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successfully”. The project management institute defines project ma nagement as “the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities in order to meet or exceed stakeholders’ needs and expectations from a project”. (PMBOK 1999) Project Management comprises: A set of skills. Specialist knowledge, skills and experience are require d to reduce the level of risk within a project and thereby enhance its likelihoo d of success. A suite of skills. Various types of tools are used by project managers t o improve the projects chances of success. Examples include document templates, registers, planning software, modeling software, audit checklist and review form s. Before proceeding broad study of Project Management we have to understand first what is project? A project is “a unique endeavor to produce a set of deliverables within a clearly specified time, cost and quality constraints. “A project is a series of tasks, arr anged in a defined sequence or relationship that produces a pre-defined output o r effect. A project always has a start, middle and an end”. A project is: Unique in Nature. Have a defined timescale. Have an approved budget. Have limited resources. Involve an element of risk. Achieve beneficial change. Every Project has certain life cycle which comprises of four phases. These are: Project Initiation - This is the initial stage of any project where a bu siness opportunity is identified, usually by the client and his advisers, and a business case put together to provide the solution or recommendations required t o fulfill the business plan. Project Planning - This stage can only progress once the project scope i s identified and defined in terms of reference; from here the project enters its detailed planning stage. The main focus of this stage is to ensure that the ac tivities performed in the execution phase of the project are properly sequenced, resourced, executed and controlled. Project Execution - This phase is usually the longest and involves the e xecution of all activities and tasks as detailed in the Project Plan. During exe cution a series of management tools and processes are undertaken to monitor, con trol and communicate the status of the deliverables. Project Closure- Once the project is complete and accepted as such by th e client it is now time for the formal closure of the project. By using the for mula as above the project should have been a successful one that met or surpasse d its objectives. Here I would like to draw attention for an infrastructure project for study of P roject management This project in a broad sense is to complete the Interplant Pipeline (IP PL) network throughout the different units of an integrated steel plant under ex pansion of 2.5 million tons per annum. This is a turnkey project so our organization is responsible for the engineering procurement and construction work.
The pipe li ne network comprises of 27 services varying from 40 mm to 3000 mm diameter. As p er the services appropriate welding and testing procedures has to be followed. procurement (raw materials required for construction work. sinter plant. hot rolling mill. In thi s process. coke oven gas. for example agency doing the sinter plant will finish the engineer ing. tools and plants. various business options and the final business plan solution identif ied. Hence this project should be considered a separate project and aw arded to a separate agency for completion. the IPPL project starts with the fe asibility study which is one of the major part of the Project initiation. nitrogen piping. After completion of civil work pipe supports made up of structural rolled member s has to be fabricated using welding techniques like SMAW and GMAW. execution team mobilization. phase 4 – piping fabrication and erection work. and construction (subcont racting. phase 3 – structural fabrication and e rection wok. p ipe supporting structures. steam piping. cold rolling mill. basic oxygen furnace. Project Initiation (Feasibility Study) As Every Project life cycle has four phases. Approximately 9000 cubic meter of reinforced concrete will be used in the ab ove said civil work. cold rolling mill. The time required to complete the project will be in five phases. The pipe line network comprises of 27 services varying fro m 40 mm to 3000 mm diameter. procurement & construction work of services catering to sinter plant on pri ority basis. The estimated cost required to complete the project is approximately INR Rs 160 crores which includes the cost of engineering (designing of civil foundations. other resources). oxygen piping. phase 2 – Civil construction work.To complete the interplant piping work the civil foundations has to be construct ed. etc. Keeping the above concept in mind If the construction work of the utilities (IPP L) will be kept in the scope of main packages (blast furnace. compre ssed air piping. bas ic oxygen furnace. Utilities are always simultane ously required for the operation of different units mentioned above. With the advancement of structural fabrication work the main work that is piping has to be completed. bu t phase 5 will not be a simultaneous activity as the testing & commissioning can only be done after the completion of piping fabrication erection work. A s a general practice and for the ease of control and monitoring in power plant a lso the main packages like boiler and turbine are considered as main package and rest everything is considered as balance of plant package. Commissioning will be done after completion of testing. testing & commissioning). hot rolling mill. viz phase 1 – en gineering. manpower. . phase 5 – testing and c ommissioning. service water piping. During the course of phase 2 phase 3 can be starts as a simultaneo us activity an similarly during the course of phase 3 phase 4 can be started. battery etc. battery etc) the agency involved in the construction of main package will give utmost importance to its package only. and piping). As per the services appropriate welding and testing procedures has to be followed. sinter plant. The fabrication work for such a wide range of piping will be done as per the relevant codes and standards complying with the statutory des ign practices. avoiding the services required for the power and blowing station. blast furnace gas. IPPL consists of 27 services viz argon gas piping. IPPL is a concept which holds great importance because the steel plant comprises of different facilities viz blast furnace.
procurement.20. purpose. The overall cost of the project 160 cr has been divided into four subheads v iz engineering. tools and plants required for the con struction work. All pipe threads will confirm to ANSI B1. A “term of reference” is then comple ted and a project manager appointed. Keeping in view the above said recommendations it is hereby recommended that the project is feasible and should be recommended.The completion schedule should be made as such the mile stones for IPPL should m atch with the mile stones of other main facilities or prior to the commissioning of main package. budget for safety. This includes documents. sequenced. IS 3589 for carbon steel pipe & to 36. so the execution will take considerable amount of time whereas taking in to account the contractual obligations the completion time should be two (2) years from the date of award of contract to the agency executing this project.1. and running cost of the project ) plus contingency fund. type of resource.3 & differen t IPSS (Inter plant standard for steel industry). Resource plan – Although having identified the resources in the WBS this is an indepth plan allocating in detail. For IPPL projects. B 13. human r esource and skill set. tasks and activities to be undertaken. All the agencies involved in the execution work have mobilized their own technical staff. When the WBS is complet e the activities and tasks are assessed. plans and finished product. specification and quantity of material an d equipment. Since this is a brown field project and various other construction work is under progress. Financial Plan – This is a detailed breakdown cost plan that identifies the costs associated with the resource plan. This not only the entails the delivered product but the management procedu res and processes to ensure that the clients expectations are met or exceeded in the delivered end product. Pipe dimensions will be in acc ordance with ANSI B 36.In this phase of project management various documenta tions are to be drafted and this phase entails following : Project Plan – Known as a “work breakdown plan” (WBS) this plan includes a hierarchic l set of phases. engineering approval for load data and drawings are done by Technical expert o . The expense schedule provides a quantified b reakdown that can be used to monitor the forecast spending vs. IS 1239. resources allocated and a pr oject schedule is established. construction. Small breakouts schedules are then compiled for each resource to e nable there separate monitoring. quantity of resource. the actual spendi ng.1 Acceptance Plan – This is a plan that documents the sign of or “acceptance” from the lient on each deliverable.10 / 36 . Benefits of this project to the organization are that this project will help to differentiate the scope of work for main packages and auxiliary packages (IPPL h ere is considered an auxiliary package) and help in dedicated monitoring and tim ely completion of the project. Quality plan – To ensure the quality of the project a detailed plan is developed t hat identifies and clearly defines the quality expectations of the delivered pro ject. The need for these documents is to safe guard all parties and ensure that sign off occurs in a structured manner before works proceed in earnest. and mobilization (extra tools and pla nts required for the project. Project Planning . The engineering team has its own technical staff at their works and all the resources for completion of engineering. The project manager then identifies the app ropriate project team required and starts to assemble this team establishing a p roject office. all piping will be designed in ac cordance with relevant latest codes and standards like B 13. For this plan .1.19 for stainless steel pipe. items.
f client side. approved and paid. storage and ultimate disposi tion of project information.Project closure includes the following documentation and action s to formally close out the project. as key issue management is a method by w hich any element affecting the project delivery or process is identified. resources and handing over warranties etc. Change management – simply put it’s a process to record changes to the project. All the su pply materials except consumables are offered to the consultant and only after t he inspection waiver the material is dispatched from the vendors place. when. informatio n distribution. It consists of communications planning. Project Execution: During this phase various execution able processes oc curs: Construction / build deliverables – this is the physical construction of each item to the client’s acceptance / sign off. when. Procuremen t of all the raw materials to be used in the construction work are being procure d by a list of approved vendors handed over by the client dully approved by the consultant. performance reporting. Issue management – Sometimes referred to. Quality management – This is a control process including physical and managerial p rocesses to ensure both the journey and the final product meet or exceed the cli ent’s satisfaction. conclude contrac ts. The cons truction work is carried out as per the approved field quality plans. Cost management – costs and expenses incurred on the project are identified. RCC details and detail fabrication drawings except layouts for ci vil and piping works are only information category by the consultant. where and how. Communication management – describes the process required to ensure the timely and appropriate generation. Risk management – is the process whereby all risks to the project in its entirety are assessed resolved and recorded. Responsibility for the individuals involved is also detailed with regard to who. dissemination. Procurement management – Process of procuring and ordering materials and services within an agreed timeframe to the project teams and clients satisfaction inclusi ve of contract administration and contract close out. A risk can be identified at any stage as in all project it tends to be an organic process that evolves during its phased de velopment. the reason fo r the products selection. collection. materials. regard less of the discipline it’s the method to record and communicate the changes. Communication Plan – This is the establishment of the reporting process for the pr oject. This is via expense forms and other project expenditure forms related to project expenses. risks or issues. and administrative closure. where and how are the issues to be decided on and documented. Closure. who. Time management – Records the time spent by staff on the project. activities. quality expectation or deliverable. Time is a scarce resource and once lost is difficult to get back. Handover plan to transfer the delivered project to the client. Identifying all outstanding items. timeframe. Detailing activities required so the client is self sufficient. Normally also recor ded within the change management register. whereas as and when required the deviations are taken based on the a vailability of material available with the vendors provided in the approved vend or list. It also provides detailed information of the product. Monitor and control – Is the process of a series of management tools initiated by the project manager that controls and records the activities of the deliverables . Procurement Plan – Identifies the products or service to be sourced from specialis t suppliers. . procurement timeframe for the product and the selectio n process for the preferred supplier along with the ordering process. timefr ame assigned for resolution and issue resolved and recorded. recor ded. This can be design.
.Communicate the projects closure to all parties.
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