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Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B.

Measurements 1 of 81
EEG 383 Electrical Measurements and
Instrumentations
CHAPTER 5
Basic Electric Quantities Measurement
Prof. Fawzy Ibrahim
Electronics and Communication Department
Misr International University (MIU)
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Chapter Contents
5.1 Types of Meters
5.1.1 Analog Meters
5.1.2 Digital Meters
5.2 Permanent Magnet Moving Coil (PMMC) Meter
5.2.1 Construction
5.2.2 Theory of Operation
5.3 DC Ammeter and DC Current Measurement
5.3.1 Ammeter Full Scale Deflection (FSD) Extension
5.3.2 Ammeter Disturbance due to Measurement
5.3.3 Multi-Range Ammeter
5.4 DC Voltmeter and DC Voltage Measurement
5.4.1 Voltmeter Full Scale Deflection (FSD) Extension
5.4.2 Voltmeter Disturbance due to Measurement
5.4.3 Multi-Range Voltmeter
5.4.4 Ammeter and Voltmeter Accuracy
5.4.5 Voltmeter Sensitivity
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Chapter Contents
5.5 Ohmmeter
5.5.1 Ohmmeter Construction
5.5.2 Ohmmeter Design
5.5.3 Multirange Accuracy
5.6 Multimeter
5.7 Digital Measuring Instruments
5.7.1 Digital Measuring Instruments Block Diagram
5.7.2 Multirange Digital Ammeter
5.7.3 Digital Voltmeter
5.7.4 Multirange Digital Ohmmeter
5.8 Analog AC Measurement
5.8.1 D Arsonval or PMMC meter on AC Measurements
5.8.2 Root Mean Square (RMS) versus Mean of AC Signal
5.8.3 Full-wave rectifier (AC) Ammeters and Voltmeters
5.8.4 Precision Rectifier Circuits
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Chapter Contents
5.9 Resistance Measurement
5.9.1 Resistance Measurement using Ohmmeter
5.9.2 Resistance Measurement using Wheatstone Bridge
5.10 Inductance Measurement
5.10.1 Inductor Equivalent Circuit
5.10.2 Inductor Quality Factor (Q)
5.10.3 Inductance Measurement using Q-Meter
5.10.4 Inductance Measurement using AC Voltmeter
5.10.5 Inductance Measurement using AC Bridges
5.11 Capacitance Measurement
5.10.1 Inductor Equivalent Circuit
5.11.2 Capacitor Dissipation Factor (D)
5.11.3 Capacitance Measurement using Q-Meter
5.11.4 Capacitance Measurement using AV Voltmeter
5.11.5 Capacitance Measurement using AC Bridges
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5.1 Types of Meters
Analog instruments use analog meters which are relatively simple and
inexpensive. Analog meters are electromechanical devices that drive a pointer
against a scale as shown in Fig. 5.1.
All types of analog meters are basically modified forms of the analog ammeter,
irrespective of the quantity that they are designed to measure.
Analog meters are designed to measure quantities other than current using
appropriate electrical circuits convert voltage or resistance measurement
signals into current signals.
Advantages
Analog instruments cab be passive instruments that do not need a power
supply. They are relatively simple and inexpensive.
They suffer less from noise and isolation problems.
Disadvantages
They are prone to measurement errors from a number of sources that include
inaccurate scale marking during manufacture, bearing friction, bent pointers
and ambient temperature variations.
Human errors are introduced through parallax error (not reading the scale from
directly above) and mistakes in interpolating between scale markings.
Quoted inaccuracy figures are between 0.1% and 3%.
5.1.1 Analog Meters
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5.1 Types of Meters
Fig. 5.1 Different shapes of analog meters
5.1.1 Analog Meters
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5.1 Types of Meters
Digital instruments use digital meter which are shown in Fig. 5.1.
All types of digital meter are basically modified forms of the digital voltmeter
(DVM), irrespective of the quantity that they are designed to measure.
Digital meters designed to measure quantities other than voltage are in fact
digital voltmeters that contain appropriate electrical circuits to convert current or
resistance measurement signals into voltage signals.
Digital multimeters are also essentially digital voltmeters that contain several
conversion circuits, thus allowing the measurement of voltage, current and
resistance within one instrument.
Advantages
Digital meters have been developed to satisfy a need for higher measurement
accuracies and a faster speed of response to voltage changes than can be
achieved with analogue instruments.
Quoted inaccuracy figures are between 0.005%) and 2%.
They have very high input impedance (10 M compared with 120 k for
analog meters.
Disadvantages
They have a greater cost due to the higher manufacturing costs compared with
analogue meters.
5.1.2 Digital Meters
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5.1 Types of Meters
Fig. 5.1 Different shapes of digital meters
5.1.2 Digital Meters
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5.2 Permanent Magnet Moving Coil (PMMC) Meter
A moving-coil or D Arsonval meter is a very commonly used form of analog
instrument because of its sensitivity, accuracy and linear scale.
D Arsonval meter as shown in Fig. 5.5 consists of a rectangular coil wound
round a soft iron core that is suspended in the field of a permanent magnet.
5.2.1 Construction
1. Permanent magnet with two soft iron pole shoes to provide the magnetic field.
2. Moving coil wounded over a core of a rectangular or cylinder shape former
which is pivoted on jeweled bearing. The frame is usually made of Al or iron to
provide the required electromagnetic damping. The coil rotates between the
pole shoes.
3. Two control spiral springs are made of phosphor bronze hair springs are
used to control the movement. They are also serve to lead the current in and
out of the coil.
4. Pointer and Calibrated Scale: The pointer is of light weight construction
carried by the spindle and moves over a graduated scale.
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5.2 Permanent Magnet Moving Coil (PMMC) Meter (Continued)
Fig. 5.3 Construction of PMMC or D Arsonval meters
5.2.1 Construction
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5.2 Permanent Magnet Moving Coil (PMMC) Meter (Continued)
The signal being measured is applied to the coil and this produces a radial
magnetic field.
Interaction between this induced field and the field produced by the permanent
magnet causes a torque, which results in rotation of the coil.
The amount of rotation of the coil is measured by attaching a pointer to it that
moves past a graduated scale.
A deflection instruments uses a pointer that moves over a calibrated scale to
indicate a measured quantity.
For this to occur, three forces are operating in the electromechanical movement
as follows:
1. Deflecting Force: lets the pointer moves from its zero position when a current
flows.
2. Controlling Force:
- Returns the pointer to its zero position when the current is disconnected.
- Balances the deflecting force so that for constant current, the pointer
remains stationary at the appropriate position on the scale.
3. Damping Force: minimizes the oscillation of the pointer.
5.2.2 Theory of Operation
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5.2 Permanent Magnet Moving Coil (PMMC) Meter (Continued)
1. Deflecting Force and Deflecting Torque:
When a current I flows through a one-turn of the coil of length L situated in a
magnetic filed of a magnetic flux B, a force F is exerted on each side of the
coil, as shown in Fig.5.4, which is given by:
Since any turn of the coil has a rectangular shape, then the same force will act
on the other side. Therefore the total force per one turn is:
And the total force for N turns, deflecting force, is:
The Force on each side acts on each side
of the coil at a radius r (radius of the
cylinder base), producing a deflecting torque:
Where, A is the surface area enclosed by the coil.
5.2.2 Theory of Operation
Fig. 5.4 The deflection force in PMMC or D Arsonval meters
L I B F =
(5.1)
[Newton]
L I B F 2 =
(5.2) [Newton]
LN I B F
D
2 = [Newton] (5.3)
A N I B r N L I B r N L I B T
D
= = = 2 2 (5.4)
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5.2 Permanent Magnet Moving Coil (PMMC) Meter (Continued)
1. Deflecting Force and Deflecting Torque:
Clearly the deflection torque, for a given PMMC, is directly proportional to the
coil current only.
Thus the deflecting angle () is directly proportional to the coil current only.
2. Controlling Force and Controlling Torque:
The two spiral springs are used to produce the controlling and damping forces.
The controlling and damping forces cause controlling torque (T
C
).
T
C
is directly proportional to the deformation (or wind up) of the springs which
in turn proportional to actual angle of deflection () of the pointer. Its given by:
For a given deflection (current), the pointer gets to rest when:
K
1
is a constant. Then
K
2
is another constant. Clearly the deflection angle, , for a given PMMC, is
directly proportional to the coil current only.
Thus if the scale is calibrated by the amount of current that produce the
corresponding , the PMMC can be used to measure the current.
5.2.2 Theory of Operation
o
C
K T =
(5.5)

1
K BINA T T
C D
= = (5.6)
I K
2
=
(5.7)
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5.2 Permanent Magnet Moving Coil (PMMC) Meter (Continued)
Notes:
1. The current in the coil of the PMMC instrument must flow in one particular
direction to cause the pointer moves from its zero position over the scale.
2. If the current is reversed, the pointer will rotate to left of the zero position (off
the scale). Thus the PMMC instrument can be used to measure the dc currents
only.
3. A PMMC meter can be used to measure very small currents.
4. For a PMMC meter to measure high current or quantities other than current
they are modified by using appropriate electronic circuits to convert voltage or
resistance measurement signals into current signals as will be discussed in the
next sections.
5.2.2 Theory of Operation
For a given PMMC instrument, there is a maximum rated current that produces
full-scale deflection of the indicator (FSD) as shown in Fig. 5.5 (a).
A typical FSD current rating for a moving meters is I
FS
= 50 A, with internal
wire resistance, R
m
= 1 k.
5.3.1 Ammeter Full Scale Deflection (FSD) Extension
To increase the range of measured current, a shunt resistance (R
sh
) is
connected in parallel to the instrument as shown in Fig. 5.5 (b).
R
sh
must be small relative to the internal resistance of the PMMC instrument
(R
m
) to allow a big portion of the measured current pass thought it.
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5.3 DC Ammeter and DC Current Measurement
Fig. 5.5 DC Ammeter : (a) Basic circuit; (b) FSD Expansion
(a)
(b)
5.3.1 Ammeter Full Scale Deflection (FSD) Extension
I is total current to be measured, I
FS
, I
sh
are the currents of R
m
and R
sh
respectively and V
m
is the voltage drop across R
m
(i.e. it also across the
PMMC) which is given by:
Total current to be measured (I) is given by:
Clearly I is linearly proportional with I
FS
, then the scale can be calibrated upon
the value of I instead of I
FS
.
Note that, the shunt resistance required to provide an extended FSD (I
FSD
) is
given by:
Notes:
1. Ammeters are connected in series with the test circuit.
2. Ideally they should have zero resistance, so that they cause no voltage drop.
3. Practical ammeters should have internal resistance much lower than that of the
circuit being tested.
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5.3 DC Ammeter and DC Current Measurement (Continued)
sh m
m
sh m
m sh FS
R R
V
R R
V I I I
//
1 1
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = + =
(5.8)
FS EFS
m
sh
sh
m
FS EFS sh
I I
V
R
R
V
I I I

= = =
m FS m
R I V =
(5.9)
(5.10)
5.3.1 Ammeter Full Scale Deflection (FSD) Extension
Example 5.1
using PMMC or DArsonval meter characterized by the full scale current,
I
FS
= 100 A and internal resistance, R
m
= 100 , design a DC Ammeter to
have an extended full scale rang I
EFS
= 1 mA:
Solution
From (5.8), V
m
, the voltage drop across, R
m
or PMMC is calculated as:
From (5.10), R
sh
, the shunt resistance
required to provide the extended FSD
(I
EFS
) is given by:
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5.3 DC Ammeter and DC Current Measurement (Continued)
O = =

=
11 . 11
9 . 0
10
1 . 0 1
10
mA
mV
mA mA
mV
I I
V
R
FS EFS
m
sh
mV x x R I V
m FS m
10 100 10 100
6
= = =

5.3.2 Ammeter disturbance due to measurement
Ammeters are connected in series with the test circuit. Ideally they should have
zero resistance, if , R
m
= zero , the impact on the circuit to be measured or
Ammeter disturbance is calculated as follows:
Example 5.2: Determine the error in the reading of the currents in the
circuit shown in Fig. 5.6 if R
1
= 3 O, R
2
= 1.5 O, V = 2V and the internal
resistance of the Ammeter is R
m
= 0.5 O.
Solution
With no ammeter connected:
I
1
(of R
1
) = 2/ 3= 0.667A
I
2
= 2/ 1.5= 1.333A
With an ammeter, of R
m
=0.5
I
1
= 2/ 3.5= 0.571A
I
2
= 1.333A (no error)
I
1
=(0.667-0.57 )/0.667=14.4%
With an ammeter, of R
m
= 1.5
I
1
= 0.667A (no error) and I
2
= 1A.
I
2
=(1.333-1 )/1.333=25% Fig. 5.6
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5.3 DC Ammeter and DC Current Measurement (Continued)
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5.3 DC Ammeter and DC Current Measurement (Continued)
5.3.3 Multi-range Ammeter
Several shunt resistances are connected to perform a Multi-range Ammeter as
shown in Fig. 5.7 (a). Clearly
Fig. 5.7(a) Multirange Ammeter
FS EFS sh sh FS EFS
I I II I I I
i i i i
= + =
i
m m
sh i sh m m m
R
R I
I R I R I V
i i
= = =
FS EFS
m FS
FS EFS
m
shi
I I
R I
I I
V
R
i i

=
(5.12)
(5.11)
(5.13)
5.3.3 Multi-range Ammeter
For the previous multi-range ammeter, a make-before-break switch must be
used to avoid destroying the PMMC instrument due to high current that may
pass through the coil during transition from position to another.
Another method that avoid using make-before-break switch is shown in Fig.
5.7(b).
) 1 (
4 3 2 1
1
s s s s
m
FS s
R R R R
R
I I
+ + +
+ =
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5.3 DC Ammeter and DC Current Measurement (Continued)
Fig. 5.7 (b) Multirange Ammeter
(5.15)
(5.16)
(5.14)
t sh
s m FS m
R I R I V = =
'
) 1 (
'
st
m
FS sh FS
R
R
I I I I
si
+ = + =
) 1 (
4
3 2 1
4
R
R R R R
I I
s s s m
FS
s
+ + +
+ =
) 1 (
4 3
2 1
3
s s
s s m
FS s
R R
R R R
I I
+
+ +
+ =
) 1 (
4 3 2
1
2
s s s
s m
FS s
R R R
R R
I I
+ +
+
+ =
(5.18)
(5.19)
(5.17)
5.3.3 Multi-range Ammeter
Example 5.3
using PMMC or DArsoval meter characterized by the full scale current,
I
FS
= 100 A and internal resistance, R
m
= 500 , design a multirange DC
Ammeter to measure current in the following ranges:
(a) 0 to 1 mA (b) 0 to 10 mA (c) 0 to 100 mA
Solution
(a) From (5.8), V
m
, the voltage drop across, R
m
or PMMC is calculated as:
From (5.10), R
shi
, is given by:
(b)
(c)
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 21 of 81
5.3 DC Ammeter and DC Current Measurement (Continued)
O =

== 55 . 55
1 . 0 1
50
1
mA mA
mV
R
sh
mV x x R I V
m FS m
50 500 10 100
6
= = =

FS EFS
m
sh
I I
V
R

=
O =

== 05 . 5
1 . 0 10
50
2
mA mA
mV
R
sh
O =

= 5 . 0
1 . 0 100
50
3
mA mA
mV
R
sh
The deflection angle of a PMMC instrument is directly proportional to the
current flowing through the moving coil.
Coil current is directly proportional to the voltage across the coil (V
m
=I
m
R
m
).
So to let PMMC instrument works as DC voltmeter, the scale of the PMMC
instrument could be calibrated to indicate the voltage across the coil, given by:
Most meters are very sensitive. That is, they give full-scale deflection for a
small fraction of an ampere.
A typical FSD current rating for a moving coil meters is I
FS
= 50 A, with internal
wire resistance of R
m
= 1 k. With no additional circuitry, the maximum voltage
that can be measured using this meter is V
FS
= 50 x 10
-6
x 1000 = 0.05 V as
shown in Fig. 5.8 (a).
Thus additional circuitry is needed for the measurement of high voltages
(practical measurements).
To increase the range of measured voltage a series resistance (R
multiplier
or R
s
)
is connected in series with the instrument as shown in Fig. 5.8 (b).
This series resistance must be large relative to the internal resistance of the
PMMC instrument (R
m
) to let small portion of the measured voltage to be
dropped across R
m
.
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5.4 DC Voltmeter and DC Voltage Measurement
m FS FS
R I V =
(5.20)
5.4.1 Voltmeter Full Scale Deflection (FSD) Extension
The Extended Full Scale Deflection (EFSD) is then increased to:
For a given required EFSD voltage, the multiplier resistance, Rs, is chosen as:
e.g. to provide a voltmeter with EFSD reading of 10 V with the given meter
(I
FSD
= 1 mA, R
m
= 500 ):
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5.4 DC Voltmeter and DC Voltage Measurement
Fig. 5.8 DC Ammeter : (a) Basic circuit; (b) FSD Expansion
(a)
(b)
) (
s m FS EFS
R R I V + =
m
FS
EFS
s
R
I
V
R =
O = =

k R
s
5 . 9 500
10
10
3
(5.21)
(5.22)
5.4.1 Voltmeter Full Scale Deflection (FSD) Extension
Example 5.4
using PMMC or DArsonval meter characterized by the full scale current,
I
FS
= 100 A and internal resistance, R
m
= 100 , design a DC Voltmeter to
have an extended full scale rang V
EFS
= 100 mV:
Solution
From (5.20), V
m
, the voltage drop across, R
m
or PMMC is calculated as:
From (5.22), R
sh
, the series resistance
required to provide the extended FSD
(V
EFS
) is given by:
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5.4 DC Voltmeter and DC Voltage Measurement (Continued)
mV x x R I V
m FS m
10 100 10 100
6
= = =

O = O O =
= =
k k k
mA
mV
R
I
V
R
m
FS
EFS
s
9 . 0 1 . 0 1
100
1 . 0
100
5.4.1 Voltmeter Full Scale Deflection (FSD) Extension
Notes:
1. Voltmeters are connected in parallel with the circuit under test.
2. Current is drawn from the circuit through the voltmeter, and may affect the
voltage being measured.
3. Ideally, a voltmeter has infinite resistance, so that no current is drawn from the
test circuit.
4. Practically, voltmeter has finite high resistance, so that small current is drawn
from the test circuit and cause an error called loading error.
5. Practical voltmeter should have a much higher resistance than that of the circuit
under test to decrease the loading error.
6. There will always be some degree of loading even if the voltmeter resistance is
much larger than that of the circuit under test.
7. Loading can be minimized by using electronic voltmeter.
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5.4 DC Voltmeter and DC Voltage Measurement (Continued)
5.4.2 Voltmeter disturbance due to measurement
A Voltmeter are connected in parallel with the test circuit. Ideally they should
have zero resistance, if , R
m
= , the impact on the circuit to be measured or
Voltmeter disturbance is calculated as follows:
Example 5.5: Determine the error in the reading of the voltage across R
2
in the
circuit shown in Fig. 5.9 if R
1
= R
2
= 250 MO, V = 24 V, using PMMC with the full
scale current I
FS
= 100 A and the internal resistance of the Voltmeter
R
m
= 10 MO.
Solution
With no Voltmeter connected:
With a Voltmeter of R
m
=10 M
total resistance across V
O
:
V
O
=(12-0.89 )/12 = 11.11V or 96.3%.
This example is extreme in that the resistance
of the voltmeter is less than that of the test circuit. Fig. 5.9
Repeat this example for a voltmeter has R
m
=500 M.
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 26 of 81
5.4 DC Voltmeter and DC Voltage Measurement (Continued)
V V M M M V
o
12 24 ) 250 250 /( 250 = O + O O =
O = O O = M M M R
o
615 . 9 10 // 250
V V M M M V
o
89 . 0 24 ) 615 . 9 250 /( 615 . 9 = O + O O =
5.4.3 Multi-range Voltmeter
Multi-range Voltmeter is obtained by connecting several series resistances as
shown in Fig. 5.10 (a). Clearly the extended voltages are given by:
and the resistance R
si
is
calculated form (5.22) as:
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 27 of 81
5.4 DC Voltmeter and DC Voltage Measurement (Continued)
Fig. 5.10(a) Multirange Voltmeter
(5.23)
) (
) (
1 1
si m FS i EFS
s m FS EFS
R R I V
R R I V
+ =
+ =
m
FS
EFSi
si
R
I
V
R =
5.4.3 Multi-range Voltmeter
Example 5.6
using PMMC or DArsonval meter characterized by the full scale current,
I
FS
= 1 mA and internal resistance, R
m
= 500 , design a multirange DC
Voltmeter to measure voltages in the following ranges:
(a) 0 to 1 V (b) 0 to 10 V (c) 0 to 100 V (d) 0 to 1000 V
Solution From (5.20), V
m
, the voltage drop across, R
m
is calculated as:
(a) From (5.22), R
si
, is given by:
(b)
(c)
(d)
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 28 of 81
5.4 DC Voltmeter and DC Voltage Measurement (Continued)
O = O = 500 500
1
1
4
mA
V
R
s
V x x R I V
m FS m
5 . 0 500 10 1
3
= = =

O = = k
mA
V
R
s
5 . 9 500
1
10
3
m
FS
EFSi
si
R
I
V
R =
O = = k
mA
V
R
s
5 . 99 500
1
100
2
O = = k
mA
V
R
s
5 . 999 500
1
1000
1
5.4.3 Multi-range Voltmeter
A more practical circuit is shown in Fig. 10 (b). For each successively higher
voltage range, more multiplier resistors are added in by switching.
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 29 of 81
5.4 DC Voltmeter and DC Voltage Measurement (Continued)
Fig. 5.7 (b) Multirange Voltmeter
(5.24)
) (
2 1 2 s s m FS ESD
R R R I V + + =
m
FS
EFS
s
FS
EFS
s m
R
I
V
R
I
V
R R = = +
1
1
1
1
) (
1
2
2 s m
FS
EFS
s
R R
I
V
R + =
) (
2 1
3
3 s s m
FS
EFS
s
R R R
I
V
R + + =
) (
1 1 s m FS EFS
R R I V + =
) (
3 2 1 3 s s s m FS ESD
R R R R I V + + + =
) (
4 3 2 1 4 s s s s m FS ESD
R R R R R I V + + + + =
(5.24a)
) (
3 2 1
4
4 s s s m
FS
EFS
s
R R R R
I
V
R + + + =
(5.24b)
(5.24c)
(5.24d)
5.4.3 Multi-range Voltmeter
Example 5.7: using PMMC or DArsonval meter characterized by the full scale
current, I
FS
= 1 mA and internal resistance, R
m
= 500 , design a multirange
DC Voltmeter to measure voltages in the following ranges:
(a) 0 to 1 V (b) 0 to 10 V (c) 0 to 100 V (d) 0 to 1000 V
Solution: From (5.20), V
m
, the voltage drop across, R
m
is calculated as:
(a) From (5.24), R
si
, is given by:
(b)
(c)
(d)
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 30 of 81
5.4 DC Voltmeter and DC Voltage Measurement (Continued)
mV x x R I V
m FS m
5 . 0 500 10 1
3
= = =

O = = = 500 500
1
1
1
1
mA
V
R
I
V
R
m
FS
EFS
s
O = O = + = k k
mA
V
R R
I
V
R
s m
FS
EFS
s
9 1
1
10
) (
1
2
2
O = O = k k
mA
V
R
s
90 10
1
100
3
O = O = k k
mA
V
R
s
900 100
1
1000
4
5.4.3 Multi-range Voltmeter
Example 5.8: using PMMC or DArsonval meter characterized by the full scale
current, I
FS
= 100 A and internal resistance, R
m
= 100 , design a multirange
DC Voltmeter to measure voltages in the following ranges:
(a) 0 to 100 mV (b) 0 to 1 V (c) 0 to 10 V (d) 0 to 100 V
Solution: From (5.20), V
m
, the voltage drop across, R
m
is calculated as:
(a) From (5.24), R
si
, is given by:
(b)
(c)
(d)
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 31 of 81
5.4 DC Voltmeter and DC Voltage Measurement (Continued)
mV x x R I V
m FS m
10 100 10 100
6
= = =

O = = = 900 100
100
100
1
1
A
mV
R
I
V
R
m
FS
EFS
s

O = O = + = k k
A
V
R R
I
V
R
s m
FS
EFS
s
9 1
100
1
) (
1
2
2

O = O = k k
A
V
R
s
90 10
100
10
3

O = O = k k
A
V
R
s
900 100
100
100
4

5.4.4 Ammeter and Voltmeter Accuracy


The accuracy of Ammeter and Voltmeter is only decided by the accuracy of the
PMMC meter.
Example 5.9: Ammeter Accuracy
An ammeter shows the accuracy to 1% of full scale deflection, if full scale is
I
FS
= 400 A, find the absolute and relative errors as the pointer stays at :
(a) 100 A (b) 200 A (c) 400 A.
Solution: The absolute error = I
FS
x Inaccuracy = 400 x 1% = 4 A
(a) The reading at 100 A = 100 4 = 96 A~104 A = 100 A 4%
(b) The reading at 200 A = 200 4 = 196 A~204 A = 200 A 2%
(c) The reading at 400 A = 400 4 = 396 A~404 A = 400 A 1%
Example 5.10: Voltmeter Accuracy
A voltmeter shows the accuracy to 0.1% of full scale deflection, if full scale is
V
FS
= 10 V, find the absolute and relative errors as the pointer stays at:
(a) 2 V (b) 6 V (c) 8 V.
Solution: The absolute error = V
FS
x Inaccuracy = 10 x 0.1% = 0.01 V
(a) The reading at 2 V = 2 0.01 = 1.99V~2.01V = 2 V 0.5%
(b) The reading at 6 V = 6 0.01 = ) 5.99V~6.01V = 6 V 0.17%
(c) The reading at 8 V = 8 0.01 = ) 7.99V~8.01V = 8 V 0.125%
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 32 of 81
5.4 DC Voltmeter and DC Voltage Measurement (Continued)
5.4.5 Voltmeter Sensitivity
It is amount of resistance per one volt.
The sensitivity of a Voltmeter is always specified by the manufacturer and is
frequently printed on scale of the instrument.
Example 5.11
using PMMC or DArsonval meter characterized by the full scale current,
I
FS
= 100 A and internal resistance, R
m
= 1 k, Determine the required
multiplier resistance R
s
if the Voltmeter is to measure 50 V as a full scale and
calculate its sensitivity.
Solution:
From (5.22), R
s
, is given by:
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 33 of 81
5.4 DC Voltmeter and DC Voltage Measurement (Continued)
V
R R
m s
/
V V
R
y Sensitivit Voltmeter
EFS EFS
t
O
+
= =
(5.25)
O = O O = O = =

k k k k
x
V
R
I
V
R
m
FS
EFS
s
499 1 500 1
10 100
50
6
V k
V
k
/ 10
50
500
V
R
y Sensitivit Voltmeter
FSD
t
O =
O
= =
The simplest ohmmeter circuit consists of a battery; standard resistance (R
st
)
and PMMC meter are connected in series and R
x
is the resistance to be
measured as shown in Fig. 5.8(a).
The current that flows through the resistance is inversely proportion with the
value of the resistance. So the scale can be calibrated to indicate the
resistance value.
Since the basic meter indicates in response to current flowing through it, a
voltage source is needed to supply current to a resistor under test.
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 34 of 81
5.5 Ohmmeter
Fig. 5.8 (a) Basic circuit of ohmmeter; (b) Ohmmeter scale
(a)
(b)
5.5.1 Ohmmeter Construction
Notes:
1. Clearly the ohmmeter scale is a nonlinear scale as shown in Fig. 5.8(b).
2. Since the measured resistance depends on the voltage of the battery, a very
stable battery is required.
3. Resistors cannot be measured when connected in a circuit, because different
voltage sources would interfere.
The coil current is given by:
Its range is found as follows:
Under short circuit conditions, i.e. R
x
= 0 , R
st
is selected to give I
FS
. So the I
FS
position is marked by zero ohms.
Under open circuit conditions, i.e. R
x
= , the current will be zero and the
needle points to the far left (zero current) and is marked by infinity ohms.
From (5.26), the value of the resistance R
x
is given by:
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 35 of 81
5.5 Ohmmeter (Continued)
m st x
s
m
R R R
E
I
+ +
=
m st
s
FS
R R
E
I
+
=
(5.26)
(5.27)
( )
m st
m
s
x
R R
I
E
R + =
(5.28)
5.5.2 Ohmmeter Design
Example 5.11: The ohmmeter in Fig. 5.8 (a) is made of a battery, E
s
= 1.5 V, a
PMMC or DArsonval meter characterized by the full scale current, I
FS
= 100 A
and internal resistance, R
m
= 1 k.do the following:
(a) Calculate the standard resistance, R
st
.
(b) Determine the instrument indication when R
X
= 0.
(c) Determine how the resistance scale should be marked at 0.25 I
FS
, 0.5 I
FS
, and
0.75 I
FS.
Solution: (a) From (5.27), standard resistance, R
st
, is given by:
(b) When R
X
= 0, the instrument indication is calculated from (5.26) as:
(c) At 0.25 I
FS
(25 A), the resistance scale is determined from (5.28) as:
At 0.5 I
FS
,(50 A)
At 0.75 I
FS
,(75 A)
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 36 of 81
5.5 Ohmmeter (Continued)
O = O O = O = =
+
=

k k k k
x
R
I
E
R
R R
E
I
m
FS
s
st
m st
s
FS
14 1 15 1
10 100
5 . 1
6
A
k k R R R
E
I
m st x
s
m
100
1 14 0
5 . 1
=
+ +
=
+ +
=
or Full Scale Deflection (FSD).
( ) O = O O = + = + =

k k k k k
x
R R
I
E
R
m st
m
s
x
45 15 60 ) 1 14 (
10 25
5 . 1
6
( ) O = O O = + = + =

k k k k k
x
R R
I
E
R
m st
m
s
x
15 15 30 ) 1 14 (
10 50
5 . 1
6
( ) O = O O = + = + =

k k k k k
x
R R
I
E
R
m st
m
s
x
5 15 20 ) 1 14 (
10 75
5 . 1
6
The series resistance ohmmeter can be converted to a multirange ohmmeter by
employing several values of the standard resistance (R
st
) and a rotary switch as
shown in Fig. 5.9.
The main disadvantage of such a circuit is the need for zero adjustment for
each time the scale is change.
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 37 of 81
5.5 Ohmmeter (Continued)
5.5.1 Multirange Ohmmeter
Fig. 5.9 (a) Multirange ohmmeter
The accuracy of ohmmeter is dominated by following conditions:
1. The battery aging.
2. The accuracy of PMMC meter.
3. The measurement technique.
Note: It is clear that the ohmmeter scale is nonlinear. The useful range of the
ohmmeter scale is seen to be approximately from 10% to 81% of FSD.
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 38 of 81
5.5 Ohmmeter (Continued)
5.5.3 Multirange Accuracy
Simple voltmeter / ammeter
Different connections are
provided for voltmeter and
ammeter functions, one
structure is shown in Fig. 5.10.
This prevents damage caused
by connected the ammeter
across a large voltage. An
ohmmeter function may be
added by including a battery and
a suitable series resistor, R
st
.
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 39 of 81
5.6 Multimeter
Fig. 5.10 Multirange multimeter
Since voltmeters, ammeters and ohmmeters are all based on moving coil
meters with resistors (and a battery for ohmmeter) connected in different
configurations, one moving coil meter may be used to design a multi-purpose
meter with appropriate switches.
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 40 of 81
5.7 Digital Measuring Instruments
Fig. 5.11 (a) Digital measuring instruments block diagram; (b) Seven-segment display
Fig. 5.11(a) shows a general block diagram digital measuring instruments.
The Analog to Digital Converter (A/DC) coverts the input analog signal to the
corresponding digital one as explained in Chapter 4.
The binary to 7-segment display decoder is used to convert the binary to a form
that can be used by the 7-display. It has four inputs for the binary (0000 to
1001) and seven outputs for the display as shown in Fig. 5.11(b) and explained
Digital Logic Design Course.
The Seven Segment Display consists of seven segment (a, b, c, d, e, f and g).
Each segment is a Light Emitting Diode (LED) or Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)
as shown in Fig. 5.11(b) and explained Electronics I Course.
(a) (b)
5.7.1 Digital Measuring Instruments Block Diagram
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 41 of 81
5.7 Digital Measuring Instruments (Continued)
Fig. 5.12 (a) Multirange Digital Ammeter circuit diagram; (b) I/V Converter circuit.
Fig. 5.12 (a) shows the circuit diagram of Multirange Digital Ammeter.
(a)
5.7.2 Multirange Digital Ammeter
(b)
The circuit that coverts the current source
to a voltage source is shown in Fig.5.12(b).
The voltage v
o
does not depend on the
value of Z
L
and is given by:
The I/V converter will not affect the current
through the circuit
shi oi
iR v =
(5.29)
5.7.2 Multirange Digital Ammeter
Example 5.12
For the Multirange Digital Ammeter circuit diagram shown in Fig. 5.12(a),
design a multirange DC Ammeter to measure current in the following ranges:
(a) 0 to 10 mA (b) 0 to 1 mA (c) 0 to 100 A (d) 0 to 10 A
Solution
(a) For the range 0 to 10 mA, R
sh1
is calculated from (5.29) as:
(b) For the range 0 to 1 mA, R
sh2
is calculated from (5.29) as:
(c) For the range 0 to 100 A, R
sh3
is calculated from (5.29) as:
(d) For the range 0 to 10 A, R
sh1
is calculated from (5.29) as:
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 42 of 81
5.7 Digital Measuring Instruments (Continued)
O = = = =

500
10 10
5
10 10 5 | |
3
1 1
3
1
x
V
R xR x V R I V
sh sh sh FS o
O = = = =

k
x
V
R xR x V R I V
sh sh sh FS o
5
10 1
5
10 1 5 | |
3
2 2
3
2
O = = = =

k
V
R xR x V R I V
sh sh sh FS o
50
10
5
10 100 5 | |
4
3 3
6
3
O = = = =

k
V
R xR x V R I V
sh sh sh FS o
500
10
5
10 10 5 | |
5
4 4
6
4
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 43 of 81
5.7 Digital Measuring Instruments (Continued)
Fig. 5.13 Digital Voltmeter
Fig. 5.13 Shows the circuit diagram Digital Voltmeter.
5.7.3 Digital Voltmeter
A digital voltmeter (DVM) essentially
consists of an A/D converter, latch circuit, a
set of seven segment displays and their
drivers.
The latch is used to save the output of A/D
even when the A/D output goes to zero
(reset) after a complete cycle of the ramp
generator.
t
1
t
2
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 44 of 81
5.7 Digital Measuring Instruments (Continued)
Fig. 5.14 A multirange digital ohmmeter circuit.
Fig. 5.14 shows a Multirange Digital Ohmmeter.
For n-bit A/DC the number of quantization level V
R
/2
n
. Therefore, the minimum
level of the A/DC corresponds to Vo = V
R
/2
n
and the maximum level of the A/DC
corresponds to V
o
= V
R
- V
R
/2
n
.
The output of the buffer, V
o
is equal to the voltage V
+
and is given by:
or
5.7.4 Multirange Digital Ohmmeter
1
1
st x
st
R o
R R
R
V V V
+
= =
+
2
2
st x
st
R o
R R
R
V V V
+
= =
+
(5.81a)
(5.81b)
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 45 of 81
5.7 Digital Measuring Instruments (Continued)
The minimum value of the resistance R
x
gives the maximum value of the
voltage V
+
or V
o
. That is:
Simplify this equation, we get:
or
Therefore
The maximum value of the resistance R
x
gives the minimum value of the
voltage V
+
or V
o
. That is:
5.7.4 Multirange Digital Ohmmeter
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
= =
+
= =
+
n
n
R
n
R
n
R
R
st x
st
R o
V V
V
V
R R
R
V V V
2
1 2
2
1
1
2
1 min
1
max max
(5.31a)
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
n
n
x
n
n
st st
R R R
2
1 2
2
1 2
min 1 1
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
n
st
n
n
st
n
n
st st
n
n
x
R R R R R
2
1
2
1 2
1
2
1 2
2
1 2
1 1 1 1 min
|
.
|

\
|

=
1 2
1
min
n
st
x
R
R
n
R
st x
st
R o
V
R R
R
V V V
2
1 max
1
min min
=
+
= =
+
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 46 of 81
5.7 Digital Measuring Instruments (Continued)
Simplify this equation, we get:
Therefore
From (5.31a) and (5.31b), lower and upper limit values of the resistance R
x
is:
Similarly, if another standard resistance, R
st2
is used, lower and upper limit
values of the resistance R
x
is:
5.7.4 Multirange Digital Ohmmeter
(5.31c)
(5.31b)
( ) 1 2
1 2
1
1
s s

n
st x
n
st
R R
R
n
st st x
n
st x
st
x R R R
R R
R
2
2
1
1 1 max
1 max
1
= + =
+
( ) 1 2
1 max
=
n
st x
R R
( ) 1 2
1 2
2
2
s s

n
st x
n
st
R R
R
(5.32)
5.7.4 Multirange Digital Ohmmeter
Example 5.13
For the Multirange Digital Ohmmeter circuit diagram shown in Fig. 5.14, if V
R
=
5 V and the number of bits of the A/DC, n = 7, design a multirange Ohmmeter
to measure resistances in the following ranges:
(a) 1 to 10 k (b) 1 k to 10 M
Solution: (a) For the range 1 to 10 k , R
st1
is calculated from (5.31) as:
The resulting range is:
(b) similarly, For the range 1 k to 1 M , R
st2
is calculated from (5.31) as:
The resulting range is:
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 47 of 81
5.7 Digital Measuring Instruments (Continued)
O =

= O
|
.
|

\
|

= 127
1 2
1
1 2
1
7
1 1
min st
st
n
st
x
R
R R
R
( ) ( ) O = = = k R R
n
st x
1 . 16 1 2 127 1 2
7
1 max
O s s O k R
x
1 . 16 1
O =

= O
|
.
|

\
|

= k R
R
k
R
R
st
st
n
st
x
127
1 2
1
1 2
1
7
1 1
min
( ) ( ) O = = = M R R
n
st x
1 . 16 1 2 127 1 2
7
1 max
O s s O M R k
x
1 . 16 1
Fig. 5.15 (a) shows another Multirange Digital Ohmmeter circuit and 5.15 (b)
shows Current source and current mirrors.
MOSFET in saturation operates as a current
source (VCCS) and the drain current ID is:
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 48 of 81
5.7 Digital Measuring Instruments (Continued)
Fig. 5.15 (a) Another multirange digital ohmmeter circuit; (b) Current source and mirrors
5.7.4 Multirange Digital Ohmmeter Alternative Circuit
(5.81b)
(a)
2 `
) (
2
1
tn GS n D
V V
L
W
k I
|
.
|

\
|
=
(b)
) / (
) / (
2 2
L W
L W
I
I
REF
=
) / (
) / (
1 1
L W
L W
I
I
REF
=
) / (
) / (
3 3
L W
L W
I
I
REF
=
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 49 of 81
5.7 Digital Measuring Instruments (Continued)
The minimum value of the resistance R
x
gives the minimum value of the
voltage V
+
or V
o
. That is:
or
The maximum value of the resistance R
x
gives the maximum value of the
voltage V
+
or V
o
. That is:
From (5.33a) and (5.33b), lower and upper limit values of the resistance R
x
is:
5.7.4 Multirange Digital Ohmmeter Alternative Circuit
n
R
x i o
V
R I V V
2
min min min
s = =
+
(5.33a)
i
n
n
R
i
n
R R
x
n
R R x i
I
V
I
V V
R V V R I
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

= s
2
1 2
2 /
2 /
max max
i
n
n
R
i
n
R R
x
I
V
I
V V
R
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

=
2
1 2
2 /
max
i
n
R
x
I
V
R
2 /
min
=
(5.33b)
i
n
n
R x
i
n
R
I V R
I
V
/
2
1 2 2 /
|
|
.
|

\
|

s s
(5.33c)
5.7.4 Multirange Digital Ohmmeter Alternative Circuit
Example 5.14
For the Multirange Digital Ohmmeter circuit diagram shown in Fig. 5.15 (a), if
V
R
= 5 V and the number of bits of the A/DC, n = 7, design a multirange
Ohmmeter to measure resistances in the following ranges:
(a) I
1
= 1 A (b) I
2
= 10 A (c) I
3
= 100 A
Solution:(a) For the range I
1
= 1 A, the values of R
x
are calculated from (5.33) as:
The resulting range is:
(b) For the range I
1
= 10 A, the values of R
x
are calculated from (5.33) as:
(c) For the range I
1
= 100 A, the values of R
x
are calculated from (5.33) as:
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 50 of 81
5.7 Digital Measuring Instruments (Continued)
O s s O M R k
x
96 . 4 39
O s s O k R k
x
6 . 49 6 . 390
O = = =

k
x I
V
R
i
n
R
x
06 . 39
10 1
128 / 5 2 /
6
min
O =

=

M
x I
V V
R
i
n
R R
x
96 . 4
10 1
128 / 5 5 2 /
6
max
O s s O k R k
x
496 9 . 3
5.8.1 D Arsonval or PMMC meter on AC Measurements
For very low frequency (<0.1 Hz), the pointer of the PMMC Instrument tends to
follow the instantaneous level of the ac.
As the current grows positively, the pointer deflection increases to maximum at
the peak of the ac.
The as the instantaneous level falls, the pointer deflection decreases towards
zero. When the ac goes negative, the pointer is deflected (off the scale) to the
left of zero.
For higher frequencies, the damping mechanism of the instrument and the
inertia of the meter movement prevent the pointer from following the changing
instantaneous levels. Instead, the pointer settles at the average value of the ac
current.

Since the average value of a pure sinusoidal ac signal is zero as shown in Fig.
5.16 (a), then if the PMMC Instrument is connected directly to measure the 60
Hz ac source it will indicate zero.
In order to use a PMMC meter to measure the alternating current, a rectifier
circuit must be used to rectify the AC into DC. One of the good rectifier circuits
is the Full-wave rectifier as shown in Fig. 5.16 (b).
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 51 of 81
5.8 Analog AC Measurement
}
=
o
T o
av
dt t x
T
x ) (
1
(5.35)
The sine wave voltage signal, v(t) is
described by:
where V
max
denotes the peak value
or amplitude in volts and e denotes
the angular frequency in radians per
second; that is, e = 2nf rad/s, where
f is the frequency in hertz, f= l/T Hz,
and T is the period in seconds
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 52 of 81
5.8 Analog AC Measurement (Continued)
Fig. 5.16 (a) Sine-wave voltage signal; (b) PMMC meter on AC Measurements
5.8.1 D Arsonval or PMMC meter on AC Measurements
t V t v sin ) (
max
=
(5.36)
(a) (b)
5.8.2 Root Mean Square (RMS) versus Mean of AC Signal
The Root Mean Square (RMS), V
rms
is the value of the DC voltage that if
connected to the circuit it will yield the same power as that of the AC one as
illustrated in Fig.5.17 and described by:
The average value of the rectified AC voltage, V
av
is calculated by (5.35) as:
The form factor is defined as V
rms
/ V
av
and is calculated by (5.35) as:
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 53 of 81
5.8 Analog AC Measurement (Continued)
) sin ( 707 . 0
2
) (
1
max
max
0
2
only wave the for V
V
dt t v
T
V
T
rms
= = =
}
Fig. 5.17 (a) AC circuit; (b) Equivalent DC circuit; (c) Relation between V
rms
and V
av
(a)
(b)
(c)
} }
= = = =

0
max
max
max
0
637 . 0
2
sin
1
) (
1
V
V
d V dt t v
T
V
T
av
(5.37)
(5.38)
1 . 1
2
2
/ 2
2 /
max
max
= = = =

V
V
V
V
Factor Form
av
rms
(5.39)
5.8.3 Full-wave rectifier (AC) Ammeters and Voltmeters
In order to use a PMMC meter to measure the alternating current, a rectifier
circuit must be used to rectify the AC into DC. One of the good rectifier circuits
is the Full-wave rectifier as shown in Fig. 5.16 (b).
The PMMC pointer will indicate the average of the rectified signal which is
o.637 for pure sinusoidal signal Equ.(5.38).
Then to measure the rms, the scale must be calibrated to indicate the rms that
corresponding to the average by multiplying the form factor Equ.(5.39).
The circuit of the AC Ammeters is like the one of the AC voltmeter except that
instead of connecting a series resistance, a shunt resistance is connected in
parallel.
Disadvantage:
The 0.7 V drop across the diode limits the operation of this circuit; since we can
not measure voltage less than 1.4 V.
Examples:
for V
in
= 1.0 sin et gives no reading.
for V
in
= 2.0 sin et gives 0.6 V reading.
for V
in
= 200 sin et the reading is acceptable.
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 54 of 81
5.8 Analog AC Measurement (Continued)
5.8.4 Precision Rectifier Circuits
Rectifier circuits were studied in Electronics I Course, where the emphasis was
on their application in power-supply design.
In such applications the voltages being rectified are usually much greater than
the diode voltage drop, rendering the exact value of the diode drop unimportant
to the proper operation of the rectifier.
Other applications exist, however, where this is no the case. For instance, in
instrumentation applications, the signal to be rectified can be of a very small
amplitude, say 0.1 V, making it impossible to employ the conventional rectifier
circuits. Also, in instrumentation applications the need arises for rectifier circuits
with very precise transfer characteristics.
In this section we study circuits that combine diodes and op amps to implement
a variety of rectifier circuits with precise characteristics.
Precision rectifiers, which can be considered a special class of wave-shaping
circuits, find application in the design of instrumentation systems.
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 55 of 81
5.8 Analog AC Measurement (Continued)
5.8.4 Precision Rectifier Circuits
1. Precision Half-Wave Rectifier-The "Superdiode"
Fig. 5.18(a) shows a precision half-wave-rectifier circuit consisting of a diode
placed in the negative-feedback path of an op amp, with R being the rectifier
load resistance.
For v
I
> 0 yields that v
O
= v
I
and the diode is forward-biased and feedback loop
is closed. Rectification is perfect even for small input voltages.
For v
I
<0, the diode is cutoff and v
O
= 0. Primary sources of error are gain error
and offset error due to nonideal op amp.
For negative input voltages, output voltage v
A
is saturated at negative limit.
Large negative voltages across input can destroy unprotected op amps.
Response time of circuit is slowed down due to slow recovery of internal circuits
from saturation.
v
O
is rectified replica of v
I
without loss of voltage drop as in diode rectifier
circuit.
The transfer characteristic of this circuit is shown in Fig. 18(b), which is almost
identical to the ideal characteristic of a half-wave rectifier.
Disadvantage:
1. When v
i
goes negative and v
0
= 0, the entire magnitude of v
i
, appears between
the two input terminals of the op amp. If this magnitude is greater than few
volts, the op amp may be damaged unless it is equipped with what is called
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 56 of 81
5.8 Analog AC Measurement (Continued)
5.8.4 Precision Rectifier Circuits
1. Precision Half-Wave Rectifier-The "Superdiode"
"overvoltage protection" (a feature that most modern IC op amps have).
2. when v
i
is negative, the op amp will be saturated. Although not harmful to the op
amp, saturation should usually be avoided, since getting the op amp out of the
saturation region and back into its linear region of operation requires some
time. This time delay will obviously slow down circuit operation and limit the
frequency of operation of the superdiode half-wave-rectifier circuit.
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 57 of 81
5.8 Analog AC Measurement (Continued)
Fig. 5.18 (a) The superdiode precision half-wave rectifier and (b) its almost ideal
transfer characteristic.
(a)
(a)
5.8.4 Precision Rectifier Circuits
2. Non-Saturating Precision Half-Wave Rectifier
An alternative precision rectifier circuit that does not suffer from the
disadvantages mentioned above is shown in Fig. 5.19.
For v
I
>0, v
x
is negative (one diode-drop below zero), D
2
is forward biased,
current in R
2
is zero, v
O
= 0, D
1
is reverse biased. Feedback loop is closed
through D
2
.
For v
I
<0, v
x
is one diode-drop above output voltage, diode D
1
turns on, D
2
is
off. Circuit behaves as inverting amplifier with gain - R
2
/ R
1
. Feedback loop is
closed through D
1
and R
2
.
The major advantage of the improved half-wave-rectifier circuit is that the
feedback loop around the op amp remains closed at all times. Hence the op
amp remains in its linear operating region, avoiding the possibility of saturation
The associated time delay required to "get out" of saturation. Diode D2
"catches" the op-amp output voltage as it goes negative and clamps it to one
diode drop below ground; hence D2 is called a "catching diode."
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 58 of 81
5.8 Analog AC Measurement (Continued)
5.8.4 Precision Rectifier Circuits
2. Non-Saturating Precision Half-Wave Rectifier
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 59 of 81
5.8 Analog AC Measurement (Continued)
Fig. 5.19 Non-Saturating Precision Half-Wave Rectifier: (a) The circuit; (b) For V
i
> 0;
(c) For V
i
< 0; (d) its almost ideal transfer characteristic.
(c)
(b)
(a)
(d)
5.8.4 Precision Rectifier Circuits
3. Precision Full-Wave Rectifier
A Precision full-wave-rectifier circuit is shown in Fig.5.20(a).
For v
I
>0, positive input at A. The output of A
2
will go positive, turning D
2
on,
which will conduct through R
L
and thus close the feedback loop around A
2
. A
virtual short circuit will thus be established between the two input terminals of
A
2
, and the voltage at the negative-input terminal, which is the output voltage of
the circuit, will become equal to the input. Thus no current will flow through R
1
and R
2
, and the voltage at the inverting input of A : will be equal to the input and
hence positive. Therefore the output terminal (F) of A
1
[ will go negative until A
1
saturates. This causes D
1
to be turned off.
For v
I
<0, when A goes negative. The tendency for a negative voltage at the
negative input of A, causes F to rise, making D
1
conduct to supply R
L
and
allowing the feedback loop around A
1
to be closed. Thus a virtual ground
appears at the negative input of A
1
and the two equal resistances R
1
and R
2
force the voltage at C, which is the output voltage, to be equal to the negative
of the input voltage at A and thus positive. The combination of positive voltage
at C and negative voltage at A causes the output of A
2
to saturate in the
negative direction, thus keeping D
2
off.
The overall result is perfect full-wave rectification, as represented by the
transfer characteristic in Fig. 5.20 (b).
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 60 of 81
5.8 Analog AC Measurement (Continued)
5.8.4 Precision Rectifier Circuits
3. Precision Full-Wave Rectifier
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 61 of 81
5.8 Analog AC Measurement (Continued)
Fig. 5.20 (a) Precision full-wave rectifier; (b) Its transfer characteristic
5.8.4 Precision Rectifier Circuits
4. A Precision Bridge Rectifier for Instrumentation Applications
The bridge rectifier circuit studied in Electronic I Course can be combined with
an op amp to provide useful precision circuits as shown in Fig. 5.21.
This circuit causes a current equal to |v
A
|/R to flow through the moving-coil
meter M.
Thus the meter Provides a reading that is proportional to the average of the
absolute value of the input voltage v
A
.
All the non-idealities of the meter and of the diodes are masked by placing the
bridge circuit in the negative-feedback loop of the op amp.
When v
A
is positive, current flows from the op-amp output through D
1
, M, D
3
,
and R.
When v
A
is negative, current flows into the op-amp output through R, D
2
, M,
and D
4
. Thus the feedback loop remains closed for both polarities of v
A
. The
resulting virtual short circuit at the input terminals of the op amp causes a
replica of v
A
to appear across R. The circuit of Fig. 5.21 provides a relatively
accurate high-input-impedance ac voltmeter using an inexpensive moving-coil
meter.
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 62 of 81
5.8 Analog AC Measurement (Continued)
5.8.4 Precision Rectifier Circuits
4. A Precision Bridge Rectifier for Instrumentation Applications
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 63 of 81
5.8 Analog AC Measurement (Continued)
Fig. 5.21 Use of the diode bridge in the design of an ac voltmeter.
S P R Q =
5.9.1 Resistance Measurement using Ohmmeter
This technique was already discussed in details in Section 5.5.
5.9.2 Resistance Measurement using Wheatstone Bridge
Wheatstone Bridge as shown in Fig. 5.22. consists of four arms, which have three
known precision resistors and one unknown resistance.
The bridge balance is checked using a Galvanometer.
Very high sensitivity to resistance imbalance.
It is widely used in precision measurements of resistance from 1 O to 10
6
O.
Accuracy to 0.2%.
To balance the bridge, change S till the galvanometer indicate zero. Then:
So: or
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 64 of 81
5.9 Resistance Measurement
=
d c
V V

=
S I
Q I
R I
P I
V
V
V
V
db
ad
cb
ac
3
2
4
1
Q
P S
R

=
S
Q
R
P
=
db cb ad ac
V V V V
I I I I
= =
= =
& 2
& 1
3 2 4 1
(5.40)
5.9.2 Resistance Measurement using Wheatstone Bridge
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 65 of 81
5.9 Resistance Measurement (Continued)
Fig. 5.22 Wheatstone Bridge (a) The circuit; (b) Precision resistor (P&Q);
(c) Standard Resistor (S) and (d) Galvanometer
E
+
-
G
R S
P Q
I
2
I
3
I
4
Standard
Arm
Unknown
Arm
Ratio
Arms
a
b
c
d
I
1
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Example 5.15
The Wheatstone Bridge as shown in Fig. 5.22 has the following arm values:
P = 1.47kO, Q = 500O and S = 2.0kO. What value of unknown resistance R
brings the bridge into the null conditions.
Solution
From (5.40), we have:
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 66 of 81
5.9 Resistance Measurement (Continued)
E
+
-
G
R S
P Q
I
2
I
3
I
4
Standard
Arm
Unknown
Arm
Ratio
Arms
a
b
c
d
I
1
1.47 2
5.88
0.5
PS k k
R k
Q k

= = = O
5.9.2 Resistance Measurement using Wheatstone Bridge
Accuracy of Wheatstone Bridge
Since
So, theoretically the relative error of R is summation of others, i.e.,
R = P + Q + S
Sensitivity of Wheatstone Bridge
Sensitivity of Wheatstone Bridge depends on :
1. The adjustable resistance (S)
2. Galvanometer sensitivity
1. Sensitivity due to the adjustable resistance (S)
Adjustable resistor and galvanometer determines the sensitivity of Wheatstone
Bridge. From equation
Adjustable resistor S affects the resolution of the measurement by
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 67 of 81
5.9 Resistance Measurement (Continued)
5.9.2 Resistance Measurement using Wheatstone Bridge
P S
R
Q
=
PS
R
Q
=
S
Q
P
R A = A
(5.41)
2. Sensitivity due to the Galvanometer sensitivity
The least detectable current of the galvanometer also determine the resolution of
the measurement.
If the Galvanometer sensitivity (I
G
) is defined as the maximum Galvanometer
current that can not be detected.
The Sensitivity due to the Galvanometer sensitivity is given by:
where
and r
g
is the internal resistance of the Galvanometer.
Finally the sensitivity of Wheatstone Bridge is the maximum of:
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 68 of 81
5.9 Resistance Measurement (Continued)
5.9.2 Resistance Measurement using Wheatstone Bridge
(5.41)
G
g TH
I
E
P R r R
R A
+ +
= A
) )( (
P Q
P Q
R P
R P
S Q R P R
TH
+

+
+

= + = // //
E
+
-
G
R S
P Q
I
2
I
3
I
4
Standard
Arm
Unknown
Arm
Ratio
Arms
a
b
c
d
I
1
S
Q
P
R A = A
G
g TH
I
E
P R r R
R A
+ +
= A
) )( (
Sensitivity due S
Sensitivity due I
g
2. Sensitivity of Wheatstone Bridge
Example 5.16
The parameters in a Wheatstone Bridge are: P = 2.5 kO, Q = 1 kO, S = 4
kO, E = 10V, minimum adjustable AS = 0.1O, r
g
= 1.2 kO, and I
G
(min) = 2 A. Find
the value of R and the sensitivity or resolution of the Wheatstone Bridge.
Solution
R = 2.5 4/1 = 10 kO,
AR
1
(due to AS) = (2.5/1) (0.1 O) = 0.25 O
R
TH
= P//R + Q//S = 2 + 0.8 = 2.8 kO
Since AR
2
>> AR
1
, the sensitivity of the Wheatstone Bridge is AR = AR
2
= 10O.
Usually determined by the sensitivity of the galvanometer,
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 69 of 81
5.9 Resistance Measurement (Continued)
5.9.2 Resistance Measurement using Wheatstone Bridge
(5.41)
O = A
+ +
= A A 10
) )( (
) (
2 G
g TH
g
I
E
P R r R
I to due R
Due to the impurities of the coil material, the actual inductor modeled as:
1. a pure inductor in series with a resistance (R
s
and L
s
) is used as a model of a
capacitor. This model is called series model as shown in Fig. 5.23(a).
or
2. a pure inductor in parallel with a resistance (R
p
and L
p
). This model is called
parallel model as shown in Fig. 5.23(b).
The series model can switch back to the parallel model or parallel model can
switch back to series model using the following formulas:
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 70 of 81
5.10 Inductance Measurement
5.10.1 Inductor Equivalent Circuit
Fig. 5.23 Inductor equivalent circuit ); (a) series model and (b) parallel model
(a)
(b)
2 2
2 2
s s
p
s
s s
p
s
R X
R
R
R X
X
X
+
=
+
=
2
2 2
2
2 2
p p
s
p p
p p
s
p p
R X
R
X R
X R
X
X R
=
+
=
+
s s
X L =
p p
X L =
(5.42)
(5.43)
The quality factor (Q) of an inductor is defined as :
The larger Q mean best quality inductor (with the least leakage).
5.10.3 Measurement of Inductor Parameters Using Q Meter
The experiment setup to measure the coil parameters, L
x
and R
x
is shown in
Fig. 5.24. The signal source generates AC sine wave with amplitude v
eff
= 1
V
rms
and known frequency f. The value of the variable capacitor is changed till
we reach the resonance or the AC Voltmeter indicated maximum reading
(v
reading
= 1 V
rms
).
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 71 of 81
5.10 Inductance Measurement (Continued)
5.10.2 Inductor Quality Factor (Q)
(5.44)
p
s s
s s p
R
X L
Q
R R L

= = =
Fig. 5.24 Measurement of inductor parameters using Q meter
The impedance of this circuit is given by:
At resonance, Z = R
x
because the reactive part is zero and we get:
At resonance, v
reading
is maximum and we deduce the following:
From (5.47), once Q is measured the inductance parameters are calculated as:
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 72 of 81
5.10 Inductance Measurement (Continued)
5.10.3 Measurement of Inductor Parameters Using Q Meter
(5.45)
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
v
x x
C
L j R Z

1
2
2
1
| |
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
v
x x
C
L R Z

or
v x
v
x
C L
C
L
1 1
= =

Q
R
L
R C C R C
i
v
x
x
x v v x v
reading
= = = = =


1 1 1
| |
(5.46)
(5.47)
Q C
R and
C
L
v
x
v
x

1 1
2
= =
(5.48)
Example 5.17
For the experiment setup shown in Fig. 5.24, if the input voltage source,
V
rms
= 1 V, its frequency, f =10 kHz, the voltmeter reading, V
reading
= 1 V
rms
and
the variable capacitance value, C
v
= 10 F. Calculate the coil parameters: L
x
and R
x
.
Solution
From (5.48) the coil parameters: L
x
and R
x
are calculated as follows:
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 73 of 81
5.10 Inductance Measurement (Continued)
5.10.3 Measurement of Inductor Parameters Using Q Meter
H
x x x C
L
v
x


25
) 2 (
10
10 10 ) 10 2 (
1 1
2
3
6 2 4 2
= == = =

O = = = =

59 . 1
2
10
1 10 10 10 2
1 1
6 4
x x x x Q C
R
v
x
The experiment setup to measure the coil parameters, L
x
and R
x
is shown in
Fig. 5.25(a). The signal source generates AC sine wave with amplitude v
eff
=
V
max
and known frequency f.
The reading of both AC Voltmers v
R
and v
X
are recorded. Knowing the value of
the amplitude v
in
= V
max
. The coil parameters, L
x
and R
x
are determined using
the phasor diagram as shown in Fig. 5.25(b) as.
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 74 of 81
5.10 Inductance Measurement (Continued)
5.10.4 Measurement of Inductor Parameters Using AC voltmeter
Fig. 5.25 (a) Measurement of inductor parameters using AC voltmeter; (b) The
phasor diagram.
(a) (b)
x R
x R
x R x R
xv v
V v v
xv v v v V
2
cos cos 2
2
max
2 2
2 2 2
max
+
= + + =
(5.49)
R
v
i
R
=
' sin
X x Lx
v L i v = =
' cos
X x Rx
v iR v = =
(5.50)
i
v
Z
X
x
=
' cos
x x
Z R =
' sin
x x
Z L j =
Example 5.17
For the experiment setup shown in Fig. 5.25, if the input voltage source,
V
rms
= 20 V, its frequency, f =10 kHz, R = 1 k, the AC voltmeter reading across
R, V
R
= 15 V and the AC voltmeter reading across the coil, V
X
= 10 V.
Calculate the coil parameters: L
x
and R
x
.
Solution
From (5.49), (5.50) and Fig. 5.25, the coil parameters: L
x
and R
x
are calculated
as follows:
Anther solution
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 75 of 81
5.10 Inductance Measurement (Continued)
5.10.4 Measurement of Inductor Parameters Using AC voltmeter
o o
x R
x R
x x xv v
V v v
76 ' & 104
15 10 22
) 20 ( ) 15 ( ) 10 (
2
cos
2 2 2 2
max
2 2
= =
+
=
+
=
mH L L x x x v L i v
x x X x Lx
10 76 sin 10 10 2 10 15 ' sin
3 3
= = = =


O = = = =

161 76 cos 10 10 15 ' cos
3
x x X x Rx
R xR x v iR v
O = = = 660
15
10
mA
V
i
v
Z
X
x
O = = = 160 76 cos 660 ' cos
x x
Z R
mH L L x Z L
x x x x
10 76 sin 660 10 2 ' sin
2
= = =
mA
k
V
R
V
i
R
15
1
15
=
O
= =
The experiment setup to measure the coil parameters, L
x
and R
x
using AC
bridge is shown in Fig. 5.26.
The Maxwell Bridge is found to be suitable for measuring coils with low
Q (=L
s
/R
s
). At balance, we have
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 76 of 81
5.10 Inductance Measurement (Continued)
5.10.5 Measurement of Inductor Parameters Using AC Bridges
Fig. 5.26 Measurement of inductor parameters using AC Bridges
(5.51)
(5.52)
4
1
3
S
R
R R
R
=
1 4 3 S
L R R C =
3 3
S
S
L
Q R C
R
= =
1
1 3
3 4 4
S S
R L R
j RC j
R R R

+ = +
Due to the impurities of the dielectric, the actual capacitor is modeled as:
1. a pure capacitance in parallel with a resistance (R
p
and C
p
). This model is called
parallel model as shown in Fig. 5.27(a).
or
2. a pure capacitance in series with a resistance (R
s
and C
s
) is used as a model of
a capacitor. This model is called series model as shown in Fig. 5.27(b).
The series model can switch back to the parallel model or parallel model can
switch back to series model using the following formulas:
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 77 of 81
5.11 Capacitor Measurement
5.11.1 Capacitor Equivalent Circuit
Fig. 5.27 Capacitor equivalent circuit ); (a) parallel model and (b) series model.
(a) (b)
(5.44)
(5.53)
2
2 2
2
2 2
p p
s
p p
p p
s
p p
R X
R
X R
X R
X
X R
=
+
=
+
2 2
2 2
s s
p
s
s s
p
s
R X
R
R
R X
X
X
+
=
+
=
where X
P
=1/(C
P
) and X
S
=1/(C
S
).
Dissipation factor (D) of capacitance is defined as :
The smaller D mean best quality capacitor (with the least leakage).
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 78 of 81
5.11 Capacitor Measurement (Continued)
5.11.2 Capacitor Dissipation Factor (D)
(5.54)
1
p
s s
p p p
X
D R C
R C R

= = =
The experiment setup to measure the capacitance parameters, C
x
and R
x
is
shown in Fig. 5.28(a). The signal source generates AC sine wave with
amplitude v
eff
= V
max
and known frequency f.
The reading of both AC Voltmers v
R
and v
X
are recorded. Knowing the value of
the amplitude v
in
= V
max
. The capacitance parameters, C
x
and R
x
are determined
using the phasor diagram as shown in Fig. 5.26(b) as.
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 79 of 81
5.11 Capacitor Measurement (Continued)
5.10.3 Measurement of Capacitance Parameters Using AC voltmeter
Fig. 5.28 (a) Measurement of capacitance parameters using AC voltmeter; (b) The
phasor diagram.
(a)
(b)
x R
x R
x R x R
xv v
V v v
xv v v v V
2
cos cos 2
2
max
2 2
2 2 2
max
+
= + + =
(5.55)
R
v
i
R
=
' sin

X
x
Cx
v
C
i
v = =
' cos
X x Rx
v iR v = =
(5.56)
i
v
Z
X
x
=
' cos
x x
Z R =
' sin
x x
Z L j =
Example 5.17
For the experiment setup shown in Fig. 5.26, if the input voltage source,
V
rms
= 20 V, its frequency, f =10 kHz, R = 2 k, the AC voltmeter reading across
R, V
R
= 10 V and the AC voltmeter reading across the capacitance, V
X
= 15 V.
Calculate the capacitance parameters: C
x
, R
x
and Dissipation factor, D.
Solution
From (5.53), (5.54) and Fig. 5.26, the coil parameters: L
x
and R
x
are calculated
as follows:
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 80 of 81
5.11 Capacitor Measurement (Continued)
5.11.3 Measurement of Capacitance Parameters Using Q Meter
mA
k
V
R
V
i
R
5
2
10
=
O
= =
o o
x R
x R
x x xv v
V v v
76 ' & 104
15 10 2
) 20 ( ) 15 ( ) 10 (
2
cos
2 2 2 2
max
2 2
= =
+
=
+
=
O = = = k
mA
V
i
v
Z
X
x
5
5
15
O = = = 725 76 cos 3 ' cos
x x
Z R
F C k
C x
Z
C
x
x
x
x

4 . 5 92 . 2 76 sin 660
10 2
1
' sin
1
4
= O = = =
25 . 0 10 5 . 5 725 10 10 2
9 3
= = =

x x x x x C R D
s s

R3
R4
C3
Rs
R1
E a
b
Ls
The experiment setup to measure the capacitance parameters, C
x
and R
x
using
AC bridge is shown in Fig. 5.29.
The series capacitance bridge is found to be suitable for capacitors with high
dielectric resistance (low D = C
s
R
s
). At balance, we have:
Prof Fawzy Ibrahim EEG383 Ch.5 B. Measurements 81 of 81
5.11 Capacitor Measurement (Continued)
5.11.4 Measurement of Capacitance Parameters Using AC Bridges
Fig. 5.29 Measurement of capacitance parameters using AC Bridges
(5.57)
(5.58)
1 2
3 4
Z Z
Z Z
=
4 3
1 1
/ 1 / 1
R
C j R
R
C j R
s s

=

3
4 1
R
R R
R
s

=
4
3 1
R
R C
C
s

=
1 1
C R D =