnne Darlington DeRouen.Promoting Social and Intergenerational Equity to outline steps for building such a relationship.ca/research/resactivites/planPrep/Comm_Vuln_Assess/2000D013_e. National Organization on Disability.northumbria. Communitywide Vulnerability and Capacity Assessment. and sources of more information. Office of Critical Infrastructure Protection and Emergency Preparedness. http://www.org/resources/PDFs/epiguide2005. Planners and Responders: Revised Edition. during.pdf. and after emergencies.M. This report challenges emergency managers to identify who are vulnerable in a community and not make assumptions about particular groups.pdf.” Disasters 23(2): 156-173.org/katrina. British Columbia: Victoria Transport Policy Institute.htm. Government of Canada. Rita’s evacuation plan failed because of excessive reliance on automobiles. Extensive appendixes give sample memoranda of understanding. Enarson. http://www. and resilient transport system.gc. outlining the capabilities. DC: National Organization on Disability. Ottawa. Victoria. Lessons From Katrina and Rita: What Major Disasters Can Teach Transportation Planners. 2005. Equitable emergency response requires special efforts to address the needs of vulnerable residents.vtpi. Ontario: Office of Critical Infrastructure Protection and Emergency Preparedness. This guide provides information and key points about women’s roles in disaster mitigation. 2001.” Gender and Disaster Network. This guide highlights key disability concerns for officials responsible for emergency planning in their communities and seeks to assist them in developing plans that take into account the needs and insights of people with disabilities before.ac. “Gender Equality in Disasters: Six Principles for Engendered Relief and Reconstruction. and weaknesses of both community-based organizations and governments in handling a variety of situations. equitable. response. 2005. Maestas.psepc-sppcc. strengths. Elaine. lists of communitybased organizations. tips for getting started on a comprehensive approach. “Race. http://online. Emergency Preparedness Initiative Guide for Emergency Managers.pdf. Enrique G.nod. Fothergill. Litman. This paper identifies policy and planning strategies to help create a more efficient. 1999. 6-12 .
California. Boulder. Brenda D. the American Red Cross stepped in to help. 80. 1992.colorado. widespread and diverse sheltering needs arose because of the mixed Bay Area population. and Mindy Ephraim.Promoting Social and Intergenerational Equity Phillips. and others. CO: Natural Hazards Center. yet in some locales.pdf. Shelter problems in Watsonville. The groups involved included non-English speakers. Living in the Aftermath: Blaming Processes in the Loma Prieta Earthquake. Following the earthquake. received heavy media attention when allegations of cultural insensitivity and discrimination against the community’s large Latino population arose.edu/hazards/wp/wp80. This paper examines the evolution of these problems and offers suggestions for avoiding such difficulties in the future. Long accustomed to responding to sheltering. physically and mentally disabled individuals. prequake homeless. Working Paper No. 6-13 . This report examines group behavior and attitudes in the aftermath of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. complaints were lodged against Red Cross sheltering efforts (or lack thereof) as well as against local government efforts. http://www.
may take the form of: • Preservation/restoration of natural resources • Protection of open space • Management of stormwater runoff • Prevention/remediation of pollution After a disaster. Public facilities. Integrating projects or programs that restore. In addition to affecting the built environment. and water utilities paralyzes the community at the very time that rescue teams and people need service the most. earthquakes. bridges collapse. hurricanes. This chapter presents strategies. described hereafter as environmental projects and programs. toxic substances spew into the air. and other natural disasters can change the character of a community in moments. When sewer systems. such as schools. Erosion accelerates along rivers and beaches.Chapter 7 Protecting Environmental Quality during Disaster Recovery Introduction Floods. Ports no longer serve commerce and trade. a community has an opportunity to reconsider and redesign its development patterns and to create or strengthen its mitigation plan by setting priorities that include environmental projects and programs as an important component. mitigation. or recovery plan can help guide the disaster recovery and reconstruction in ways that reduce damage from future disasters. and actions for integrating environmental projects and programs into a community’s comprehensive and disaster recovery plans. and across the landscape. the disasters also impact the natural environment. Transportation systems shut down as roads tumble into creeks. landslides. and pipelines break and storage tanks rupture. power plants. tools. storm drains. . Interruption of gas. electric. onto the water. and protect the natural landscape into a comprehensive. and downtown districts close. and rapid transit lines stop. A better community can be rebuilt after a disaster by protecting or enhancing local environmental quality. wildfires. Enhancement strategies. enhance.
Recovery Strategies for Protecting Environmental Quality Protecting and enhancing environmental quality can take place during the disaster recovery process. provides habitat for wildlife. Annually. The Matrix of Opportunities in Chapter 1 shows some of the options a recovering community could use to protect its environment while it addresses disaster-induced challenges. greenways. The 19-mile Sims Bayou greenway project in Houston. the sample strategies below suggest ways in which some options and disaster situations could be combined to help a community address environmental quality. birds.5 million in air quality costs and residential energy bills. recreation. and other functions characterize Rock Creek Park in Washington. Trees can drastically reduce the costs of stormwater management.S. and towns across the country are building disaster-resilient and sustainable communities that include environmental amenities. they are saving money and lives. Aesthetic values. Texas.850 acres of wetlands and the local zoning of 4. The strategies suggested below use one or more of the options listed on the Matrix of Opportunities under the fifth sustainability principle. and helps prevent erosion. pick and choose among the options for improving its environment. Likewise. environmental projects and programs protect natural resources and open space while simultaneously reducing potential damage from natural hazards.650 acres of floodplain in the Charles River basin in Massachusetts eliminated the need for $30 million in structural flood control projects by the U. and riverside parks serve as habitat for wildlife. and protect high risk areas. select among the implementation tools available to pursue each of those options. The restoration of wetlands and riparian areas helps to absorb floodwater and prevent erosion. Open space. and develop environmental strategies that are specially tailored to its own needs. 7-2 . A community can start with the situations that exist after a disaster. The situations and options shown on the matrix and the tools listed below are not exhaustive but instead illustrate the range of possibilities. such as floodplains. and calculated that the city’s tree canopy reduced stormwater runoff by 19 million cubic feet during a major storm.8 million in infrastructure costs and $2. Georgia. Texas. At the same time. help maintain water temperatures. counties. Several examples of this type of multiobjective management for hazards and the environment from across the nation are described below. American Forests studied Garland. enhances the aesthetics of the watercourse. and the 500-foot greenway along the Chattahoochee River that runs 180 miles from the Appalachian Mountains to Columbus. Army Corps of Engineers (see Chapter 8 for more discussion of this project). States. from development. and migratory waterfowl. Improved water quality raises the recreational and intrinsic values of river basins in Iowa and Illinois.Protecting Environmental Quality Multiobjective Management for Hazards and the Environment Throughout the nation. DC. Protect Environmental Quality. the trees save Garland $2. protect streams from pollutants. The purchase of full title or easements of approximately 4.
the community should act throughout the watershed. 5. while restoring power. Chances of success increase when environmental projects and programs reinforce solutions to other problems. 3. or a need for open space or recreational areas. commit staff time.. and providing food and shelter for victims. Prevent/remediate pollution. such as wetlands protection. lives. and socially. Recovery from disasters must be addressed in a regional context.g. it should work in consideration of the geologic landscape. politically. long-term actions. The community must designate a lead person.g. erosion control. and in the aftermath of a wildfire. After a flood. after an earthquake or landslide. 4. Their approach should be tailored to fit the circumstances of their particular community and should not simply be a reproduction of a model 7-3 . Each environmental project and program should be practical and feasible—technically. opening roads. and provide financial support to integrating environmental projects and programs into the comprehensive and recovery plans. federal). In this case. When these projects and programs also curtail development in hazardous areas. the community’s initiative to incorporate environmental projects and programs will include actions that can begin almost immediately as well as broader. county. after a hurricane or drought. the community should think regionally. economically. Tools for Protecting Environmental Quality Communities have access to many tools for integrating environmental projects and programs into their recovery plans or existing comprehensive plans. Manage stormwater runoff. Basic information on the local environment and different hazards is available and may meet planning needs for the short term. 2. Protect open space. the community should consider environmental projects and programs as part of its recovery plan. it should address issues on an ecosystem basis. During the response phase. However. property. • Maxims for Protecting the Environment during Disaster Recovery Here are a few practical suggestions for making important early decisions about environmental quality during the response phase of a disaster. municipal. The recovery plan should build on horizontal partnerships (e.Protecting Environmental Quality Options for Protecting Environmental Quality • • • Preserve/conserve/restore natural resources. 1. and money is saved in the long term. clearing debris.. parish) and vertical partnerships (e. state. the community should collect more detailed hazards and vulnerability data for long-term actions. nonpoint source pollution reduction. local.
A variety of available tools are listed including regulatory tools.Protecting Environmental Quality or process from another jurisdiction. By allowing the developer to build at a higher density on more suitable lands. state. Under cluster zoning. A wetlands conservation or floodplain area. Cluster zoning (grouping or concentrating building units on a smaller land area) achieves the same objectives by modifying densities in approved subdivision plats. and private programs. Some of the more common regulatory measures used by local governments are summarized below. allowed in each zone. and lakes from the byproducts of adjacent land uses.g. Buffer zones often have a fixed width. residential. and federal. commercial. For example. 7-4 . Zoning—Zoning divides land into separate land use districts or zones and establishes the uses (e.. such as 100 feet from the body of water. Regulations work best if they are in place before a disaster. Tools for Protecting Environmental Quality • • • • • • • • • Zoning Subdivision regulations Building codes Special ordinances Tax incentives Transfer of development rights Easements Land purchase Voluntary agreements Regulatory Tools Local governments have several regulatory techniques available to implement environmental protection and hazards mitigation. creeks. The overlay zone delineates a conservation district or a floodplain. for example. can be established by an overlay zone or an incentive zone where zoning already exists or as a special district when zoning is not yet in place. fault line. Incentive zones allow for a compromise between the plans for saving wetlands and floodplains and the desires of the landowners to have intensive development. 50 homes would be located on 25 acres. Buffer zones may be used to protect rivers. or landslide area on a map and sets the regulations and standards for uses that can take place there. by retarding runoff and trapping sediment before it enters the water bodies. thereby keeping the other 25 acres as wetlands or floodplains. incentives. wetlands or floodplains can be protected as open space. or industrial) as well as the density of development. but there may be opportunities to improve on existing regulations or adopt new ones in the recovery period. bayous. assume a parcel of 50 acres is composed of 25 acres of uplands and 25 acres of wetlands or floodplains. for example.
wetlands. Building codes should be mandated during recovery (reconstruction. Traditionally. propane tanks can become an environmental hazard if they become part of the debris carried by flood waters. Through this method. subdivision regulations focused on the physical aspects of a proposed development: the arrangement of lots. Again. local building codes can include provisions to require tanks are adequately anchored to avoid such risks. For example. protect wetlands from nonpoint source pollution. local governments can enact programs that allow all or part of the density potential. rehabilitation. These rights include keeping people off the land. make improvements on the existing operations. to be applied to a noncontiguous parcel or to land owned by someone else. However. open space. buffer zones. and parks and can be used for conserving habitat. or landslides. This technique is similar to easements. not just during recovery from a disaster. for example. Building codes can be used to control development on hydric soils. building structures on it. faulting. on unstable soils. undesirable development is avoided. Building Codes—Local governments adopt laws. and the provision of stormwater facilities. Stormwater management ordinances. An easement is a legal agreement between a property owner and another party to restrict the type and amount of development that may take place on the property. as established in the community’s zoning ordinance for one parcel of land. Perpetual easements last forever and go with the land while term easements extend for a specified period of years. because the land stays in the private sector. but also to reduce the potential for polluting habitat. Incentives as Environmental Tools Transfer of Development Rights—In those states with enabling legislation. this technique is useful any time. regulations. Special Ordinances—Special ordinances can also be adopted to conserve environmental values and functions. the size and layout of streets.Protecting Environmental Quality Subdivision Regulations—Subdivision regulations govern the division of land into smaller parcels for development or sale. and other environmentally important areas. the landowner receives payment that can be used to purchase additional land. In addition. Development rights can be separated from the property rights and sold to create an easement. in flood-prone areas. wetlands. Detention ponds. floodplains. not only to save lives and prevent injuries. or areas subject to erosion. Easements—Fee simple ownership is full ownership that carries with it the right to do many different things with the land. property taxes are still paid. Developers are encouraged to place buildings on designated sites. or fund other projects. Building codes govern the construction methods used in structures. floodplains. and near geologic hazards. and the landowner is compensated for the development rights he or she relinquished. ordinances. avoiding wetlands. and artificial wetlands are other methods that communities should consider as they work to improve environmental quality during recovery. selling it. 7-5 . open space. and otherwise using it. and floodplains. or alteration). Construction may or may not be prohibited or may be restricted in amount or type. they may provide for sewers. these rights can be sold to someone who has land better suited for development that is not in hazard-prone or environmentally sensitive areas. new development continues. and other requirements to create building codes. drainage. For the development rights. leaving it to heirs.
the community could purchase the rights of first refusal on selected parcels. also known as fee simple acquisition. The community is not committed to the property in perpetuity. Leases are simply rents for the contracted period with the landowner retaining title and the tax obligation. land acquisition is usually very expensive. enhancement. This basically means that the landowner gives the government the opportunity to purchase the wetlands before he or she sells it to a third party. The community could purchase the property and retain those parts of the parcel that are most desirable for sustainability and sell less desirable lands with deed restrictions. If the land is not in public ownership. such as the life of the present owners. This may be expensive because the sale price likely will be driven by the market. A major deficiency of this approach is that the agreements may not be binding and could be terminated at will or with the mutual consent of those involved. It allows for implementing a multiobjective program. Signed documents are recorded with the county or • • 7-6 . The landowners agree on use controls and the activities that can take place. Lease charges generate income that can be used to offset long-term operations and maintenance costs and property taxes. Leases—A second form of voluntary agreement is a lease between the community and the property owner. Covenants—It is possible for the community to arrange a mutual covenant among neighboring landowners when there are no funds for obtaining the property or there is some distrust of the local government. This approach allows for maximum use of public funds. an annual lease fee must be paid. There are tax benefits for the donor. then long-term site planning is restricted. Without a plan or ownership there may be limitations on public expenditures that can be made on the property. it allows for a smoother transition to a conservation use. Finally. Finally. including public access to and use of the land for recreation and habitat restoration. or the landowners can retain the use of the property for their and another person’s lifetime. Variations of the purchase option should be considered and may have significant benefits. Other disadvantages include disruption of the community. and the long-term responsibility and expense associated with operating and managing the parcel. a community can purchase the property and agree to life-time grants with restrictions for a defined period. • Donations—A recovery program should allow for donations. This option gives greater control over activities on the land. and protection. A second option is to purchase the property and then lease it with restrictions. On the other hand. but there are important problems. Voluntary Agreements—Voluntary agreements are yet another method for conserving land.Protecting Environmental Quality Land Acquisition—Purchase is usually considered for only the most exceptional lands. Donations may be outright. Purchase. It allows for total ownership and thus affords the best protection for the parcel. Although this is still costly. As an alternative. has many advantages. especially if condemnation is used. the extent of which must be determined by a certified public accountant with a full knowledge of the tax code and the land. Initial financing may be difficult to obtain and funding agencies may have different goals now or in the future from those of the community.
filter strips. and other nonfederal entities in the preparation of comprehensive plans for the development. Section 205 of the Flood Control Act (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance No. and construction. This program can be used to restore wetlands in the flood area.usace.saw. This list and program descriptions build upon an unpublished document (Emmer. established requirements.mil/whatwedo/civwks/CAP/1135.110)—This U.106)—The U. Army Corps of Engineers’ Section 205 projects reduce flood damage through projects not specifically authorized by Congress. For more information. Army Corps of Engineers’ program assists states. For the most recent information about a program. plans and specifications. 10. visit http://www.army. or riparian buffers.Protecting Environmental Quality municipality. raising and/or floodproofing of structures. and some are triggered by a presidential disaster declaration and thus are particularly appropriate for a recovery strategy. and the information is attached to the property until cancelled or modified by a written agreement of all parties. waterfowl habitat. and relocation of flood-prone facilities.pdf.mil/Floodplain/Section%20205. Small Flood Control Projects. 12. For more information. utilization. The Corps can develop and construct small flood control projects that are clearly shown to be feasible from an engineering standpoint and economically justified.069)—The Consolidated Farm Service Agency administers this program for conserving and improving natural resources such as wetlands. The program can also be used to realign a Corps levee to allow areas between the levee and the channel to revert to historic floodplain. visit http://www.S.usace.S. The total local contribution is 35 percent of the project cost. local governments. and Private Programs The following programs present opportunities for mixing and matching environmental projects into a recovery or comprehensive plan.to 15-year contract.saw. Army Corps of Engineers or by restoring areas where Corps projects contributed to the degradation of the area.fsa.htm. and conservation of water and related land resources. Planning Assistance to States Program (Section 22) (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance No. Eligible owners or operators may place highly erodible or environmentally sensitive cropland into a 10. Some of these programs are available any time. or names and telephone numbers of contacts.nab.usda.htm.usace. visit http://www. Nonstructural alternatives are viable options for funding and include such measures as flood warning systems. tribes. State. Federal. including studies. Project Modifications for Improvement of the Environment (Section 1135 Program)—This program provides for ecosystem restoration either by directly modifying the structures and/or operations of water resources projects constructed by the U. visit http://www.army. The summary of each program explains how it can be integrated into a community’s strategy for environmental quality. Each project is limited to a federal cost share of not more than $7 million.htm.mil/floodplain/Section%2022.army. 1991) prepared for the U. A 50/50 costshare agreement is required. 12. Conservation Reserve Program (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance No. opening oxbows by Corps levees or navigation features.gov/dafp/cepd/crp. For more information. Participants receive direct payments for specified uses. review the agency’s Web site or contact the agency directly.S. For more information.S. 7-7 . Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
Coastal communities may be affected by their state’s implementation of a coastal nonpoint pollution control program as required by Section 6217 of the Coastal Zone Act Reauthorization Act of 1990.gov/agriculture/lzma. visit http://www.Protecting Environmental Quality Postdisaster Economic Recovery—Congress may appropriate supplemental funds to the Economic Development Administration (EDA) after a disaster. For more information.eda. and lakes. For more information.458)— The EPA provides loans at below-market interest rates for up to 20 years.gov/.gov/owmitnet/cwfinance/cwsrf/. In addition. Clean Water State Revolving Funds (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance No. degrading water quality.029)—The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) will help states and communities carry out cost-effective measures designed to reduce the risk of flood damage to structures covered under contracts for flood insurance and to reduce the number of repetitive-loss structures. staff from the National Park Service facilitate activities to help local groups gain public support for a project and find funds for implementation.gov/safewater/dwsrf/. their personnel bring expertise and extensive experience in open space and community-based conservation programs. visit http://www. visit http://www. 66. or replace wastewater treatment plants damaged by flooding. A community may now be required to prepare a stormwater management plan. local and state government appointed commissions. scenic byways.epa.460)— Counties and towns share the problem of dealing with stormwater runoff.468)—The EPA provides loans to repair. and others on rivers and trails projects. visit http://www. It has expanded to include work on developing greenways. although disadvantaged communities may qualify for 30-year loans. Eligible 7-8 . Drinking Water State Revolving Funds (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance No. the EPA supports the implementation of best management practices to protect water quality. Loans may be used for relocation of nonfarm and nongovernmental structures. Through the Clean Water Act. For more information. Trails. 66. Loans are below-market interest rates for up to 20 years. 15. repair. Rivers. replace. The program works with nonprofit groups.epa.epa. Public Works Program direct grants may be used to upgrade physical infrastructure and have a cost share of 80 percent federal and 20 percent local. local government agencies. For more information.921)—Through this program. Nonpoint Source Pollution Grants (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance No.html. Flood Mitigation Assistance (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance No. or relocate community water systems (public and private) damaged by flooding. 97. which is one way this program can help with environmental protection projects.gov/rtca/. Impervious surfaces and disturbed lands change the quantity and quality of precipitation that flows overland to rivers. and Conservation Assistance Program (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance No. 66. bayous. and heritage areas. The cost share may be as high as 100 percent for a project located in a presidentially declared disaster area for which EDA received an application for assistance under a supplemental appropriation within 18 months of the date of the declaration.nps. visit http://www. Although the program provides no grants or loans. For more information. These loans can be used to relocate.
gov/fima/fma. • The Castaic Union School District in program. • Purchase of land in hazards zones. • Acquisition and demolition or relocation of structures. more than 164 homes expenses. The Robert T. • Improvements to stormwater. Funds are available located above two active water wells. These projects must demonstrate a positive cost-benefit ratio.e. All funding is on a cost share of 75 percent federal and 25 percent nonfederal. • Seismic retrofitting. but northern Los Angeles County. Project types allowed through Section 404 include: • Construction of detention ponds/basins. or used a $7. The school district agreed to turn the land local. They changed the property deed to restrict human The Hazard Mitigation Grant Program offers the habitation and development and to return most immediate source of funding for the site to natural open space. including acquisition.5 percent of the total). Section 404. • Repair or reconstruction of fuel storage tanks. elevation. are not limited to. California. wastewater. Only half of the nonfederal share can be in-kind work (12.Protecting Environmental Quality projects include mitigation activities that are technically feasible and cost effective. as amended (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance No. Montana. localized structural projects. or both). • Stabilization of riverbanks and shorelines.2 million grant and the sale of relocation of structures and retrofitting of local bonds to relocate school facilities facilities. Up to seven percent of the Section over to the Newhall County Water 404 funds are available to states to be used in District. elevation. The cleared land protect both public and private property. Types of eligible projects include. minus administrative • In Del Rio. which the water district can use to supply their customers in Castaic. after a presidential declaration. 404 funding increases from 15 percent to 20 • In Lincoln County.shtm. from high-pressure oil pipelines. minor.039)—These FEMA grants can be used for implementing long-term hazards mitigation measures after a major disaster declaration. and be a part of a state’s funding priority. or relocation of structures insured by the National Flood Insurance Program. acquisition. Texas. Stafford Disaster Assistance and Emergency Relief Act. Section was dedicated to open space.fema. visit http://www.. Funds are not contingent upon a presidential disaster declaration. and beach nourishment. be proven to avoid certain losses. Hazard Mitigation Grant Program. • Infrastructure improvements to roads and bridges. The cost-sharing requirement is 75 out of a dam inundation area and away percent federal and 25 percent other (i. 7-9 . 97. and water treatment facilities. For more information. state. 30 acres of percent depending on the state having an flood-prone land near a residential area acceptable mitigation plan that demonstrates its were purchased and turned into interest and intent to track the effectiveness of the community parkland. The old school property is developing mitigation plans. environmental quality projects. Open Space Projects Completed Grants are based on the federal funds spent on with HMGP Funding the Public and Individual Assistance programs in response to the disaster. and can be used for projects that along the San Felipe Creek were moved out of the floodplain.
Protecting Environmental Quality • • • • • • • Beach nourishment. visit http://www. fuel breaks.fema. Slope stabilization. values. and others. Horizontal partners may include counties. Erosion controls. Within the 10-step process described in Chapter 2. The Pre-Disaster Mitigation program was authorized to help states and communities to implement a sustained predisaster natural hazards mitigation program to reduce overall risk to the population and structures. Organize the team and identify working groups: technical. Brush clearing. financial. If there is a comprehensive plan. environmental elements can be built into the plan using the process below as a guide. tribes. and Miscellaneous land improvements. public participation and outreach. a watershed. The cost-share requirement is at least 25 percent from nonfederal sources. Stafford Disaster Assistance and Emergency Relief Act. or districts. financial. while also reducing reliance on federal funding from actual disaster declarations. territories. the following activities will help a community address environmental issues during disaster recovery. However. and personnel resources. Vegetation management programs. Actions: Assign one person in charge of environmental issues and provide staff support. For more information. as amended (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance No. or an ecosystem.gov/fima/hmgp/. Pre-Disaster Mitigation Competitive Grants. or communities for hazards mitigation planning and the implementation of mitigation projects prior to a disaster event. while vertical partners may include federal agencies and state departments. For more information.gov/fima/pdm/#fy2006. however. Step 1: Get Organized A multijurisdictional approach allows a community to pool technical. Stabilization and/or restoration of sand dunes and roadway banks. towns. if a community prefers an alternative planning method. achieving an economy of scale that benefits all. There is no need to duplicate an established planning process. controlled burns. 7-10 . a geologic region. 97.017) —These FEMA competitive grants provide funds to states. If there is no such plan. impoverished communities may be eligible for up to 90 percent federal funding. Define the planning area for environmental issues. legal. Actions to Protect Environmental Quality in the 10-Step Recovery Process This section outlines a process for integrating environmental projects and programs into a community’s recovery plan.fema. visit http://www. It can be adjusted to fit an individual community’s needs. Robert T. such as a region. small. strategies for environmental quality can be carried out in the context of the overall disaster recovery. and capabilities. it should keep using it. Section 203. parishes.
Establish a regular process for providing information and receiving ideas. Conduct public meetings and workshops for victims and community representatives. Step 3: Coordinate with Other Agencies. Assess risks and magnitudes of future events. ask for and record comments. and environmental perspectives. Set priorities so that the community can focus on planning. public facilities. and implementing these projects and programs. Make the goals positive statements. and Groups Actions: Ask agency representatives on the planning or recovery team to describe their agency’s programs. Estimate the probable types and degree of damage. Departments. funding. Step 4: Identify the Environmental Problems Actions: Use reliable sources of existing information. quality of life. Identify development trends in the sensitive areas. Make agencies part of the review process. Analyze the potential impacts of each alternative on each of these principles. Give full consideration to all sustainability principles: economic. Step 5: Evaluate the Problems Actions: Use this opportunity to examine how strategies to remedy damaged transportation. and priorities. objectives. Incorporate comments into the planning process and final plans. Invite members of the public and representatives from nonprofit organizations to participate. Step 7: Explore All Alternatives Be sure to have a balanced approach. After presentations. utilities. 7-11 .Protecting Environmental Quality Agree on how the planning team will function and its scope of responsibility. Describe the characteristics of the environment. Step 2: Involve the Public Actions: Decide on a public involvement process. disaster resilience. Invite other agencies to make similar presentations. social equity. Map environmentally sensitive areas. and environment can also serve to enhance the community’s environment. Set team goals. set goals and objectives. homes/businesses. Step 6: Set Goals and Objectives Using the planning or recovery team and public involvement.
planners and decision makers can begin integrating environmental projects and programs into the recovery plan or existing comprehensive plan. including memoranda of understanding signed among partners. Step 8: Plan for Action During this step the planning or recovery team drafts a plan for action that fits into the recovery phase or becomes part of the community’s comprehensive plan. Survey decision makers and the public. data collection. observable results. 7-12 . county. Report on accomplishments of team members. and report writing. Using a Planning Process for Environmental Projects and Programs After a community suffers a major natural disaster and it is working through the response phase. acquisitions. Agreement should be obtained from federal and state agencies as appropriate. public participation. Revise and finalize the plan. Meet with landowners. and local governments will need to formally adopt the plan of action into the recovery or comprehensive plan. building codes. Modify the recovery plan based on results from monitoring reports. such as acres of wetlands protected or restored. Propose a monitoring and review process. Step 10: Implement. etc. Consider funding methods and how the community will apply for them. Step 9: Write and Adopt the Plan In many instances. Here are some suggestions for integrating environmental elements in this case: • Consider the maxims previously proposed. Measure direct. Involve the public as soon and as often as practical. Obtain public review and comment as needed. Use the monitoring reports required as part of a federal program and/or the one proposed in this chapter. Develop a schedule. Be prepared to commit to integrating environmental projects and programs into the recovery plan or comprehensive plan. Work with county or parish and town councils and governing boards on zoning. Evaluate. Schedule team meetings. • Follow the 10-step recovery process or use another process with which the community is comfortable. etc.Protecting Environmental Quality Actions: Identify the lead agency for each action and what they will provide or prepare. state. Describe local actions (zoning. and Revise the Plan Actions: Apply for federal and state programs and funds.). Actions: Include a budget. subdivision ordinances. subdivision ordinances.
See the list at the end of the tools section of this chapter for other potentially eligible projects and programs.searchgov. Trails. To find an agency Web site. Begin preparing a mitigation plan whether the community receives these funds or not. and building codes to implement environmental strategies. a nonprofit group. Trails. Fish and Wildlife Service. Environmental Quality Incentives Program. the U. Army Corps of Engineers (Section 206 or Section 1135). Select projects and programs from the community’s hazards mitigation plan. Use Section 406 (Stafford Act) money to move public facilities out of harm’s way. • • • • • • • • • • • Examples of Success Rails and Trails Program Used to Restore and Protect Watersheds and Greenways Several communities have used the Rivers. or the EPA. Modify the plan and its implementation in response to monitoring results.S.S. If the community does not have a mitigation plan. the Natural Resources Conservation Service (Wildlife Habitat Incentives Program. Apply to the Hazard Mitigation Grant Program for support of environmental projects and programs that address community problems. Seek funding for part of the recovery plan from the U. breathed new life into the Woonasquatucket River Greenway in Rhode Island by organizing interpretive walks and the First Greenway 7-13 .com/.Protecting Environmental Quality • • • Organize the team and begin work. Involve the public as soon as possible and then keep them involved throughout the process.S. donations. and Conservation Assistance Program to help develop a plan. Department of Housing and Urban Development. State Revolving Fund loans from the EPA can be used to relocate wastewater treatment plants damaged by flooding. apply for funding from the state agency that administers mitigation plan funding. Establish and begin the environmental monitoring process. Engage the National Park Service through their Rivers. Offer tax incentives through easements. subdivision. • The Providence Plan. or Wetlands Reserve Program) or the Consolidated Farm Services Agency (Conservation Reserve Program). visit http://www. The planning team should begin by selecting from programs listed above. and Conservation Assistance Program facilitated by the National Park Service (described previously in this chapter) to restore natural resources and develop parks and trails. Use zoning. and other tools. Be sure to check the most recent sources of information by contacting the agencies directly or going to their Web site. the U. Two examples are described below: • The San Miguel Watershed Coalition restored 80 miles of the San Miguel River watershed in Colorado through a watershed plan adopted by eight communities and seven government agencies. Use Community Development Block Grant funding as a match for other programs that reduce exposure to natural hazards. Apply for rural housing loans to purchase homes that have been damaged. As the planning team coordinates with the other agencies. consider how to most effectively use the identified programs to further environmental objectives.
which was only 10 percent of the estimated cost of constructing another dam. the Lila Wallace Readers Digest Fund. and unpolluted rivers. Monitoring Environmental Quality A locality should monitor the environmental projects and programs initiated during recovery to determine their effectiveness and the need for corrections.680 acres at a total cost of $10 million. (North Carolina Department of Crime Control and Public Safety. • Surveys and assessments—opinions from local decision makers and the public. North Carolina Boone.S. lakes. The town achieved multiple objectives in its postflood program through partnerships that tackled such community needs as additional affordable housing. and the removal of damaged buildings from the floodplain. Nationally. FEMA’s Hazard Mitigation Grant Program. Charles River Project Minimizes Flood Risk One of the oldest examples of using the natural capacity of floodplains to control floods is the Charles River Project in Massachusetts. Army Corps of Engineers decided to rely on existing wetlands along the river to control flooding. Rather than spend an estimated $100 million for additional structural controls (a flood control dam was built in 1977). the Clean Water Management Trust Fund. such as the Trust for Public Land. a community is best served when it develops its own monitoring procedures. the State Acquisition and Relocation Fund. is vulnerable to flooding and also subject to development pressure because of its scenic location. Conclusion A community cherishes open space for recreation. 1996). Three performance measures should provide the needed information: • Objective results—data and statistics that are observable and can be measured. Not only do the wetlands reduce flood hazards. local decision makers are rethinking how they address the sprawl that characterizes even small towns. The Charles River flows for 80 miles from central Massachusetts to Boston Harbor. All monitoring should be simple. local officials should read the progress reports required by federal and state agencies for participation in certain programs. Multiple Funding Sources Help Reduce Flood Risk in Boone. However. and capture sediment and pollutants to improve water quality (Faber. and others. 1999). • Activity measures— information on the implementation of the project or program. easy to conduct.S. integrate. and the U. As an initial review. natural areas for sheltering birds and wildlife. outdoor recreation opportunities. or estuaries for supporting fishing and boating. such as 7-14 . new open space and recreational facilities.250 acres outright and acquired easements on 4. and apply multiple sources of funding to carry out mutually compatible objectives. A total of $4.5 million was raised from several sources: the town. They are working to keep development from sensitive and hazard-prone areas. Department of Housing and Urban Development’s Community Development Block Grant Program. The agency purchased 3. and provide pertinent information to local decision makers.Protecting Environmental Quality Festival and by bringing in other partners. North Carolina. One of the keys to Boone’s success has been its ability to attract. a small town in the mountainous northwestern corner of the state. alternative transportation. the U. but they provide wildlife habitat.
and mitigation. alluvial fans. farmlands. The ASFPM Mitigation Committee compiled these case studies of mitigation initiatives across the United States. fault lines. http://training. wetlands. decision makers must remain alert to ways they can mix and match federal and state programs to tackle local initiatives.org/.Protecting Environmental Quality floodplains. It examines the importance of fully integrating the compliance steps stipulated by the National Environmental Policy Act and the National Historic Preservation Act into the administration of the Public Assistance and Hazard Mitigation Grant Programs. and technical resources for hurricane recovery. Their Web site provides information on becoming a certified floodplain manager. This Web page includes ideas for rebuilding and mitigation in the Gulf Coast region. To be most effective.” “the eLearning Tool 7-15 . Emmitsburg. “Mitigation Success Stories III and IV.” http://www. This Web site includes sections on “Hurricane Katrina Information and Resources for Historic Properties and Cultural Resources. costs. and human suffering caused by flooding and to promote wise use of the natural and beneficial functions of floodplains. Visit http://www. “FEMA Program Responsibilities: Coordinating Environmental and Historical Compliance.floods. The menu of strategies and tools and the planning process outlined in this chapter provide opportunities to improve environmental quality while recovering from a disaster—and thereby move toward local sustainability.org/TheOrganization/Katrina. flood hazards mitigation. and steep slopes. policy documents. National Emergency Training Center.” FEMA Course G253. The program helps agency staff and nonfederal partners to conduct environmental and historic preservation review required by federal laws and executive orders. The mission of the organization is to mitigate the losses.floods. Web Resources Association of State Floodplain Managers (ASFPM) The ASFPM is an organization of professionals involved in floodplain management. Maryland. Their purpose is to showcase examples of natural hazards mitigation activities and to publicize the benefits of mitigation successes for the benefit of communities. recovery.fema.org/Publications/free. FEMA Environmental and Historic Resources This program integrates environmental and historic preservation considerations into FEMA’s mission of preparedness. warning.asp.” http://www. Where to Find More Information Training Courses and Workshops FEMA Emergency Management Institute. policy and legislative briefs. the National Flood Insurance Program. and recovery. and flood preparedness.asp. response. a variety of publications including mitigation case studies. “Hurricane Katrina and Rita Information and Resources. and information on their “No Adverse Impact” approach to floodplain management for local governments.gov/EMIWeb/. This three-day course is an introduction to environmental and historic compliance.floods.
EPA emergency response personnel may work with FEMA and state and local agencies to assess the damage.gov/rtca/.edu/.nps. The RTCA provides a variety of assistance tailored to its partner’s needs but does not provide direct grants.epa.efc.” Visit http://www. U. recent innovations. Visit http://www. and Mississippi.” and “Integrating Historic Property and Cultural Resource Considerations into Hazard Mitigation Planning. test health and environmental conditions.niehs. and Conservation Assistance Program (RTCA) The RTCA works with community groups and local.tpl. This site is targeted to provide useful and readily accessible environmental health information to public health.S. and public safety workers and volunteers deployed to impacted communities. preserve open space. Visit http://www.gov/Katrina/. rural lands.gov/. examples of projects. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) The mission of the EPA is to protect human health and the environment. the Environmental Finance Center was created to assist local communities in finding creative ways to pay for environmental projects. Trust for Public Land The Trust for Public Land is a national. After a disaster. state. It includes an interactive geographic information system (GIS) for Texas. historic sites. This is a good site for information on financing alternatives. 7-16 . Louisiana.nih.org/. Visit http://www. and information on how to apply for assistance. Trails. and federal government agencies to conserve rivers. Visit http://www. public finance case studies. up-to-date and accurate information about safety and training for the thousands of workers involved in cleanup and recovery activities. The Web site contains links to current projects. ensuring livable communities for generations to come. The Web site provides resources and funding for federal and local programs and also provides findings from research and publications on parks. and people. environmental health. and develop trails and greenways. and relevant environmental health materials.umd. Visit http://www-apps.Protecting Environmental Quality for the Pre-Disaster Mitigation Program. the Trust for Public Land finance program. and works to increase awareness of the benefits associated with sound environmental management policies. conservation successes.fema.gov/ehp/. the NIEHS provides information on potential sources of environmental contaminants and the human health impacts of exposures to contaminants. University of Maryland Environmental Finance Center According to its mission statement. and more. water. The center promotes alternative and innovative ways to manage the cost of environmental activities. community gardens. provides training and development opportunities in environmental management. land. including state funding for parks and open space. and coordinate cleanup. nonprofit organization that conserves land for people to enjoy as parks. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Natural Disaster Response As the environmental health research institute of the National Institutes of Health. National Park Service Rivers. and other natural places.
Charles. Federal Interagency Floodplain Management Task Force. University College London and CARE International. This conceptual paper explains how many environmental protection measures support flood mitigation and vice-versa.floods. and Articles Association of State Floodplain Managers (ASFPM). 2005. WI: ASFPM.org/disaster_studies/rea/rea_index. http://www. technological. This section of the EPA’s Web site provides information and maps on oceans. public outreach. Protecting Floodplain Resources. Version 4. National Flood Programs in Review–2000. 2000.gov/hazards/floods/lib268.gov/katrina/. grassroots efforts needed to effectively manage and protect the resources of the floodplain environment. Books.floods. estuaries. and Watersheds.” http://www. This toolkit is designed to help local officials or concerned citizens incorporate the “No Adverse Impact” principle into a community’s ongoing programs.benfieldhrc.gov/owow/. A Guidebook for Communities. No Adverse Impact: A Toolkit for Common Sense Floodplain Management.” http://www.epa. UK: Benfield Hazard Research Centre. London. rivers. 7-17 . 2003.pdf. WI: ASFPM. The tools consist of a variety of activities that can improve local floodplain management programs in specific situations. Association of State Floodplain Managers (ASFPM). and groups interested in protecting and restoring the natural resources and functions of floodplains. A separate Quick Guide to the REA process is also available.Protecting Environmental Quality “Wetlands. including wetlands. landowners. Washington.epa.fema. and lakes. monitoring. citizens. http://www. Guidelines provides a comprehensive description of the rapid environmental assessment process together with background information on key tasks needed to complete the assessment (REA). This document is a tool for identifying and prioritizing potential environmental impacts in disaster situations. laws and regulations. Kelly. historic sites.000 flood-prone communities in the United States. and several other topics related to protecting water resources.shtm. and aesthetic amenities. http://www. Oceans. 1995. as well as resources on partnerships. “Hurricane Response.4. It focuses on local.org/NoAdverseImpact/NAI_Toolkit_2003. Madison. riparian habitats. http://www. dealing with debris and damaged buildings. Madison. This guidebook provides information for local officials.org/PDF/2000-FPR. potential hazards. and other general information about preparation for and recovery from hurricanes. DC: Federal Emergency Management Agency. It is designed for natural. Guidebooks.htm.pdf. Guidelines for Rapid Environmental Impact Assessment in Disasters. This Web page on the EPA’s site offers information to residents and cleanup personnel in areas affected by the 2005 hurricanes on health issues. or political disasters and as a best practice tool for effective disaster assessment and management. The document provides a conceptual framework and planning process for floodplain management that can be used in virtually any of the some 20.
Living with the Shore series. and habitat of species that thrive along rivers and streams. The authors recount both the human and natural histories of the regions. discuss the pressures created by rapid recreational and residential development. Orrin H. which serve as guides for residents.Protecting Environmental Quality National Wildlife Federation. floodplains. the 1993 Midwest floods. an analysis of repetitive losses in the NFIP. editors. Higher Ground: A Report on Voluntary Property Buyouts in the Nation’s Floodplains. and conclusions and recommendations. and others concerned with the condition and future of these coasts.nwf. planners. Neal. Durham. http://www. The National Wildlife Federation is dedicated to restoring landscapes.org/nwfwebadmin/binaryVault/Higher%20Ground1. Higher Ground focuses on efforts to restore floodplains through voluntary property buyouts and relocations of homes and other structures from high-risk flood zones and presents a detailed analysis of National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) data. visitors. NC: Duke University Press. It includes sections on the history of buyout programs in the United States. DC: National Wildlife Federation. Washington. The Living with the Shore series includes several books on many of the coastal shores of the United States. developers. including natural wetlands. 1998. 7-18 . provide overviews of federal and state coastal land use regulations. Pilkey. and William J.pdf.
• • • . resilient community and help establish priorities for action. such as moving people and buildings out of harm’s way. such as elevating a damage-prone road. relocating a police station. Facilitates postdisaster funding—By identifying and prioritizing projects before the next disaster. and businesses to put things in order and rebuild the community back the way it was before. Make new buildings and infrastructure located in hazard-prone areas more damage-resistant and resilient through the Benefits of Hazards Mitigation • Saves lives and property and reduces vulnerability to future hazards—By implementing a mitigation strategy. By having a natural hazards mitigation plan in place. It includes both structural measures. roads. or floodproofing a sewage treatment plant. social. and expediency. and environmental well-being. such as land use regulations. agencies will converge on a stricken community to assist with the rebuilding effort. The plan can help keep decision makers focused on the ultimate goal of creating a more sustainable. and in some cases federal. Demonstrates commitment to improving community health and safety—A mitigation strategy demonstrates a community’s commitment to safeguarding its citizens and protecting its economic. Disasters also create opportunities for action. property owners. the community has a framework to guide the recovery effort and to make informed decisions in an environment of chaos. and utilities can be rebuilt in safer locations or built to be more damage-resistant. Most importantly. In the immediate aftermath of a disaster. as well as nonstructural measures. at least temporarily. a community can minimize economic and social disruptions and bounce back quicker after a disaster strikes.Chapter 8 Incorporating Disaster Resilience into Disaster Recovery Introduction Disasters disrupt communities and often result in tremendous pressure from residents. a community can save lives and reduce damage from disasters. Damaged or destroyed buildings. Outside money may be available to undertake projects that were previously considered infeasible financially. on its own vulnerability and the need to take decisive action. communities are in a better position to obtain postdisaster funding. Hazards mitigation involves the following three principles or actions: 1. Speeds recovery—By reducing damage to buildings and infrastructure. the community will be focused. State. a community will be faced with key decisions that will have long-term effects on its vulnerability to future disasters. uncertainty. Hazards mitigation is a technical term for reducing risks to people and property from hazards. such as flood control levees and landslide barriers.
Repairs are expensive.Incorporating Disaster Resilience use of building codes. Widening existing roads or building new ones may only stimulate additional development in risky areas. such as dams. steering new development to less risky areas. Promote and obtain hazards and other insurance. levees. and relocating damaged buildings to safer areas after a disaster.. • Relocate or reroute roads and transportation facilities away from hazard-prone areas where feasible. inundated by floods. Recovery Strategies: • Rebuild to improve resistance to damage. Some of the options and recovery strategies a community could use to incorporate disaster resilience when faced with disaster are listed below. design standards. 8-2 . and develop strategies that are specially tailored to its own needs. and construction practices and make existing development safer through protective devices. floodplains. sand dunes. These options are not exhaustive but instead illustrate the range of possibilities. Situation: Damage to transportation facilities Roads often lie in the path of natural hazards and may be washed out by hurricanes. Incorporate Disaster Resilience. Protect natural areas. and other ecological elements that can absorb and reduce the impacts of hazards (Godschalk et al. and seawalls (structural mitigation) if relocation is infeasible. select implementation tools available to help pursue each of those options. buried by landslides. 2. Each of the strategies suggested below use one or more of the options listed on the Matrix of Opportunities under the sixth sustainability principle. A community can start with the situations that exist after a disaster. 3. such as wetlands. or torn apart by earthquakes. Manage stormwater. Make existing buildings and infrastructure damage-resistant. Options for Improving Disaster Resilience • • • • • Avoid development in hazardous areas. forested areas. Protect natural areas. Older transportation facilities can be upgraded to modern standards that make them more resistant to damage. 1999). pick and choose among the options for making itself more disaster resilient. Keep buildings out of harm’s way in the first place by avoiding development in hazardprone areas. • Examine the impact of roads and transportation facilities on encouraging development in hazard-prone locations. Recovery Strategies to Build a Disaster-Resilient Community Building a disaster-resilient community can start during disaster recovery.
Tax revenues to the city declined as well. but also may suffer damage. Recovery Strategies: • Protect against future damage by making public facilities more resistant. • When planning to install new utilities. 8-3 . Protecting utilities from damage minimizes the economic and social disruptions caused by disasters. such as schools and community centers. construct berms around sewage treatment facilities located in floodplains.Incorporating Disaster Resilience Situation: Damage to public facilities Public facilities. the main plant when the next flood occurs. Be able to shift water or wastewater treatment capacity to treatment plants that are not located in hazard-prone areas. although it cost $14 million to repair the damage caused by flooding. Recovery Strategies: • Buyout or relocate damage-prone properties. • Build redundancy into the system. Situation: Damage to utilities Utilities are extremely vulnerable to natural disasters. wildfires may consume houses. evacuation. debris removal. yet more than 40 percent closed temporarily until water service could be restored. emergency services.000 customers were without water service and the business community was devastated. Iowa During the 1993 Midwest floods. For example. can help reduce the public costs of disasters (e. elevate buildings above the flood height or build a berm to help keep out floodwaters. and fire safety reasons. causing extensive damage and knocking the plant out of commission for 11 days. sanitation. • Protect existing facilities from damage. Over 250. or a hurricane may knock down power lines. Protecting Water Service in Des Moines. • Reroute water or gas lines out of harm’s way. the city suffered an estimated $300-400 million in business losses. Acquiring or relocating homes or businesses located in hazard-prone areas. Even those that did not rely on water for production or operation were forced to close for health. particularly structures that have been damaged repeatedly. Fallen trees can down power lines. The result was a loss of staff productivity and sales. emergency shelters. • Avoid building new public facilities in hazard-prone areas. In all. Only a few businesses in the city closed due to direct flood damage. For example. putting businesses out of commission temporarily and leaving homes in the dark. For example.. • Relocate to less vulnerable areas. and floods can inundate wastewater treatment plants. Develop plans to contain and treat spills from existing gas or wastewater treatment lines that may be damaged by natural disasters. Situation: Damage to homes and businesses Homes and businesses may suffer direct or indirect damage from disasters.g. often serve as emergency shelters after disaster strikes. the City of Des Moines Water Works was inundated by floodwaters. and the loss of tax revenues). earthquakes can tear apart water or gas lines. identify the location of hazard-prone areas and try to avoid them. the Des Moines Water Works Recovery Strategies: constructed a smaller water treatment facility at another location that will meet growing • Safeguard power lines from damage by fallen water demands and serve as a backup for trees by relocating the lines underground. In response.
hazard-prone properties. while others are more limited. Tools for Implementing Disaster Resilience Communities vary in their financial. maintain the natural capacity of the environment to attenuate disasters. Buyout in Cleveland. Illinois. • Maintain and restore mitigation functions of the natural environment. relocated residents were relieved to find themselves on dry ground. reducing flooding downstream. When the river rose again in June 2002. then slowly release the stored water. Damage to natural resources has real consequences for wildlife and for communities. Older buildings that are not built to modern standards often incur the most damage. The community worked with the Illinois Emergency Management Agency and the Illinois Department of Natural Resources to purchase 31 houses in the first two phases of the buyout program. The tools are divided into two groups. experiences flooding on a regular basis due to its proximity to the mouth of the Rock River. • Protect natural areas to keep people and buildings out of the path of natural hazards. septic systems. The community of 350 residents began discussing an acquisition program to relocate flooded homes that were likely to flood again. animal production facilities. However. Illinois Proves its Worth Cleveland. Some communities have a variety of planning and investment tools at their disposal. wetlands and floodplains slow down and absorb excess water during storms. • • Situation: Damage to natural resources Natural systems provide numerous benefits.920 to relocate atrisk residents. Educate the local building community about hazards-resistant provisions in local codes. and sewage treatment plants. upgrade the local code if necessary. Rebuild according to modern building codes. The village was hard hit by floods in 1993 and 1997. Some of the most common tools and techniques for increasing the resilience of a community are summarized below. and preserve open space and wildlife habitat. Most of these techniques have their greatest effectiveness if implemented before a disaster. political.472 and a Floodplain Mitigation Assistance grant of $472. Unsafe land use activities include animal waste lagoons. open space. and institutional capacity to develop and implement a hazards mitigation plan. and natural hazards mitigation. 8-4 . The community acquired a Hazards Mitigation Grant Program grant of $989. recreation. Recovery Strategies: • Relocate and prohibit land use activities that are not safe for hazard-prone areas. hazardous waste facilities. regulatory and nonregulatory. dunes protect inland areas from the onslaught of storm-driven waves. wildlife habitat. the recovery period may provide opportunities for initiating their use or strengthening them. For example. Buying vacant property and prohibiting its development permanently reduces the risk of damage while providing additional open space. and recreation areas. such as wildlife habitat.Incorporating Disaster Resilience • Acquire vacant. junkyards. and dense forests on steep slopes reduce the risk of landslides.
such as zoning. Zoning—Zoning is the most common form of land use control available to local governments. zoning’s inherent flexibility is one of its primary weaknesses as a tool for protecting hazard-prone areas. commercial. The weakness of using zoning to reduce a community’s vulnerability to natural disasters is that it only affects new development. or other sensitive lands. A common approach to limiting the number of people and buildings in hazard-prone areas is to reduce the allowable density. Subdivision Regulations—Subdivision regulations govern the division of land into smaller parcels for development or sale. open space. not existing homes and buildings. and subdivision exactions. The zoning for a parcel of land can be changed through variances. and the provision of stormwater facilities. Typically. the regulations evolved to encompass the fiscal impacts of new development to prevent a community’s facilities and services from being overburdened by new development (Platt. such regulations require developers to set aside steep slopes. wetlands. Sometimes developers will be granted higher densities in return for the setting aside these areas. floodplains. to protect natural areas including areas vulnerable to natural hazards. Also. zoning preserves some economically viable use of land and therefore generally avoids an unconstitutional taking of land. 1996). or downzone an area. some communities use their subdivision regulations to protect open space. Some of the more common regulatory measures used by local governments are summarized below. impact fees. the size and layout of streets. or industrial) as well as the density of development allowed in each zone. For example. residential. 8-5 . special use permits. subdivision regulations focus on the physical aspects of a proposed development: the arrangement of lots. In areas where stringent restrictions are politically infeasible. either by increasing the minimum lot size or reducing the number of allowable dwelling units permitted per acre. or rezoning.g. Traditionally.. Gradually. It divides land into separate land use districts or zones and establishes the uses (e.Incorporating Disaster Resilience Tools for Disaster Resilience • • • • • • • • • • Zoning Subdivision regulations Limiting public investment in hazardous areas Relocation out of hazardous areas Increasing public awareness of hazards Land acquisition Preservation of natural functions Retrofitting Warning and preparedness Insurance Regulatory Tools Local governments have developed a variety of regulatory techniques.
Army Corps of Engineers provided $36 million to remove 735 structures from the Village Creek floodplain area. but acquisition may be expensive in the short term. The acquired structures were removed and restoration of the natural floodplain was completed. but the houses are grouped closer together to protect natural and hazard-prone areas. Limiting Public Investment in Hazard-Prone Areas—Government spending for infrastructure. such as limiting public expenditures. experience frequent flooding with severe weather. By rearranging the density of each development parcel. The Federal Emergency Management Agency and the U. For example. A typical subdivision requirement might call for a 50-foot setback of developed land (a buffer) from a stream or wetlands. or wetlands. Nonregulatory Tools Nonregulatory tools can be as effective as regulations and are often more popular with the public.Incorporating Disaster Resilience Many local governments impose exactions on new subdivisions. Many rely on the market to determine whether and where development will occur. Federal Funds Available to Buyout Damage-Prone Properties Parts of Birmingham. Some jurisdictions allow developers to cluster homes in one portion of a subdivision while leaving a large portion of the site undeveloped. Acquisition of Hazard-Prone Land—The most effective way to prevent development in hazard-prone areas is to purchase the land outright or as an easement. Alabama. Some of the more common nonregulatory tools are summarized below. The purchased land can then be set aside permanently as public open space. as a condition of approval. meadows. such as acquisition. Some.S. less than half of the buildable land will be consumed by lots and streets and the rest can be preserved permanently as woodlands. and liability expenses as well. Developers may pay a fee in lieu of donating land to the municipality. Acquisition expenses include not only the cost of purchasing property. This results in the same number of houses as in a conventional subdivision. 8-6 . subdivision regulations could be used to require minimum setback distances from lands vulnerable to natural hazards or to set aside these lands as open space. such as extending roads or water or sewer lines. This is especially true in areas where property values are high. Voluntary buyouts may include the purchase of vacant property. Others. and the community decided it was time to break the cycle of flooding. can be implemented at virtually no cost to a local government. but program administration. One way to discourage development in hazard-prone areas is to restrict government spending for infrastructure in these areas. 1997). Small governments may lack sufficient resources to develop and implement an acquisition program. purchase and relocation of existing structures. developers may be required to dedicate land for schools or for open space. or it might prohibit development on steep slopes (Porter. often encourages development in new areas by subsidizing development in areas that would otherwise not be affordable. property maintenance. This approach helps use existing services more efficiently and reduces pressure to develop in risky areas. or purchase and demolition of damaged structures. Neighborhoods in the Village Creek floodplain had flooded 11 times since 1977. can be quite expensive. Buying property vulnerable to natural hazards often is cheaper in the long run than other forms of mitigation. such as along the coast. farms. Thus.
anchoring fuel tanks. ventilation. Four ways to retrofit for flood hazards are elevation. Levees and floodwalls are barriers built to prevent flood waters from entering. wet floodproofing. a home is required to be elevated or relocated if it is damaged in a flood to 50 percent or more of its preflood market value. and the construction of levees or floodwalls. The HMGP provides 75 percent of the funds while the states provide 25 percent for mitigation measures implemented after a disaster. 8-7 . and installing a sewer backflow valve. Increase Public Awareness—People are often unaware that the property they are buying is located in a hazard-prone location. The Robert T. primarily through the Hazard Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP). Wet floodproofing makes uninhabited parts of a house resistant to flood damage when water is allowed to enter during a flood. For new construction. These funds can be used for acquisition. The state share may be met with cash or in-kind services. making changes to existing buildings may be more practical and cost-effective. as well as valuable ones like computers. Elevation means raising the building so that the lowest floor is above the flood level.e. The postdisaster timeframe provides a window of opportunity for implementing public education programs or adopting local ordinances related to hazards mitigation. Under the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). but retrofitting for these design components can be difficult and expensive.Incorporating Disaster Resilience Federal funds are available for acquisition of damage-prone properties. For seismic hazards.. such as bookcases. In these cases. Communities should consider providing economic benefits to residents who are willing to undertake retrofitting. Many people are not aware of the vulnerabilities of the area in which they live or the steps they can take to reduce their risk. Notification relies on the power of the marketplace to take corrective action once full knowledge about hazards conditions is obtained. Dry floodproofing is sealing a house to prevent flood waters from entering. Residents should also be encouraged to anchor tall items. the main retrofit activities are bracing cripple walls and bolting sill plates to house foundations. In California buyers are notified of the presence of an earthquake fault zone by real estate agents through a contract addendum at the time of purchase. Homeowners also should consider raising electrical. Notifying potential purchasers in advance allows them to make informed decisions about where to live or locate a business and to take steps to safeguard their property. The National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program is charged with the development and enhancement of provisions to minimize structural damage and loss of life due to earthquakes. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act provides funds authorized by the federal government and made available by Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) for a cost-share program to states after a presidentially declared disaster. in a coastal community or a town along a major fault line). heating. in their homes. dry floodproofing. Relocation and demolition are always mitigation options but may be unrealistic when the quantity of land at risk is large (i. and air conditioning systems. Retrofitting Retrofitting means making changes to buildings to improve their resistance to hazards. there are other engineering methods to prevent seismic damage to buildings.
and the Advanced Weather Information Processing System. if not. elevation is highly recommended. Finally. several practices can be applied to existing construction. Insurance Insurance is available for fire. wind. The NFIP provides flood insurance to residents in flood-prone communities that have enacted certain land use restrictions to mitigate the effect of future flooding. FEMA publishes several how-to books to assist in the construction of safe rooms. Existing warning systems comprise data systems and warning capabilities. Hurricane straps. and wind hazards. the Interactive Weather Information Network for internet information dissemination. because it allows both the evacuation of people at risk and an additional window of time in which to take last-minute measures to secure property. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Weather Wire Service. Tornado retrofitting is similar to hurricane retrofitting in many ways. Some existing warning systems include the Emergency Alert System. Many states have adopted safe room initiatives. Shutters are one of the most basic methods for preventing damage and can be easily attached to existing homes and businesses. the community must be a member of the program. amateur radio networks can provide a valuable means of disseminating information and keeping communication lines open when many other networks are disabled. which is a national system that can broadcast warnings via television and radio. The state NFIP coordinator determines whether a community is a member in good standing and. Insurance is a useful means of sharing risk and providing for financial assistance when disasters occur. 8-8 . flood. which is a computer system capable of receiving.Incorporating Disaster Resilience For areas prone to coastal storm surge and hurricanes. Straps to attach a roof to the walls are helpful. processing. Finally.and hail-resistant shingles. Emergency Managers Weather Information Network. metal fasteners that attach the roof of a building to the walls. and hurricane-resistant doors are also available. For residents in a community to be eligible for flood insurance. NOAA Weather Radio. The goal of tornado retrofitting is to reduce the uplift effect of strong winds. will the warning system reach all residents. Garage and entrance doors should be reinforced. which are reinforced. Wind-resistant windows. Warning and Preparedness A warning system is a vital component of mitigation. can reinforce a building’s capacity to withstand severe winds. and helping National Weather Service forecasters analyze huge amounts of weather data from a variety of sources. determines what steps the community needs to take to be eligible. In addition. Telephone warning systems use Enhanced 911 Automatic Number Information data to warn homes and businesses in designated areas. In coastal areas where flooding is a concern. which broadcasts to owners of radio transmittal devices designed for the system. and doors. In deciding on a warning system. earthquake. windows. Some municipalities also use sirens. trees and yard materials that could become windborne in a tornado should be removed. a community should consider such factors as what will happen to the warning system if the power is out. safe places to wait out a storm. as are wind-resistant shingles. residents may consider constructing safe rooms. and how will residents be educated about what to do when a warning is issued.
in some hurricane-prone states. high winds. the Citizens Property Insurance Corporation. hazards in long-term planning and growth management activities. a mitigation plan should accomplish the following: • Integrate with existing land use plans. enhancing economic governments to adopt measures in their comprehensive plans to reduce risk to people vitality. is regulated by the state and provides insurance to residents. a group of insurers providing hurricane coverage to Florida homeowners who cannot get wind insurance in the regular market because of their hurricane exposure. buyout programs in Arnold. In addition. locate technical assistance. provides earthquake insurance to homeowners. Actions to Incorporate Disaster Resilience in the 10-Step Recovery Process Once the recovery ideas are identified. wind insurance remains extremely expensive in spite of this public-private partnership. It was implemented after the 1994 Northridge earthquake. which has a 15 percent deductible. 8-9 . select feasible tools. promoting social equity. Wind insurance. is one of the most effective means of earthquakes. However. stormwater management plans. and the capital improvement plan. tornados. find funding. and and property from natural hazards. private-public partnership. the insurance can be very expensive. such as Element in Comprehensive Plans schools or fire departments. requires local or wildlife habitat. building codes. formulate details. Developing and implementing a hazards mitigation plan is probably the best way a community can reduce its vulnerability to natural disasters. The capital improvement plan could include a strategy to protect public facilities from disruptions. such as creating a more Oregon. it can be difficult or impossible to get coverage. a state-sponsored. providing for future generations. is available through several private insurance companies. protecting open space Subject to Natural Hazards. Integrating hazards mitigation strategies into • Assess all hazards faced by the a community’s existing comprehensive plan community. get approval. and institutionalizing the consideration of natural wildfires. In Florida. In sustainability. In California. For example. hurricanes. Californians can also buy earthquake policies outside the CEA. and condominium owners. Florida’s 9J-5 rule • Address multiple objectives in order to requires a disaster recovery element in every incorporate other principles of coastal county’s comprehensive plan. subdivision regulations. Many insurance companies in California offer CEA’s insurance. and move toward implementation. the community will need to explore them through a systematic process in order to decide on the best approach. renters. such as floods. like earthquake insurance. for example through seismic Adopting a Natural Hazards retrofitting of public buildings. A good process for developing a mitigation plan is the 10-step process described in Chapter 2. However. Statewide Land Use Goal 7.Incorporating Disaster Resilience Earthquake insurance is available through several insurance companies as an add-on. Because of the high damage associated with earthquakes. plan for action. the California Earthquake Authority (CEA). Areas livable community.
• • Even if the community does not have a formal hazards mitigation plan in place. estimate the number of people and buildings that will be there in the future if current growth and land use patterns remain unchanged. Care should be taken that mitigation actions do not undermine other aspects of sustainability. parking lots) in a watershed leads to increased stormwater runoff. The plan should reduce risks for the future. Vulnerability is a measure of the risk or likelihood of various types and strengths of hazards occurring in the area and the amount and quality of development in that area.Incorporating Disaster Resilience Missouri.. and 8-10 . elevating homes to reduce their vulnerability to floods may make them more susceptible to earthquake damage. driveways. Some of these areas may already have been mapped. and setting priorities for action. strategies for disaster resilience can be carried out in the context of the overall disaster recovery. Step 4: Assess the Hazards Problems To reduce the risk of natural hazards. took buildings out of the path of floods and used the resulting open space to connect their river corridors to existing greenways and trail systems (Schwab et al. Actions: First. and Darlington. conducting an inventory and mapping those areas. The Community Rating System of the NFIP gives points for an assessment of the impact of flooding on a community if it includes an inventory of the number and types of buildings subject to the hazards identified in the hazards assessment. repetitively damaged structures. These procedures are summarized below. These factors need to be weighed so that overall risk is reduced for the long term. Within the 10-step process described in Chapter 2. rather than simply return the community to predisaster conditions. A vulnerability assessment involves identifying areas of greatest risk. Focus on the long term. Second. which in turn could cause flooding in areas formerly considered outside the floodplain. For example. Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs) delineating floodplains are available for most communities under the NFIP. Highlight on the map the areas of highest risk and the critical facilities. prepare a map showing areas and facilities at risk. thus detracting from the community’s holistic recovery. identifying existing policies that may reduce vulnerability. earthquakes. Third. For example. Estimate the number of people and buildings and the value of those buildings located in hazard-prone areas. Be internally consistent. an increase in the amount of impervious surfaces (roads. Use current growth or land use patterns to predict how boundaries of hazard-prone areas might change over time. Identifying and mapping the areas that are most vulnerable can help guide policies and prioritize mitigation actions. conduct an inventory of people and properties in vulnerable areas. major employers. 1998). In addition. For example. wildfires) and prepare a map delineating the vulnerable areas.g. Identifying future areas of risk is more problematic. Wisconsin.. Reducing risk to one type of natural hazard should not increase risks to others. identify the hazards that threaten the community (e. floods. the following activities will help incorporate disaster resilience into a community’s recovery. Boundaries of hazard-prone areas can change over time. a community will need to determine its present and future susceptibility by conducting a vulnerability assessment.
Incorporating Disaster Resilience infrastructure in those areas. such as low-income neighborhoods or housing facilities for senior citizens. quality of life. or jobs protected per dollar invested). and the options and tools described in this chapter. Identify current policies that weaken mitigation efforts and those that strengthen them. Actions: Use this window of opportunity to analyze policies. social equity. Areas subject to other hazards should also be identified. Particularly vulnerable neighborhoods and facilities. should be identified. Again. Step 7: Explore All Alternative Strategies Use multiobjective mitigation to link with other aspects of community recovery. Maps can identify boundaries of hazards areas. savings in tax revenues. extending water and sewer lines into floodplains will encourage development in those areas. while a plan for a greenway or open space in earthquake fault zones could preclude development there. open space policies. For example. transportation plans. a community can begin to set goals based on priorities for mitigating the threats posed by such hazards. Identify areas where new policies are needed to reduce current and future risks of hazards. such as floodplains. and stormwater management plans. Choose from the opportunities identified under Step 5. either intentionally or not. Expand and tailor them to meet a 8-11 . such as cost effectiveness (number of people. including land use plans and regulations. Areas prone to flooding that are not included on the FIRM should be marked on the map. and whether the action will achieve multiple objectives. This prevents mitigation actions from undermining other aspects of a holistic recovery and vice versa. Consider all the risks to which the community is susceptible and all the principles of sustainability before goals and objectives are set. and pinpoint the location of vulnerable buildings or facilities. Use the Matrix of Opportunities from Chapter 1 as a starting point to examine whether continuing those policies in the recovery period will worsen vulnerability or whether changes can be made to minimize future risks. and environmental perspectives. as well as upon traditional criteria. programs. increase or decrease its vulnerability to hazards. houses. Consolidate economic. Actions: Consider all of the sustainability principles in the formulation of recovery plans for mitigating hazards. mitigation measures should not be adopted in isolation. Actions: Determine priorities based on the other principles of sustainability. Step 6: Set Goals and Objectives Once it has identified and inventoried vulnerable areas and determined whether existing policies will increase or decrease vulnerability to natural hazards. and ordinances that may affect vulnerability. subdivision regulations. Step 5: Evaluate the Problems A community’s existing policies and programs may. the goals and objectives set in Step 6.
such as design or building features. a developer must take to reduce landslide risk. California In 1965. Building plans and development applications are evaluated on a point system that considers landslide risk and the intensity of use of the property. Comprehensive Flood Mitigation in Napa. state.oregon. after a severe flood. and earthquakes. and Revise Some ways to monitor and evaluate disaster resilience are discussed in the Monitoring Disaster Resilience section on page 8-14. Oregon The City of Salem and Marion County in Oregon adopted a comprehensive landslide hazards ordinance in 2001 that examines landslide risk due to slope. The result was a $175 million flood control project that includes both structural and nonstructural measures. federal. In the mid-1980s. The resulting ordinance was the first of its kind in Oregon. after a huge flood struck the city in 1995. water-induced slides.cityofsalem. Be sure that the potential impacts of each alternative on other aspects of sustainability within the community are analyzed. Finally. the Corps proposed a scaled down version of the project. and the City of Salem funded the remaining 25 percent.S. Local citizens who opposed the project forced the issue onto a ballot initiative. Marion County. Army Corps of Engineers was authorized to build a flood control project in Napa.htm. FEMA funded 75 percent of the landslide hazards study and the Oregon Department of Geologic and Mineral Industries. Examples of Success Adoption of Landslide Hazards Ordinance in Salem and Marion County. Evaluate. and federal partners and a citizen advisory committee. In 1976 and again in 1977. The ordinance was developed using a collaborative process including local. lining only about six miles of the river with concrete. It is based upon landslide hazards maps produced by the study described above. Local planning staff work with developers and other applicants to ensure appropriate mitigation steps are identified and implemented. the county put together a coalition of state. The project called for constructing concrete walls along 11 miles of the Napa River. and local agencies as well as citizen and special interest groups to try to develop a solution to Napa’s flooding problems. The structural component involves widening 8-12 . voters turned down the project on the grounds that it would be too costly and would destroy the river.gov/LCD/HAZ/hazardrelatedordinances.Incorporating Disaster Resilience community’s concerns. But the project languished in the face of stiff opposition. Step 10: Implement. the U. The number of points awarded determines what sort of mitigation steps. The landslide ordinance is described further on the Web site of the Oregon Department of Land Conservation and Development at http://www.net/%7Enaturalr/Landslides/Landslides_Index. California.shtml#City_of_Salem and on the Landslide Hazards Web page of the Salem Community Development Department at http://www. The City of Salem and Marion County began the development of a landslide hazards ordinance after heavy raining and flooding in 1996 resulted in landslide activity.
which is expected to raise about $7 million per year. and landslides. To pay for its share of the project.Incorporating Disaster Resilience the river to increase its capacity. property damage. floods. citizens groups. economic loss.gov/fima/bp. over 20 years.shtm and search for “Turning Water into Wine: Flood Mitigation in Napa Valley. and constructing a floodwall to protect the most vulnerable residential properties. county residents approved a one-half cent sales tax increase. The nonstructural component involves acquiring flood-prone properties and restoring wetlands along the river. The county planned to purchase about 350 parcels in all. designs. and plans. In 2000. nonprofit organizations. Oregon’s Partners for Disaster Resistance and Resilience involves a core group of affiliates from state and local government.” Partners for Disaster Resistance and Resilience: Oregon Showcase State Oregon experiences a number of natural disasters. and private 8-13 . cost-effective. The Showcase State model aims to provide an integrated. an initiative of the insurance industry to reduce deaths. The county also received about $7 million from FEMA to help fund the buyout. including earthquakes. Oregon’s governor designated Oregon a “Showcase State for Natural Disaster Risk Reduction” following a model developed and tested in Rhode Island by the Institute for Business & Home Safety. and systematic approach for all levels of government and the private sector to bring together resources. moving the levees farther back from the river. procedures. in the floodplain. an estimated $50 million for the buyout alone. The project is expected to take five years at a cost of $220 million. but the money was estimated to be made up in 11 years by avoiding property damage. and human suffering caused by natural disasters. injuries. visit the Web page of FEMA Mitigation Best Practices and Case Studies at http://www.fema. The Showcase State model is based around the following 14 interdependent elements: • Formal commitment and strategic plan • Statewide hazards and risk assessment • Business recovery alliances • Enforceable building codes • Land use plans • Response and recovery plans • Rating and regulatory systems • Community-level disaster resistance • Public awareness and outreach • School curricula • Protection of childcare centers • Professional training • Incentives and disincentives These elements are measurable activities that serve to institutionalize disaster protection into long-range policies. wildfires. For more information. to prepare for and minimize natural disaster impacts. primarily commercial and industrial. programs. both human and financial. academia.
visit the Oregon State Partners for Disaster Resistance and Resilience Web site at http://www. environmentally-sensitive areas have undertaken mitigation measures to reduce the likelihood of the release of hazardous materials • Wetlands. police and fire stations. bridges. duration. such as reducing the percentage of homes in the floodplain by 10 percent each year. to help set and measure a community’s progress toward achieving its performance goals.org/. The events compared would have to be of the same strength. 2000.oregonshowcase. Monitoring Disaster Resilience It is difficult to measure the success of mitigation efforts because a valid measurement would require a community to compare damage incurred with and without the mitigation actions.) relocated to safe areas or protected against damage from natural hazards • Fewer repetitively damaged facilities • Infrastructure (roads. and location. and water treatment plants) relocated to safe areas or protected against damage Natural Environment • Unsafe land use activities (junkyards or chemical storage facilities) relocated from areas prone to natural hazards. Indicators also can help build support for mitigation programs by showing tangible benefits. floodplains. unsafe uses prohibited in such areas. sewage treatment plants. New. and coastal zones protected from development or damage Source: North Carolina Division of Emergency Management. rather than only addressing the incremental consequences of disasters. Several indicators for improving the resilience of homes. etc. which seldom occurs. however. and the natural environment are shown in the checklist below.Incorporating Disaster Resilience industry in an ongoing multiyear process aimed at developing strategies for providing the state with a more holistic and effective approach for addressing the problem of community risk from natural hazards. 8-14 . dunes. schools. critical facilities. Checklist for Measuring Community Resilience to Natural Disasters Housing/Businesses • Fewer households and businesses in unsafe areas • Fewer repetitively damaged structures • Increase in number of households and businesses with insurance for natural hazards Infrastructure and Critical Facilities • Critical facilities (hospitals. • Commercial or industrial facilities in hazard-prone. For more information. businesses. Indicators are available.
org/research/disaster. Before communities can develop effective hazards mitigation strategies.IEMC/Hurricane: Recovery and Mitigation E910 . These are one-day exercises for local building officials.g. FEMA Courses G398. http://www. The local government will have to determine how to deal with temporary housing issues.2.gov/products/nchaz/startup. http://www.htm. a local mitigation plan can help guide the recovery effort toward increased resilience to future disasters. The exercises provide a series of challenges to local governments that it could face from an earthquake. Emmitsburg. such as wildfires in the west or Nor’easters along the Atlantic Coast. each community is unique. NOAA Coastal Services Center. while in other communities. The plan can help forge a common vision on how to make the community.IEMC/Earthquake: Recovery and Mitigation E279 . • Here are titles of other courses related to natural hazards mitigation offered by FEMA: IS-393 Introduction to Mitigation E905 . councils. FEMA Emergency Management Institute. and Software Community Vulnerability Assessment Tool.3.Residential Coastal Construction Videos.csc. more resilient and sustainable. Planning for a Disaster Resistant Community Workshop. zoning officers. Communities vary in the amount of development that has occurred in hazardprone locations and in their approach to mitigation. building permits. North Carolina. or hurricane. disasters can strike anytime. Where to Find More Information Training Courses and Workshops American Planning Association. New Hanover County. The plan can help ensure that community decisions about the type and location of future growth consider the impacts of natural hazards.IEMC/Earthquake: Preparedness and Response E911 . This one-day workshop is offered for city and county planners and other officials to review the planning requirements outlined in the Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000.1. G398. they must first identify their hazard risks and assess their vulnerability to the impacts of those hazards. including its businesses. When disaster strikes. http://training. while others suffer primarily from a single type. structural or nonstructural. National Emergency Training Center.planning. Some face risks from several types of hazards.Incorporating Disaster Resilience Conclusion Communities vary in their vulnerability to hazards and in their capacity to mitigate the impacts.IEMC/Hurricane: Preparedness and Response E906 . Some are subject to seasonal hazards that occur in relatively predictable areas.. MD. flood. and temporary business locations as well as long-term recovery issues.noaa. commissioners. and chief executive officers.htm. Mitigation and Recovery Exercises. Thus. and its approach to addressing the threat of disaster varies considerably. This CD includes 8-15 .gov/EMIWeb. e. and G398.fema. CDs.Retrofitting Flood-Prone Residential Buildings E386 .
reduce future flood losses.pdf. http://www.gov/areyouready/. http://www. The guides include the following: Getting Started: Building Support for Mitigation Planning (FEMA 386-1).Incorporating Disaster Resilience a method for conducting a communitywide vulnerability assessment.fema.fema. 2000.gov/fima/bp. The foundation for the method was established by the Heinz Center Panel on Risk. A tutorial steps the user through a process of analyzing physical. economic.shtm. Flood Mitigation Planning: The First Steps. tribes. social. Visit http://training.floods. and the True Cost of Hazards. and after each type of hazard. FEMA Mitigation Planning “How-To” Guides FEMA developed this series of mitigation planning “How-To” guides to assist states.asp. Public Affairs. and federal and state mitigation program information and contacts. This video illustrates the steps that floodplain communities can take to mitigate flood damage. The video is accompanied by a pamphlet outlining the steps of the planning and implementation process. and communities in enhancing their hazards mitigation planning capabilities. family. Association of State Floodplain Managers. Web Resources FEMA Are You Ready? This resource is a comprehensive guide to individual. and community disaster preparedness. FEMA 479-CD. It is meant to meet the needs of a broad audience and includes publications. The guides are designed to provide the type of information state and local governments need to initiate and maintain a planning process that will result in safer communities. It provides hazard-specific information and what to do before.gov/pdf/library/poster_fnl2. photographs. http://www. Understanding Your Risks: Identifying Hazards and Estimating Losses (FEMA 386-2). The toolkit provided on this CD is designed to help guide efforts to capture and promote effective mitigation techniques being employed throughout the country to reduce adverse impacts of disasters. technical fact sheets. developed under a cooperative initiative of FEMA Mitigation. This CD was developed by the Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration and representatives from all 10 FEMA regions with contributions from community and private sector leaders. during. case studies. Vulnerability. FEMA Publications 372 CD. Mitigation Resources for Success. Developing the Mitigation Plan: Identifying Mitigation Actions and Implementing Strategies 8-16 .fema. and Recovery Divisions. 2001.fema. FEMA Community Emergency Response Teams This site helps communities establish and maintain community emergency response teams. Developing and Promoting Mitigation Best Practices and Case Studies—Community Strategy Toolkit. The toolkit is based on Developing and Promoting Mitigation Best Practices and Case Studies Community Strategy.gov/EMIWeb/CERT/. and environmental vulnerability at the community level. and be better prepared for the next flood event. Visit http://www.org/publications/pubs.
The Web page of the Bureau of Recovery and Mitigation contains additional information on state and federal resources for local communities.ncem. regional partnership approaches. Visit http://www. Guidebooks. businesses. It includes links to regional programs. 8-17 . Hazard Mitigation in North Carolina The North Carolina Division of Emergency Management developed this Web site with information on risk assessment. and links to Web sites and organizations for preparedness and response. and other documents. Books.Incorporating Disaster Resilience (FEMA 386-3). Madison.pdf. and hazards reduction. This workbook from the Planning for a Disaster-Resistant Community Workshop at the 2005 APA National Planning Conference contains information about hazards and how they affect communities and how risk assessment is the fact base for mitigation planning. probabilities and hazards maps. the news media. Hurricanes Katrina and Rita Using Mitigation to Rebuild a Safer Gulf Coast. Elected Officials. planning. science. mitigation research.fema. http://www.S.planning. Visit http://earthquake.org This Web site of the Florida Division of Emergency Management is well-organized and provides many resources on disaster preparedness for citizens. 2004. Planning for a Disaster-Resistant Community: An AICP Professional Development Workshop for City and County Planners. Association of State Floodplain Managers (ASFPM). Presenters discuss local requirements under the Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000 and outline financial incentives. the ASFPM released this white paper outlining approaches that should be incorporated into the reconstruction process to reduce the risks to flooding and hurricanes in the future. and funding. Visit http://www.org/katrina/pdf/PlanDisasterResistant.usgs. http://www. kids. Case studies highlight reasons for planning for disaster-resistant communities. floodplain management. Following Hurricane Katrina. and the emergency management community.gov/.org/PDF/ASFPM_HurricaneKatrina_WhitePaper_090905. 2005.org/mitigation/.floods. and Consultants. resources for teachers.gov/EMIWeb/CERT/.org/. Florida Division of Emergency Management FloridaDisaster. and Articles American Planning Association (APA). Visit http://training.pdf. and Bringing the Plan to Life: Implementing the Hazard Mitigation Plan (FEMA 386-4). IL: APA. Chicago. Geological Survey (USGS) Earthquake Hazard Program The USGS Earthquake Hazards Program Web site provides information on earthquake activity.floridadisaster. WI: ASFPM. and other practical considerations for community mitigation planning compliance. U.
Incorporating Disaster Resilience Ayscue, Jon K. 1996. Hurricane Damage to Residential Structures: Risk and Mitigation. Natural Hazards Working Paper No. 94. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, Natural Hazards Center. http://www.colorado.edu/hazards/wp/wp94/wp94.html. This paper examines wind damage to residential structures caused by Hurricanes Hugo, Andrew, and Iniki and building techniques that can mitigate hurricane damage. Bay Area Regional Earthquake Preparedness Project. 1990. Putting the Pieces Together: The Loma Prieta Earthquake One Year Later. Oakland, CA: Bay Area Regional Earthquake Preparedness Project. http://www.nap.edu/books/0309050308/html/19.html. This report grew out of a conference held to determine the lessons learned from the Loma Prieta earthquake and its aftermath. The conference examined preparedness and mitigation efforts before the quake, political and management issues of disaster response, recovery and reconstruction programs, and mitigation activities since the event. Among the numerous topics addressed in the volume, separate chapters are given to seismological and geological considerations; geotechnical aspects; the performance of lifelines, buildings, and transportation systems and the implications for future design of these elements; effective emergency management, emotional and psychological aftereffects; economic impacts; emergency public information and the media; the restoration of lifelines; emergency medical services; business recovery; and housing reconstruction. Burby, Raymond J., editor. 1998. Cooperating with Nature: Confronting Natural Hazards with Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Communities. Washington, DC: Joseph Henry Press. This volume focuses on the breakdown in sustainability—the capacity of the planet to provide quality of life now and in the future—that is signaled by disaster. The book takes a historical approach to explain why land use and sustainability have been ignored in devising public policies for natural hazards. The authors provide suggestions and a blueprint for the future. FEMA. 1997. Report on Costs and Benefits of Natural Hazard Mitigation. Washington, DC: FEMA. http://www.planning.org/katrina/pdf/PlanDisasterResistant.pdf. Are the costs to reduce or eliminate the impacts of natural hazards substantially less than the benefits they provide? This report reviews the benefits that can accrue to different segments of society from mitigation, the costs that can be incurred by undertaking mitigation, and the analyses needed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the measures. The report describes 16 case studies across the United States and demonstrates their efficiency against several types of natural hazards as well as the effectiveness of other mitigation tools. The cases include both public- and private-sector initiatives. FEMA. 1999. Planning for a Sustainable Future: The Link between Hazard Mitigation and Livability. Washington, DC: FEMA. http://www.fema.gov/fima/linkmitliv.shtm. This booklet illustrates how communities, whether in planning for hazard mitigation before disaster strikes or in initiating recovery planning after one occurs, can integrate the concepts and principles of sustainable development into each phase of mitigation planning. The booklet also shows how disaster resistance can be a catalyst to help communities incorporate sustainable development practices into their day-to-day planning and development functions. Finally, it gives real-life examples of communities that have successfully implemented sustainable development practices in their community and describes how citizens and local officials can
Incorporating Disaster Resilience become advocates for disaster resistance as a part of sustainable development and livability in their communities. FEMA. 2004. Multi-Hazard Mitigation Planning Guidance under the Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000. Washington, DC: FEMA. http://www.fema.gov/fima/guidance.shtm. To implement the planning requirements of the Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000, FEMA published an Interim Final Rule in the Federal Register on February 26, 2002. This Rule (44 CFR Part 201) established the mitigation planning requirements for states, tribes, and local communities. This updated guidance document issued in 2004 incorporates state, local, and tribal officials’ feedback and addresses issues that have arisen since the initial guidance was developed. The Heinz Center. 2002. Human Links to Coastal Disasters. Washington, DC: The Heinz Center. http://www.heinzctr.org/publications.htm. The dominant theme in this report is the need to build disaster resiliency through increased awareness and promotion of the social factors that are at the core of human communities. A broad vulnerability framework is used to examine the human factors influencing vulnerability, starting with policies and practices that drive coastal development. The report also explores how the actions that commonly take place following a disaster may affect future risk and vulnerability. Institute for Business & Home Safety. 2002. Showcase State Model for Disaster Resistance and Resilience: A Guidebook for Loss Reduction Partnerships. Tampa, Florida: Institute for Business & Home Safety. http://www.ibhs.org/publications/downloads/280.pdf. The Showcase State model for natural disaster resistance and resilience was developed by the Institute for Business & Home Safety in 1998 as a framework for a comprehensive, costeffective way for states to create public/private partnerships and engage communities in protecting people and property from natural disasters. The Showcase State model is founded on the concept that partnerships can achieve much more than independent, uncoordinated efforts. This guidebook is designed to help readers understand the benefits of this model and to encourage partnerships to help reduce future disaster losses. Johnson, Laurie, Laura Dwelley Samant, and Suzanne Frew. 2005. Planning for the Unexpected. Planning Advisory Service Report 531. Chicago, IL: American Planning Association. http://www.planning.org/bookservice/description.htm?BCODE=P531. Typical plans include only about half of the elements necessary for a safe, hazards-resistant community. This report describes the tools planners need to identify and manage risks related to land use. Multihazard Mitigation Council of the National Institute of Building Sciences. 2005. Natural Hazard Mitigation Saves: An Independent Study to Assess the Future Savings from Mitigation Activities. Washington, DC: National Institute of Building Sciences. http://www.nibs.org/MMC/MitigationSavingsReport/natural_hazard_mitigation_saves.htm. This report is the result of a congressionally mandated independent study to assess future savings from mitigation activities. FEMA commissioned the project, which began in 2000. The study indicates that natural hazards mitigation is cost effective. On average, one dollar spent by FEMA
Incorporating Disaster Resilience on hazards mitigation saves the nation about four dollars in future benefits. In addition, grants provided by FEMA to mitigate the effects of hurricanes, tornados, floods, and earthquakes between 1993 and 2003 are expected to save more that 220 lives and prevent about 4,700 injuries over approximately 50 years. National Disaster Education Coalition. 2004. Talking About Disaster: Guide for Standard Messages. Washington, DC: The National Disaster Education Coalition. http://www.disastereducation.org/guide.html. The National Disaster Education Coalition is composed of federal government agencies and national nonprofit organizations that work together to develop and disseminate consistent educational information for the public about disaster preparedness. This guide provides awareness and action messages intended to help people reduce their risk in the event of natural and human-caused disasters. Statistics and other supporting information are provided to reinforce the credibility and importance of each message. There is also a section on “Facts and Fiction” in most chapters that describes common myths about hazards and provides factual information that refutes the fiction. The guide was developed to assist those who provide disaster safety information to the general public. North Carolina Emergency Management Division and FEMA. 2000. Hazard Mitigation in North Carolina: Measuring Success. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina Emergency Management Division. To accelerate the institutionalization of hazards mitigation in North Carolina, the North Carolina Emergency Management Division established the Hazard Mitigation Planning Initiative, a longterm program to build local capacity to implement mitigation policies and programs in communities across the state. Through a series of case studies, this report documents losses avoided as a result of the implementation of a wide range of mitigation measures, including elevations and the acquisition and relocation or demolition of flood-prone properties. Oregon Natural Hazards Workgroup. 2000. Planning for Natural Hazards: Oregon Technical Resource Guide. University of Oregon: Oregon Natural Hazards Workgroup. http://csc.uoregon.edu/pdr_website/projects/state/hazard_trg_6_2000/. The purpose of the guide is to help Oregon cities and counties plan for and limit the effects of threats posed by natural hazards. Reddy, Swaroop. 1992. A Study of Long Term Recovery of Three Communities in the Aftermath of Hurricane Hugo. HRRC Monograph 9B. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University, College of Architecture, Hazard Reduction and Recovery Center. http://archone.tamu.edu/hrrc/hrrc/publications/BOOKS.HTML. The objectives of this doctoral dissertation include: 1) to determine the factors that explain the successful adoption of hazards mitigation measures during recovery, 2) to develop a conceptual understanding of the problems inherent in the adoption of mitigation during disaster recovery, and 3) to gain an understanding about the influence of prestorm institutional regulations on mitigation during the recovery period. The major findings were that the stronger and greater the presence of eight implementation factors in a community, the greater the successful adoption of mitigation measures; local institutional involvement is essential in the successful adoption of mitigation; there is a strong link between development management and hazards mitigation; a
M. This document was prepared to help elected officials plan and take action to prepare their communities for floods.pdf. 1996. WI: Association of State Floodplain Managers and FEMA.L. and the existence of strong prestorm institutional regulations help local jurisdictions promote the adoption of mitigation during recovery. http://www. 8-21 . and J. Madison. Addressing Your Community’s Flood Problems. J.floods. Monday.Incorporating Disaster Resilience strong link also exists between the protection of coastal resources and coastal hazards mitigation.org/PDF/Addressing_Communitys_Flood_Problems. A Guide for Elected Officials. Wright.
Chapter 9 Summary A holistic disaster recovery is one in which the six principles of sustainability are considered in all recovery decision making. Sustainability Sustainability is a way of looking at a community within a broad context. 2. Even if a community has not yet formally incorporated sustainability ideals into their comprehensive plans and other operating procedures. 4. Maintain and enhance quality of life. It is a comprehensive and forward-looking approach to recovering from a disaster. and environmental needs. Protect environmental quality. and every community has a unique balance of the quality. the period of recovery after a disaster can be a good time to start. and budgets. Promote social and intergenerational equity. A disaster brings changes to a community that can be viewed as opportunities to build back in a better way. but using the principles as decision-making criteria ensures that they will at least be considered. plans. Technical and expert advice and financial assistance are available from public and private sources enabling a community to tackle more ambitious projects than under normal circumstances. policies. The classic definition of sustainability is “meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. participatory process when making decisions. and expenditures. The recovery process described in this handbook does not guarantee that every sustainability principle will actually be included in the recovery.” People in every community have social. quantity. Applying sustainability principles when making decisions helps communities avoid the pitfalls of adopting a course of action that may have detrimental impacts in another place or time. Build local economic vitality. 6. Incorporate disaster resilience and mitigation. Citizens are more aware of the risks they face from hazards and public officials have more political will to address complex problems and support innovative ideas. It provides an ideal toward which to strive and against which to weigh proposed decisions. including very difficult ones. actions. and environmental activities and in moving toward sustainability: 1. 5. Use a consensus-building. The holistic recovery framework helps a community work toward fully coordinating available assistance and funding while seeking ways to accomplish other community goals and priorities using the disaster recovery process as a catalyst. There are six principles that help guide a community in integrating its social. 3. economic. . economic. A disaster forces a community to make a wide range of decisions. and importance of those needs.
Prevent/remediate pollution. Provide educational opportunities. and historical resources. and tourist attractions. workable process for planning 9-2 . Attract/retain work force. Avoid development in hazardous areas. there are steps that can be taken during recovery to improve sustainability. Provide health and other services. historic. cultural. Maintain and Enhance Quality of Life Options: Make housing available/affordable/better. 6. Even if a community does not have such a plan. Provide employment opportunities. Manage stormwater. Incorporate Disaster Resilience and Mitigation Options: Make buildings and infrastructure damage-resistant. Manage stormwater. Avoid/remedy disproportionate impacts on groups. Adopt a long-term focus for all planning. Attract/retain businesses. Promote Social and Intergenerational Equity Options: Preserve/conserve natural. A process is needed that recognizes the possibilities and manages recovery activities so that they become solutions not additional problems. Protect Environmental Quality Options: Preserve/conserve/restore natural resources. Preserve social connections in and among groups. Enhance economic functionality. Promote and obtain hazards and other insurance. Ensure mobility. 10-Step Process for Holistic Disaster Recovery The best way to ensure that a community has a holistic recovery from a future disaster is to prepare a comprehensive plan for such a recovery. Maintain a safe/healthy environment. Build Economic Vitality Options: Support area redevelopment and revitalization. 5. Protect open space. If a community has a proven. Consider future generations’ quality of life. Have opportunities for civic engagement. 4. 3. Protect natural areas. Use a Participatory Process Incorporate participatory processes into each of the other principles. Value diversity. 2. Provide for recreation.Summary Principles of Sustainability and Options for Applying Them 1. Develop/redevelop recreational.
posters. neighborhood coalition. Begin by making a list of all the disaster-caused problems and gather information to better understand how these problems fit into the big picture. Departments. parks or wildlife departments. including lectures. and opportunities for economic growth before and after the disaster • Mapping environmentally sensitive areas • Assessing present and future vulnerability to hazards and disasters • Identifying social inequities and their impacts before and after the disaster • Determining the quality of life concerns important to residents 9-3 . call-in radio. and establishing measures for integrating recovery planning and activities with ongoing community processes. and the business community. Publicize the factors that will influence decision making and use a variety of media (flyers. and community-based events. Step 3: Coordinate with Other Agencies. The appointments of appropriate staff and the designation of support resources to a recovery team will help ensure that the subsequent steps are handled effectively. Step 2: Involve the Public A community should have a demonstrated commitment to community and stakeholder involvement and must design a viable public participation process with components in all the phases of the recovery. and regional agency to increase the diversity and imagination of ideas and potential solutions and to build local capacity. They could be in-house staffers. This may involve the following acitivities: • Obtaining expert analysis of economic trends. nonprofit group. Formal and informal ties need to be developed with every conceivable private entity. Step 4: Identify the Postdisaster Problem Situations During this step. local. local television stations. environmental specialists. costs of rebuilding. such as festivals. economic development directors. church. There are a range of participation techniques to choose from beyond the traditional public hearing and town meeting formats.Summary and taking action. A community without such an established process should consider using the 10step process described here as a guide to action. federal. workshops. state or federal agencies. the recovery team should begin a systematic process of considering the ways to build sustainability through the recovery. and state. local newspaper. and Groups A community should include representation on the recovery team from those who can contribute expertise on each of the principles of sustainability. Depending on the situation. a community should make a commitment to sustainability by designating appropriate responsibility for the recovery to an individual or entity. It is important to design an inclusive process that involves all constituents and gives particular attention to those that may have been historically excluded. this could include social services personnel. The responsible individuals should understand and support all the sustainability principles. it should not dismantle that process but instead work within it to address sustainability. engineers. planning charettes. local experts. and the Internet) to reach the public. Step 1: Get Organized In the initial stage of recovery. or consultants. new or existing.
It is always better to have this information in hand before disaster. Step 7: Explore All Alternatives The recovery team should reviews options. One or more options should be identified as possibilities for addressing each problem. A community that has not had a disaster but is looking ahead can use the Matrix of Opportunities in Chapter 1 to get ideas on the situations that may be encountered. it is determined that one alternative would detract from one or more of the principles of sustainability. rather than rushing to gather it in the confusing and stressful environment afterward. If. “expand stormwater management system to better handle street drainage and reduce streambank erosion in flood-damaged Elm Street neighborhood” or “address damaged low-income housing by adding seismic-resistant features and insulation during repair.) • Funding methods 9-4 . then that alternative should be eliminated or an anlysis of negative impacts conducted and the tradeoffs accommodated. an implementation strategy should be developed that includes: • Action items • The lead agency/entity and their deliverables • Partnerships that will make the actions effective • Methods for obtaining technical expertise and advice • Local regulations needed (zoning. Steps 4. the planning or recovery team drafts a complete plan for holistic recovery activities. Step 5: Evaluate the Problems The recovery team should evaluate each of the problem situations developed in Step 4 using the six principles of sustainability. such as. This step will result in set of agreed-upon statements about desired future outcomes for the community. Prioritize the goals and objectives so that there is a range of possibilities available in case some fall through and so that the team knows which actions to take and in what order. For each goal.” Step 6: Set Goals and Objectives Using the recovery team and public involvement. This step will result in a list of opportunities for holistic recovery activities. compliance with regulations. cost-effectiveness.Summary Step 4 will culminate in a list of problem situations and background information. etc. availability of technical expertise. and alignment with other community goals. tools. Step 8: Plan for Action During this step. 5. set goals and objectives that can be agreed to and are most preferable based on local needs. public support. and expertise available to achieve each of the goals and objectives and choose those that meet the community’s needs. In practice. and 6 are likely to overlap and will be an iterative not linear process. The principles and some options for applying each of them are listed in the box page 9-2. funding. in reviewing the possible alternatives. building codes. subdivision ordinances.
coastal. Other stakeholders. should be included in the adoption process. The plan should also include • A budget • A schedule for team meetings.Summary Tools for Community Sustainability • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Local redevelopment authority Economic incentives Loans for businesses Housing authority Capital improvements Loan interest subsidy programs Revolving loan funds Public investment Redistricting Subdivision regulations Building codes Special ordinances Tax incentives Transfer of development rights Easements Land purchase Voluntary agreements Planning Retrofitting buildings Habitat protection Filter strips • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Riparian buffers Soil conservation and management Ecosystem restoration Zoning and rezoning Public education and awareness campaigns and events Special protection of critical facilities. data collection. etc. such as existing comprehensive. report writing. and recreation plans. the plan should be revised and finalized. county (parish). Agreements should be obtained from federal and state agencies as appropriate. Evaluate. development. especially historically excluded groups. and local governments will need to formally adopt the plan of action into the recovery or comprehensive plan. utilities. • Details for obtaining funding • A monitoring process and schedule • Public review and comment Step 9: Get Agreement on the Plan After public and agency review. As 9-5 . and Revise The involvement of the individuals and organizations responsible for implementation of the plan in the decision-making process helps to ensure that activities will be implemented effectively. public participation. and networks Valuing public spaces Limiting public investment in hazardous areas Relocation out of hazardous areas Preservation of natural floodplain. and memoranda of understanding signed among partners. capital improvement. transportation. wetland. the state. stormwater. and other functions Private-public partnerships and networks Ombudspersons Targeted workshops Community festivals and other activities The team should work to consolidate multiple sustainability objectives into each strategy and to coordinate with other community plans and programs. In many instances. Step 10: Implement. affordable housing.
technical. Incorporating the concept of sustainability into disaster recovery and into all aspects of hazards management provides an enlarged framework for examining potential mitigation measures as well as other community concerns. It encourages each community to perform its own carefully considered balancing act of risk versus protection. This broader context has the advantage of drawing from a wider range of constituencies and disciplines than hazards mitigation alone. A formal monitoring process helps identify needed changes and prevent certain efforts from being abandoned when an unforeseen obstacle is encountered. Besides advancing ideals that improve disaster resilience and livability. the holistic approach helps local residents examine community goals and consider the kind of place they want to leave their grandchildren. A broader context is needed to prevent society’s actions to protect itself against hazards from transferring those burdens to someone or someplace else or postponing this year’s medium-sized disaster in favor of a catastrophic one down the road. disaster losses continue to rise. 9-6 . there is increasing acceptance of the idea that reducing disaster losses before they occur is preferable to cleaning up afterwards and paying the costs over and over again. costs versus benefits. and it is clear to experienced hazards managers that society can no longer afford to consider hazards mitigation in isolation from other aspects of community well-being. It consolidates more problem solving into a single effort and improves the likelihood of long-term success.Summary recovery proceeds. A Final Word Among policy makers. Invite stakeholders to help develop indicators of progress and participate in annual reviews. hazards managers. However. and financial support for taking long-term mitigation measures. This progression has been aided by improvements in mitigation techniques and by the advent of federal disaster programs and policies that provide legal. and today versus tomorrow. and the public. some goals and strategies will need to be modified.
Geotimes. Chang.References Baruch. and R. Cornwall. “What Is Participatory Research?” Social Science & Medicine 41: 1667-1676. 1997.E. Disasters by Design. Stephanie.pdf. Washington. Mileti. Godschalk. Jewkes. Daniels. S. Federal Emergency Management Agency. Washington. Dennis S. Scott.C. and M. 1999.” Proceedings of the 5th US/Japan Workshop on Urban Earthquake Hazard Reduction. 1995. Elaine.” IWR Research Report 82-R1: 199-206. “Innovative Floodplain Management”. Recasting Disaster Policy and Planning. David et al. Hazard Mitigation Successes in the State of North Carolina. The Denton Plan 1999-2020. Emmer. 1996. 2005. Faber. North Carolina Department of Crime Control and Public Safety. Creighton. “Identifying Publics/Staff Identification Techniques. City of Denton Planning and Development Department.L. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). “The Economic Vulnerability of Rural Businesses to Disasters. Denton. “Wetlands Conservation through Local Community Programs. “Violence Against Women in Disasters. S. 1983. Raleigh.org/FP_DOCS/floodplain. Natural Hazards Mitigation. Washington.riskinstitute. DC: The Joseph Henry Press. CA: Earthquake Engineering Research Institute. D.” October 2005. Cambridge: MA: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy. DC: EPA. Walker. A. 1999. “Reconstruction and Recovery in Urban Earthquake Disasters.: Island Press. 10-1 . “Collaborative Learning: Improving Public Deliberations in Ecosystem-based Management. “Katrina Blows in Higher Gas Prices.B.E. Oakland. 1996.S. Mitigation Case Studies.” CUSEC Journal 7 (21): 8-9.” Environmental Impact Assessment Review 16: 71-102.” Violence against Women 5(7): 742-768.” Unpublished report prepared for the U. Enarson. 1999. 1999. J. and G. TX: City of Denton. 1991. On Borrowed Land: Public Policies for Floodplains. http://www. Baruch. 2000. R. NC: North Carolina Emergency Management Division. 1999.
Multi-Objective Flood Mitigation Plan Vermillion River Basin South Dakota. Pre-Earthquake Planning for Post-Earthquake Rebuilding (PEPPER).. 1996. 2000. “Flood Mitigation Planning: The CRS Approach. 1997 “Public Involvement Methods in Natural Resource Policy Making: Advantages. Jim et al. 1997. Public Participation in Public Decisions. PAS Report No. T. Los Angeles. Platt. Schwab. Chicago. and National Park Service.sustainable.” Policy Sciences 30: 71-90.gov/. Porter. Boulder. Managing Growth in America’s Communities. Cox. 1987. Denver.C. CO: Natural Hazards Center. Ontario: Social Development Council and Social Planning Network of Ontario. Shookner. Rutherford.” Natural Hazards Informer 1 (July). S. and D. DC: Island Press.. J. CA: Southern California Earthquake Preparedness Project. Ascher. State of South Dakota. Disadvantages and Tradeoffs. Quality of Life Summary Report. 483/484. Thomas. CO: FEMA. 1994. NC: State of North Carolina. Wetmore. Raleigh. DC: Island Press. Law. William E. http://www. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers. IL: American Planning Association. editor. 1995. Washington. 1997. French and Gil Jamieson. Zahn.doe. Spangle.North Carolina Emergency Management Division and the Federal Emergency Management Agency.A. and W. Land Use and Society: Geography. B. Holmes. Douglas. Toronto. Hazard Mitigation in North Carolina: Measuring Success. and Public Policy. Smart Communities Network. Washington. Planning for Post-Disaster Recovery and Reconstruction. Steelman. 10-2 . 1998. Malcolm. 1999. 1997.
11–1 . affordable housing—housing that costs no more than 30 percent of a household’s gross income. mitigation activities have been funded under this program. mapping and regulatory activities. designers. disaster housing—temporary housing supplied by emergency management officials to disaster victims whose homes are no longer inhabitable due to damage sustained in a declared disaster (formerly called temporary housing).Glossary 100-year floodplain—the area of a floodplain that historically and statistically has a one percent chance of significant inundation in any given year or the area of inundation by the “100-year&& flood (also known as the “base flood”). Community Rating System (CRS)—a voluntary system under the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) in which communities undertake planning and regulatory activities beyond NFIP minimum requirements in order to obtain credits that earn premium reductions on the flood insurance for policies held by their residents and property owners. estuaries. charrette—an intensive planning and/or design workshop involving people working together under compressed deadlines. The objective of the CDBGs is to develop viable urban communities by providing decent housing and a suitable living environment and by expanding economic opportunities. The premium reductions come in a series of five percent steps based on points earned under the system. and utilities. and other interested and appropriate parties participate in proposing alternative visions that can help the group understand. Department of Housing and Urban Development. and land areas having a direct drainage to the ocean. principally for low-to moderate-income people. taxes. and flood preparedness. A natural disaster results from the impact of a natural (as opposed to human-caused or technological) hazard upon the built environment of an affected area. household. beaches. This land/water interface includes barrier islands. These activities are delineated in the CRS guidelines but fall under four categories: public information. including mortgage payments or rent. disaster declaration—a Presidential determination that a jurisdiction of the United States may receive federal aid as a result of damage from a major disaster or emergency. and determine future plans and options. flood damage reduction. community representatives. social. coastal zone—the area along the shore where the ocean meets the land as the surface of the land rises above the ocean. insurance. Charrettes provide an interactive forum in which planners. disaster—a major detrimental impact of a hazard upon the population and economic. density—the average number of persons. Community Development Block Grants (CDBG)—administered by the U. Disaster-related assistance can be eligible under this program depending on state priorities. or dwellings per acre of land. coastal wetlands.S. and built environment of an affected area. evaluate.
including. and other applications of the police power. such as a hazard event. such as communications. fuel—combustible plant material. in any combination thereof. an official map of the community delineated both the Special Flood Hazard Areas and the risk premium zones applicable to the community. special purpose ordinances (such as floodplain ordinance. and floodplain management regulations. floodplain management—as defined under the National Flood Insurance Program.S. and after a disaster. and erosion control ordinance). property. and commerce. both living and dead. the federal agency that assists communities with grants and technical assistance for economic development. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)—an agency in the U. Department of Homeland Security whose mission is to reduce the loss of life and property and protect the nation’s critical infrastructure from all types of hazards through a comprehensive program of mitigation. Department of Commerce. emergency preparedness plans. the operation of an overall program of corrective and preventive measures for reducing flood damage. subdivision regulations. flash flood—a flood occurring with little or no warning where water levels rise at an extremely fast rate.earthquake—a sudden motion or trembling of the earth caused by the abrupt release of slowly accumulated strain upon tectonic plates. emergency period—the period commencing immediately with the onset of a natural disaster during which a community’s normal operations. response and recovery. Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM)—as defined under the National Flood Insurance Program. health regulations. exposure—the measure of people. have commenced. and ending when danger from the hazard itself has ceased and initial response activities. building codes. floodplain management regulations—as defined under the National Flood Insurance Program. flood control works. or other interests that would be subject to a given risk. The term describes such state or local regulations. but not limited to. 11–2 . Economic Development Administration (EDA)—part of the U. emergency response plan—a document that contains information on the actions that may be taken by a governmental jurisdiction to protect people and property before. also called a seismic event. which provides standards for the purpose of flood damage prevention and reduction. that is capable of burning in a wildland situation. preparedness. such as search and rescue and debris clearance and removal. environmentally sensitive areas—places that contain significant natural resources and/or resource values that may warrant protection.S. any other flammable material in the built environment that feeds wildfire. during. transportation. at which point the community can begin to restore normal services and functions. are disrupted or halted. zoning ordinances. grading ordinance.
habitat—the place where a plant or animal species naturally lives and grows. and apartments. it can be classified as a Category 1 to Category 5 hurricane. historic resource—a structure. hurricane—part of a family of weather systems known as “tropical cyclones. probability and frequency. including its physical characteristics. hazard identification—the process of defining and describing a hazard. infrastructure damage.geographic information system (GIS)—computer software that links geographic information (where things are) with descriptive information (what things are like). hazard—an event or physical condition that has the potential to cause fatalities. property damage. holistic recovery—a recovery from a disaster that takes into account all the principles of sustainability in decision making and action. agricultural loss. housing types—types of housing units. it provides funding for cost-effective hazards mitigation projects in conformance with the postdisaster mitigation plan required under Section 409 of the Stafford Act. causative factors and locations or areas affected .” Depending on the strength of the winds extending in a counter-clockwise formation from the eye of the hurricane. objects. or other types of harm or loss. rowhouses. ground failure—permanent deformation of the soil. condominiums. Section 404 authorizes the president to contribute up to 75 percent of the cost of mitigation measures that are determined to be cost-effective and substantially reduce the risk of future damage or loss in states affected by a major disaster. such as single-family detached.000 coverage for complying with the cost of meeting substantial damage requirements or toward eliminating flood damage to a structure that has had repetitive flood insurance claims paid. including faulting. Hazard Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP)—authorized under Section 404 of the Stafford Act. liquefaction. magnitude and severity. damage to the environment. including landmarks. hazards mitigation—a sustained action taken to reduce or eliminate long-term risk to people and property from hazards and their effects. its immediate surroundings. consolidation. increased cost of compliance (ICC)—ICC coverage is a component of the standard flood insurance policy that provides up to $15. The remaining 25 percent of the cost may be a combination of state. injuries. local and other nonfederal contributions. or structures in a historic resources inventory. with 5 being the most severe. object. 11–3 . or landslides. or place that has historic significance or contributes to the historic significance of a district. interruption of business. Ground failure can cause extensive damage to buildings and lifelines and development in areas prone to ground failure should be avoided.
or temporary transformation of unconsolidated materials into a fluid mass. or any fire. or explosion in any part of the United States. telecommunications. mudslide. volcanic eruption. Such agreements are often used to provide supplemental staff assistance after a disaster. and job development are influenced by the way land is used. including transportation systems. etc. multiobjective management—a holistic approach to hazards management that emphasizes the involvement of multiple distinct interests in solving land use problems related to the hazardous area. high water. generally described in terms. regional. and fiscal conservatives see savings to be gained in local expenditures for infrastructure in a vulnerable area. tidal wave. Also. partially based on the surroundings and whether goods and services are provided in a satisfactory manner. and growth of a city and/or that have a direct impact on the quality of life. lifeline systems—public works and utilities. any natural catastrophe (including any hurricane. mitigation—sustained actions taken to reduce or eliminate long-term risk to people and property from hazards and their effects. such as housing construction. such as lot size. storm. and activities taking place within a structure. livability—a generally subjective terms used variously to describe whether a place feels safe and/or comfortable to those who live. operation. such as electrical power. while tourism interests may see in the same idea a new business opportunity. cohesionless soil deposit. work. bridges. such as phone lines or Internet access. population growth. and sewer treatment facilities. tsunami. activities not directly associated with land. magnitude—a measure of the strength of an earthquake or the strain of energy released as determined by seismic observations. major disaster—as defined under Public Law 93-288. “mixed use” combines residential with commercial or industrial uses. state. 11–4 . flood. and play there. water supplies. mutual aid agreements—agreements among local. transportation. landslide. gas and liquid fuels. regional dams. flood. parks and recreation interests might advocate for a greenbelt along a river corridor. which in determination of the president. For instance. or drought). and/or national agencies to reduce duplication and increase the effectiveness of emergency response and other postdisaster activities. communication technology. and water and sewer systems liquefaction—the temporary loss of shear strength in a water-saturated.Individual and Family Grant Program (IFG)—a FEMA program that provides monetary aid to individuals and families to meet disaster-related expenses for necessary items or for serious needs. size and location of structure on the lot. land use—the way in which land is used. tornado. infrastructure—the utilities and other basic services of a community essential for the development. causes damage of sufficient severity and magnitude to warrant major disaster assistance under the Stafford Act. wind-driven water. snowstorm. traffic flow. earthquake. mixed-use—for an individual site.
high or winddriven waters. preparedness— ensures that people are ready for a disaster and will respond to it effectively. centers addressing specific aspects of the earthquake problem. It can also involve coordination with other types of plans and agencies but is distinct from planning for emergency operations. zoning. droughts. and subdivision review procedures. and enhance the quality of the environment or to avoid or minimize adverse environmental consequences (44 CFR Part 10). design review. volcanic eruptions. as implemented under 36 CFR Part 800. it includes steps taken to decide what to do if essential services break down. tornados. National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP)—created by Congress in 1977 to mitigate earthquake losses by providing technical and educational assistance to communities threatened by earthquakes. probability—the numeric likelihood of an event. landslides. developing a plan for contingencies. National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA)—consideration of cultural resources by federal agencies is mandated under Section 106 of the NHPA. planning for postdisaster reconstruction—the process of planning (preferably before an actual disaster) the steps that a community will take to implement long-term reconstruction with one of the primary goals being to reduce or minimize its vulnerability to future disasters. These measures can include a wide variety of land use planning tools. pedestrian-oriented development—development designed with an emphasis primarily on the sidewalk and on pedestrian access to the site and building rather than on auto access and parking. floods. the probability of the occurrence of an event is between zero (indicating that the event never occurs) and one (indicating that the event always occurs). tidal wave. National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP)—makes flood insurance available to property owners in exchange for the local adoption and enforcement by their community of floodplain management ordinances that regulate new and substantially damaged or improved development in designated flood hazard areas. and mudslides. established a national policy for the protection and maintenance of the environment by mandating a planning process that all federal agencies must follow. 11–5 . restore. NEHRP is intended to mitigate earthquake losses through development and implementation of seismic design and construction standards and techniques. such as acquisition. education and risk reduction programs. snowstorms. earthquakes. such as the restoration of utility service and basic infrastructure. Requirements include identifying significant historic properties that may be impacted by a proposed project. storms. tsunamis.National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)—passed by Congress in 1969. and dissemination of earthquake information. wildfires. natural hazards—hurricanes. and practicing that plan. NEPA requires that FEMA carry out its responsibilities in a manner that ensures that all practical means and measures are used to protect. Theoretically. As it pertains to disasters. technical assistance materials.
and other structures. Section 404 of the Stafford Act—authorizes the Hazard Mitigation Grant Program. It includes restoring public or utility services (electricity. Response activities include immediate actions to save lives. seismic zone—a generally large area within which seismic design requirements for structures are uniform. and consequences. It is defined in terms of probability and frequency of occurrence. A famous historic example of this last phenomenon would be the way in which the city of Chicago reshaped much of its economy and urban design in the aftermath of the Great Chicago fire of 1871. recovery—the process of getting back to normal after a disaster. SBA can provide additional low-interest loans for mitigation measures up to 20 percent above what an eligible applicant would otherwise qualify. risk assessment—a process or method for evaluating risk associated with a specific hazard. which provides funding for cost-effective. although reconstruction may commence during this period. and public transportation). Short-term recovery does not include the reconstruction of the built environment. public facilities. Special Flood Hazard Areas (SFHAs)—areas designated on Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRM) in which specific National Flood Insurance Program requirements apply. Public Assistance deals with repair. environmentally sound hazards mitigation measures.Public Assistance—the supplementary federal assistance provided by the Federal Emergency Management Agency under Section 406 of the Stafford Act to state and local governments or certain private. water. and restore water. protect property. and other essential services. nonprofit organizations (other than assistance for the direct benefit of individuals and families). It is different from economic recovery in that it goes beyond the process of merely restoring disrupted economic activity to the creation of new economic opportunities and enterprises in the aftermath of the recovery period. perhaps starting during but extending beyond the emergency period. exposure. seismicity—the likelihood of an area being subject to earthquakes. commercial and industrial buildings. and replacement of damaged public infrastructure and facilities and damage to private nonprofit facilities. communications. response—activities that address the immediate and short-term effects of an emergency or disaster. reconstruction—the long term process of rebuilding a community’s destroyed or damaged housing stock. magnitude and severity. sewer. particularly including those that arise as byproducts or direct outcomes of the disaster itself. to conditions improved over those that existed before the disaster. Long-term recovery (see reconstruction) is the process of returning all aspects of the community to normal functioning and. restoration. meet basic human needs. 11–6 . redevelopment—usually used to refer to rebuilding the community’s economic activity after a disaster. risk—the probability of the occurrence of an event or condition. to the extent possible. Small Business Administration (SBA)—in a presidential or SBA-declared disaster.
sustainability—the ability or capacity to keep something going or the state of being durable or able to persist over time. consuming vegetation as fuel.L. and implement measures that will reduce the vulnerability of people and property to damage from hazards. such as wetlands and pervious surface. signed into law October 10. see “holistic recovery. The Stafford Act itself was amended by the Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000. l06-390).and postdisaster mitigation activities. or individuals in coping with a disaster.Stafford Act—the Robert T. State Hazard Mitigation Officer (SHMO)—the representative of state government who is the primary point of contact with state and federal agencies. was signed into law November 23. especially as they pertain to the Federal Emergency Management Agency and its programs. and other public or private sector bodies or agencies. vulnerability—the measure of the capacity to weather. urban wildfire—a fire moving from a wildland environment. 2000 (P. It is the statutory authority for most federal disaster response activities.” sustainable redevelopment—incorporates the concepts and practices of sustainable development into some parts of the disaster recovery process. Disaster resilience is one of the six principles of sustainability. It includes a description of actions needed to minimize future vulnerability to hazards. the preservation of natural flood controls. identify strategies. state hazard mitigation team—composed of key state agency representatives. and the preservation of natural drainage patterns. 1988 and amended the Disaster Relief Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-288). sustainable development—The World Commission on Environment and Development’s (the Brundtland Commission’s) classic definition is “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. the naturally defined area within which water flows into a particular lake or river or its tributary. The purpose of the team is to evaluate hazards. state mitigation plan—a systematic evaluation of the nature and extent of vulnerability to the effects of natural hazards typically present in the state. to an environment where the fuel consists primarily of buildings and other structures. The aims of watershed management are holistic and concern the maintenance of water quality. the minimization of stormwater runoff. watershed management—the implementation of a plan or plans for managing the quality and flow of water within a watershed. local government. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act. local units of government. volunteer agency—any chartered or otherwise duly organized tax-exempt local. or national organization or group that provides needed services to the states.” sustainable recovery—a recovery from a disaster that takes into account all the principles of sustainability in decision making and action. or recover from the impacts of hazards in the long as well as short term. (Public Law 100-107). state. resist. and local units of government in the planning and implementation of pre. 11–7 . coordinate resources.
wildland-urban interface—a developed area occupying the boundary between an urban or settled area and a wildland characterized by vegetation that can serve as fuel for a forest fire. Town Centers: Why? What? How? Portland. 1998. 1998. FEMA Report 365. Federal Emergency Management Agency. including Schwab. Institute of Metropolitan Studies. 11–8 . Chicago. Rueter. such as highways and railroads) and any structures are widely spaced and serve largely recreational purposes. Patty. This glossary was compiled from several sources. Rebuilding for a More Sustainable Future: An Operational Framework. OR: Portland State University. DC: Federal Emergency Management Agency.wildland—an area in which development has not occurred (except for some minimal transportation infrastructure. 483/484. 2000. Community Fellowship Program. IL: American Planning Association. Washington. Planning for Post-Disaster Recovery and Reconstruction. School of Urban and Public Affairs. PAS Report No. Jim et al.
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