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PROJECT COORDINATOR – Mr. Manoj Saigal
BY KARAN SHAH T.Y.B.M.S SEMESTER V H/R COLLEGE OF COMMERCE & ECONOMICS CHURCHGATE MUMBAI - 400 001
SUBMITTED TO UNIVERSITY OF MUMBAI NOVEMBER ACADEMIC YEAR – 2004-05
I Karan Shah, Student of H/R College T.Y.B.M.S (Sem 5) herby declare that I have completed this project on the 16th of November in the academic year 2004 – 2005. The information submitted is true and original to the best of my knowledge.
Place: Mumbai Date: 16th November 2004
SIGNATURE OF STUDENT
I, Manoj Saigal hereby certify that Karan Shah student of T.Y.B.M.S, H/R College (Sem 5), has completed the project on the 16th of November in the academic year 20042005. The information submitted is true and original to the best of my knowledge.
SIGNATURE OF THE COLLEGE PRINCIPAL
SIGNATURE OF THE PROJECT CO-ORDINATOR
for the invaluable help and guidance she has given. without which this project would not have been possible. I am also grateful to Manoj Saigal. The successful completion of the project on ‘Event Management’ has been a great learning experience.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The class assignments and the hundred marks project is an essential part of the BMS programme and I am deeply grateful to the University of Mumbai to have introduced this project as a part of our curriculum. It was through her efforts that I was able to get assistance and cooperation from the Event Management Development Institute. I would also like to take this opportunity to thank Jimmy Nagdev. Thank you once again for your precious time and support. for having given me guidance and help for the successful completion of my project. 4 .
THE PROGRAM DESIGN 11. MARKETING CONSIDERATIONS 23. SAFTY AND SECURITY 18. EVALUATION & REPORTING 20. REMARKS 33. TYPES OF EVENTS 22. SELLING SPONSORSHIPS 27. QUESTIONNAIRE 5 . CASE STUDY 31. SPEAKERS AND OTHER PROGRAM PARTICIPANTS 12.CONTENTS 1. BIBLIOGRAPHY 34. 9. SITE INSPECTION 16. BUGETING AND FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT 26. 5. DATA COLLECTION. FOOD AND BEVERAGES 17. THE PROSPECTUS 15. 8. LOCATING PEOPLE 13. 4. FUTURE PROSPECTS 30. 6. 7. CONCLUSION 32. THEME DEVELOPMENT 25. MARKETING AND PROMOTION 21. KEY TRENDS IN THE INDUSTRY 29. 2. SYNOPSIS INTRODUCTION TO EVENT MANAGEMENT BENEFITS OF EVENTS KEY ELEMENTS OF EVENTS: A CASE EXAMPLE THE INDUSTRY SCENARIO CURRENT SCENARIO SEGMENTATION OVERALL PLANNING STRUCTURE THE BUDGET 10. EDUCATING DELEGATES 19. SITE SELECTION 14. 3. SPECIAL EVENTS 24. EVENT CONTROL SHEET: AN EXAMPLE 28.
This project explores the various aspects of event management. This is followed by assembling the event management team. We also touch upon how this is growing industry looking at what it was 15 years ago and what is the current position of this industry. which is in to two categories namely live entertainments events and corporate events. This project can be broadly divided into seven sections.A SYNOPSIS OF THE PROJECT EVENT MANAGEMENT This project has been prepared for the completion of the Subject – Project Work as is required under Fifth Semester of Bachelor of Management Studies. An efficient record keeping system is to be implemented. We first look at the over all planning structure which is comprised of analyzing the event. After which decision makers. This section covers details of event management showing that now weddings and birthday parties are celebrated in such a large scale that professionals need manage them. The third section of the project deals with the actual process of event management. then selecting the event coordinator. Then we see broad classification of events. Corporate events account for the lion’s share of the total number of events managed in the country. The first section of the project we take look at what is event management. technical staff and support staff are appointed. This is followed by the overall size and shape of the industry further followed by segmentation of events breaking it into smaller categories. its benefits and the key elements of events with the help of an example. 6 . The second section of the project deals with the industry scenario.
Then we discuss about sponsorships and then the project deals with the event control sheet with a hypothetical example. Then an efficient program design needs to be designed. The marketing considerations need to be given attention to. Selecting speakers is a difficult task for the event coordinator.The fourth section of the planning phase is the budget. The fifth section deals with selecting the speakers required for the event. the case study – Bacardi. It is only through the budget does the manager know what all are the options in all the fields that can be employed for the event. the conclusion. which is a very important detail. After which the site selection process begins. Another important part of the planning phase is the security aspect of the event. The sixth section deals with the data collection interpretation of the data and reporting and presenting the data in a manner. The final section of the project deals with the key trends in the industry. which is useful to all in the organization. which has been in reference to what is mentioned in the project. The next step is to decide the food and beverages for the event. 7 . the key challenges. and then remarks about event management and the project ends with a bibliography and a questionnaire as tools of data collection of the matter presented in the project. Finally we decide the theme of the event and also which type of event does the event the firm is planning falls into the different types of events. the future prospects. Then we deal with the marketing and promotion of the event.
including 22 international events. project or activity.000 events.INTRODUCTION Definition of Event Management “Event management is the planning and management of an event. Event management in India.based or sports. Today. Live entertainment events are stage shows or concerts by international artists (international events) or Indian artists. has grown in to a highly professional and tech-savvy industry over the years. for a live entertainment event. In 2001. The Manikchand Filmfare Awards is a film-based event. or a happening such as the India visit of Indira Nooyi. 8 . worldwide chief of PepsiCo. albeit small. For instance. this phrase would have meant nothing in the India corporate world. the industry managed over 1.based events. music. it conjures up the image of celebrities packaged with glamour and pomp in a gala event that is meticulously planned and slickly turned out. Corporate events are commissioned by corporate for specific purposes such as dealers’ conference. Broadly event can be classified as corporate events and live entertainment event. is growing rapidly in size and popularity. These could be film based. Corporate events account for the lion’s share of the total number of events managed in the country.” Event Management 15yrs ago. there is more than one sponsor as well as entry fee for the audience. a concert by ghazal maestro Pankaj Udhas or by the international rock group Scorpions would be a music – based event. Typically. which was born somewhere in mid 1980s. This category of events.
somebody has to make it happen. In such circumstances. Therefore. planned and executed by the event manager. Successful events only come about through action. These events are called branded events. the Femina Miss India contest is branded event produced by Times Entertainment and held annually. They are held periodically and require substantial investment in terms of infrastructure and marketing.Unlike a corporate event. However." A Comprehensive New Definition Events 9 . the company/television broadcaster sponsors the entire show and retains the IPR. the Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) also vests with the event manager. "An event is something that happens. a company/television broadcaster etc can also commission an event. Certain events are created and marketed by the event manager as a branded property. some individual or group of individuals getting things done. For instance. not just exists . The event manager is paid a management fee and a production fee as well if it also produces the event for television. a live entertainment event is usually conceptualized.
The live interaction process facilitates communication between the clients and the audience. reach and live interaction between the target audience and the client to achieve the desired impact. customized or modified to achieve the clients objectives of reaching out and suitable influencing the sharply defined. The population of the target audience that the event is exposed to is called the reach of the event.Reach Live interactio Right communication with the client With Live Audience Desire d Creates Impac t An event is a live multimedia package carried out with preconceived concept. specially gathered target audience by providing a complete sensual experience and an avenue for two-way interaction. 10 . From the above figure we can infer that an event is a package so organized so as to provide.
BENEFITS OF EVENTS 1) Brand awareness.helps create perception about product. b2b marketing. helps differentiate product from competitors. 3) Media Coverage. helps in projecting right corporate imaging of the company 4) Building corporate hospitality. building goodwill amongst potential clients.Opportunity to showcase existing products and test new products.Entertain key and potential clients.Helps in increasing awareness of a company or its brand(s) 2) Corporate Image. motivating existing workforce or rewarding them. 8) Identification with particular lifestyle.More cost effective and accurate than conventional advertising which can get diluted. Shape or reinforce the public’s perception of a company’s brand attributes. build or change a desired company or brand image. reinforcing faith in distribution partners. forging alliances with potential investors. 7) Differentiation. 6) Product showcase.Guaranteed and potential publicity.Opportunity for on the spot audience gratification 10) Impact the bottom line.Driving sales through contests.Creates brand world experience which audience can identify with hence forming an emotional bond with the target audience by supporting their lifestyles and likes 9) Merchandise opportunities.To support. 5) Niche audience targeting. special schemes KEY ELEMENTS OF EVENTS 11 .
Core people: Participants i.e. Rahul Kumar Sharma accompanied by Ustad Shafat Ali Khan and popular music by Shweta Shetty and Stereo Nation.Organizer Event Infrastructure Venue Event Target Audience Media Client A CASE EXAMPLE Event: L’Oreal femina elite model look ‘98 Event Infrastructure: • • Core concept: Search for a new top class modeling talent through a contest and pageant interspersed with entertainment. • • Core Talent: Physical Looks and Proportion Core Structure: Annual event of Beauty pageant Event organizers: Femina with • • Fountain ahead: Event support Banyan Tree: arrangements for classical music performance 12 . models taking part in the competition and other performers during entertainment slots such as well known classical musicians Pt Shiv Kumar Sharma.
Sony Music • • Communication Convience: Gloal Telesystems. marve Official Host: Taj Mahal Hotel Pre-event: magazines and newspapers to inform about event and call for enteries with entry forms in them. Akbarallys. Electronic Media: TV and FM radio to inform target audience about event coverage. The Orchids. Catwalk Shoes. Lakme. Clients • • Main Sponsor: L’Oreal Gift Sponsors: Onida. Reports on the events in the print media. Department store. Global Telesystems. Beverages: Coca-Cola Target Audience Youth or family though with a younger mindset or young at heart 13 . Interviews and appearances of winner on shows sponsored by L’Oreal on the electronic media.• • Venue • • Media • • • • • Hemant Trivedi with assistance from Noyonika Chatterjee: Choreography and direction Omung Kumar Bhandula for Opus construction: Sets Shoot location: the retreat. Siemens. Baush and Lomb. Trussadi. date and time. Estelle. During event: live coverage on DD2 for widest coverage Post-event: Re-telecast on Star Plus.
The growth of sophisticated and mega companies have brought forth a spurt of meetings. The FICCI has estimated event management to be a 3500 crore industry by 2005.. exhibitions. risk managements. It was not so easy to train because event management includes organizational skills. 14 . road shows. human relations. P. product launches with everything being a matter of class and style. research showed that there was no formalized education to teach event management and Companies found their executives not up to the mark to handle events. More than 200 companies have forayed into events. competitions. budgeting. seminars.R. that India has seen of late. catering. marketing. glamour identity. Then comes the innumerable celebrity shows. conferences. But surprisingly. logistics. decor. Growth is therefore 400% annually. study of law and licenses. and have to be professionally managed. technical knowledge.THE INDUSTRY SCENARIO Event Management is a multi-crore industry with mega shows and events hosted regularly. In India even personal functions like marriages and birthday parties have become important social matters. shows for a cause. study of allied like television and other media and several other areas. international artists shows. The early 90s has seen events spend at a mere 20 crores but now it has increased to over 500 crores. advertising.
music and video rights. 5mn for a domestic event. this is non-existent. etc. Currently. significant revenue can be earned through the sale of event-related merchandise such as clothing. 2. and between Rs. Sale of telecast rights to television broadcasters: event managers have not commercially exploited this source of revenue so far.5mn.OVERALL SIZE AND SHAPE The size of the live entertainment segment can be measured in terms of total billing for the events managed i. 15 . approximately 25. tickets sales revenue and sales of various rights associated with the event content such as telecast rights. Ticket sales revenue: This revenue source has picked up substantially over the last year. Sponsorship fees: On an average.e.5mn and Rs. The event manager can sell rights to merchandisers for such activities. sponsorship fees. for instance DNA networks has sold about 3 properties to B4U for approximately Rs 4. Sale of merchandise rights: In case of concerts by popular artist or groups or popular sporting events.2mn for the Venga Boys event to Rs 24mn for the recently held show of Bryan Adams. internet rights and merchandise rights. The total sponsorship fees ranges between Rs. Sale of Internet rights: As broadband Internet is not currently available for live video streaming of an event. there are three sponsors for an event – one main sponsor and the two co-sponsors. There have been only some stray deals involving sale of telecast rights. Ticket sales revenue has ranged between Rs 3. However this is not a significant source of revenue at present. 10mn and Rs 20mn for an international event.000 tickets are sold on an average in an international event.
1. 16 . etc. freights expenses. artists’ remuneration accounts for 40% of the costs and production expenses such as erection costs of the stage.000 live entertainment events. and operating expenses such as travel and stay expenses of the troupe. including 22 international events. According to industry sources. lights and sound. with domestic events accounting for Rs.In 2001. the industry managed approximately 1.9bn and international event and a domestic event is as under: Revenue profile for international and domestic events (average) Item Sponsorship fees Ticket sales revenue (Source: Industry) International event 30% 70% Domestic event 80% 20% Revenue Profile for International and Domestic Events (average) 80 60 40 20 0 International Event Domestic Event Sponsorship Fees Ticket Sales Revenue In terms of cost. the total billings for the year are estimated at Rs.5bn. account for the balance. This cost profile is the same for domestic event as well as an international event. 0.
Cost profile for international and domestic events (average) Artists’ remuneration Prodn and operation cost International event 40% 60% Domestic event 60% 40% Cost Profile for an International Event Prod & Operation Cost n Artists' Remuneration Cost Profile for an Domestic Event Artists' Remuneration Prod & Operation Cost n 17 .
sports. it is expected to demonstrate a growth of 30% pa over the next five years. festivals and personal events. and a career in event management is not only lucrative but also glamorous and challenging. As a result. an event many times the magnitude of the Afro Asian Games. It means shortage of people with the skills required to execute an event of the enormity. There are around 10-15 large players with revenues around or over Rs 20 crores each and many small playersaround 70% of the segment remains unorganized. more than doubling its size to approximately Rs 1443 crore (US$321 mn) by 2008. and festivals which have not been considered for the purpose of the size and the Indus 18 .” India has just hosted the first Afro Asian Games. arts and theatre. Event Management has emerged as one of the fastest growing industries in India. Soon. and India is also making a bid to host the 2016 Olympic Games in India. it is going to host the Commonwealth Games in the year 2010. Events are now acknowledged as a tremendous image multiplier option leading to greater development.CURRENT SCENARIO “Today. small corporate events. As this segment. And that’s just the part. opening brighter and prospective career opportunities for the new age career seekers. the live entertainment and event management segment has demonstrated an overall growth over : 60%. which can be measured and estimated. of these. What does this mean to the Event Industry? It means jobs. The organized industry has grown from around Rs 350 crores during 2002 to be a 580 crore (US$129 mn) industry in 2003. The event segment as a whole can be divided into several key sub segments that include corporate events. small operators I the unorganized sector primarily manage weddings. which is still in its infancy. in effect. felicitations and contests. becomes an increasingly important part of the media pie.
SEGMENTATION Segment wise analysis of organised & unorganised business of live entertainment Corporate Sports 15% 5% 20% 20% 35% Arts & Theatre Felicitation & Contests 5% Festivals Personal (Source: Industry estimates. Ernst & Young Research) 19 .
Assembling The Event Management Team The next important stage of the planning process is assembling the team. If too few questions are asked. Implementers are those who do everything from negotiating contracts to inviting speakers to making sure that the right speaker is in the right room and that the microphone works. Keep in mind that during the planning stage there are many options and hurdles to anticipate. Some things increase complexity tenfold and others simplify by an equal amount. an event can suffer from a lack of focus and direction. Decision makers are the people who define the parameters and are ultimately responsible for the success or failure of the event. That is not to say that the event manager shouldn’t have an off-site party.OVERALL PLANNING STRUCTURE Analyzing the event The planning process begins with an analysis of the event itself. A party in the hotel. but the details should be considered in the planning stage. and no kitchen. the team should consist of decision makers and implementers. That is how a strong foundation is established. the site is often selected before the program has been set and the event manager may have to anticipate a problem fitting the program into the available space. Broadly speaking. no restrooms. for example is always simpler to arrange than a party in a warehouse of distant field with no power. In the same vein. 21 . The questions that begin this process what is the main reason behind having this event? What does the event hope to accomplish? How will the event be financed? Numerous questions are placed in front of the event manager.
expenses. they may keep daily activity logs for registration. maintains communications. set up filling systems for controlling documents and reports. they direct incoming calls. supervises registration. they follow up on requests for brochures and answer routine questions such as dates and costs. Decision makers Decision makers may include the organization’s president. Support personnel Members of the clerical support staff handle typing and computer date entry. process incoming and outgoing nail.More specially. Technical staff Various tasks requiring technical expertise may be assigned to in house personnel or to subcontractors. chairman of the board. solicits bids from suppliers and hires and supervises suppliers. recommends policies and procedures. corporate officer. makes copies maintains files. and stuff attendee packets. prepares and recommends budgets and monitors expenses throughout the planning process. executive director. and certain departmental heads. CEO. 22 . and income. prepares personnel schedules for on site activities. the planning team will probably include people or committees with the following functions and responsibilities: Event coordinator The planner is the central coordinator and does the following: negotiations and recommends contracts for signature.
A key tool that will help in this regard is the planning schedule. or committee responsible for each. 23 . and the person. The organizational system he sets up must include a planning schedule. the event planner becomes the central coordinator of all information. The planning schedule is a detailed list of all the required tasks and steps.Developing record keeping systems Often. Deadlines forms and checklists to expedite the process and capture the details in a structured. control. but two important characteristics are good organizational skills and attention to detail. The key to effective management is deciding the rules up front and advising the people they affect. evaluating and planning for future events. Establishing policies and procedures Another important planning issue has to do with establishing policies and procedures in the early stage. administrative penalties for cancellation. Preparing a planning schedule A successful event coordinator must have many attributes. usable quickly retrievable manner. Simple things such as registration cutoff dates. payment and reimbursement procedures for speakers. the required completion dated. Therefore record keeping systems are essential to organize. The system’s documents become the files and records he will need for reporting. department. The event coordinator should prepare it. and monitor activities. to name a few need to be established and communicated or event coordinators will find themselves continually answering the same question and mediating disputes.
If he/she always ask “what is the worst that can happen?” and then have a solution ready. special needs. 24 . and hidden costs. by anticipating problems.THE BUDGET The event manager cannot have a successful planning structure without a budget and priorities for how the money will be spent. The importance of having all the planning issues covered is that. Financial decisions affect every area of the event and must be established early in the process and monitored on a regular basis. no matter how serious the crisis. the manger can be calm during the storm of the event. they will have a reservoir of strategies to be used at a moments notice.
and informal and unscheduled free time. to introduce new products or services. association or committee members. The sponsoring group is often so concerned about the organizations’ need being met that it forgets about the attendees. recreation. attendees. to reward. tours. or whatever. This is more difficult than it sounds because of the many needs and expectations coming from bosses. formal? This may not seem like a major issue. It includes the content. female. to solve problems. to generate revenue. Identify whether the mangers objective is to educate. The event 25 .PROGRAM DESIGN What is the program? It encompasses all of the activities planned for the attendees. What are the program topics. serious and fun presentations. to inform. serious. verbal. but it can make a huge difference in the success of the program. from the moment they arrive until they depart. That brings us to why the attendees will sign up in the first place. spouse and children’s’ programs. passive and active sessions. receptions and parties. There is a big difference between state legislators and hand surgeons. and suppliers. Purpose of the event The first step is to prepare a statement on the purpose of the event. all the pieces are there but what a mess! The design is putting the pieces in order. speakers. Will the audience be primarily male. meal functions. The Audience Next. he needs to know something about the attendees. expositions. and formal and informal times to provide professional and personal growth and networking opportunities for participants? The program is like a jigsaw puzzle. When the event manager starts the puzzle. Their needs and expectations should not be overlooked. or mixed? Are spouses and children invited? Has the primary attendees met together? Will they know each other? What is their knowledge or skill level in relation to the subject of the program? What is the groups’ personality? Is it fun.
coordinator should play a strong role in monitoring the program plans to see that the attendees are not forgotten. still others. the format. Some may be debates. the manager can begin the task of assigning a format to each topic. Selecting topics formats and speakers or participants Preparing a master list of topics or activities that is required by the event coordinators particular event and list educational topics important to his group. fees and expenses. others may be group discussions. the amount of time allotted. and the topic Budget Prepare a budget listing all programs costs. attendees’ materials speakers. the manager must rough out a program agenda showing the activity. To do this. Once the list of topics is complete. Finally there is the challenging task of finding the right person to successfully implement the selected format Time allotment In addition determining what time of year the event will be held and how many days it will run. the sequence (daily). time allotment means establishing time allowances for each topic and presenter. 26 . lectures papers. including meeting-room rental.
” But don’t confuse that term with attendees. Scrapping the term “speakers” is a fairly easy way to make a dramatic difference in the quality of programs offered. Wireless microphones encourage movement. interviewing. They have got to learn how to bring out the best in poor speakers who happen to be recognized expert in the field. the problem arises when a speaker is not entertaining. panelist. They talk to their audience. Programs with high-quality. Event coordinators must be more selective more demanding and more detailed with speakers. Theses speakers are often looked upon as entertainers. when should be leading training. moderators. As the competition to attract attendees grows attendees are becoming more selective about where they send their budgeted event money. walk around. expert witness. By using the word “speakers”. interviewers. Successful professional speakers learn very quickly that reading speech is not good for business. we lead people to believe that they need only come prepared to speak. If we must have a generic term. and summarizers. who are also often called participants. The challenge is to see how many different types of people the manager can use to communicate the required information without having them read speeches. Most speakers would not welcome guidance on the subjects’ desired focus as well as the type of attendees and the level of their knowledge is unimaginable. workshop leaders. discussion leaders. let’s use “program participants. trainers. and there is nothing wrong with speakers being entertainers. 27 . they usually move off the stage.SPEAKERS AND OTHER PROGRAM PARTICIPANTS Who are the people on the program? A program requires a variety of types of people-speakers. In fact. and look the audience squarely in the eyes.
Both the coordinator and the presenters need to reevaluate the importance of the participants’ role. The managers’ programs participants are the transmitters of all that he hopes to communicate. the management of program participants is one of the most challenging. 28 . a variety of type of program participants. Just as the design of program is one of the most creative aspects of planning an event. and focused and varied presentations will capture the market.knowledgeable speakers.
What role does this person play in the conference? What does that role mean to him? Will the participant automatically understand what he expects? Probably not. brainstorming. through briefing meetings. because this is where the manager decides what he wants plan to communicate and how he will do it. Developing content guidelines The next step is to develop a written list of points or questions the manager would like to have included in the speech. Don’t automatically use the staff. he can begin researching. it may be harder to keep them focused on the goals and the audiences interest in the subject. Once the event manager knows the boundaries of who he needs and what he has to offer. Then communicate these points to his program participants in writing. Besides. asking knowledgeable people in the field or his colleagues with related and respected experience. 29 . congressperson. board of directors. This is also a good time to go over the schedule and the importance of adhering to it on site a key aspect of managing program participants. He must ask if he can locate or recruit qualified people at a price he can afford.LOCATING PEOPLE Thinking about program participants actually begins in the program design phase. so the manager should write a description a short paragraph explaining exactly what is expected of each program participant. or in reviews of their plans. he should begin to define in writing what he wants each person to do. Not only may they not be the best. As the manger selects the topic and a format. how does a manager tell his congressperson or the chairman of the board that the fifteen minutes are up? Clarifying roles While the manager is researching his resources. and friends as key presenters. discussion or workshop.
areas in which they are most comfortable and require the least preparation. The event coordinators who think through theses program issues to the same extent they think through the logistics will succeed.Some topics are so broad it would be pure luck if the speaker/leader touched on them without guidance. speakers head straight in that direction and the manager will have given them a license to do what they want rather than what he or the audience wants. Research takes time and requires the manager to become a three minute expert in a variety of subject areas. and they may not know the level of audience’s knowledge or its current interest in the subject. They aren’t wrong the manager is for abdicating his responsibility. What would the event manager want to know if he were asked to speak to or lead a group? Ask speakers whom he respects what would be helpful to them. 30 . Without guidance. indicating why he wants it and supervising the product to keep it on target. It offers the opportunity to learn about so many different subjects. The question the manger may ask is: why tell the experts? The answer is that the experts usually have no way of knowing what has been covered in past events. Call potential attendees and ask them what their interest in a particular subject is. If the manager has to delegate don’t give the job away without explaining what he wants. It is not hard: it’s logical. All speakers have favorite aspects of a subject.
whose reputation the manager should check. there are hotels operated by management companies whose standers are higher than the corporate franchise name implies and vice versa. low.SITE SELECTION The Hotel Market The beginning point is to know the hotel market and the event group. Each of the foregoing arrangements is not of itself good or bad. 31 . He should know the general economic situation in the city and within the hotel. the general manager? Request a copy of the staffing roaster and ask for lengths of employment. A hotel is part of a chain may be owned and operated by the chain. This is just the tip of the iceberg for the firm’s market research. a management company. and thus carry the chains name but be owned by a separate entity. and average rates for each property. He should know occupancy levels at various times of the year and a week. or may be franchised. He needs to know the high. Companies such as PKF consulting produce monthly and annual reports on an areas occupancy level and average daily rates (ADR). look at the hotels ownership structure. How long has the firm’s salesperson been there. These vary by seasons and days of the week Look internally for stable ratios of staff to guests and at staff turnover. not from sales of food and beverages. The manger must first understand that hotels make a profit from guestroom sales. Along the same lines. a series of questions must be explored. the manager simply needs to be aware of these structures. Once he realizes that. In either situation. For example. may perform management of the hotel.
The first section should introduce the organization and the specific event in general way. describe the firms’ history. dates and pattern. and the manager’s moment by moment needs for meeting rooms. or head tales. is to know the event group. or any other required features. This is the place to demonstrate that the firm’s assessment of its group’s 32 . “the event group” includes the company or organization the event manager is working for. he will ultimately save time and gain well deserved respect for a professional approach. Be sure to advise the hotel if commissions are to be paid to the firm or not to any third parties. In section III. either regarding this specific event or a similar one. A facility should be able to determine from this section whether it can accommodate the event group. Roughly. it may also be considered a promotional description emphasizing the organizations purpose. the programs goal and requirements the budget and the attendees’ needs or preferences. to include the number and type of guest rooms. Section II should relate to the events site requirements for this specific event. This is also the time to specify ceiling heights. freight access. anticipated attendance per room. and any special space eaters. or per person if higher than normal allowances are required. In such cases he many indicate his total square footage requirements as a total number.THE PROSPECTUS Next to use a tired but true phase. other that the direct booking event. A simple statement that says rates are either commissionable or no commissionable will do. such as projection equipment. This breakdown should include room setup. he will quickly realize the benefit of including site requirements in his written prospectus. The formal document that profiles the event group is called a “prospectus”. While the introduction should be factual. Not only will he ensure that everyone receives the same information as part of a well thought out plan. If the manager has ever repeated the same requirements over the phone to fifteen different properties. preferred rates. ADA requirements. screens.
properties. event and location should be itemized for each day of the event Once the event’s prospectus is complete. thereby giving the coordinator an opportunity to adjust any incorrect or misleading information.S. Especially as related to numbers.V. which may be to his benefit or disadvantage. 33 . Attrition clauses have been added to hotel contracts to hold the coordinator responsible for lost revenue from unsold rooms. the firms’ history plays an important role. and numbers broken down in every possible way. The inexperienced coordinator probably has no knowledge of this underground grapevine. the events meals counts. How? By preparing in the contract that any report or data about the event must be approve prior to release by the hotel.P card and ask the hotel to return it indicating its intent to submit a bid. and send them a copy. A three to four week response deadline should be established. The experienced coordinator not only knows it exists but controls the information released. the manager should review potential hotels. he can and should expect to pay heavy penalties if he fails to meet his confirmed requirements. The most difficult problems for hotels are when the firm considers that their sales are generated from guestrooms. The hours. select those that meet his criteria. Section IV is a detailed day by day time and event specification. Include past cities. he might even close an R. Say for example 300 rooms are requested and no basis for arriving at that number is given. Hotels either need a history or a rationale for the requested number of rooms. The manager can be sure the hotel will check the firms’ past history. Prospective hoteliers will want to find out about the firms’ guest/sleeping room mates and pick up. If the manager wants it all with no guarantees and no history.needs is accurate and that the facility must deliver what the manager is asking for. firms’ total master account charges and credit record and all too often they’ll elicit a few choice editorial comments from the prior facilities managers.
but that is no reason to be less through. the manager should check references of the final properties under consideration. he must know the capabilities and limitations of the facility and the staff the building the people. the manager is ready for his site inspections. Even a bad reference can be good if it helps the manager to anticipate problems and prepare solutions in advance. Reference checks Finally. If this is the case for the event coordinator. he should think in terms of site evaluation rather than site selection. He doesn’t even have to have a form. At one time or another. Regardless of the number of choices. Everyone has had “star” performances they want to find out about the typical ones. That ensures a response based on the current level of service and limits the ability of the hotel to give the event group their best references. There are numerous site selection checklists that are useful in devising the manager’s form. and revisiting the areas he’s having trouble remembering. depending on the facility size. It’s best to do this on site.SITE INSPECTIONS After careful review of the proposals. The manager can ask the bell or housekeeping staff who is the GM? and see what comments 34 . everyone has been in this position. The “interview” portion should take one to two hours and the walk through. Then he should give himself one hour alone for note making measuring. but a system for capturing comparable data is going to be valuable when he makes his final decision. Three to four hours per facility is the minimum time needed for a thorough inspection. so the coordinator can go back to the room or ask the salesperson to fill in the gaps. Ask for the names of three companies that held events similar to the group’s event in the hotel in the past month. The tendency for most coordinators is to over schedule their site inspections appointments and to respond to the invitations of all hotels that want to see them rather than only those appropriate to their event. one to two hours. The event manger should not forget about the hotels general manager (GM).
35 . and some have private conversations with guest and in house groups. The key to success in this area is not only to know what the manager wants in relation to what he must have. but that he is thoughtful and thorough. negotiation is an important sounding word for the give and take discussion between the hotel salesperson and the coordinator. Some coordinators visit the hotel unannounced. Actually. Negotiation Negotiation is the thread that should have been woven throughout the entire process. The key is not so much how the manger approaches site selection. other take a secret tour of the services areas. There are various approaches to finding out more about the facility. but to know the other business as well as or better than the other sides representative. Unfortunately. the reverse is usually true: the hoteliers know more about coordinators than coordinators know about themselves or their event.are volunteered.
and a hotel’s prices should be evaluated as a part of the site selection process. If the coordinator does not receive these magazines he should ask local hotel industry friends if he may borrow a copy or the event manager may simply interview them. especially if the manager waits until after the contract is signed to negotiate food and beverage. If cost seems to be the coordinators only criterion. prices should be finally confirmed one year out. The hotel market The hotel market is constantly changing depending on supply. It is therefore important for the coordinator to stay informed on market conditions. and low seasons that also influence rates over that period. and the availability of money. the quality or freshness of the food products (lesser cuts of beet canned versus fresh vegetables).FOOD AND BEVERAGES Food and beverages usually constitute a high cost item for the coordinator. 36 . Convention hotels traditionally have high. demand the inflation rate. Hotels are usually less flexible in their food process than their room rates. When selecting a hotel it is important for an event coordinator to be up-to-date on the market situation. the hotel may try to lower its price by reducing the number of services. The best and most current sources of information are the industry trade magazines including those of the hotel industry. Even with this option. shoulder. This is not generally acceptable to coordinators because they need to prepare a budget one to three years ahead of time. Hotels are often reluctant to guarantee process more than three months prior to the event because of the fluctuations in the costs of food items. and possibly the size of the portion. A loss of service and quality can eventually be more damaging than a few added Rupees. One option is to have current menus signed and dated and insert a contractual clause that limits price increases by tying them to cost-of-living increase or to some other predetermined percentage. The manager should not select a site on the basis of process alone.
When the hotel industry is in a down cycle (a sellers market of the hotels) the coordinator has the advantage; in an upward cycle (a sellers market for the hotels) the coordinator is at a disadvantage. It is quite simple, as demand moves closer to, or exceeds, supply costs increase and the hotel can be more selective in the business they book. They establish the rules and effectively eliminate those who are a not reliable customers. This is not to say that there are not times when they will want the event group’s business, which is a logical question for the manager to explore with his sales person.
PLANNING A EVENT WITH SAFETY AND SECURITY IN MIND
Safety and security are on the minds of all travelers. While the percentage of crimes against travelers nationwide is lower than against residents in a community that is small consolation to an event coordinator when he’s assisting an injured or victimized event delegate. What makes the safety and security situation even more challenging is that too often people are not as cautious when they travel as they are in their own homes. Therefore, the coordinator should be familiar with the basics to provide a safe and secure environment for his attendees. Addressing these details as part of the planning process can help boost attendance and reduce liability exposure both for the event group and the organizational sponsor. Safety Safety is concerned with protecting people from injury resulting from accidents caused by their carelessness or the negligence of others. This includes helping delegates take precautions when necessary, inspecting the event facility to insure that basic safety programs are in place and identifying sources of medical assistance that can be called in the event of an accident. Life Safety Protecting the physical well being of delegates is paramount. Life safety includes protection from natural and "man-made" emergencies. An event coordinator can do little about the fact that certain geographical locations are prone to floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, and tornadoes. However, he can determine what safety measures have been instituted by the meeting facility. Don't be reluctant to ask the sales manager, general manager or security director about the facility's emergency management plan. Most properties will be happy to show the coordinator what they have outlines in the event that guests must be evacuated from a hotel or convention center. If the property has nothing in place despite the fact that it is located in area where acts of God are known
to have occurred in the past, perhaps the manager might want to talk to their competition! Security Security is concerned with protecting people and property form injury or loss resulting from criminal activity. To help insure the security of delegates, inquire about crime prevention practices taken by the facility and in the surrounding area, and examine these policies. In addition, the manager will also want to "educate" his delegates about measures they can take to be more secure.
is expected to assess how secure the guests he brings to a property will be base upon the reasonable care and foresee ability he exercises in his site selection process and while at the facility. and at best. When the manager asks these questions. Hoteliers and event coordinators are not expected to prevent crime. His most knowledgeable point of contact is the security director. what policies the facility has instituted to prevent their reoccurrence. and how secure members of the event group will be in the surrounding neighborhood. However. who should be happy to answer his questions. and add the following security items to his checklist. These inquiries can include types of incidents that have occurred on the property within the past year. • • Are side entrances locked at night and do they have a sign explaining this policy on both sides of the door with clear directions to an accessible door? Do first floor rooms have special security devices on the doors and window? 40 . This means that an event coordinator’s site 'inspection responsibilities include determining the quality of security provided by the property. What constitutes reasonable care is determined by exercising foresee ability. if the group’s event is in an area assumed or known to be less safe. be aware of how secure he feels. However. reasonable care and foresee ability are terms open to interpretation. anticipating what risks may befall a guest based on the type and level of criminal activity that has occurred at the facility and in the surrounding area. When the manager visits a facility." Incidents can occur anywhere. Don't eliminate destinations principally because they may be "unsafe.Reasonable care Common law requires that hoteliers provide reasonable care for their guests during their stay at the property. what is quite clear is that an event coordinator. the answers should be documented because they are important in the unfortunate event that a security breach occurs. ask that the security director attend the pre-con.
does the front desk clerk write the room number down 'instead of announcing it aloud? If a guest room key is lost or stolen. bearing in mind that hotels have only limited money liability for items stolen from their premises. They often post a disclosure to this effect at the front desk and provide safety deposits boxes for guest valuables.• • • • • Are parking lots well lit at night? Are staff members available for guests who wish to be escorted by security or management to and from the parking lot? Are parking lots visibly patrolled at night? Do surveillance camera casings actually contain cameras and are those areas monitored around the clock? Does the hotel have executive level floors with limited access and a concierge on duty where a lady traveling alone. are replacements procedures followed that require guest identification and security escort to the room if identification is not available? Protecting Property Protecting valuable property is an essential aspect of having a problem free event. a controversial speakers or delegate can be assigned? • • • • • Do the sliding glass doors have secure locks and Charlie bars or security bars in the track to prevent someone from prying the door open from outside? Do guestroom doors have deadbolt locks extending into the door jam one inch? Do guestroom doors have a "peephole" and a secondary locking device such as a swing bar or chain? At registration. Safe Storage 41 .
all contractors should be required to wear name tags. Discuss the secured storage areas the facility can make available. Check with the security director. can the property provide 24 hour security if necessary or assist the manager in making arrangements for private security to augment what the hotel offers? If the event needs private security. which can be color coded to represent the days of the week they are scheduled to have access to the exposition floor. Number the boxes and inventory the contents of each. If the property has surveillance cameras. including how merchandise is inventoried and who might have access to the area. 42 . and check their references. only contract with firms licensed by the state. hotels often provide storage security for merchandise that requires special protection. do they monitor secured areas around the clock? At trade shows. the manager should notify the facility.Since not all valuables can fit into safety deposit boxes.
don't assume that the delegates packed theirs! International Meetings Unfortunately. CVB's and event planner associations make safety brochures available for guests. In addition to the security issues already addressed. Include information about the location of the American Embassy and other agencies that provide traveler assistance. If the situation warrants. if the event company is planning an international meeting. 43 . terrorism is a reality and can affect any meeting. While the recommendations offered by the brochures are common sense. Hotels. A gentle reminder isn't meant to frighten anyone or discourage attendance. include a brochure in each delegate's registration packet. people should feel more secure that the event group has taken steps to help them and the facility is more attentive to safety and security. it needs to check with the State Department about destinations for which they have issued a traveler's warning and those that might require special security attention and educate the delegates before they travel to try not to stand out as tourists or foreign executives.Educating Delegates The best safety and security system is ineffective if it isn't used properly. Instead.
For instance one client was recently shocked to learn that 40 percent of its attendance came from fifteen companies. the number of microphones. food and beverages. how much income. The key areas are financial. It is the coordinator’s measuring stick for past events and his most important guide for the next event. Another group was overbooking meeting space because it expected all registrants to participate. volunteers. attendance. and finally documented in a useful format for future planning. or improving his next event The best test of the value of date collection and reporting is the impact the data has on the people who receive the report. The manager’s first call to a hotel involves numbers-number of people. Thus. number of days. number of amount in the events budget. the lunch guarantees (the minimum it must pay for) were reduced by 300 people per function because the data showed the 20 percent of registrants did not participate in scheduled luncheons. the manager has to know the number of items to be printed and the number printed of each piece. also document personnel. marketing and mailing. and speakers-people who did not routinely attend functions. COLLECTION. flowers. analyzed interpreted. EVALUATION AND REPORTING Through every stage of planning. Sometimes the manager will see the lights go on. That client is now adjusting its marketing efforts to encourage corporate groups by offering special rates. but 105 percent (attendees and guests) attended evening awards functions The luncheon savings alone were worth the money it took to prepare the report 44 . The data showed that "all registrants" included staff. and on and on. the manager will focus on numbers. For one group. number of function. meals signs. the group was able to reduce meeting space by twenty-five percent. decision making. This process completes the circle from concept to evaluation. program. All of these numbers form a database and must be collected.DATA. how many expenses. and any other areas that give the manager information for future planning. As the planning progresses. and facility. gifts.
to know attendees' positions within a company. If the manager wants. he might also ask how many people report to them. 45 . good weather may reduce the number.The possibilities are limitless. Percentages allow the manager to compare categories and show him the pattern for his event group. A great city versus a city without pizzazz may have an impact. and compute percentages for each category. If the coordinator wants to know the average age of his attendees. The key is to determine the data needed up front so the coordinator end result is consistent and accurate. and they avoid dealing with statistics beyond the most basic requirement. he has to devise a method for collecting that data. instead off just asking for titles. event coordinators are not numbers people. bad weather may increase the number of people attending functions. The manager should tear apart everything he does. A poor economy. He shouldn’t forget to document the variables that affect each year. high air fares or high hotel rates can affect attendance. count actual numbers. Data collection is valuable only if the coordinator takes the time to analyze the results. Once the meeting has started. For the most part.
the manager needs to be sure that he has an event people will want to attend. The wrong approach is copy and assume. Promotional materials. Coordinators must also consider the drawing power of past successful events and potential attendees' word-ofmouth recommendations. are used to get the word out. maybe the boss. advertising. It's dangerous to promote a event based on the organization's needs rather than on the attendees' needs. To successfully promote an event. and when asked by other invitee if they were 46 . but the risk of failure is significant if the event manager doesn’t think about what he is doing. We don't look at the market from the perspective of need versus saturation. the sponsor's credibility versus the competitions. Emphasize the thinking through of marketing and promotion more than the mechanics. then its right for the organization. They are mechanical. Second. Three key community leaders felt the sponsor had not treated them with the attention they deserved. The mechanical things must be done. but only an organization can determine what the best marketing approach is for its attendees. Third. routine procedures and practices. if some thing works for the group and appropriately communicates the organization's image. the costs and incentives versus the value of the conference. and for whom he is doing it. Is there enough time to properly market the program? Are there scheduling conflicts. he needs to encourage the sponsor. such as letters. evaluate his obstacles.MARKETING AND PROMOTION Event coordinators are often responsible for marketing and promotion-for delivering attendees-and the manager’s success as a coordinator is often measured by the effectiveness of his marketing efforts. and new releases. such as college graduations? The point is if attendees are really the most critical ingredient then consider them in the beginning. There is no "wrong" way. brochures. Try to set a number that's a little lower than what he thinks the coordinator can deliver. to be realistic about the attendance goal. why he is doing it.
but a lot of time and money was lost because the sponsors were more focused on the event than the attendees. When the manager considers promotion material he should not only look at the small list of ten points but to the event from a holistic perspective. 47 .attending. they quietly and simply said no. The petty reasons may never be known. Without further questions or explanations. which may not seem important to the manager need to be made a note off. word quickly got around. and the event was essentially blackballed. The third point.
choice is. which is often an event in a highly desirable resort location. The recognition that accompanies the invitation is usually sufficient motivation to attend. but costs versus the value to participants have to be the marketing focus.TYPES OF EVENTS Compulsory Events The type of event the manager is planning will affect how he proceeds. For example. Incentive events Such an event is held as the corporate reward or for outstanding performance. Who wouldn't want to go? Coordinators often use a dramatic invitation to stimulate those who failed to earn the reward this year to work harder so they will be invited next year. sales reps. The sponsor usually pays all expenses. It is necessary to communicate to such people the importance of the events. though subtly presented. to attend or resign from the company. While the company clearly expects total commitment from employees. Such a group is comparable to association meeting attendees. and describe the benefits and value of heir participation to each of them personally and to the organization. but the meeting can have a negative impact. and spouses are often invited. it is good psychology to recognize workers' sacrifices and loyal support. Some coordinators get involved in the total conceptual design of inventive programs. setting the sales and production goals as well as planning the reward. especially if it requires canceling the family vacation. The coordinator's job is especially hard if attendees are expected to pay their own way. and other loosely tied field people. a relationship and credibility exist among those invited. 48 . "Conglomerate "Meetings The most difficult of corporate meeting are the ones that bring together a company's distributors franchisers. The attendees. The attendees' motivation is obvious. there are corporate meetings that "advise" attendees of where to be and when to be there. explain why they were selected.
convention. networking. certification. They require large promotion budgets and carefully developed marketing strategies. Whatever they choose to call the yearly gathering annual meeting. and. That may not be the real reason people want to attend. conference. credibility. service. corporations. They are run by and for their members. Such events are usually held to make a profit. contributions and grants. “Public” Meetings and Seminars These are sponsored by individuals. tax-exempt organizations that rely on dues. The purpose for attendees is education. legislative monitoring or lobbying. meeting fees. Getting the approval should not be forgotten. The deciding factors in determining where the manager fits in the above categories are (1) the extent to which he has to create a market and (2) the recognition. and power of the event group to achieve success based on the invitation alone. consideration in the event’s marketing. or to offer continuing education courses. The key to marketing the association's annual meeting is to offer a quality educational program. the event is probably in the "public" arena. to a varying extent. or entrepreneurs and are marketed to anyone who is likely to come up with the fee.Annual Meetings Associations are membership based organizations providing education. but participants need a strong educational program to justify their attendance and expenses to the company or the IRS. They are usually nonprofit. 49 . albeit subtle. to promote an organization. So there is some dual. and other services to special interest or professional groups. associations. service fees. or incentive one is almost always held. recognition. If there isn't an existing credible structure. and conducting official association business. or cause.
and issue programs draw best when the legislature is in session. may range from the attendees' boss and board of directors to a spouse. who can be most persuasive in getting their parents to attend the event at Disneyland-as a Family of course! 50 .MARKETING CONSIDERATION There are three parts to the marketing strategy • Penetrating. And don't discount the children. if the benefits of participation extend to them. but a hard look and a few telephone calls may be a good investment of the coordinator’s time. • Selling. interest. The coordinator must reach his targets when they have the need. That's tough. Keep in mind the real influencer and decision makers. are most popular from December through April or May. or time. Most are not so obvious. Tax subjects. problem. An investments program will likely be more successful in a strong economy. but he can try to anticipate the timeliness of his program. • Timing. The manager must get the night people to read the promotional pieces and sell them on the value of their participation.
values. if they are used to luxury and a litany things. for example hotels. A questionnaire is useful in this respect and can be sent to attendees prior to the meeting.DETERMINING ATTENDEES' NEEDS The list of attendees need is limitless. Where can a parent find say milk for a child? Where is the briefcase that someone left in a session yesterday? Why wasn't a reservation form or check received? The manager hears about all these problems: The room is too hot. Provide some incentive for recipients to complete the questionnaire and return it with their registration forms. or a discount on the registration fee. if special diets. Once the manager or the coordinator has gathered all this information and sorted it out he needs to forwards to other parties who also require it. What's really necessary is that the manager should try in advance to plan for what attendees will need. The questionnaire can cover such things as where they are from. With the vast array of conferences. such as gift subscriptions to trade magazines. the room is too cold. the coordinator will find that he needs the attendees more than they need him. services. if children or spouses will accompany them. levels of sophistication. and products for an attendee to choose from. tickets for a free drink. religion. 51 . special needs or interpretive services will be needs. the room needs more chairs. the room next door is too noisy. Its object is to prepare a group profile by listing everything the coordinator knows about his actual or potential attendees. The place to start is with a familiarization exercise for attendees. the room needs more coffee. nationality. level of knowledge or expertise regarding the conference subject. He must try to make every attendee feel important and also must try to be helpful when unexpected crises come to his attention.
The sky is the limit. and then. They take the ordinary and make it extraordinary. Not all meetings have a special event and not all special events. First the coordinator begins with an idea or several. 52 . unusual menus. The coordinator probably doesn't want a magenta break for teetotalers or a three-hour bus trip for five-year-olds. entertainment. are tied to a meeting. The coordinator should not try to second guess his guest. gifts or prizes. and special events can and should be fan both for the attendee and the event coordinator. unfortunately. transportation. surprise appearances of celebrities or robots. sport events. The coordinator is dealing with a myriad of details that he plans. special transportation. but critical. catering.SPECIAL EVENTS Everyone loves to have fun. detail that he will check on again in the morning. they require the same skills. What will it take to pull this off? He is back to the basics of event planning: site selection. decorations. Creativity is the ingredient that keeps projects exciting and fresh and will definitely help him to avoid burnout. However. creative themes. Special events are necessary to loosen up and lighten up attendees so they can interact on a real person-to-person level. They may have decorations. follows up. ideas. unusual locations. and people. The fact is that much of the planning for special events is routine and tedious. most of us have to look at the budget. checks and checks again-and he'll still wake up in the middle of the night thinking of one tiny. the budget is the limit but the event manager can still be creative. dances. tours. budget. What are special events? They are gala dinners or receptions. Actually. creative breaks. entertainment. theme parties. special programs. like fundraisers or company parties. he is ready to develop the idea into a structured plan. whether they are together or separate. performances. Once the manager has matched the idea. Is it affordable? If not how can we adjust the idea to make it affordable? Then he looks at the attendees and the organization.
because they plan these events routinely. and a golf professional can help the coordinator structure a tournament.insurance. don't rush or make hasty decisions. put everything in writing. high strung and demanding. sound. The coordinator will also find suppliers of services expert in their individual areas. professional special events companies. themes. can oversee all or a part of the event and will advise him of opportunities and pitfalls. the manager also has to evaluate the reality of the lead time available to plan the event and the actual planning hours needed versus the time his staff can commit. The manager must also do his own homework by talking to other coordinators who have conducted similar events. It is the thoughtfulness of these early plans that will determine the ultimate success. A bus company will help the event manager in routing and scheduling. by reading related articles in professional publications and by checking the references of all suppliers. In this age of specialization. the coordinator has a wealth of "experts" in every area. The highly creative people the manager will be working with are. all too often. Finally. lighting. in getting it all together. The manager should hold on to his money tightly. licenses. a decorator can help him with space requirements and setup times. and give himself time to carefully think through his needs. 53 . repeal of city ordinances. costumes. don't be trapped by their needs. security. From a management perspective.
effort. (Incidentally.THEME DEVELOPMENT Themes have been developed for almost every imaginable area.V. and expense. as Queen Victoria or a favorite rock star. wait persons in costume are quite acceptable. If a theme involves attendees' participation with either costumes or games. everyone appreciates creativity. In such cases (more than ever) the coordinator needs to know his attendees. and often it's better to have attendees sign up in advance." but they might draw the line at dressing up. 54 . the risks are fewer.) On the other hand. Here are just a few: Ethnic themes Movie themes T. well executed theme events makes them worth the time. themes Storybook Themes Historical themes Motivational themes Geographical themes Sports themes Seasonal themes Holiday themes Way of Life themes Animal themes Mystery themes Transportation themes Futuristic and Space Themes War themes Political themes Color themes Costume or Dress themes Personality themes Food themes Current events themes Hollywood/ Bollywood themes Negative themes (Such as a very successful annual dull party theme) Themes can be very powerful and a memorable experience or they can be a disaster. especially new ideas or a new twist to old ideas. The interaction that takes place among attendees at well-planned. Most people are willing to accommodate requests such as "black tie." "casual “or” western wear.
set up start times and scoring procedures. meeting space. ball chasers. and as the firm develops and prepares promotional materials.Sport Events Knowing a sport does not qualify the coordinator to set up a tournament. in a third-party liability positions. room rated). As the risk increases. with experience in setting up tournaments. Women still out number men as guests at conferences. we should forget the companion's relationship to the attendee and just provide an open track of activities labeled the "enrichment program. any official event of the event places the firm. computes total numbers. But a professional in the planned sport. luncheons. the coordinator should be involved in setting the tone (Serious or fun). But remember. arrange for judges. The pro and/or the resort should be certified and insured. is a critical ingredient. registering attendees. and there are still women who like to cook and shop. at a minimum. selecting prizes and giveaways. fashion shows. Actually. time scheduled for the event. plans the budget. Especially as it relates to number of participants. so should the insurance. and now to either a guests' or companions' program. pair players. has evolved from consisting of primarily women oriented activities (shopping. and providing final court and player information. etc. preparing a budget. caddies equipment. Companions’ program The part of the program that has gone from being called a wives' program to a spouses' program. Even male registrants sometimes cook and shop Conference coordinators should consider whether they want to encourage guests (both adults and children) to attend. teas. and general skill level of players. He is the expert on the event group. conducts 55 . ordering food and beverages." This would allow attendees and guests both to switch from professionally related topics to personal growth and "see the city" topics and tours. of course. cooking classes) to gender-neutral events with more emphasis on enrichment. If their attendance is desirable. keep this group in mind during site consideration (city. arranging transportation. The pro will assign handicaps.
and establish a fee structure essentially. and years of attendance to recommend an alternative agenda. An unhappy guest can cause more trouble than fifty attendees can. ages. The best tactic may be to involve the attendees with guests. A local committee or professional company can be a great asset. balancing genders. 56 . but the coordinator should not abdicate control. as the coordinator makes all his plans. This is as much a part of the firm’s event as anything else.registration processing. especially if that guest is the president's spouse! Take a fresh look at the whole program.
Fortunate indeed is the person who has a financial history of the meeting. event publications survey readers and publish results that tell the firm how money from corporate versus association events is being spent. there are very few of those. Correspondingly. The budget as a document is an important planning tool.BUDGETING AND FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT The budget is the real event shaper. suppliers. but the true value is in the degree to which the manager uses it and in the accuracy and thoughtfulness of the preparation process. The history is an important to the budget process as staff resources are to planning schedule. while it is really an intellectual process in a mathematical format. seek out trends for similar. This ceiling or range becomes a major management and planning tool for the coordinator. The interesting point is where the money is spent. Normally. programs or evaluate the general economic outlook. or better yet. The coordinator can't talk about expenditures without an evaluation of potential revenues. at a minimum. Also in the trends area. attendance is higher and supplier costs are less negotiable. If the manager doesn’t have a group history. If the manager takes the time to seek it out. But this is not always true. It doesn't have to be an extravagant budget. All too often. so check the implications for the event. There is a lot of good information available. Our industry's trends. in good times. bad times mean fewer attendees and greater flexibility in negotiations. The manager needs some idea of revenues before he tackles the expenditures. members. 57 . The manager will find out what is really important to his CEOs. the budgeting process is seen as purely mathematical. it puts all the theory into perspective. An event that emphasizes selling skills or employment opportunities may be better attended in tough times. and the event firm’s files are the most obvious sources. actually. The planning schedule reduces all the manager knows to people. he can. or clients. specifically when compared with the stated goals. respected colleagues. a budget not dependent on the collection of fees to cover costs.
the planning tools are the supporting beams. In other cases.risk. speakers. the budget process is closely guarded and the coordinator is involved only in the area of his or her responsibility. or failure. indirect. If he is required to bill a variety of costs to a variety of accounts. seasonal advantages or disadvantages. The coordinator must take apart financially the event he is planning. past financial reports on the same or a similar meeting. but that the manager interfaces with the system for efficiency and accuracy. 58 . this empty structure for the energy that only the attendees can provide. Add a healthy dose of creativity in the interior design (program. If the event has only one account code. or national economic trends. it is this combination that determines whether the result will be success. mediocrity. make notes and view it from a holistic point of view. prepare to work closely with the accounting office in the beginning. the manager will have a lot of flexibility in formatting his budget. The manager doesn’t need to be an economist but needs to observe. The event coordinator's role in establishing the budget varies. the economy in the host city. and general and administrative costs must be broken out The point is not that he understands the mathematical formulas for organization's accounting. That aspect of budgeting is most difficult when government contracts are involved or when direct. such as the price of gasoline. It is this combination that determines the road the event will take. a budget would never be prepared if the coordinator didn't force the issue. food and beverages). and deadlines. overhead. Research can be in the form of bids. Format The beginning point in preparing a budget is research. In some companies or associations. The goals are the foundation. Ultimately. depending on the organization's structure. There are many ways to divide the event into general categories that may or may not relate to the internal accounting system.
This explanation will be valuable in the monitoring and final accounting. Clearly. brand image and corporate image. with additional space for dates. by profit centers (such as children's or spouse programs exhibits. changes. eight-page advance program announcements. such as signs. Other schemes include organization by day. The video monitors may cut into food and beverages or decoration. or events with add-on fees). office equipment and any of those areas directly controlled by the coordinator. Always the manager should go by the budget he might want the world but can the budget carry it all the way. furniture. A quick trip back to the purpose (goals and objectives) may provide guidance in additions and cuts.000 four color.Now that the coordinator has all that information. One the budget has been prepared and approved. These are divides into income items and expenditures. Audiovisual is one of those areas not easily controlled by the coordinator. by fixed and variable costs. Budget for "unanticipated extras" but also give staff and speakers deadlines for additions to the budget which the manager is on a tight budget. or 200 lunches at Rs. 59 . He must then explain exactly how he arrived at each cost figure-for example 2. and approval signatures SELLING SPONSORSHIPS Sponsorship has become an established communication tool for building brand awareness. What ever be the requirements the manager must at all times list every possible expense item and the estimated cost. especially if he leaves all options open to speakers. 150 plus 25 percent tax and gratuity times three days. additions may also mean cuts. some areas are easier to budget than others. attach a page for explanations of budget adjustments. he must organize the budget into categories. or by internal accounting codes.
Music. an event control sheet is generally made. all posters. Sponsorship: Who’s sponsoring whom and where. banners and hoardings which is of great benefit as the buyer now visualizes the media as described above and is more inclined to the event. 60 .It is important to write a good sponsorship proposal and sell it in the most effective and efficient manner: A good sponsorship proposal must include: A) Title of the event: The sponsor shall be entitled to have the event named after the brand nominated by the sponsor. Some of the examples are: Sl No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Company Pepsi Asian Paints MRF Seagram Lee Hero Cycles SAIL Colgate Products ITC Action Shoes Products/Brands Soft drinks Paints Tyres Liquor Jeans Motor Bikes Steel Manufacturing Dental Care Products Tobacco Products Shoes Event Category Sports. Films. which a sponsor receives. For example: Logo on advertising – the sponsor shall receive logos on all advertising related to the event. including all press advertisements. polo. and the sponsor will only be given based on the benefits. B) Background of the organizers and the events C) Types of Sponsorship available D) Details of benefits to various sponsors: This is the most important point. Fests Fairs and festivals Cricket Music Special Launches Hero Cup Football. cricket) Sports EVENT CONTROL SHEET In any event. which is the backbone of the proposal. It takes revenues and costs into account. Cricket Kite Festival Sports (Classic golf.
C Mr. N 98xxx 98xxx 98xxx 98xxx 98xxx 98xxx 98xxx 98xxx 98xxx 98xxx 98xxx 98xxx Responsibility Phone Revenues 765000 It is now clear that the project now needs another 5. H Mr. D Mr. F Mr. G Mr.A Hypothetical example: EVENT CONTROL SHEET Costs Head of expense Venue Artist Branding Travel Food Sound Lights Accommodation Total Cost Title Sponsor Associate Sponsor Associate Sponsor (2) Ticket Sales Total Revenues Units Days 3 3 10 5 200 1 1 10 Cost/Unit or Days 100000 50000 10000 3000 100 100000 50000 3000 Total Cost 30000 0 150000 10000 0 15000 20000 10000 0 50000 30000 765000 0 0 0 15000 0 0 0 15000 30000 200000 0 0 25000 225000 ` 540000 Sponsored Net Cash Out 30000 150000 10000 0 0 20000 10000 0 50000 15000 735000 Mr. K Mr. E Mr. A Mr.40. L Mr. Witht eh event control sheet in place. K Mr. AB Mr. KEY TRENDS IN THE INDUSTRY The trends of international events is fast catching on The year 2001-featured 20 international events in addition to the 2 annual events by the times group – The Fa Femina Miss India contest and The Manikchand Filmfare Awards 61 .000 to break-even. and will have to strategize as to how to bridge it. a firm will know how much the gap is.
the Gold flake ATP Tour World Doubles Tennis Championship at Bangalore (billings approximately Rs 65mn) and the Hero Honda championship at Delhi (billings approximately Rs 15mn) The trend of single city international events has been broken Concerts by international artists are now held in multiple cities as opposed to just one city earlier. Chennai. As a result. Accordingly. The Bryan Adams concert was held at Bangalore and Mumbai. especially international 62 . There were several blockbuster concerts by top international groups – Bryan Adams. The encouraging fact is that events. For instance. This trend can grow rapidly provided obstacles such as high levels of entertainment tax and cumbersome approval procedures are removed in many states. Deep Purple. 80mn). Hyderabad. The year 2000 featured 20 international events including several events on account of Millennium year effect. Calcutta. Scorpions Acoustica. The year 2001 saw three major events – the Goldfalke ATP Tour World Tennis Championship at Chennai (billings approximately Rs. Chandigarh. Venga Boys and M C Hammer. For instance. golf championships are increasingly catching the fancy of sports lovers in the country. Live sporting events are also becoming big budget entertainment events Live events (besides cricket) such as tennis championships. The practice of ticketing for events has been firmly established The free lunch for consumers of live entertainment is over and ticketing as a practice has been established. Multinational companies have made popular artists their brand ambassadors Multinational companies have realized the growing popularity of live entertainment and artists with the masses. Corporate sponsors are also spending huge sums of money on such events. Pepsi has appointed Adnan Sami as its brand ambassador while Coke has done the same with Aamir Khan. and Luck now – and Colombo in Sri Lanka. they are using such artists as ambassadors to promote their brands.ceremony. Cochin. the VengaBoys India Tour 2001 was a series of concerts across seven cities in India –Ahmedabad. there is a trend of an increasing number of international events in India.
the industry has taken the first step towards organized activity. Cases in evidence were the sold out shows of Bryan Adams. The city municipality receives revenue in the form of hire charges for the stadium or ground where the event is held. Single window for central government clearances for inbound foreign artists has been created Managing an international event has been made significantly easier with the Government of India (GoI) entrusting the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) with the role of providing a single window for all the central government clearances necessary for a foreign artist or group to travel to and perform in India. With this. The Indians event management industry moved a step towards organized activity The industry. an event also has a strong ripple effect on the economy. which has grown over the years in a rather disorganized manner and still largely comprises non-corporate entities. However the processing of applications has been centralized at RBI’s Headquarters in Mumbai. the concert of Scorpions Acoustica (audience of 25. instituted the Event management Association of India under the aegis of the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI). The event 63 .events.000). The state government receives entertainment tax from the sale of tickets. Key Issues & Challenges Besides generating revenues directly through sponsorships and ticket sales. GoI receives income tax revenues from the artist. This clearly brings out the value that Indians are attaching to quality live entertainment. were huge crowd pullers despite pricing of tickets. In case of a visiting foreign artist. The industry forum should assist the players in addressing and resolving industry issues that are stumbling blocks to growth.000) and Deep Purple (audience of over 30.
Mumbai has become quite unfavorable for events owing to a tax rate of 40%. While event managers wish to hold events in more cities. A high tax rate makes events unviable and therefore. Despite its revenue potential and spin off benefits. according to industry sources. and potential tax revenues from such events. Depeche Mode. it is but clear that several states need to reduce their tax rates in order to become favorable destinations for events. For instance. restaurants and transport as well as national industries such as airlines. in the year 2000 from June 15 to November 05. Global Comparison In developed countries in the west i. states that charge high rates will lose out on events. Besides music. which total tickets sales of US $ 1. It varies from 20% to 60%. Bangalore has become a preferred venue primarily because of a low tax of 10%. These are discussed below. railways and logistics. In contrast states that charge lower rates would attract more events and benefit fro m higher tax revenues. such an event gives an immense boost to the local industry such as hotels. there are also events for children like the Barney Circus tour. people from all over the country traveled to Bangalore and Mumbai for the Bryan Adams concert.08mn. the industry is facing several issues that are impeding its growth. performed 81 shows between Europe and North America. the high rates of entertainment tax on ticket sales in certain states are forcing them to avoid such states. the USA. The entertainment tax in India is much higher than in other Asian countries and varies from state to state. Most individual artists/ entertainment troupes perform anywhere between 60 to 80 shows in these markets. This is perhaps the biggest hurdle the industry is facing currently. live entertainment is a very organized and advanced industry.e.involves a large number of people traveling to the venue. Canada and European countries. Therefore. The industry has appealed to the government to levy a uniform entertainment duty across India. Hence. The Walt 64 . Entertainment tax The entertainment industry has to pay two main taxes namely entertainment and service taxes. For example. For instance. On the other hand.
On an average in a year. which work in tandem to promote and sell the music albums of popular artists. there are about 180 live entertainment shows in these markets playing at multiple venues. and fast catching up with them are Singapore. cities and countries. Magic Shows and a variety of other live entertainment events.Disney Circus Tour. the two other significantly established markets are Japan and Australia. The live entertainment business is also closely linked to the record music labels. Hong Kong and Bangkok. Besides western countries. Entertainment tax for live events in certain states State Assam Haryana Maharashtra Kerala Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Karnataka Tamil Nadu Andhra Pradesh Gujrat (Source: Industry) Tax rate (%) 130 50 49 33 23 17 10 Nil Nil Nil 65 .
Entertainment Tax for Live Events in Certain States Gujrat Karnataka Kerala Assam 0 50 Tax In % 100 150 Gujrat Andhra Pradesh Tamil Nadu Karnataka West Bengal Uttar Pradesh Kerala Maharashtra Haryana Assam 66 .
from the viewpoint of the client this would only desist clients from spending on events. Simultaneously.150 crore towards service tax for 200405 on the back of the enhanced rate and expanded net. More events would mean higher tax revenues for the GoI despite the reduction in tax rate. it would also give a great fillip to the live entertainment business in India. In most cases. Even if the industry passes the tax on to the clients. India has the potential to host many more international events every year provided GoI reduces the withholding tax rate to a more reasonable level. according to industry. At the local level. This will have a detrimental effect on industry. 18 different approvals are required from various agencies for staging an event. decentralization would speed up the approval process. artists require event managers to bear this tax burden. While the single window clearance facility with RBI has vastly facilitated central clearances. The Government has budgeted a target of Rs 14. Given this scenario. as a result of which events often become a non-starter. Regulatory clearances for events There are several clearances required at the central level (for an international event) and the state level. for organizing an event. State governments need to realize that they stand to gain substantially (in terms of higher entertainment tax revenues) if they make it easy and simple for event managers. 67 . Service tax The rate now proposed by the Budget is to be increased to 10 per cent from 8 per cent apart from a 2 per cent education cess on the tax element. Clearly the need of the hour is rationalization of taxes to a more manageable level of around 10%-15% across all states. A significant reason for Bangalore attracting many events is the helpful attitude adopted by the State government and city authorities towards the event management industry. on an average.6% from the remuneration paid to a foreign artist.Withholding tax on foreign artists’ remuneration As per existing regulation. the event manager is required to deduct tax at the rate of 30.
Business Standard Motoring and BBC Wheels all held car and bike awards for the year 2003-04. ability to benchmark performance and more accurate measurement of industry size and growth. ICICI Overdrive. There is need to create newer. poor equipment and inadequate facilities provided during events – what event Differentiation is the key. innovative event formats to capture target audience attention. within 2 months of each other. This is because the current infrastructure in the form of event venues of international quality and size is not adequate. the potential for growth within the industry is immense. CNBC Autocar. Corporatisation also assists in obtaining finance. Corporatisation Corporatisation is on the increase. international quality facilities in all major cities in India. Corporatisation will eventually result in increased accountability. supported by a network of hotels and domestic transport. Having highlighted the issues and possible solutions. The best example of this is the recent plethora of Auto Events. potential. as well as for promoter driven events. as it is seen in the form of shabby sets. as more and more clients source services from large companies who provide better quality end-to-end solutions using experts. the 2800 seater Shanmukhananda Hall is generally booked for over 95% of the year. Mumbai’s largest auditorium. Quality of services Quality of event execution remains poor in the main. Ideation The use and re-use of event formats are not only diluting their impact but also confusing customers. a key requirement for specialized players with high technology and equipment costs.Infrastructure Industry experts believe that there is a need for large. Innovative ideation also has a large export 68 .
) are key to ensure growth in the segment. Specialization is clearly the way forward. This can be achieved through ideation. Specialization is clearly proportional to the quality of the event. The flexibility to change event formats. 69 . expenses are authorized and timeless are adhered to. the demand for event remains robust. regulations etc. the focus will be on the project management to ensure promoter’s funds are deployed in correct manner. mechanics. However. an arena which India is now catching up with the West.managers attribute to the “chalta hai!” attitude. careful planning and detailed budgeting. Promoter driven events With the expected increase in the number of promoter driven events a few years down the line (where ticketing revenues are larger than sponsorship revenues) risk will devolve on the event manager. which is required to improve the quality of output. Training Training is another key initiative. create new types of events and execute them within the limitations of available infrastructure and resources (electricity. Correspondingly. A number of institutes like the event management development institute (emdi). Mudra institute of communication etc provide part time and full-length courses in event management. security. the lack of adequate number of specialists in many areas of event management still needs to b addressed. It also results in the availability of better event technology (lights. Fresh talent is generally absorbed directly into industry. which in turn provides more option to the customer and even reduces cost. Desired customer experience Given the large Indian population and growing per capita income. fireworks etc). national institute of event management. The key driver for success is the ability to provide the desired experience to customers so that their objectives are met.
FUTURE PROSPECTS It appears that the future growth of the event industries.. As the company grows. Currently. As the company becomes event savvy. and innovative ideation are the cornerstone for growth. “the current year has been good – and things can only get better!” On account of these factors the industry is expected to grow at a healthy rate of 30% per annum over the next 5 years. hinges on two critical factors – rationalization of laws and regulations by the government to facilitate a health growth of this industry and a mindset change amongst audiences long used to freebies to pay for their entertainment. materials etc may be acquired to cut costs in the long run. which can be achieved through a sharper focus on meeting customer needs. more companies will budget for events in annual plans in the future. Alliances with international event management companies. the profit margin is 15% annually. however with the growth of EMC’s and the price wars will see profitability fall. be it concert rock. initiatives like the Event Management Association are positive steps already initiated by the industry players.6. bn) 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 2001 2002 2003 2004P 2005P 2006P 70 . to a size of Rs 5. award ceremonies or the likes. stage. Total Live Entertainment Industry Revenues (Rs. Therefore. MD – Showtime Events puts it. pop or filmi. technological up gradation.bn in 2006. investment required may increase to include other assets like sound and light systems that are being outsourced. The huge potential for this industry needs to be harnessed through improved product quality. As Michael Menezes. assets like technology.
as it is targeted at the young adult.(Source: Industry estimates) CASE STUDY Background of the alcohol industry marketing The fundamental about alcohol marketing is that lower the alcohol content. Least Image building Required Most Image building Required Beer Wine Premixe Drinks Rum Hard Cocktails Whiskey White Spirits Bacardi & friends Bacardi is a leading international white spirit. and therefore the marketing is the challenge. the less the need for image and brand building. The product competes with other white spirits and also with beer. considering that dark rum is very cheap. 71 . it does not need as much brand building as the graph suggests. The product is more expensive than others in the category. From the graph below it can be understood that white spirits need significant brand building. In India.
Bacardi took into account the fact that they already had some kind of database. Obviously. What if they invited all on their database. The commercial portray “Bacardi” values of good music. where each invitee was given the “honor” of bringing along another five friends. how do you know they will “gel” together? The solution: Bacardi & Friends To solve the first problem. and beautiful people. or had attended earlier Bacardi events. The Task: Bacardi needs to do the following: 1) Demonstrate the Bacardi experience on ground 2) Encourage sampling 3) Build Relationship with customers. Problem 1: How do you ensure that all those invited to an event are likely to be drinkers? Solution: Get a database of drinkers! Problem 2: If you are inviting customers at random. and asked each guest to bring along five friends? Bacardi’s database was consumers who had tried the brand earlier. sand and surf…. drinkers as well. 72 .Bacardi advertises on television. Bacardi rolled out a new property called “Bacardi & Friends”. Note: Bacardi also wants to ensure that the people they communicate with are inclined to drink alcohol and would end up as unofficial ambassadors for the brand. It was completely reasonable to assume that friends of their invitees were likely to be people like them.. sun. In other words. The general take out is that of a great beach party. consumption of a colorless drink is a part of the commercial.
B. Strategy should ensure that very few non-drinkers attend. TV parties and so on. Requirements: Concept. This ensured that all the guests at the party had something in common other than alcohol. 18-25. These will include: The brand The target audience The objective The budget The campaign period The geographical target For the Bacardi & Friends example given earlier. All budgets to be included in the presentation to the client. invitations. to ensure sampling Budget: Rs 5 lakhs Campaign Period: October Geographical Target: South Mumbai Task: Create an event. Recommendation of venue. they announced B&F advertising parties. and reach as many new consumers as possible. merchandise. entertainment. Hi Summary Writing a below the line brief All briefs need to have some basic details. branding at venue. and therefore were to enjoy each other’s company. whether the task is below the line or above the line. 73 .In order to ensure that these possibly unconnected consumers would “gel” Bacardi created a variant of the party. which will reinforce the Bacardi image. M/F Objective: to increase brand salience. Event should have adequate values for PR. all collaterals including posters. C+. the brief could have been something along the following lines: Brand: Bacardi Target Audience: SEC A.
cumbersome clearance procedures at the local level and lack of exhibition infrastructure are the chief stumbling blocks to growth. High entertainment tax in certain states.CONCLUSION From a fledging industry. also hold out significant potential for event managers. The future is expected to see more events. live entertainment is becoming big business. especially international events. Television channels. are expected to commission more events and also buy telecast rights of events. hitherto untapped. drawing larger crowds and leading to higher ticket sales. 74 . Revenue sources such as merchandising rights and internet rights. the proposed service tax. GoI and the state governments should address and resolve these issues as they stand to benefit considerably from the industry’s growth. and are using the opportunity to market their brands to a focused audience. Large corporates are sponsoring events. high withholding tax on foreign artist payments. in their relentless quest for viewer ship.
In both cases. In comparison to these benefits.REMARKS Going forward. the cost of sponsoring an event is reasonably small. Commercial exploitation of merchandising and interest rights in future by event managers would further boost industry growth. the live entertainment business is set to show strong growth on account of several factors. the number of international events is expected to increase rapidly. ticket revenue are also expected to show a steady increase in future. especially international events are drawing people in large numbers. 75 . Television networks can either commission events for their channels or buy telecast rights of events from event managers. Live entertainment events. Events score over conventional mass media in several ways. Once regulatory and taxation obstacles are over come and multi city events become an established norm. International artist too are making India a part of their global concert tour. For those reasons.exclusive coverage for the sponsors. companies are expected to take to sponsoring events in a big way. Events are fast becoming an integral part of the marketing strategy of companies. Hence. the industry stands to gain. Television channels are looking for driver programmes to boost viewer ship and events offer a unique genre of programming. a huge captive audience to watch brand advertising and opportunity for product trial so that product attributes can be effectively conveyed to the target audience.
BIBLIOGRAPHY No 1 2 3 4 5 Title Event Marketing & management The Indian Entertainment Industry Festival & Special Event Management The Event Management Development Institute: A Handbook Special event: Twenty first century global event management Joe Goldblatt Author Sanjay Saggere Ernst & Young Johnny Allen QUESTIONNAIRE Quantitative 1) Competitors No Before 3 years Now After 3 years Many Some Few 2) Industry Growth Rate 3) Favor ability of the government policy 4) Capital requirement 5) Proportion of event budget to total media budget 6) Are EMC’s linked to each other in any way for co-operation 7) Can EMC’s profitably integrate into other media s such as ads etc 8) Differentiation in the management styles 76 .