You are on page 1of 8

Building models to compute the sediment

transport in Ca Mau coastal zone


Duong Thi Thuy Nga, Nguyen Ky Phung
Abstract To predict the sediment transport in a coastal zone, we use the current model based on a 2D finite-difference grid
and the sediment transport model. The first model gives the velocity distribution on the surface of water body and in the case of
transient analysis, the velocity distribution is computed at each computational time step. This velocity distribution will be taken
as the input for the last one. We have an improvement in the sediment transport model: applying the coefficient K to a general
case. The computational results in the study area are agreement to our experimental results. It shows that those models are
reliable.
Index Terms current model; sediment transport model; velocity.



1 INTRODUCTION
The sediment transport such as the transport of DO,
BOD shows us the pollution of the water on sea or river.
To predict the transport of those substances, we use two
models: current model to compute the current, sediment
transport model to compute the transport of DO, BOD.
The former model gives the output values such as veloci-
ty of the current to the latter one.
In the world, there are many research groups re-
searched this problem. Most of them used Defant and
Hansen methods [1, 7] at Atlantic, Pacific. Some of them
used ADI method to solve the problem [2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 10].
Their models are still run slowly.
Therefore, the main objectives for the development of
these models are:
- Chosing a suitable 2D finite-difference grid to get
good results, and
- Testing the models in Ca Mau coastal zone to decide
if the models can be applied in reality.
The remainder of this paper is following, section 2
presents detailed expositions for the models. The experi-
ment results are undertaken in section 3. Section 4 focuses
on future developments of the model. Finally, section 5
gives conclusions of the study.
2 METHODOLOGY
2.1 Current model
The model solves the depth averaged 2D shallow
water equations. They are equations of floods, ocean tides
and storm surges. They are derived by using the
hypotheses of vertically uniform horizontal velocity and
negligible vertical acceleration (i.e. hydrostatic pressure
distribution). The assumptions are valid where the wave
length is much greater than the depth of water. In the case
of ocean tide the equations are applicable everywhere.
The 2D equations in the horizontal plane are describable
by the following partial differential equations of mass
continuity and momentum conservation in the X and Y
directions for an in-plan Cartesian coordinate frame of
reference.
where:
u, v: depth averaged velocity components in X and Y di-
rections [m/s]
: water surface elevation [m]
h+ : depth of water [m]
t: time [s]
x, y: distance in X and Y directions [m]
C: Chezy coefficient
f: Coriolis force coefficient
x
t ,
y
t : horizontal diffusion of momentum coefficient in
X and Y directions
f
x
(t), f
y
(t): sum of components of external forces in X and
Y directions
2.2. Sediment transport model




or

where:
C : depth averaged concentration [mg/l]
E
x,
E
y
: diffusion coefficients in the X and Y directions
[m
2
/s]
u,v: depth averaged velocity components in X and Y
directions [m/s]
H : relative depth [m], + = h H
P
1
: source of sediment particles [g/m
2
.s]
K = K
1
+ K
2
+ + K
n
(coefficient for the decomposi-
tion, evaporation, emulsion, )
In previous researches in the world, the model does
JOURNAL OF COMPUTING, VOLUME 4, ISSUE 6, JUNE 2012, ISSN (Online) 2151-9617
https://sites.google.com/site/journalofcomputing
WWW.JOURNALOFCOMPUTING.ORG 43

not contain the K parameter. In this research, we use K to
compute the values of any sediment.
2.3. Algorithm
All of the models use an alternating direction implicit
(ADI) finite different method to solve the problems. The
method involves two stages. In each stage, a tri-diagonal
matrix for the computational domain is built to solve the
values:

There are millions of nodes to compute the values.
There are also millions of equations to be solved. The tri-
diagonal matrix method will increase the speed of com-
puting because values out of the diagonals are 0.
- Finite Different Method to solve the sediment
transport model
- The first stage

We have: (2.1)


(2.2)
(2.3)

(2.4)

(2.5) (2.7)
Compute (2.1) by applying (2.2), (2.3), (2.4), (2.5), we
have:
where:
(2.9)
(2.10)
(2.11)

Building the tri-diagonal matrix for the computational
domain to solve the values.
- The second stage

We have: (2.6)
(2.7)
(2.8)
(2.9)
(2.10) (2.17)
Compute (2.6) by applying (2.7), (2.8), (2.9), (2.10), we
have:

(2.18)

where:
(2.19)
x
C C
u u
x
C
u
t
j i
t
j i
t
j i
t
j i
A

+
=
c
c
+

+
+
+
+
+

2 2
2
1
, 1
2
1
, 1
2
1
,
2
1
2
1
,
2
1
y
C C
v v
y
C
v
t
j i
t
j i
t
j i
t
j i
A

+
=
c
c
+
+
+
+

2 2
1 , 1 ,
2
1
2
1
,
2
1
2
1
,
( ) ( )
(
(
(

(
A

A
=
(

c
c
c
c
+

+
+

+ +
+
+
+ + x
C C
HE
x
C C
HE
x
H
x
C
HE
x H
t
j i
t
j i
t
j i
x
t
j i
t
j i
t
j i
x
t
j i
x
2
1
, 1
2
1
,
2
1
,
2
1
2
1
,
2
1
, 1
2
1
,
2
1
2
1
,
1 1 1
( ) ( )
(
(

(
A

A
=
(

c
c
c
c

+

+
+
+ + y
C C
HE
y
C C
HE
y
H
y
C
HE
y H
t
j i
t
j i
t
j i
y
t
j i
t
j i
t
j i
y
t
j i
y
1 , ,
2
1
2
1
,
, 1 ,
2
1
2
1
,
2
1
,
1 1 1
2
1
2
1
, 1
2
1
,
2
1
, 1
+ +
+
+ +

= + +
t
i
t
j i i
t
j i i
t
j i i
d C c C b C a
( )
( )
2
1
,
2
1
2
1
,
2
2
1
,
2
1
2
1
,
2
1
1
2 * 2
+
+
+
+
+

A
+
=
t
j i
x
t
j i
t
j i
t
j i
i
HE
H x
x
u u
a
( ) ( )
(

+
A
+
A
=
+

+
+ +
2
1
,
2
1
2
1
,
2
1
2
1
,
2
) (
1 2
t
j i
x
t
j i
x
t
j i
i
HE HE
H x
t
b
( )
( )
2
1
,
2
1
2
1
,
2
2
1
,
2
1
2
1
,
2
1
1
2 * 2
+
+ +
+
+
+

A
+
=
t
j i
x
t
j i
t
j i
t
j i
i
HE
H x
x
u u
c
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
(


A
+
+
A

A
=

+
+
+ +
+
+
+
+

t
j i
t
j i
t
j i
y
t
j i
t
j i
t
j i
y
t
j i
t
j i
t
j i
t
j i
t
j i
t
j i
t
j i
t
j i
i
C C HE C C HE
H y
P KC
y
C C
v v
t
C
d
1 , ,
2
1
2
1
,
, 1 ,
2
1
2
1
,
2
1
,
2
, 1 ,
1 , 1 ,
2
1
2
1
,
2
1
2
1
,
,
1
2 2
2
x
C C
u u
x
C
u
t
j i
t
j i
t
j i
t
j i
A

+
=
c
c
+

+
+
+
+
+

2 2
2
1
, 1
2
1
, 1
1
,
2
1
1
,
2
1
y
C C
v v
y
C
v
t
j i
t
j i
t
j i
t
j i
A

+
=
c
c
+

+
+
+
+
+

2 2
1
1 ,
1
1 ,
1
2
1
,
1
2
1
,
( ) ( )
(
(
(

(
A

A
=
(

c
c
c
c
+

+
+

+ +
+ +
+
+
x
C C
HE
x
C C
HE
x H x
C
HE
x H
t
j i
t
j i t
j i
x
t
j i
t
j i t
j i
x t
j i
x
2
1
, 1
2
1
, 1
,
2
1
2
1
,
2
1
, 1 1
,
2
1 1
,
1 1 1
( ) ( )
(
(

(
A

A
=
(

c
c
c
c
+

+
+

+ +
+ +
+ +
y
C C
HE
y
C C
HE
y H y
C
HE
y H
t
j i
t
j i t
j i
y
t
j i
t
j i t
j i
y t
j i
y
1
1 ,
1
, 1
2
1
,
1
,
1
1 , 1
2
1
, 1
,
1 1 1
1 1
1 ,
1
,
1
1 ,
+ +
+
+ +

= + +
t
j
t
j i j
t
j i j
t
j i j
d C c C b C a
( )
( )
1 1
1 1
, ,
1
1
2 2
1
2
, 1 2*2
2
,
t t
v v
i j i j
t
a HE
y
j
i j t y
y H
i j
+ +
+
+
+
=
+ A
A
b
1
c
1
a
2
b
2
c
2
a
3
b
3
c
3
a
i
b
i
c
i
a
I-1
b
I-1
c
I-1
a
I
b
I
x
1
n+1
x
2
n+1
x
I-1
n+1
x
I
n+1
x
3
n+1
x
i
n+1
d
1
d
2
d
I-1
d
I
d
3
d
i
. . .
. . .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
*
=
2
,
2
1
,
t
C C
t
C
t
j i
t
j i
A

=
c
c
+
2
2
1
,
1
,
t
C C
t
C
t
j i
t
j i
A

=
c
c
+
+
JOURNAL OF COMPUTING, VOLUME 4, ISSUE 6, JUNE 2012, ISSN (Online) 2151-9617
https://sites.google.com/site/journalofcomputing
WWW.JOURNALOFCOMPUTING.ORG 44

(2.20)
(2.21)

Building the tri-diagonal matrix for the computational
domain to solve the values.

- Initial conditions
At time t = 0:
u = 0, v = 0,

= 0
C(x,y,0) = C
0
(x,y) or C(x,y,0)= constant
- Boundary conditions
For the current model
- Compute tidal components:
or
- Compute Q = U * W
Then, compute the velocities at the boundaries.
For the sediment transport model

- Solid boundary:

- Liquid boundary:
o Water flow runs from outside to the domain:
C = C
b
(t)
o Water flow runs out of the domain:

- Diagram
Compute the current



( ) ( )
1 1
2 1
1 1
2 1
, ,
( )
2 2
,
t t
b HE HE
y y j
t
i j i j
t y H
i j
+ +
= + +
+
+
A A
(
(

( )
( )
1 1
1 1
, , 1
1
2 2
1
2
1 ,
2 * 2
2
,
t t
v v
i j i j t
c HE
y j
t i j
y
y H
i j
+ +
+
+ +
=
+ +
A
A
( )
( ) ( )
1 1 1 1 1
2 2 1 1 2 1 1
, ,
, 1, 1,
2 2 2 2
, 1 ,
2 2
2
1 1 1 1
1 1 1
2 2 2 2
, , 1 1 1, 1, 2
1
, ,
2 2
,
t t
t t t u u
C C C i j i j t t
i j i j i j
d KC P
j i j i j
t
x
t t t t
t t
HE C C HE C C
x x
i j i j i j i j
t
i j i j
x H
i j
+ +
+ + + +
+ + +
+
= +
A
A
( | | | |
+ + + +
+ +
( | |
+
+
( + | | +
A
\ . \ .

=
+ =
N
i
i i i
t A
1
) sin( e
0 =
c
c
n
C
0
2
2
=
c
c
x
C
JOURNAL OF COMPUTING, VOLUME 4, ISSUE 6, JUNE 2012, ISSN (Online) 2151-9617
https://sites.google.com/site/journalofcomputing
WWW.JOURNALOFCOMPUTING.ORG 45

Compute the sediment transport





- Finite different grid
3. Experimental results
Applying the models in Ca Mau coastal zone.
The study area (W=61 km; L=88 km) is computed un-
der the following conditions:
Figure 1. Map of the study area

- Boundary condition the for current model
On the open boundary, the water levels are given by
computing tidal components as shown in table I and II.
The parameters of these tidal components are from [11,
12, 13].
Table 1. TIDAL CHARACTERISTICS AT EASTERN SEA
No. Name of
tidal com-
ponents
Amplitude
(m)
Phase
(rad)
1 M
2
0.72 0.59
2 N
2
0.15 0.08
3 S
2
0.3 1.3
4 K
2
0.08 1.3
5 K
1
0.59 5.4
6 O
1
0.42 4.6
7 P
1
0.19 5.4
8 Q
1
0.01 4.2
9 M
4
0.01 4.8
10 MS
4
0.01 5.8
11 M
6
0.004 2.6

JOURNAL OF COMPUTING, VOLUME 4, ISSUE 6, JUNE 2012, ISSN (Online) 2151-9617
https://sites.google.com/site/journalofcomputing
WWW.JOURNALOFCOMPUTING.ORG 46

Table 2. TIDAL CHARACTERISTICS AT THAI LAN BAY
No. Name of
tidal com-
ponents
Amplitude
(m)
Phase
(rad)
1 M
2
0.15 1.35
2 N
2
0.15 0.08
3 S
2
0.12 1.35
4 K
2
0.08 1.3
5 K
1
0.38 0.18
6 O
1
0.25 1.8
7 P
1
0.49 5.4
8 Q
1
0.07 4.2
9 M
1
0.08 3.5
- Wind: Southern West direction, 4.2m/s.
- Sediment concentration at boundaries: 0.0001g/ml
- BOD:
Background concentration: 1 mg/l
Concentration at boundaries: 1 mg/l
- DO:
Background concentration: 7.0 mg/l
Concentration at boundaries: 7.0 mg/l
- Let K
1
= 0.009; K
2
= K
3
= 0.01

Compute DO

Figure 2. Concentration of DO after 1 month and
15 days








Figure 3. Concentration of DO after 1 month, 15
days and 6 hours
























Figure 4. Concentration of DO after 1 month, 15 days and
12 hours


JOURNAL OF COMPUTING, VOLUME 4, ISSUE 6, JUNE 2012, ISSN (Online) 2151-9617
https://sites.google.com/site/journalofcomputing
WWW.JOURNALOFCOMPUTING.ORG 47

Figure 5. Concentration of DO after 1 month, 15
days and 18 hours

Compute BOD

Figure 6. Concentration of BOD after 1 month and
15 days






Figure 7. Concentration of BOD after 1 month, 15
days and 6 hours

Figure 8. Concentration of DO after 1 month, 15
days and 12 hours









JOURNAL OF COMPUTING, VOLUME 4, ISSUE 6, JUNE 2012, ISSN (Online) 2151-9617
https://sites.google.com/site/journalofcomputing
WWW.JOURNALOFCOMPUTING.ORG 48


Figure 9. Concentration of DO after 1 month, 15
days and 18 hours

The speed of the models
The models run on the computer Core Duo 3GB.
The programming language used to compute the values
is C#.
m y x 300 = A = A
It takes 160 hours to compute the values for 3 months in
reality.


(a) Theory results

(a) Results of the model

Figure 10: Sediment transport results
(a): after 1hour; (b): after 3 hours; (c): after 5 hours
Evaluate:
The results get from the models are similar to the ones
in theory. This prove that the models can be applied to
reality.

FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS
The models have been tested in Ca Mau coastal zone.
To be more reliable, the model needs to be tested in real
accidents with enough data.
CONCLUSIONS
This paper presents models to compute the sediment
transport at an estuary. We have built a new algorithm
and applied it to the models to get better results than the
previous ones: applying the coefficient K to a general
case. In addition, the results were tested with simulation
experiments. With the reliability and good speed of com-
putation, we can apply the models to reality.

REFERENCES
[1] Charles W. Downer, William F. James, Aaron Byrd,
and Gregory W. Eggers (2002). Gridded Surface Subsur-
face Hydrologic Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic
Analysis (GSSHA) Model Simulation of Hydrologic Con-
ditions and Restoration Scenarios for the Judicial Ditch 31
Watershed, Minnesota.
[2] ng Cng Minh, Nguyn Hu Nhn (1993). Thy
triu bin ng, chng trnh nghin cu cp nh nc
KT. 03, ti KT.03.03.
[3] Eric Wolanski, Nguyen Huu Nhan, Simon Spagnol
(1998). Sediment Dynamics During Low Flow Condi-
tions in the Mekong River Estuary, Vietnam.
[4] Hansen M, DeFries R. (2004). Detecting long term
forest change using continuous fields of tree cover maps
from 8 km AVHRR data for the years 19821999. Ecosys-
tems in press.
[5] Hans J. Friedrich (2004). Preliminary results from a
numerical multilayer model for the circulation in the
North Atlantic.
[6] Ioannis Tsanis (2006). Environmental Hydraulics -
Volume 56: Hydrodynamic and Pollutant Transport
Models of Lakes an Coastal Waters. Elsevier Press.
[7] Kiyoshi Horikawa (1988). Nearshore Dynamics and
Coastal Processe. University of Tokyo Press.
[8] Leo C. Van Rijn (1993). Principles Of Sediment
Transport In Rivers Estuaries And Coastal Seas. Delft
Hydraulics.
[9] Le Thi Viet Hoa, Haruyama Shigeko, Nguyen Huu
Nhan and Tran Thanh Cong (2008). Infrastructure effects
on floods in the Mekong River Delta in Vietnam.
[10] Nguyen Thi Bay, Nguyen Ky Phung (2002), The 2-D
model of flow and sediment transportation in a curved
open channel, International colloquium in mechanics of
solids, fluids, structures and interaction.
[11] Phan Vn Hoc, Nguyn Hu Nhn (1993). Nghin
cu xm nhp mn trn sng ng Nai phc v nh my
nc 100.000m
3
/ngy, Tng c Kh tng thy vn, phn
vin Kh tng thy vn ti TPHCM.
[12] Phan Vn Hoc (2004). Bo co ti: Nghin cu
tng tc ng lc hc bin sng ven bin Cn Gi phc
v xy dng c s h tng cho du lch TPHCM, S Khoa
hc v cng ngh TPHCM.
[13] Trung tm kh tng thy vn pha Nam (2000). Vai
tr ca thy triu trong vn ngp lt ti TPHCM,
TPHCM
[14] Usama Saied, I.K. Tsanis (2008). A coastal area
morphodynamics model. Journal of Environmental
Modelling & Software 23, 35-49.
[15] Z.Kowalid (Univ. Alaska), T. S. Murty (Inst. Ocean
Science B.C) (1993), "Numerical Modeling of Ocean Dy-
JOURNAL OF COMPUTING, VOLUME 4, ISSUE 6, JUNE 2012, ISSN (Online) 2151-9617
https://sites.google.com/site/journalofcomputing
WWW.JOURNALOFCOMPUTING.ORG 49

namics", Advanced Serieson Ocean Engineering - Volume
5.
[16] DHI Software (2007). MIKE 21 Flow Model - Mud
transport module. Scientific Background.
JOURNAL OF COMPUTING, VOLUME 4, ISSUE 6, JUNE 2012, ISSN (Online) 2151-9617
https://sites.google.com/site/journalofcomputing
WWW.JOURNALOFCOMPUTING.ORG 50