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Journal of Computing, eISSN 2151-9617, Volume 4, Issue 6, June 2012, http://www.journalofcomputing.org

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Duong Thi Thuy Nga, Nguyen Ky Phung

Abstract To predict the sediment transport in a coastal zone, we use the current model based on a 2D finite-difference grid

and the sediment transport model. The first model gives the velocity distribution on the surface of water body and in the case of

transient analysis, the velocity distribution is computed at each computational time step. This velocity distribution will be taken

as the input for the last one. We have an improvement in the sediment transport model: applying the coefficient K to a general

case. The computational results in the study area are agreement to our experimental results. It shows that those models are

reliable.

Index Terms current model; sediment transport model; velocity.

1 INTRODUCTION

The sediment transport such as the transport of DO,

BOD shows us the pollution of the water on sea or river.

To predict the transport of those substances, we use two

models: current model to compute the current, sediment

transport model to compute the transport of DO, BOD.

The former model gives the output values such as veloci-

ty of the current to the latter one.

In the world, there are many research groups re-

searched this problem. Most of them used Defant and

Hansen methods [1, 7] at Atlantic, Pacific. Some of them

used ADI method to solve the problem [2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 10].

Their models are still run slowly.

Therefore, the main objectives for the development of

these models are:

- Chosing a suitable 2D finite-difference grid to get

good results, and

- Testing the models in Ca Mau coastal zone to decide

if the models can be applied in reality.

The remainder of this paper is following, section 2

presents detailed expositions for the models. The experi-

ment results are undertaken in section 3. Section 4 focuses

on future developments of the model. Finally, section 5

gives conclusions of the study.

2 METHODOLOGY

2.1 Current model

The model solves the depth averaged 2D shallow

water equations. They are equations of floods, ocean tides

and storm surges. They are derived by using the

hypotheses of vertically uniform horizontal velocity and

negligible vertical acceleration (i.e. hydrostatic pressure

distribution). The assumptions are valid where the wave

length is much greater than the depth of water. In the case

of ocean tide the equations are applicable everywhere.

The 2D equations in the horizontal plane are describable

by the following partial differential equations of mass

continuity and momentum conservation in the X and Y

directions for an in-plan Cartesian coordinate frame of

reference.

where:

u, v: depth averaged velocity components in X and Y di-

rections [m/s]

: water surface elevation [m]

h+ : depth of water [m]

t: time [s]

x, y: distance in X and Y directions [m]

C: Chezy coefficient

f: Coriolis force coefficient

x

t ,

y

t : horizontal diffusion of momentum coefficient in

X and Y directions

f

x

(t), f

y

(t): sum of components of external forces in X and

Y directions

2.2. Sediment transport model

or

where:

C : depth averaged concentration [mg/l]

E

x,

E

y

: diffusion coefficients in the X and Y directions

[m

2

/s]

u,v: depth averaged velocity components in X and Y

directions [m/s]

H : relative depth [m], + = h H

P

1

: source of sediment particles [g/m

2

.s]

K = K

1

+ K

2

+ + K

n

(coefficient for the decomposi-

tion, evaporation, emulsion, )

In previous researches in the world, the model does

JOURNAL OF COMPUTING, VOLUME 4, ISSUE 6, JUNE 2012, ISSN (Online) 2151-9617

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not contain the K parameter. In this research, we use K to

compute the values of any sediment.

2.3. Algorithm

All of the models use an alternating direction implicit

(ADI) finite different method to solve the problems. The

method involves two stages. In each stage, a tri-diagonal

matrix for the computational domain is built to solve the

values:

There are millions of nodes to compute the values.

There are also millions of equations to be solved. The tri-

diagonal matrix method will increase the speed of com-

puting because values out of the diagonals are 0.

- Finite Different Method to solve the sediment

transport model

- The first stage

We have: (2.1)

(2.2)

(2.3)

(2.4)

(2.5) (2.7)

Compute (2.1) by applying (2.2), (2.3), (2.4), (2.5), we

have:

where:

(2.9)

(2.10)

(2.11)

Building the tri-diagonal matrix for the computational

domain to solve the values.

- The second stage

We have: (2.6)

(2.7)

(2.8)

(2.9)

(2.10) (2.17)

Compute (2.6) by applying (2.7), (2.8), (2.9), (2.10), we

have:

(2.18)

where:

(2.19)

x

C C

u u

x

C

u

t

j i

t

j i

t

j i

t

j i

A

+

=

c

c

+

+

+

+

+

+

2 2

2

1

, 1

2

1

, 1

2

1

,

2

1

2

1

,

2

1

y

C C

v v

y

C

v

t

j i

t

j i

t

j i

t

j i

A

+

=

c

c

+

+

+

+

2 2

1 , 1 ,

2

1

2

1

,

2

1

2

1

,

( ) ( )

(

(

(

(

A

A

=

(

c

c

c

c

+

+

+

+ +

+

+

+ + x

C C

HE

x

C C

HE

x

H

x

C

HE

x H

t

j i

t

j i

t

j i

x

t

j i

t

j i

t

j i

x

t

j i

x

2

1

, 1

2

1

,

2

1

,

2

1

2

1

,

2

1

, 1

2

1

,

2

1

2

1

,

1 1 1

( ) ( )

(

(

(

A

A

=

(

c

c

c

c

+

+

+

+ + y

C C

HE

y

C C

HE

y

H

y

C

HE

y H

t

j i

t

j i

t

j i

y

t

j i

t

j i

t

j i

y

t

j i

y

1 , ,

2

1

2

1

,

, 1 ,

2

1

2

1

,

2

1

,

1 1 1

2

1

2

1

, 1

2

1

,

2

1

, 1

+ +

+

+ +

= + +

t

i

t

j i i

t

j i i

t

j i i

d C c C b C a

( )

( )

2

1

,

2

1

2

1

,

2

2

1

,

2

1

2

1

,

2

1

1

2 * 2

+

+

+

+

+

A

+

=

t

j i

x

t

j i

t

j i

t

j i

i

HE

H x

x

u u

a

( ) ( )

(

+

A

+

A

=

+

+

+ +

2

1

,

2

1

2

1

,

2

1

2

1

,

2

) (

1 2

t

j i

x

t

j i

x

t

j i

i

HE HE

H x

t

b

( )

( )

2

1

,

2

1

2

1

,

2

2

1

,

2

1

2

1

,

2

1

1

2 * 2

+

+ +

+

+

+

A

+

=

t

j i

x

t

j i

t

j i

t

j i

i

HE

H x

x

u u

c

( )

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

(

A

+

+

A

A

=

+

+

+ +

+

+

+

+

t

j i

t

j i

t

j i

y

t

j i

t

j i

t

j i

y

t

j i

t

j i

t

j i

t

j i

t

j i

t

j i

t

j i

t

j i

i

C C HE C C HE

H y

P KC

y

C C

v v

t

C

d

1 , ,

2

1

2

1

,

, 1 ,

2

1

2

1

,

2

1

,

2

, 1 ,

1 , 1 ,

2

1

2

1

,

2

1

2

1

,

,

1

2 2

2

x

C C

u u

x

C

u

t

j i

t

j i

t

j i

t

j i

A

+

=

c

c

+

+

+

+

+

+

2 2

2

1

, 1

2

1

, 1

1

,

2

1

1

,

2

1

y

C C

v v

y

C

v

t

j i

t

j i

t

j i

t

j i

A

+

=

c

c

+

+

+

+

+

+

2 2

1

1 ,

1

1 ,

1

2

1

,

1

2

1

,

( ) ( )

(

(

(

(

A

A

=

(

c

c

c

c

+

+

+

+ +

+ +

+

+

x

C C

HE

x

C C

HE

x H x

C

HE

x H

t

j i

t

j i t

j i

x

t

j i

t

j i t

j i

x t

j i

x

2

1

, 1

2

1

, 1

,

2

1

2

1

,

2

1

, 1 1

,

2

1 1

,

1 1 1

( ) ( )

(

(

(

A

A

=

(

c

c

c

c

+

+

+

+ +

+ +

+ +

y

C C

HE

y

C C

HE

y H y

C

HE

y H

t

j i

t

j i t

j i

y

t

j i

t

j i t

j i

y t

j i

y

1

1 ,

1

, 1

2

1

,

1

,

1

1 , 1

2

1

, 1

,

1 1 1

1 1

1 ,

1

,

1

1 ,

+ +

+

+ +

= + +

t

j

t

j i j

t

j i j

t

j i j

d C c C b C a

( )

( )

1 1

1 1

, ,

1

1

2 2

1

2

, 1 2*2

2

,

t t

v v

i j i j

t

a HE

y

j

i j t y

y H

i j

+ +

+

+

+

=

+ A

A

b

1

c

1

a

2

b

2

c

2

a

3

b

3

c

3

a

i

b

i

c

i

a

I-1

b

I-1

c

I-1

a

I

b

I

x

1

n+1

x

2

n+1

x

I-1

n+1

x

I

n+1

x

3

n+1

x

i

n+1

d

1

d

2

d

I-1

d

I

d

3

d

i

. . .

. . .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

*

=

2

,

2

1

,

t

C C

t

C

t

j i

t

j i

A

=

c

c

+

2

2

1

,

1

,

t

C C

t

C

t

j i

t

j i

A

=

c

c

+

+

JOURNAL OF COMPUTING, VOLUME 4, ISSUE 6, JUNE 2012, ISSN (Online) 2151-9617

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WWW.JOURNALOFCOMPUTING.ORG 44

(2.20)

(2.21)

Building the tri-diagonal matrix for the computational

domain to solve the values.

- Initial conditions

At time t = 0:

u = 0, v = 0,

= 0

C(x,y,0) = C

0

(x,y) or C(x,y,0)= constant

- Boundary conditions

For the current model

- Compute tidal components:

or

- Compute Q = U * W

Then, compute the velocities at the boundaries.

For the sediment transport model

- Solid boundary:

- Liquid boundary:

o Water flow runs from outside to the domain:

C = C

b

(t)

o Water flow runs out of the domain:

- Diagram

Compute the current

( ) ( )

1 1

2 1

1 1

2 1

, ,

( )

2 2

,

t t

b HE HE

y y j

t

i j i j

t y H

i j

+ +

= + +

+

+

A A

(

(

( )

( )

1 1

1 1

, , 1

1

2 2

1

2

1 ,

2 * 2

2

,

t t

v v

i j i j t

c HE

y j

t i j

y

y H

i j

+ +

+

+ +

=

+ +

A

A

( )

( ) ( )

1 1 1 1 1

2 2 1 1 2 1 1

, ,

, 1, 1,

2 2 2 2

, 1 ,

2 2

2

1 1 1 1

1 1 1

2 2 2 2

, , 1 1 1, 1, 2

1

, ,

2 2

,

t t

t t t u u

C C C i j i j t t

i j i j i j

d KC P

j i j i j

t

x

t t t t

t t

HE C C HE C C

x x

i j i j i j i j

t

i j i j

x H

i j

+ +

+ + + +

+ + +

+

= +

A

A

( | | | |

+ + + +

+ +

( | |

+

+

( + | | +

A

\ . \ .

=

+ =

N

i

i i i

t A

1

) sin( e

0 =

c

c

n

C

0

2

2

=

c

c

x

C

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Compute the sediment transport

- Finite different grid

3. Experimental results

Applying the models in Ca Mau coastal zone.

The study area (W=61 km; L=88 km) is computed un-

der the following conditions:

Figure 1. Map of the study area

- Boundary condition the for current model

On the open boundary, the water levels are given by

computing tidal components as shown in table I and II.

The parameters of these tidal components are from [11,

12, 13].

Table 1. TIDAL CHARACTERISTICS AT EASTERN SEA

No. Name of

tidal com-

ponents

Amplitude

(m)

Phase

(rad)

1 M

2

0.72 0.59

2 N

2

0.15 0.08

3 S

2

0.3 1.3

4 K

2

0.08 1.3

5 K

1

0.59 5.4

6 O

1

0.42 4.6

7 P

1

0.19 5.4

8 Q

1

0.01 4.2

9 M

4

0.01 4.8

10 MS

4

0.01 5.8

11 M

6

0.004 2.6

JOURNAL OF COMPUTING, VOLUME 4, ISSUE 6, JUNE 2012, ISSN (Online) 2151-9617

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Table 2. TIDAL CHARACTERISTICS AT THAI LAN BAY

No. Name of

tidal com-

ponents

Amplitude

(m)

Phase

(rad)

1 M

2

0.15 1.35

2 N

2

0.15 0.08

3 S

2

0.12 1.35

4 K

2

0.08 1.3

5 K

1

0.38 0.18

6 O

1

0.25 1.8

7 P

1

0.49 5.4

8 Q

1

0.07 4.2

9 M

1

0.08 3.5

- Wind: Southern West direction, 4.2m/s.

- Sediment concentration at boundaries: 0.0001g/ml

- BOD:

Background concentration: 1 mg/l

Concentration at boundaries: 1 mg/l

- DO:

Background concentration: 7.0 mg/l

Concentration at boundaries: 7.0 mg/l

- Let K

1

= 0.009; K

2

= K

3

= 0.01

Compute DO

Figure 2. Concentration of DO after 1 month and

15 days

Figure 3. Concentration of DO after 1 month, 15

days and 6 hours

Figure 4. Concentration of DO after 1 month, 15 days and

12 hours

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Figure 5. Concentration of DO after 1 month, 15

days and 18 hours

Compute BOD

Figure 6. Concentration of BOD after 1 month and

15 days

Figure 7. Concentration of BOD after 1 month, 15

days and 6 hours

Figure 8. Concentration of DO after 1 month, 15

days and 12 hours

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Figure 9. Concentration of DO after 1 month, 15

days and 18 hours

The speed of the models

The models run on the computer Core Duo 3GB.

The programming language used to compute the values

is C#.

m y x 300 = A = A

It takes 160 hours to compute the values for 3 months in

reality.

(a) Theory results

(a) Results of the model

Figure 10: Sediment transport results

(a): after 1hour; (b): after 3 hours; (c): after 5 hours

Evaluate:

The results get from the models are similar to the ones

in theory. This prove that the models can be applied to

reality.

FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS

The models have been tested in Ca Mau coastal zone.

To be more reliable, the model needs to be tested in real

accidents with enough data.

CONCLUSIONS

This paper presents models to compute the sediment

transport at an estuary. We have built a new algorithm

and applied it to the models to get better results than the

previous ones: applying the coefficient K to a general

case. In addition, the results were tested with simulation

experiments. With the reliability and good speed of com-

putation, we can apply the models to reality.

REFERENCES

[1] Charles W. Downer, William F. James, Aaron Byrd,

and Gregory W. Eggers (2002). Gridded Surface Subsur-

face Hydrologic Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic

Analysis (GSSHA) Model Simulation of Hydrologic Con-

ditions and Restoration Scenarios for the Judicial Ditch 31

Watershed, Minnesota.

[2] ng Cng Minh, Nguyn Hu Nhn (1993). Thy

triu bin ng, chng trnh nghin cu cp nh nc

KT. 03, ti KT.03.03.

[3] Eric Wolanski, Nguyen Huu Nhan, Simon Spagnol

(1998). Sediment Dynamics During Low Flow Condi-

tions in the Mekong River Estuary, Vietnam.

[4] Hansen M, DeFries R. (2004). Detecting long term

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[5] Hans J. Friedrich (2004). Preliminary results from a

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[11] Phan Vn Hoc, Nguyn Hu Nhn (1993). Nghin

cu xm nhp mn trn sng ng Nai phc v nh my

nc 100.000m

3

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vin Kh tng thy vn ti TPHCM.

[12] Phan Vn Hoc (2004). Bo co ti: Nghin cu

tng tc ng lc hc bin sng ven bin Cn Gi phc

v xy dng c s h tng cho du lch TPHCM, S Khoa

hc v cng ngh TPHCM.

[13] Trung tm kh tng thy vn pha Nam (2000). Vai

tr ca thy triu trong vn ngp lt ti TPHCM,

TPHCM

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namics", Advanced Serieson Ocean Engineering - Volume

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