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# Structural #1: Analysis of a power transmission tower Introduction: In this example you will learn to use the 2-D

Truss element in ANSYS. Physical Problem: A power transmission tower is a common example of a structure that is made
up of only truss members. These towers are actually 3-D structures, but for the sake of simplicity we will take a cross-sectional face of the tower. The tower is mainly subjected to loading in the vertical direction due to the weight of the cables. Also it is subjected to forces due to wind. In this example we will consider only loading due to the weight of the cables, which is in the vertical direction.

Problem Description:
The tower is made up of trusses. You may recall that a truss is a structural element that experiences loading only in the axial direction. Units: Use S.I. units ONLY Geometry: the cross sections of each of the truss members is 6.25e-3 sq. meter. Material: Assume the structure is made of steel with modulus of elasticity E=200 GPa. Boundary conditions: The tower is constrained along X and Y directions at the bottom left corner, and along Y direction at the bottom right corner. Loading: The tower is loaded at the top. The load is in horizontal direction only, and its magnitude is 5000 N. Objective: To determine deflection at each joint. To determine stress in each member. To determine reaction forces at the base. You are required to hand in print outs for the above. Figure: The five trusses at the top are each 3m in length.

## IMPORTANT: Convert all dimensions and forces into SI units.

Introduction: In this test problem you will be required to test your knowledge of 3D modeling and
the Solid element in ANSYS.

Physical Problem: One day while using his hammer, Professor Shimada attempts to drive a nail
into the floor of his home. Unbenounced to him a layer of pure steel had been installed under the wooden floor. The nail doesnt move and so a point force of 100N is exerted on the head of the hammer. Plot the nodal solution of the deformation and stresses on the hammer.

Problem Description:

We will model the object using solid Tetrahedral 10 node element. Material: Assume the structure is made of steel with modulus of elasticity E=200 GPa and a Poisons Ratio of 0.3. Boundary conditions: The hammer is fixed at the base.. Loading: The object is has a point force of 100N at the head. Objective: To plot deformed shape. To determine the principal stress and the von Mises stress. (Use the stress plots to determine these. Do not print the stress list) What is the maximum load the object can take. Clearly mention the yield stress that you have assumed for steel. Also assume factor of safety of 1.25. You are required to hand in print outs for the above. Figure:

Dimensions: 10 cm hexagonal handle, radius 0.02m, theta=300 at (0,0) 15 cm circular solid, radius 0.015m at 0,0) 5 cm hexagonal head joint, radius 0.04m, theta=270 at (0,0) 18 cm top cone, radius=0.03m

Create the hexagonal solid defining the grip for the handle. Shift the workplane the axial length of the hexagonal solid and create the circular solid defining the section between the handle and the head of the hammer. Shift the workplane again and create the hexagonal head of the hammer. Now rotate the workplane and shift it such that the cone is created 0.09m in the correct direction from the axial center of the handle. Now overlap the conic section and the hexagonal volume defining the head of the hammer. Once these are married into one volume, add the volumes together such that the hammer is one full volume. Define the Material Properties of the Steel hammer (Elastic Modulus and Poisons Ration are the important qualities) Define the Element Properties as a Tet 10 node Structural Solid. Mesh the hammer. (Do so by picking all lines and setting the element edge length to 0.01.) Apply the boundary conditions. (Structrual Displacement on the bottom face of the handle equal to zero, and a structural force / moment on a node closest to the center of the hammer head as possible equal to 100N in the X direction. If the hammer head is oriented properly then this value should be directed perpendicularly into the face of the hammers head.) Solve List the nodal results of the solution with respect to all degrees of freedom. Plot the nodal solution with respect to all degrees of freedom. Show both the deformed and undeformed shape of the hammer. (The output should be identical to the figure below)

## (Without the Undeformed Hammer it should look like this:)

(Select a stress (say von Mises) to be plotted and click OK. The output will look like this.)

## Thermal Test #1: 2D Heat Conduction within a Solid Introduction:

In this example you will test your 2D heat transfer skills by modeling an object subjected to varying boundary conditions. Using ANSYS will allow you to output the temperature distribution in an extremely simple and accurate way.

Problem Description:

We assume that our pan is circular made entirely of steel. All units are S.I. Boundary Conditions: 1) The top and sides have temperature boundary layers of 100 C. 2) The bottom has a temperature boundary layer of 200 C due to the fire . Material Properties: (Steel and Fish) kFish = 0.5 W/m K KSteel = 20 W/m K Objective: To determine the nodal temperature distribution and create a contour plot of the temperature gradient within the water. Figure:

The GrillPro Fish Grilling Basket Dimensions: Outer Layer of the Basket: 30 cm wide, 5 cm tall The basket is 0.005m thick and the fish is assumed to fill the entire area inside the basket with no contact resistance. Create the larger area defining the steel bars forming the metal section of the Fish Basket, then create the area defining the fish within the basket. Overlap the two areas so that there is no contact resistance between them. Define the Material Properties of the Air Element (Thermal Conductivity for each layer needs to be set.) Define the Element Properties as two Quad 8node 77 thermal solids. Mesh the figure with a mesh size of 0.01 on all the lines defining the basket and the fish crosssection within it. (Be sure to mesh each material separately such that the material properties are set independently of each other.)

Apply Boundary Conditions (Constant temperatures on all 4 sizes.) Solve List the nodal temperature distribution in the X and Y directions, below is the answer you should obtain. Plot the nodal temperature distribution in the X and Y directions, below is the answer you should obtain:

## (The temperature distribution will look like this:)

Thermal Test #2: Heat flux analysis of a composite model Introduction: In this example you will show your ability to model composite models. Physical Problem: Most people have at one time or another experienced a frigid climate. The
best way to stay warm is by way of layers. In this problem we will model a section of layering as a wall and determine the temperature gradient through components. This gives an estimate of the amount of heat that the body needs to supply to maintain comfort inside, as well as the limitations of the clothes (and reasons for searching out higher quality layers).

Problem Description:
The outer material of the composite wall is steel with thermal conductivity of 20 W/m K The insulating material has a thermal conductivity of 0.1 W/m K. Units: Use S.I. units ONLY Geometry: See figure. Boundary Conditions: Conductivities: PINK LAYER Skin 2.75 (estimate) FIRST LAYER Undergarments (Such as cotton) 0.04 SECOND LAYER Fleece (polyester) 0.05 OUTSIDE LAYER Overcoat (fur or equally insulating material) 0.024 The bulk temperature outside is 273K. Your body generates heat and we are going to estimate a skin temperature of 310.1 K Intermediate layers are AIR with conductivity = 0.021 Objective: To determine the heat flux through the layers. To plot the temperature distribution. You are required to hand in print outs for the above. Figure:

UNITS ARE MILLIMETERS Create the key points defining the vertices of all the layers. (skin thickness, undershirt, air, fleece, air, coat) Connect the key points to form lines, then connect lines to form the respective areas. Define the Material Properties of the Air Element (Thermal Conductivity for each layer needs to be set.) Set the temperatures to Fahrenheit instead of Celsius. Define the Element Properties as two Quad 8node 77 thermal solids. Mesh the figure with a mesh size of 0.01 on all the lines defining the each layer. (Be sure to mesh each material separately such that the material properties are set independently of each other.) Apply Boundary Conditions (Constant temperature on the skin, and the outer layer of the coat.) Solve List the nodal temperature distribution in the X and Y directions, below is the answer you should obtain. Plot the nodal temperature distribution in the X and Y directions, below is the answer you should obtain:

## Thermal Test 3: 3D Heat Conduction within a Metalworking Rod Introduction:

In this example you will build and analyze a 3D model pertaining to metallurgy. Using ANSYS will allow you to output the temperature distribution and heat flux, as well as animate the heat flux over time.

Problem Description:
We assume that our rod is made of steel (melting point = 1644 K) and the molten metal is grade A bronze (at its melting point 1323 K) All units are S.I. Boundary Conditions: 2) The steel rod is subject to convection with coefficient h = 1 W/m2-K and bulk temperature TB = 322 K 3) The molten bronze is at its melting point of 1323 K 5) The steel rod (K = 20) has a grip around the end length of it made of a material with conductivity K = 1 Material Properties: h = 50 W/(m2-K) k(steel) = 20 W/m-K k(grip) = 1 W/m-K k(bronze) = 47 W/m-K Objective: To determine the nodal temperature distribution and heat flux properties of the rod. Dimensions specified below in millimeters

The dimensions of the drawing are in English because the specs of the phone given on the web are in English (making the CAD drawing easier to build in English) REMEMBER TO CODE ANSYS WITH SI, not English Note: .1 inch = 2.54 mm Also, R0.50in = 0.0127m

Create the cylindrical solid defining the grip for the handle. Shift the workplane the axial length of the cylinder and create the circular solid defining the section between the handle and the head of the metal ladle.

Shift the workplane again and create the cylindrical head of the ladle. Now rotate the workplane and shift it such that the inner section of the ladle is removed so that a heat source can be placed within. Now subtract the volume such that only free space remains. Now create the area defining the molten bronze heat source. Once all the volumes have been created. Overlap the two sections of the handle so that they form one volume. Add the handle and the bowl itself then glue the molten bronze into the bowl. To ensure that the grip is done correctly, you may also glue the slender rod of the handle to the grip. Define the Material Properties of the Steel ladle (Thermal Conductivity for each of the metals is important) Define the Element Properties as a Tet 10 node Thermal Solid. Mesh the ladle. (Do so by picking all lines and setting the element edge length to 0.02.) Apply the boundary conditions. (Convection on the bowl, rod and grip, and Constant Temp on all the areas defining the bronze) Solve List the nodal results of the temperature distribution with respect to all degrees of freedom. Plot the nodal temperature distribution within the ladle. Show both the deformed shape of the ladle. (The nodal temperatures will be listed as follows:)

## (The result should be something like below:)

Structural #2: Analysis 2-D Beam structure Introduction: In this example you will learn to use the 2-D Beam element in ANSYS. Physical Problem: Structural analysis of the frame shown below. Problem Description:
The structure is made up of beams. You may recall that a beam is a structural element whose length is very large compared to the other two dimensions. Units: Use S.I. units ONLY Geometry: The members have a annular cross-section. The cross sections (A) of each of the truss members is 5.5e-3 sq meter. The polar radius of gyration (R) is 5.5e-2 meter. (hint: Use the values of A and R to find Izz then find the value of the outer diameter (The beam height)) Material: Assume the structure is made of steel with modulus of elasticity E=210 GPa. Boundary conditions: All the DOFs are constrained at the bottom end, i.e. the bottom end is a built-in end. Loading: The structure is loaded at the ends of the two arms. The load is in the negative Y direction. The load value is 5000 N each. Objective: To determine deflections at the points of application of load. To determine the maximum stress in the structure. Also determine the maximum possible load the frame can take. Look up for the value of yield stress for steel. Assume a factor of safety of 1.25. You are required to hand in print outs for the above. Figure:

## IMPORTANT: Convert all dimensions and forces into SI units.

STARTING ANSYS
Click on ANSYS 6.1 in the programs menu. Select Interactive. The following menu that comes up. Enter the working directory. All your files will be stored in this directory. Also enter 64 for Total Workspace and 32 for Database. Click on Run.

## MODELING THE STRUCTURE

Go to the ANSYS Utility Menu Click Workplane>WP Settings The following window comes up

Check the Cartesian and Grid Only buttons Enter the values shown in the above. Go to the ANSYS Main Menu Click Preprocessor>Modeling>Create>Keypoints>On Working Plane

## The following window comes up

Now we will pick the end points of the trusses. 5 meters is now 1 X 5 units, since each cell in the grid is 1 unit across, 5 meters is 5 cells wide. Using this conversion select the keypoints on the workplane grid. Your points should look like this.

If you cannot see the complete workplane then go to Utility Menu>PlotCntrls>Pan Zoom Rotate and zoom out to see the entire workplane. Now create lines connecting the keypoints Click on Preprocessor>Modeling>Create>Lines>Lines>Straight Line Create lines by picking keypoints to make the figure shown below.

MATERIAL PROPERTIES
Go to the ANSYS Main Menu Click Preprocessor>Material Props>Material Models. In the window that comes up choose Structural>Linear>Elastic>Isotropic. The following window will appear.

## Double Click Isotropic. The following window comes up.

Fill in 2.1e11 for the Young's modulus and 0.3 for Poisson's Ratio. Click OK Now the material 1 has the properties defined in the above table. We will use this material for the structure.

ELEMENT PROPERTIES:
SELECTING ELEMENT TYPE: Click Preprocessor>Element Type>Add/Edit/Delete... In the 'Element Types' window that opens click on Add... The following window opens.

Type 1 in the Element type reference number. Click on Structural Beam and select 2D elastic. Click OK. Close the 'Element types' window. So now we have selected Element type 1 to be a structural Beam- 2D elastic element. The trusses will be modeled as elements of type 1, i.e. structural beam element. This finishes the selection of element type. Now we need to define the cross sectional area, the second moment of inertia etc. for this element. Go to Preprocessor>Real Constants.

In the "Real Constants" dialog box that comes up click on Add In the "Element Type for Real Constants" that comes up click OK. The following window comes up

Type in 5.5e-3 for cross sectional area, calculate Izz from the value of the cross-sectional area and polar radius of gyration and enter it. Also calculate and enter the height and click on OK. The height of the beam is required to calculate the maximum stress, which will be at the top surface of the beam. We have now defined the geometric properties of the beam element.

MESHING:
DIVIDING THE STRUCTURE INTO ELEMENTS: Go to Preprocessor>Meshing>Size Controls>Manual Size>Lines>All Lines. In the menu that comes up type 1 in the field for 'Number of element divisions'.

Click on OK. Now go to Preprocessor>Meshing>Mesh>Lines Select all the lines and click on OK in the "Mesh Lines" dialog box. Now each line is a truss element (Element 1).

## BOUNDARY CONDITIONS AND CONSTRAINTS:

APPLYING BOUNDARY CONDITIONS The tower is constrained in the DOFs at the bottom node. Go to Main Menu Click on Preprocessor>Loads>Define Loads>Apply>Structural>Displacement>On Keypoints. Select the keypoint on which you want to apply displacement constraints. The following window comes up.

Select All DOF and click OK. APPLYING FORCES Go to Main Menu Click on Preprocessor>Loads>Define Loads>Apply>Forces/Moment>On Nodes. Select the top right node and the top left node. Click on OK in the 'Apply F/M on Nodes' window. The following window will appear. Enter the value of the force.

## Now the Modeling of the problem is done

SOLUTION:
Go to ANSYS Main Menu>Solution>Analysis Type>New Analysis. Select static and click on OK. Go to Solution>Solve>Current LS Wait for ANSYS to solve the problem. Click on OK and close the 'Information' window

POST-PROCESSING:

Listing the results Go to ANSYS Main Menu Click on General Postprocessing>List Results>Nodal Solution. The following window will come up.

Select DOF solution and All U's. Click on OK. The nodal displacements will be listed as follows.

Similarly you can list the stresses for each element by clicking Gen Postprocessing>List Results>Element Solution. Now select LineElem Results. The following table will be listed.

MODIFICATIONS:
You can also plot the displacements and stress. Go to General Postprocessing>Plot Results>Contour Plot>Element Solution. The following window will come up.

Select a stress to be plotted and click OK. The output will be like this.

## Thermal 5: 3D Heat Conduction within a Solid Introduction:

In this example you will learn to build and assess #3D geometries in heat transfer by modeling an object subjected to requirements and specific boundary conditions. Using ANSYS will allow you to output the temperature distribution in an extremely simple and accurate way.

Problem Description:
We assume that our phone is a rectangular solid, with filleted corners as they appear in the image. All units are S.I.

Boundary Conditions: 2) All faces except that of the battery have convective boundary layers. 3) The battery generates heat at a rate of 50 W/m^2/s. 5) Heat is uniformly generated in the bock at a rate of 20 W/m^2. Material Properties: (Steel) h = 50 W/(m^2*K) k(innards) = 10 W/m-K k(lithium) = 84.8 W/m-K k(plastic) = 0.18 W/m-K Objective: To determine the nodal temperature distribution and create contour plot. Dimensions 1. Cellphone: 0.1143m long x 0.0254m thick x 0.0508m wide (4.5 inch x 1 inch x 2 inch ) 2. Battery: Length: 50.8 millimeters Thickness: 10.16 millimeters Width 38.1 millimeters (2
inch x 0.4 inch x 1.5 inch)

Note that the actual dimensions of the battery are: Length: 53 millimeters Width 37 millimeters Thickness: 10 millimeters (2.087 inch x 1.457 inch x 0.3937 ) We will use approximations because the heat transfer will still display the same general distribution Note: For any necessary conversions, this site is useful: http://www.convert-me.com/en/convert/length

The dimensions of the drawing are in English because the specs of the phone given on the web are in English (making the CAD drawing easier to build in English) REMEMBER TO CODE ANSYS WITH SI, not English Note: .1 inch = 2.54 mm Also, R0.50in = 0.0127m

Starting ANSYS:
Click on ANSYS 6.1 in the programs menu. Select Interactive. The following menu comes up. Enter the working directory. All your files will be stored in this directory. Also under Use Default Memory Model make sure the values 64 for Total Workspace, and 32 for Database are entered. To change these values unclick Use Default Memory Model.

Click RUN

## Modeling the Structure:

Go to the ANSYS Utility Menu (the top bar) Click Workplane>WP Settings The following widow comes up:

Check the Cartesian and Grid and Triad Only buttons The first step is to create the inner volume to represent the space in the phone that is occupied by the microchips and transistors. Enter the values shown in the figure above and then click OK. Note that we are using a spacing increment of .1 inches or 2.54 millimeters. This will help in a modeling step. Go to the ANSYS Main Menu (on the left hand side of the screen) and click Preprocessor>Modeling>Create>Volumes>Blocks>By 2 Corners and Z The following window comes up:

Enter the values as shown and click OK. Now change the view to isometric mode, using Menu>Plot Controls>Pan Zoom Rotate and by clicking the ISO button. The plot should have zoomed to the new part. Now you have created the external phone. If at any time you cannot see the complete Workplace then go to Utility Menu>Plot Controls>Pan Zoom Rotate and zoom out to see the entire Workplace. If you want to see the grid itself, go to Utility Menu>Workplane>Display Working Plane The next step is to create the outer volume. Go to Utility Menu>Workplane>Offset WP by increments and click these buttons to offset the workplane by -.1 inches in each direction. This will enable you to create the inner volume easily. Next use Preprocessor>Modeling>Create>Volumes>Blocks>By 2 Corners and Z again and this time enter the following:

Note that these dimensions are simply the previous ones, minus 0.00508 which is .1x2 inches. If you messed something up, remember not to select Pick All when deleting anything now, since you dont want to destroy the model of the inner volume. The model should look like this now if you plot lines (Utility Menu>Plot>Lines)and dynamically rotate the solid(Utility Menu>PlotCntrls>Pan Zoom Rotate): (note, you have a black background)

The next series of steps involves creating the volume for the battery. First, use Offset WP by increments and increment the Workplane by two positive increments in the Z direction. Next, change the snap and grid increments of the workplane settings to 0.0381 m (1.5 inches, the distance between the bottom of the phone and the beginning of the battery). Use Offset WP and offset in the Y direction by one positive increment. Next, change the increments once more to 0.00635 m (0.25 inches). Displace the WP in the X direction one positive increment. The workplane will appear here: Note that The Pan Zoom Rotate settings here are Front instead of ISO and only the lines are plotted: Basically, the image should look like the CAD drawing from the top of the tutorial, and the bottom corner is where the battery will be referenced from.

## Now create the volume for the battery:

The completed model will look like this: (note that I did not replot the volumes because we wouldnt be able to see any of the inner volumes!

## And in ISO mode

One final step that needs to be executed involves explaining that the volumes overlap each other, so that when meshing, the volumes are separate from each other. This is accomplished by choosing Preprocessor>Modeling>Operate>Overlap>Volumes First select the outside layer and the inside layer (not the battery!) and hit Apply. Then select the inside volume and the battery and hit OK. This should resolve all the volumes. You can test this but plotting lines and then trying the step again, the volumes should each be selected separately if so, then hit cancel and move forward.

Material Properties:
Now that we have built the model, material properties need to be defined such that ANSYS understands how heat travels through this composite solid. Go to the ANSYS Main Menu Click Preprocessor>Material Props>Material Models. The pop-up window will now look like this:

In the window that comes up choose Thermal>Conductivity>Isotropic. (Double click Isotropic). The following window comes up:

Fill in 84.8 for Thermal conductivity. This defines the conductivity of Lithium and correlates material 1 with it. Click OK. Choose Define Material Model Behavior>Material>New Model and define another conductivity for the new model, that of the innards (10 W/m K) and then repeat to define the Plastic case of the phone (0.18 W/m K) Now exit the Define Material Model Behavior Window

Element Properties:
Now that weve defined what material ANSYS will be analyzing, we have to define how ANSYS should analyze our block. Click Preprocessor>Element Type>Add/Edit/Delete... In the 'Element Types' window that opens click on Add... The following window opens:

Type 1 in the Element Type reference number. Click on Thermal Mass Solid and select Tet 10node 87. Click OK. Close the 'Element types' window. Now we have selected Element Type 1 to be a Thermal Solid 10node Element. This finishes the section defining how the part is to be analyzed.

Meshing:
This section is responsible for telling ANSYS how to divide the block such that it has enough nodes, or points, to analyze to make an accurate enough analysis. Go to Preprocessor>Meshing>Size Controls>Manual Size>Global>Size. In the menu that comes up type 0.006 in the field for Element edge length.

Click on OK. Now when you mesh the figure ANSYS will automatically create square meshes that have an edge length of 0.006m along the lines you selected. Now go to Preprocessor>Meshing>Mesh Attributes>Default Attributes. The window is shown below:

Here you finally put together material model and material type. Select the appropriate material to mesh (first 1, lithium, as defined in the Material Properties section) and pick what element type to use (selected by the Element Type Number). Once this has been verified, Click OK and proceed to Preprocessor>Meshing>Mesh>Volumes>Free A popup window will appear on the left hand side of the screen. This window allows you to select the area to be meshed. Click anywhere within the lithium battery you created to select the volume and then click OK in the pop-up window. Return to Default Attributes and this time, select Material Number 2, to model the innards of the phone. Finally, choose material 3 and mesh the plastic casing. The model should now look like this:

ISO ELEMENTS

ISO LINES

## Boundary Conditions and Constraints:

Now that we have modeled the phone and defined how ANSYS is to analyze it we will apply the appropriate Boundary Conditions. Go to Preprocessor>Loads>Define Loads>Apply>Thermal (from here one can apply any of the loads, or Boundary Conditions, offered by ANSYS.)

## Apply Convection (Case)

First well apply the Convection Boundary layer around the model. For this click Convection>On Areas within the Thermal Load category. A dialog window will appear on the left hand side of the screen. This window allows you to select the areas you wish the load to be applied. Select the outside areas of the phone and click OK. The following window will appear:

Fill in the h value in the Film Coefficient blank and the Air temperature in the Bulk Temperature blank. Click OK when finished.

## Apply Heat Generation

The next step is to add the constraint of heat generation. Preprocessor>Loads>Define Loads>Apply>Thermal>Heat Generat>On Areas. (Heat Generat is just short for Heat Generation). You select Areas again because you have to apply this condition uniformly across the block. Click anywhere within the area to select it and then click OK. The voltage of the battery is rated as 3.7V and the internal resistance is on the order of 200 milli ohm. Therefore, the total power is I2R = 2.738 W which break down to (V = 0.0000196644768 m 3) = 139235.843 W/m3 Enter 139235.843 W/m3 as the heat generation value in the pop-up window that appears:

Now we have applied all the necessary boundary conditions so we move on to the Solution.

Solution:
Go to ANSYS Main Menu>Solution>Analysis Type>New Analysis. Select Steady State and click on OK. Go to Solution>Solve>Current LS. An error window may appear. Click OK on that window and ignore it. Wait for ANSYS to solve the problem. Click on OK and close the 'Information' window.

Post-Processing:
This section is designed so that one can list the results of their analysis as a nodal solution Go to the ANSYS Main Menu. Click General Postprocessing>List Results>Nodal Solution. The following window will come up:

Select DOF solution and Temperature. Click on OK. The nodal temperatures will be listed as follows:

Within this window one can numerically find the maximum and minimum value of the temperature within the block.

## Modification / Plotting the Results:

The last section displayed the numerical results, but most analyses will require a plot of the temperatures on the block in addition to the numerical results. This is how you go about doing that First go to Utility Menu>PlotCtrls>Style>Hidden Line Options The following window appears. Choose Q Slice Z Buffer and Working plane as shown below

Now there will be a cross section shown of the temperature distribution in the direction of the workplane. Try rotating the workplane so that this slice is shown (you may want to replot lines): To see the workplane, return to Utility Menu>Workplane>WP Settings and choose Grid and Triad Then use Workplane>Offset WP by increments and use offset by angles (change increments to 90 degrees) Offset in the +Y direction 90 degrees, then by 3 snap increments in the +Z direction. Should look something like this:

Choose General Postprocessing>Plot Results>Contour Plot>Nodal Solution. The following window will come up:

Check the entries and hit OK. The result should be something like below!

ISO

ISO zoomed in on bottom Now offset the WP back to the original angle (rotate in the Y direction by 90 degrees) and then choose Utility Menu>Workplane>Offset WP to>Global Origin. Change the WP settings to 0.02261 and offset the WP once more by 1 snap increment in the +Z direction. If you replot the contour, you can see that the temperature of the phone near the ear will be on the order of 296 K which is 73.13 degrees Fahrenheit. Some people might find that uncomfortable. This of course, is a crude model of the phone as most of us with phones have experienced more discomfort. Note that the phone is also warmer in the middle area, directly across from the batterywhich is sensible and also more likely to be noticed in general.