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Survey on Survivability Issue against Single-Link Failures in Optical WDM networks
Asima Nisar*
Abstract – Survivability can be achieved through a sequence of system partitioning, subsystem design, and system-wide integration [1]. In this survey paper Survivability issue against Single-link failures in Optical WDM networks is discussed. Salient features of the proposed schemes are highlighted in tabular format. Index Terms – Protection, Restoration, Survivability, WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing)

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1. INTRODUCTION
DM or optical transport networks have assumed important significance due to their ability to carry large amounts of data traffic. The ideal goal is to achieve maximum survivability with minimum recovery time, while maintaining maximum resource utilization. It is difficult to achieve all these goals at the same time and trade-offs between different solutions are needed. For example, dedicated protection schemes usually offer faster recovery than restoration schemes, but they are less resource-efficient on the other hand. With the ever increasing number of networked computers on the Internet, the number of incidents involving malicious attacks on individual systems has increased dramatically [1], so needs a careful attention. In Section 2, theoretical background is explained as; WDM / Optical Transport networks, Optical Layer, Network Survivability, and Protection schemes with relevant diagrams. In Section 3, Survivability and Survivability Issues are discussed against Single-link Failures in tabular format. Conclusion is mentioned in Section 4. References are put in Section 5. Lastly, Acknowledgements are there in Section 6. Each fiber link operates in WDM and supports a certain number of optical channels or wavelengths. An acess node can be connected to a routing node, which is used as an interface between the optical network and the electronic client networks. At the source side, an access node performs traffic aggregation and E/O conversion functions. An access node and its associated routing node are collectively referred to as a network node or simply a node unless otherwise stated. The architecture of a wavelength-routed WDM network is shown below [1]:

2. BACKGROUND
2.1 WDM Network A WDM network that employs wavelength routing to transfer data traffic is reffered to as a wavelength-routed WDM network. A wavelength-routed WDM network typically consists of routing nodes interconnected by point-to-point WDM fiber links in an arbitrary mesh topology. Each routing node employs a set of transmitters and receivers for transmitting signals to and receiving signals from fiber links and an optical cross-connect (OXC) or wavelength cross-connect (WXC) to route and switch different wavelengths from an input port to an output port.
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Fig. 1 Wavelength-Routed WDM Mesh network [1]

* Asima Nisar is Assistant Professor in Dept. of Computer Science & I.T., Federal Urdu University of Arts, Sciences and Technology, Gulshan Campus, Karachi – 75300, Pakistan. © 2012 Journal of Computing Press, NY, USA, ISSN 2151-9617 http://sites.google.com/site/journalofcomputing/

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2.2 Optical Layer
According to International Telecommunications Union - Telecommunication Standard Sector (ITU-T) Recommendation G.872, the optical layer itself consists of the following three sub layers [1]: An optical channel layer; an optical multiplex section layer; an optical transmission section layer, as shown below.

Fig. 2 Optical Layer and its Sub-layers

2.3 Network Survivability Network survivability has been a great concern for all types of high-speed telecommunications networks. In wavelengthrouted WDM networks, a fiber provides a number of optical channels or wavelengths to carry data traffic, each operating at a very high rate of several gigabits per second. A single network failure such as a fiber cut may cause the disruption of all the lightrpaths that traverse the failed fiber link and can therefore lead to a large amount of data loss in the network. This would largely degrade and even disrupt the network services. For this reason, survivability is of particular importance in such networks. To guarantee network services, the network must provide effective survivability capabilities to survive different types of network failures (e.g. a fiber cut or a node fault). From the perspective of layered architecture, network survivability can be provided at different layers of the network, such as IP, ATM, SONET, and the optical layer [1].

Fig. 4 Protection Schemes (According to the Size of Protection Area)

Fig. 5 Path protection scheme [1]

Fig. 3 Layered network [1]

2.4 Protection Schemes Protection schemes can be divided into path protection, link protection, and partial/sub-path protection schemes.

Fig. 6 Link protection scheme [1]

© 2012 Journal of Computing Press, NY, USA, ISSN 2151-9617 http://sites.google.com/site/journalofcomputing/

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Path protection can be further subdivided into dedicated path protection and shared path protection. In dedicated path protection schemes, spare capacity is reserved for each individual end-to end lightpath whilst in shared path protection schemes; spare capacity is shared among multiple lightpaths, as long as those lightpaths do not fail simultaneously. Lightpaths sharing the same resources must be path-disjoint [2]. According to the state of backup resources, the protection mechanism can be divided into shared protection and mixed-shared protection and dedicated protection [3].

3.2 Survivable approaches against Single-link Failures
TABLE 1: Approaches against Single-link Failures
Approaches SPAVT: Sub-Path Protection algorithm based on Auxiliary VirtualTopology algorithm [3] RLDP: Risk-Level Disjoint Protection algorithm [4] LBHCP: Link-Based Hamiltonian Cycle Protection scheme [5] SPP-DiR: Shared Path Protection algorithm with Differentiated Reliability [6] PSIAG: Protection based on Survivable Integrated Auxiliary Graph algorithm [7] FSA: Flooding-based Survivable Routing and Wavelength Assignment (RWA) mechanism [8] Features

• It constructs virtual topology firsly, so needs to run only one time of routing algorithm to find feasible virtual route in virtual topology.

• Provides different service level for different connection request. • Outperforms than conventional one i.e. SDP (SRLG-Disjoint Protection). • Reduced Blocking Probability • Better Resource Utilization Ratio. • LBHCP scheme outperforms than PBSP (Path-Based Shared Protection) scheme. • Better Resource Utilization Ratio. • Faster Recovery Time.

Fig. 7 Path-based Protection Schemes (According to the state of Backup Resources)

3 SURVIVABILITY
The desirable capability of an information system to dynamically preserve its essential functionality and computational performance in the presence of security intrusions is defined as survivability [1].

• Higher backup Resource Occupancy than previous ones.

3.1 Survivability Issues against Single-link Failures
Conventional SDP (SRLG-Disjoint Protection) algorithm doesn’t consider different service level requirements for different connection requests; however, real-world networks may have different risk-levels [4]. Providing protection against single-link failure to ensure reliability is not easy in high-speed WDM optical networks, as failures result in a lot of traffic to be blocked [3], [5], and [6]. Moreover, existing algorithms cannot tolerate singlelink failure efficiently and consume more switching ports; thereby cost of OXCs (Optical Cross Connects) is enhanced greatly [7]. With the increase of network size and wavelength numbers, source routing strategy will pose large overhead to the source node. This way is impractical, if no limitations are made to the network parameters such as path number or hop length [8]. When a single failure of a cut link occurs and the main connection also cuts, then the connection is routed by the backup path; hence solution of the protection problems becomes very difficult [9].

• Efficient to tolerate Single-link Failures. • Minimal use of Switching Ports. • Cost saving because of lesser OXCs. • FSA scheme outperforms centralized version of SRWA (Survivable RWA) on setup time under high loads. • By adding hop limitation SRWA setup time can be reduced. • By recording the candidate output ports in extended routing algorithm, acceptance ratio may be improved. • Finite Differences make it possible to research and study the dedicated protection problems of the optical paths.

DedicatedOptical Path Protection with Finite Differences [9]

© 2012 Journal of Computing Press, NY, USA, ISSN 2151-9617 http://sites.google.com/site/journalofcomputing/

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4. CONCLUSION
In this paper, a critical overview of survivability related schemes against Single-Link failures for backbone optical transport networks has been presented. Definitely, it will help out researchers to propose more efficient survivable schemes against data losses than existing ones.

5. REFERENCES
[1] Ning Zhang, Hong Bao. “Research on Protection Scheme in WDM Mesh Network”, IEEE DOI 10.1109/ETCS.2009.685 [2] Ning Zhang, Hong Bao. “Design of Protection Technology in WDM Optical Network”, IEEE DOI 10.1109/ICNDS.2009.121 [3] Xuekui Wang, Lei Guo, Xingwei Wang, Yu Zhang, Xiobing Zheng. “A New Sub-Path Protection Algorithm Based on Auxiliary Virtual Topology in WDM Optical Networks”, IEEE DOI 10.1109/ICCIT.2008.69 [4] Lei Guo, Xingwei Wang, Cunqian Yu. “Survivable Routing with RiskLevel Disjoint in WDM Optical Networks”, IEEE © 2008 [5] Lei Guo, Xingwei Wang, Xeutao Wei. “A New Link-based Hamiltonian Cycle Protection in Survivable WDM Networks”, IEEE DOI 10.1109/AICT.2008.25 [6] Jijun Zhao, Weiwei Bian, Lirong Wang, Sujian Wang. “A Novel Shared Path Protection Scheme for Reliability Guaranteed Connection”, IEEE DOI 10.1109/ICCET.2009.133 [7] Lei Guo, Xingwei Wang, Dong Wang, Cunqian Yu, Weigang Hou, Ying Li, Chongshan Wang. “Protection Routing Algorithm based on Survivable Integrated Auxiliary Graph in Waveband Switching Optical Networks”, IEEE DOI 10.1109/FGCN.2008.52 [8] Lei Guo, Xing Wei Wang, Ying li, Chongshan Wang, Hongming Li, Hongpeng Wang, Xin Liu. “FSA – A Flooding Based Survivable RWA Mechanism for Dynamic Traffic Demands”, DOI 10.1109/ICN.2009.62 © 2009 [9] Stefenos Mylonakis, “Optical WDM Mesh Networks with Dedicated Optical Path Protection with Finite Differences”, IEEE DOI 10.1109/ICNS.2009.38 © 2009

Asima Nisar is persuing her Ph.D. studies at Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, and IT, (GSESIT) Hamdard University. She received her MS (CS) degree from PAF-KIET. She is the Federal Govt. employee holding BPS19, as Assistant Professor in Urdu University, Gulshan Campus, Karachi – 75300, Pakistan. Her research interest mainly includes: Wired and Wireless networks.

6. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Special thanks to Prof. Dr. Hyder Abbas Musavi from Pakistan, Faculty Member in GSESIT (Graduate School of Engineering Sciences and Information Technology) - Hamdard University for this technical write-up.

© 2012 Journal of Computing Press, NY, USA, ISSN 2151-9617 http://sites.google.com/site/journalofcomputing/

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