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MATHEMATICAL PSYCHICS AN ESSAY ON THE APPLICATION OF MATHEMATICS TO THE MORAL SCIENCES . BARRISTERATLAW M. 1 PATERNOSTER SQUARE 1881 .. EDGEWOfiTH. Y. LONDON C. KEGAN PAUL & CO.A. BY F.
(The rights of translation and of reproduction are reserved)
INTBODUCTOKY
DESCRIPTION OF
CONTENTS.
Mathematical Psychics may be divided into two parts Theoretical and Applied.
—
In the First Part (1) it is attempted to illustrate the possibility of Mathematical reasoning without numerical data (pp. 17)
afforded
(2)
;
without more precise data than are
is
quantity of pleasure (pp. 79). suggested between the Principles of Greatest Happiness, Utilitarian or Egoistic, which con
by estimates of
An
analogy
stitute the first principles of Ethics
those Principles of Maximum the highest generalisations of Physics, and in virtue of
and Economics, and Energy which are among
is
which mathematical reasoning
applicable to physical
phenomena quite as complex as human life (pp. 915). The Calculus of Pleasure (Part II.) may be divided the Economical and the Utilitarian into two species
—
;
the principle of division suggesting an addition to Mr.
Sidgwick's 'ethical methods' (p. 16). The first species of Calculus (if so ambitious a
for brevity
title
be applied to short studies in Mathemay matical Economics) is developed from certain Definitions
VI
INTRODUCTORY DESCRIPTION OF CONTENTS.
of loading conceptions, in particular of those connected Then (a) a mathematical with Competition (pp. 1719).
theory of Contract unqualified by Competition is given A mathematical theory of Contract de(pp. 2030). (/3)
termined by Competition in a perfect Ma7*ket
least
is
is
given, or at
promised (pp. 3033, and pp. 3842). Eeference made to other mathematical theories of Market, and
'
'
to
is
— What a argued that Market imperfect, — minate the following
trated on the question
is
is
Mr. Sidgwick's recent article on the WagesFund (pp. 32, 33, and Appendix V.) (y) attention is concenperfect
Market?
is
It
Contract
indeter
in
cases
:
(i.)
When
the
number of competitors
is
limited
(pp. 37, 39).
(n.)
In a certain similar case likely to occur in con
tracts for personal service (pp. 42, 46).
(i.
and
ii.)
When
the articles of
contract are not
perfectly divisible (p. 42, 46). (in.) In case of Combination, Unionism
;
in
which
case
it
is
submitted that
to
(in
general and abstractly
speaking) unionists stand
gain in senses contradicted or ignored by distinguished economists (pp. 44, 47, 48). (iv.) In a certain case similar to the last, and likely
to occur in Cooperative Association (pp. 45, 49).
The
affect
indeterminateness likely from these causes to
Commercial Contracts, and certainly affecting all sorts of Political Contracts, appears to postulate a principle of arbitration (pp.
5052).
It is
the basis
argued from mathematical considerations that
of arbitration between contractors
utility
is the
greatest
first
possible
of
all
concerned;
the Utilitarian
principle,
which can of course
afford
only a general
is is . 5682) the central conception is Greatest Happiness.g. 5356).INTRODUCTORY DESCRIPTION OF CONTENTS. differ in — Capacity for happiness under classes of sentients [e. The Economical thus leads up to the Utilitarian species of Hedonics l . is no presumption that equality of circumstances is the — most felicific arrangement .' « (under the of ' Hedonical Calculus — Of the Utilitarian Calculus (pp. some title studies in which already ' published the species being designated by the generic title) are reprinted here by the kind permission of the Editor of Mind. deduce middle axioms. has afforded some direction in practical affairs (pp. . direction Vll — yet. if necessarily implied in Utilitarianism. means conducive This deduction tive.g. July 1879. especially when account is taken of the interests of posterity. Mathematical reasonings are em ployed partly to confirm Mr. tersely treated in the main body of the work. or appendices. entitled 1 Mind. perhaps only neganegativing the assumption that Equality For. are more fully illustrated in the course of seven : supplementary chapters. the greatest possible sumtotal of pleasure summed through all time and over all sentience. Such are the principal topics handled in this essay or tentative study. Sidgwick's proof that Greatest Happiness is the end of right action partly to . sentients similar circum stances some experiencing on an average more pleasure of imagination and symof fatigue) than others there pathy) and less pain {e. to that end. Many of the topics. as employed by Bentham's school. character of a very abstract.
. PAGES Mixed Modes of Utilitarianism Professor Jevons's Formulae of Exchange the Errors of the dyew/xtrp^roj the Present Crisis in Ireland . bearing in the course of used in a technical sense. by references to the principal headings. On III. On IV. .. On VI. . The Index names of many eminent men whose upon the subject. what has always been felt. . . in which also refers to the definitions of terms also contains the theories. the deference due to the men and the diffidence proper to the subject. . Unnumerical Mathematics the Importance of Hedonical Calculus Hedonimetry . On II. On . 8393 9398 98102 102104 104116 116125 126148 Discussions too are reunited much broken up by this arrangement the Index .. On V. I. . ..Vlll INTRODUCTORY DESCRIPTION OF CONTENTS. . In so Dissent has often been expressed. it has not been terse a composition possible always to express. have been noticed these pages. On VII. .
is not alien to the (1) The science of quantity study of man. root and fruit. ON THE APPLICATION OF MATHEMATICS TO THE MORAL SCIENCES. PAET In the first I. .MATHEMATICAL PSYCHICS. in so far as actions and way desires can be numerically measured by that is. it will be generally admitted. concerned respectively with principle and practice. Introduction to Theory of Political Economy. but not in reality subject of this essay. The is the less familiar. the applicability and the application of Mathematics to The Sociology. l more paradoxical subject divides itself into two parts . B . very far. p. 1 But in so far as our data may consist of 3 Cf. Jevons. of Pleasure and Pain. the calculus of Probabilities. Theory. has been treated by many distinguished writers the calculus of Feeling. as Professor Jevons 2 of statistics effective — anticipates. (2) a particular salient feature. application of mathematics to Belief. attempted to prove an affinity between the moral and the admittedly mathematical sciences from their resemblance as to (1) a certain part it is general complexion. 9.
or only in some cases ? and. estimates other than numerical. shall a larger portion of fuel be given to the more efficient engines ? always. is positive or negaa maximum or minimum. a given quantity per unit of time. of fuel. increases or decreases. limited to numerical data are attainable. it is necessary to realise that mathematical reasoning supposed. set of engines. There is a good expression of this view in the Saturday Review (on Professor Jevons's The view adopted in these pages is expressed Theory. says about Mathematics applied to Sociology. Where subjects where there are data which. the total quantity of energy yielded by the former is greater than that yielded by the latter. that a quantity is greater or less than another. after Comte. whenever the is total quantity of fuel equal to that In the distribution. November 11. instance is less trivial.) 1 by Cournot. in what sort of cases ? Here is a very simple problem involving no numerical data. yet The popular view pervades much of what Mill (in his Logic).2 ' MATHEMATICAL rSYCHICS. 1871. as commonly l titative — for example. required to distribute so as to obtain the greatest It is possible quantity of available energy. To greater than greater than may The not be susceptible of numerical evaluation. with corresponding modification of definition and problem. . observations that some conditions are accompanied with greater or less pleasure than others. if so. 8 Recherches. there mathematical tive.) Or. Here is greater than c. b. therefore a is mathematical reasoning applicable to quantities which : reasoning is possible and take a trivial instance a may be is indispensable. : one engine is more efficient being than another former consumed by the consumed by the latter. though not numerical are quanis not. which differ in efficiency among — a given efficiency thus defined if. and b is c. analogous indeed to an following a given quantity 2 important social problem.
science may be divested of symbol. requiring.UNNUMERICAL MATHEMATICS. the worst of such unsymbolic. of mathematics. yet ciplined correctly. but at a glance through the instrument to the naked eye of common sense partially and obB 2 . competent to correct it by indicating what conAll this is evident ditions are necessary and sufficient. mathematics complete investigation. will hardly realize the full value of what he to holds. the advocate of mathematical reasoning in social science is not concerned to deny that mathematical reasoning in social. But. And. which. Only it must be remembered that the question how far mathematics can with safety or propriety be divested of her peculiar costume is a very delicate question. means of conveying and making — When the given it current. only to be decided by the authority and in the presence of Mathematics ficiency of at least herself. calculations as we meet in popular economics is that they are apt to miss the characteristic advantages of deductive reasoning. The latter statement may be disputed in so far as such questions may be solved by reasoning. it 3 for its may be safely said. as to the suf common sense. is strictly mathematical . as it were bringing the ingots of common sense be assayed and coined at the mint of the sovereign science. by undis common sense. answered more informally. though not symbolical. He that will not verify his conclusions as far as possible by mathematics. as well as in physical. secondly. unmethodic. firstly. conditions are not sufficient to determinate the problem a case of great importance in Political Economy ay€(o[jLeTpr)To<s is less — the less likely to suspect this deficiency. will want a measure of what altered it will be worth in a however slightly circumstances.
will of course not so is But they may be found in abundance. See p. taken from the common fit stock of mathematical physics. the maze of many dealers contracting and competing with each 2 other. call attention to the unnumerical. arbitrary functions. 34. scurely. In Hydrodynamics. though the is with which. — — mode of motion towards equilibrium is indeterminate. Hence the equations of to draw a conclusion of 2 See p. tity of its to distribute a given quan material in order to a maximum of energy. the position of equilibrium is mathematically deter mined. which are ours. for instance.4 MATHEMATICAL PSYCHICS. it —mathematical Tait 4 submitted. which particular part moves off not precisely given with symbols. italics. determining P and Q In the meantime it is obvious that ' for ' each decreases as ' motion show — and he goes on 1 X increases. illustrating the property under consideration reasoning without numerical data. representing not merely not numerical knowledge but 3 ignorance where. illustrate the economical problem of exchange. Natural Philosophy. The preceding problem. 2nd edition. 320. problems where we only know in part. 3 Ignoration of Coordinates edition). to order. with starting point loose quantitative relations rather numerical data — the than its necessitating fairly well the slippery though short path almost support of mathematics illustrates — 1 To problem of utilitarian distribution. Tait. as Plato says of unscientific knowledge. we have a Thomson or ' reasoning principles will be given later. Treatise on Natural Philosophy. p. in a state between genuine Being and NotBeing. Thomson and . Examples not made exactly. and. loose quantitarelation which constitutes the datum of the mathematical reasoning. it is possible to imagine a mechanism of many parts where the law of motion. 64. The tive. is appropriate in (Thomson and social 2nd 4 many Tait.
. Walras deduce mathematically. swum through by where the first principles of Physics are to be sought. then that portion of the fluid will retain that property for all time x . 5 momentous an infinite incompressible fluid were attracted to each other. or infinite dividedness of the dealers' interests. perfect fluid. in interest that balls (properly) projected in will move as if they And generally in the that boundless ocean of vortices. Marshall and M. Given this property of uniform price. is not a similar unnumerical. is not a suffi To attempt 1 to select representative instances from each Stokes. though not arithmetically. higher Hydrodynamics. the conditions of fluidity and con But : so also have our social problems some precise data for example. though they were quite close to it the theorem that the equation — of supply to demand. an interesting theorem. 2 See p.UNNUMERICAL MATHEMATICS. though a necessary. 112. measuringrod. No doubt it may hydro dynamical problems employ some precise data tinuity. cient condition of market price. or rather the (approximately of price in a market realised) conditions of which that property is the deducible effect. the property of uniformity . and which bears a striking resemblance to the data of hydrodynamics 2 (1) the fulness of the market: that there continues to be up to the conclusion of the deal: ing an indefinite number of dealers (2) the fluidity of the market. the very definition of Force. p. . 18. which Mill and Thornton failed with unaided reason to discern. or hyper arithmetical method there pursued ? If a portion of perfect fluid so moves at any deep time that each particle has no motion of rotation. Mr. here is no application of the numerical be objected that these . Mathematical Papers.
g. it is Social Science agents each tending to his own maximum utility and Politics and (Utilitarian) Ethics investigate the arrangements which conduce to the maximum sum total of . 117. the law of increasing the very same irregular. remarkable that the principal inquiries in may be viewed as maximumproblems. the law of diminishing utility. &c. dition of a maximum equation of the first term to zero 92. is of a more precise character. however. It must suffice. the Now. Maxima and Minima. E. . in conclusion. but also for the sake of a certain suggestiveness. unsquared material fatigue which constitutes the basis of the Economical and the . 80. 3 See. (4) where minimum (or least possible) might have been expected . Appendix I. or (in a wide sense) of The criterion of a maximum l turns. Stationary] for fails to suggest the superlativeness which it connotes.. the Calculus of Variations. as the law of diminishing returns to capital and labour.6 MATHEMATICAL PSYCHICS. It may be objected that the other contheorem. For Economics investigates the arrangements between Now. upon the principle that every minimum is the correlative of a maximum. to direct atten tion to one species of Mathematics which seems largely affected with the property under consideration. 2 The second term of Variation. not upon the amount. 2130. pp.. the very quantitative relation which it is proposed to employ in mathematical sociology given in such data . 286. p.) This liberty is taken. Utilitarian Calculus. not only for ' brevity. instance. Maximum in this paper is employed according to the context for (1) Maximum in the proper mathematical sense (2) Greatest possible (3) sta1 . this is decreaseofrateofincrease of a quantity. Thus Thomson's Minimum theorem is correlated with Bertrand's Maximum (Watson and Burhury. tionary . but upon the 2 tity. . Todhunter's Researches on Calculus of Variations. We tainment sign of a certain quanare continually concerned 3 with the ascerof a certain loose quantitative relation. recognised branch of mathematical inquiry would exceed the limits of this paper and the requirements of the argu ment.
the unit of economical calculus. Theory. III.HEDONIMETRY. 51. an expectation. Essai — Probabilities. Social Science. For moral calculus a further dimension is to of different members and different average happiness. Physiological Psychology below. see 1 Appendix . a conception which p. lich finite Cf. It is doubtless course of evolution. other of undistinguishable events or cases. intensity says. starts from similar data loose quantitative relations and travels to a similar con clusion —determination of maximum —why should Tait) a potentiality. a unit. is consistent with a (duly cau tious) 1 employment of Laplace. p. ebenmerkbut as a small difference . is still imperfectly evolved. The implied equation to each other of each minimum sensibile is a first principle It resembles the equation to each incapable of proof. Such is required the happiness of one person with the happicompare ness of another. 7 Since. infinitesimal notation. Our ' differential. The following Jevons 2 l brief answer Utility. 2 3 ' In reference to Economics. if there For a fuller discussion. as Professor sions. minim is to be regarded not as an infinitesimal 60. p. and generally the happiness of groups . intensity units. — — it not pursue the same method. as compared with the Calculus of Variations. of first while Psychics want the condition is of calculation. has two dimenis and time. Mathematics ? There remains the objection that in Physical Calculus there is always (as in the example quoted above from Thomson and measurement . Wundt. diffidently offered. 4 which con stitutes the first principle of the mathematical calculus of belief. . then. The implied a principle acquired in the equatability of timein irrespective of distance time and kind of pleasure. 7. Such comparison can no longer be shirked. 3 The unit in each dimension the just perceivable increment. utility.
is doubtless an evolutional acquifar sition Looking back difficulty census. in the Impure. presents indeed peculiar difficul Atoms of pleasure are not easy to distinguish and discern more continuous than sand. where we . equating to unity each minimum ties. We cannot number the 1 ' count the golden sands of life we cannot innumerable smile of seas of love but we . Utilitarianism. emliquid bedded in circumambient semiconsciousness. at all. . without having whether your action tends to increase the considered comfort of a limited number.8 is MATHEMATICAL PSYCHICS. for a fraction. then. we find no peculiar about the third dimension. . You cannot spend sixpence utilitarianly. it lot of pleasure. . unit of pleasureintensity during a unit of time ' count for Utility. from perfectly evolved. . See p. ' . between subjective and objective measure of time. has more intensitytimenumber units. is of minor importance. sensibile. 16. In virtue of what unit It is here is such comparison possible is ? submitted one. It is postulated postulated the population by It is question that horizon in which every moral prospect terminates which is presented to the farseeing at every turn. But the first dimension. ' has three dimensions is a mass of utility.' greater than another when and The third dimension . to be any systematic morality . utilities. imperfectly evolved. In the Pure. or numbers with limited without having compared such alternative comfort . leave the safe ground of the objective. scale. It is an affair of The second dimension is an affair of clockis still at our triple work assuming that the distinction here touched.' l : Any individual experiencing a to . on the most sacred and the most trivial occasions. by distributive justice. more discrete than as it were nuclei of the justperceivable.
and in some sense the other side of a physical phenomenon). and whose mazy complexity might far transcend in its entanglement the webs of thought and wiles of passion nevertheless. By aid of this conception we reduce into scientific order physical phenomena. If we know something about the construction of the mechanism. any number of cases may be imagined 1 in BertrancTs Theorem. we may be able to deduce For a similarly indefinite conclusion about the motion. it is mathematically deducible that each part of the great whole will move off with a velocity such that the energy of the whole may be the l the greatest possible consistent with greatest possible — the given impulses ' and existing construction. if it is a mighty maze. pistons. mass of is happiness (2) . parts. Imagine a material Cosmos. ' . seem to be capable of observing that there less. the particular hypothesis adopted in "these pages. but not without a plan if we have some quantitative though not numerical datum about the construction. the complexity of which may be compared with the complexity which appears so formidable in Social Science. there a multitude of pleasureunits. connections. that Pleasure is the concomitant of Energy. and perplexed with all manner of wheels. Energy may be regarded as the central idea of Mathematical Physics maximum energy the object of . instance. if . .MAXIMUM ENERGY. and that enough. soul is application of mathematics to the world of countenanced by the hypothesis (agreeable to the The general hypothesis that every psychical phenomenon is the concomitant. is 9 here a greater. a mechanism as composite as possible. the principal investigations in that science. any given impulses be imparted to any definite points in the mechanism at rest.
yet analogous to the reasoning in sum total of happiness. and pre ceding. mathematical reasoning is on a subsequent page. if MATHEMATICAL PSYCHICS.rt. indefinite. when she is unable to solve the problem of Three Bodies in her own department. which is constimoving tuted by adding to each other the energies of the mechanism existing at each instant of time (technically termed the timeintegral of Energy) should be a 3 maxiAction — 1 Of. affording approximate measurements. a conclusion about the take on motion would be that those parts than their stiller more energy fellows. more happiness. P. attainable in the not so dissimilar case in which we suppose motion generated in time by finite forces acting upon.10 which. the celebrated problem of Many Bodies (attracting each other according to any function of the distance) . the particles of which This supposition includes the mechanism is composed. in reference to which one often hears it asked what can be expected from Mathematics in social science. In the preceding illustration the motion mechanism was supposed instantaneously generated by the application of given impulses at definite points (or but similar general views are over definite surfaces) . 6. a datum about the construction 1 is that certain parts are less stiff than others. 2 that possible This rough. the order to the greatest more capable of of a pleasure shall take more means. Watson and Burbury. See note. but practically and philosophically. 64. But Mathematics can solve the problem of many bodies not indeed numerically and explicitly. and interacting between. and satisfying the soul of — the philosopher with the grandest of generalisations. p. each particle of the however complex whole is continually so that the accumulation of energy. Generalised s Coordinates. 30. By a principle discovered or improved by Lagrange. 3 A. .
at most is applicable to the utilitarian problem of which the object is the greatest possible sum total of universal happiness. the velocity of each part is regarded the action is as derivable from the action of the whole . (in virtue The central conception of Dynamics and of pervading analogies it may be said) in of Mathematical Physics is othersidedly identical general with the central conception of Ethics and a solution . connected by a single. 18345. the end of rational action. so is possible for the problem of the interaction of souls. the relative maximum? or that There is consistent with certain conditions. although not numerical and precise. whether selfinterested or benevolent. 11 l discovery of Sir William Eowan Hamilton the subordination of the parts to the whole is more mum. as it exists for the problem of the interaction of bodies. 24. the one unknown connected with the known. This general solution. relation with the given law of force. the arrangement to which contracting agents it actuated only by selfinterest tend is capable of being regarded upon the psychophysical hypothesis here entertained as the realisation of the maximum sumtotal of happiness. practical and philosophical. which dimly to is discerned 1 the Divine idea of a power tending : Philosophical Transactions. See pp.MAXIMUM PLEASURE. it may be thought. By the usefully expressed. But deserves consideration that an object of Economics also. . Now this accumulation (or timeintegral) of energy is which thus becomes the principal object of the physical investigation analogous to that accumulation of pleasure which is constituted by bringing together in prospect the pleasure existing at each instant of time. although not an explicit or in general easily interpretable. 142. The many unknown are reduced is to one un known.
so the movements of each soul. it may be conjectured. the Divine love of ' the universe. in a material cosmos are continually subordinated to one maximum sumtotal of accumulated energy. whether selfishly isolated or linked sympathetically. l the greatest possible quantity of happiness under conwhether the condition of that perfect disinteditions . arts. and most indispensably Similarly. constrained or loose. Royal Society.12 MATHEMATICAL PSYCHICS. the ordinary moral rules are equivalently expressed by the Intuitivist in the (grammaticallyspeaking). or those intermediate 2 conditions of what Herbert Spencer might term integration on to that perfected utilitarian sympathy in which the pleasures of another are accounted equal with one's own. Mecanique sister.' in comparison with her elder she is attractive to the vulgar worshipper in that The discernible by the eye of faith alone. but one ' maximumprinciple . with allied Theory of maxi mumprinciples. by Thomson. The mathematical reader does not require Cf. Vortices. . at any rate without loss. gration and unsympathetic isolation abstractedly assumed in Economics. by the Utilitarian in the superlative. Mill. but one increasing purpose. As the movements of each particle. .' Mecanique Sociale may one day take her place 1 ' along with Mecanique Celeste. is less Sociale. Essays to be . reminded that upon the principles of Lagrange the whole of (conservative) Dynamics may be presented as a MaximumProblem if without gain. Edinburgh. 3 the ' supreme pinnacle of moral as of physical science. many stages of evolution. 1 3 on Nature and Religion. But for the higher positive degree. efficacious power. dominates Mathematical Physics with a more than nominal supremacy. dominating the theory of fluid motion. There are diversities of conditions. 1865).' throned each upon the doublesided height of one maximum principle. Cf. moral problems the conception of maximum is indispensable. may continually be realising the maximum energy of pleasure. And the great principle of Thomson (Thomson & Tait. 16. statuesque beauty of the one is manifest but the fairylike features of the other and her fluent form are 2 See p.
Imagine an electrical circuit consisting of two rails from the earth connected at one extremity by a galvanic battery and bridged over at the other extremity isolated 2 by a steamlocomotive. so also pleasure force tends to a maximum energy. move the The 1 electro magnetic force therefore tends to See Clerk Maxwell.. H. is The invisible energy of electricity . l grasped by the marvellous methods of Lagrange the invisible energy of pleasure may admit of a similar handling.g. . evidence of things not seen in the world of atoms (the methods whereof. on the use of Lagrange's Generalised Coordinates. so the energy of pleasure is to be distinguished not only from the gross energy of the limbs. chaps. e. 13 But Mathematics has long walked by the veiled. As electro magnetic force tends to a maximum energy. Electricity and Magnetism. may illustrate the possibility of social mathematics).magnetic force is to be distinguished from the energy due to ordinary dynamical forces. gravitation acting upon the conductors. The energy generated by pleasure force is the physical concomitant and measure of the conscious feeling of delight. a Clerk Maxwell has a similar construction. When a current of electricity is is sent through the circuit.mecanique sociale. As in a system of conductors carrying electrical currents the energy due to electro. 5 and 6. it may incidentally be remarked. Part iv. statistical and rough. but also from such nervous energy as either is not all represented in consciousness {pace G.. there an electromagnetic force tending to move the circuit or any moveable part of it in such a direction that the number of lines of force (due to the magnetism of the earth) passing through the circuit in a positive direction may be a maximum. or is represented by intensity of consciousness not intensity of pleasure. Lewes).
§ 31) and Minimum. in backwards or forwards which the electrical curis The delicate electromagnetic force placed such a commanding position that she sways the movements of the steamengine so as to satisfy her own yearning towards maximum. Now this may well be unable to move the ponderous locomotive. however — inconceivably diversified its degrees of freedom. either the direction according to the direction in rent flows. and amenable mathematical demonstration. Complicate this conception . the delicate force that direction. as I venture to think. but it may be adequate to press a spring and turn a handle and let on steam and cause the loco motive to be moved by the steamengine in of the electromagnetic force. by a more delicate system itself. modify it by . substituting for the principle of Minimum ForcePotential the principle of Minimum 2 MomentumPotential imagine a comparatively gross mechanism of innumerable degrees of freedom governed. Similarly pleasure in the course of evolution has become throned among grosser subject energies as it were explosive engines. 3 See the account of the Mechanism of Life. in virtue of certaia analogies hetween theories about Energy and about Action. rails in locomotive alono. and let the steamcar governed move upon a plane in a direction tending towards the position of Minimum Potential ElectroMagnetic Energy. in the sense adumbrated. MomentumPotential upon the analogy of VelocityPotential (Thomson on Vortex Motion. though at first sight as hopelessly incalculable as whatever is in life as the smiles of beauty and the capricious and irregular to — waves of passion. . in Balfour Stewart's Con. 2 sprnation of Eneran.14 MATHEMATICAL TSYCHICS. obedient still to the great Maximum Principles of Physics. ready 3 to go off at the pressure 1 — See p. 24. Add now another degree of freedom l .
PART II. mical Calculus investigates the equilibrium of a system of hedonic forces each tending to maximum individual utility the Utilitarian Calculus.' the plexity resembling in electricity its and magnetism.MAN A PLEASUREMACHINE. least a a law of Force to governed systems fluent form. A system of such charioteers and chariots is what constitutes the object of Social Science. Sin has ne possim natural accedere partes Frigidus obstiterit circum prascordia sanguis . The Econonamely Economics and Utilitarian Ethics. general characters the field of To construct a scientific ' hypothesis seems rather to surpass the powers of the writer than of Mathematics. The attractions between the charioteer forces. at least the conception of Man as a ' pleasure machine may justify and facilitate the employment of mechanical terms and Mathematical reasoning in social science. a Fairy Queen guiding a most complicated chariot. she the subject energies so as to satisfy her own yearnsways her every air Of gesture and ing towards maximum ' . the limbs and the environment on which they act. present an appearance of quantitative regularity in the midst of bewildering cominstruments. wheel within wheel. the equilibrium of a system in which each and all tend to maximum uni. the speculative and active motion ' — ' motor nerves. . 15 of a hairspring. the collisions and compacts between the chariots. Swayed by the first principle. Such are some of the preliminary considerations by which emboldened we approach the two fields into which the Calculus of Pleasure may be subdivided.
— ' ' — . not yet counts for one. ' 1 Deferring controversy. upon the ' most beneficent to sink his benevolence towards competitors and the Deductive Egoist might have need But further. firstly. the 1 See Appendix IV. . usual denotation ECONOMICAL CALCULUS. But the correspondence is not perfect. Hedonism the class of Method whose principle of action may be generically defined maximising happiness For between the two extremes is not exhaustive. Sidgwick's Egoistic and Universalistic Hedonism. let us glance at the elements of the Economic Calculus observing that the connotation (and some of the reasoning) extends beyond the . the Pure Utilitarian might The motives of For. it is possible that of a Utilitarian Calculus. the moral constitution of the concrete agent would be neither Pure Utilitarian nor Pure Egoistic. the two species of agents eorres} >nd with Mr. so persistently misunderstood by critics.10 versal utility. —The first principle of Economics 2 is that every agent is actuated only by selfinterest. Sidgwick's division of T15. The of this principle may be viewed under two workings aspects. Definitions. to the political struggle for power. but sufficient for the purpose of these tentative 3 studies. Descriptions rather. so clearly stated by Mr. or with. but finery For it is submitted that Mr. ' principle of self limitation of a method. according as the agent acts without. Pure Egoistic and Pure Universalistic there may be an indefinite number of impure methods wherein the think it . as well as to the commercial struggle for wealth.' but counts for a fraction. Sidgwick. happiness of others as compared by the agent (in a calm moment) with his own. . neither counts for nothing. MATHEMATICAL PSYCHICS.
c . indefinite number of dealers. it may be. and answers hastily It is both. capital manager) agreed nem. in com modity In this case. In this case. to the same thing. to distribute the jointproduce by assigning to each a certain function of his ists. without consent of rival. under consideration consists of all the individuals who are willing and able to recontract about the articles under consideration. the first species of action may be called v$3r . consent of others affected 17 In wide by : his actions. or fencer. Is it peace or war ? asks the lover of : ' Maud. as the transaction reaches determi nation. a market consisting of an indefinite x. con. a dealer lowering price. say Ys. in commodity number of dealers. what comes and an y. contract. A making moves. the field continues indefinitely large. The articles of contract are in this case the the principle amount of ' sacrifice to be made by each. or. expiry of lease recontracts. and ' of distribution. the field continually diminishes and ultimately But this is not the case in general. (2) A set of cooperatives (labourers. say Xs. a great number of auctions going on at the same point . with the last bidder (to sell at such a price if no higher So a landlord on bid) recontracts with a higher bidder. Thus in an auction the field consists of the auctioneer and all who are effectively willing to give a higher price than the last bid. Examples (1) general.ECONOMICAL DEFINITIONS. when some of the contractors without the consent of others Thus an auctioneer having been in contact recontract. war. with a new The field of competition with reference to a contract. up to the determination of To equilibrium. tenant. Suppose vanishes. senses. or contracts. the second.' of economic competition. sacrifice. pax or pact between contractors during contract.
. analogous to that infinity and infinitesimality which facilitate so large a portion of Mathematical . 5.g. Any individual is free to recontract e. the indefinite extent. time) with an indefinite number e.18 be sure it MATHEMATICAL PSYCHICS. free to contract (at the same . field might be said to vanish when the system reached equilibrium. might be continually of might change as the system moved. then in a continuous medium of Thus. the definition.. . competitive communication throughout a normal You might suppose the constituent individuals collected at a point. I. or connected phones — an to by tele mate ideal supposition. the first pair referrible 1 to the heading multiplicity or continuity. with any out of an indefinite number. in the last example there number of Xs and is Any individual similarly of Ys. The conditions of a perfect field are four . the second to dividedness or fluidity. if equilibrium. This conlarly Y) may dition combined with the first appears to involve 1 X See p. may one chose to define the field of force as the centres of force sensibly acting on a certain system of bodies. a certain indefinite multiplicity and dividedness. There is free field. be said to vanish at the position of But that circumstance does not stultify attracting matter. and all applications of the Differential Calculus).g. Physics (consider the theory of Atoms. but sufficiently approxiexistence or tendency for the purposes of abstract science. are an indefinite II. any (and simideal with any number of Ys. perfect field of competition professes in addition certain properties peculiarly favourable to mathematical A calculation namely.
19 the indefinite divisibility of * each article of contract deal with an indefinite number of Ys he must (if any X give each an indefinitely small portion of x) might be erected into a separate condition. or is not. This species of imperfection will not be explicitly treated here it is . where it may be a condition of production that there should be three at least to each bargain. as suggested in Appendix V. to distinguish the effects of this imperfection according as the competition is. e. 17). Any individual X irrespectively is . . any third party. involves the failure of the second. but seats in the entangled contract described in the example (p. . there is among the Ys (and similarly the Xs) no combination or precontract between two or more contractors that none of them will among recontract without the consent of all.ECONOMICAL DEFINITION'S. .g. Any Y then may of other Ys. a settlement which cannot be varied by recontract within the field of competition. supposed perfect c 2 in other respects. but not vice versa and the third and fourth are similarly related. which Any individual is free to recontract with another independently of. III.. and that of the third to the fourth. 135lt>7). It important. A A settlement is a contract all which cannot be varied with the consent of final settlement is the parties to it. without the consent being required of. The failure of the first .. There will be observed a certain similarity between the relation of the first to the second condition. Jevons {Theory. in simple exchange each contract is between two only. partly because it is perhaps of secondary practical importance and partly because has been sufficiently treated by Prof. free to contract with another independently of a third party e. pp. accept the offer of any IV..g. Contract is indeterminate when there are an indefinite number 1 of final settlements.
20 MATHEMATICAL PSYCHICS. is in general that contract by itself does not supply sufficient conditions to determinate the solution . 1 07. Then the utility of one — x) + 9^ (y) and party. one or both refusing to move the answer further. (7) Contract with more or less perfect competition is less or more indeterminate. may be written $ : (a the utility of the other party. varied only by consent (not and If 27.g. the other party. $ 2 (#) + ^2 (° ~ y) where $ and are the integrals of Professor Jevons's . 2nd ed. tends to prevent widely. say Y. = ~F(jsy). (a) Let us commence with almost the simplest case of contract. to what settlement they will consent = $(xy). 1 sought. now . The troblem in this to which attention is introductory inquiry of more than theoretical imshow not only that indeterminateness portance. Exchange — of two commodities is a particular case of this kind of contract. X and Y. . More generally. say X. the utility of Y. by violence). is inquired at what point they will reach equilibrium. whose interest depends on two variable quantities. Let x and y be the portions interchanged. but also in what direction an indeterminate if it — an summary is : How specially directed far contract is escape from its evils Demonstrations. one party. two individuals. Let P. (/3) Contract with perfect competition is perfectly determinate.. '> W symbols (f> and \Jj. It is agreed that x and y shall be e. 2 Theory of Political Economy. —The general answer — is is to be (a) Con tract without competition is indeterminate. as 2 in Professor Jevons's example. p. the it utility of X. which they are agreed not to vary without mutual consent. sup plementary conditions as 1 will appear being supplied by which is Conclusions rather. the mathematical demonstration of not fully exhibited.
21 competition or ethical motives. it is evident that X will step only on one side of a certain line. the other decreases. from any point p cos d x. P and IT do not increase together. It is required to find a (x y) Consider P—F = P point (oey) such that.PURE CONTRACT. denoting the length of the ordinate drawn from any point on the plane of x y (say the plane of the paper) to the surface. namely dV_dn __ dVdn d x dy dy d x (corresponding to Professor Jevons's equation <f>i (a ~ x) it " is <f> 2 (%) ^i (y) $2 (b  y) Theory tigate. while one increases. Consider IT — ^ we y) similarly. It may be shown from a variety of points of view that the locus of the required point is dv which locus curve. p. Contract will supply only one condition (for the two variables). (1) it d x dy is dn_ dP dn =0# dy dx here proposed to call the contractin Consider first what directions X can take an indefinitely small step. and p sin 6 = dy. Since the addition to P is (x y). say of length p. which proposed here to invesas a surface. in whatever direction we take an infinitely small step. the line of indifference. 108). as it might be called its equation being being . but that. = .
rfP tan. (d¥\ fdn\ fdn\ \dx) \dy)~\dy) \dx~J (2) /d~P\ ~ put. that the direction to move. in a dire tion positive as it may be called for both. so that so DP — should be positive. but in opposite directions) where the necessary (but not sufficient) condition is . say = 2 g . in this case TdU\ DP =—  is the same for all direction . 6 2 „ dn dx = — dx dT~— 9 a 2 — ( — ( dn dy K dy But this solution fails when K ) dx J — — dx dy ) J (dY\ dy' In fact. and in Y will co directi< any between their respective lines of indifference. to And it which X will prefer then sent we enquire in what directions to move together. ai P and II both increase together. line of indifference. as it may be termed. be taken. is perpendicular to t] Similar remarks apply to IT. in passing. Then in general c. the line of force or line preference. is be observed. the answer X is.22 MATHEMATICAL PSYCHICS. The same consideration might be thus L 6 the complete variation of d~?> ( j— sin J P be DP=p [(— ^dx' I — ) cos 6 and similarly for 17. At wh then will they refuse to move at all ? When th( point lines of indifference are coincident (and lines of preferen not only coincident.
is pos one party not losing. but by the understanding that he should gain sensibly with the gains of P. the other gains.g. or gain infmitesimally. (3) Or. IT being c (II — IT'). let P move subject to the condition = 2 x DIT. therefore. Then DP. certainly not a very practicable condition. whence we have as before the contractcurve. The same result would follow if we supposed Y induced to consent to the variation. we may consider that motion as. where of IT. vanishes only when where c is a constant . + O^® 0. c is a constant and a c IT' is the supposed given value Then P maximum clTI when dx ( W# d J_  ) dx) + dx. . not merely by the guarantee that he should not lose. where 6 is a function of the cothat DP ordinates. P is maximum. the a maximum.PURE CONTRACT. may be described sible so as a relative constant. then. is point at which Put P only = P — e. more generally. motion is impossible in any direction. again. Or. common value of DP =— is negative. that 23 If. let IT = & 2 P where k is a constant. whence ana fflCl K dx' v + e)' cff> f^) = \dx J = • g)(i. (^  c \dg *E) = dyJ . long The point of equilibrium. subject to this condition. For instance.
(4) Upon action the hypothesis above shadowed forth. (ii) a direction that the jointcon trary to the 'preference^ of either individual. lolo. p. [We without disadvantage make abstraction of sensible of the may moof mentum. 1 from the origin. and particular the step taken by a contractor modifying articles of contract. system should be (positive termediate lines between the respective continually indirections of the) pleasureforces. the chariot. that the resultant line of force (and the momentum) of the gross. From which is and directed by a more delicate pleasureforce. f(tV\ w/JTx before [ r. in 1 human generally.) ( r K whence as — dx J ) \a yj t. What appears to the writer the most philosophical presentation may be thus indicated.ItK \dy/ ax ( /</l\ fdll\ 1 = l J n " No doubt the one theory which has been thus dif ferently expressed could be presented by a professed mathematician more elegantly and scientifically.. . MATHEMATICAL PSYCHICS. 3 And See pp. let on. '12.24 .or subject. . may be regarded as the working of a gross force governed.. to conditions conditions being here (i) that the pleasureenergy of and Y considered each as a function of (certain values is . it seems to follow upon general dynamical principles applied to this special case that equilibrium attained when the total pleasureenergy of the contractors the a maximum relative. See p. . See note. and system to suppose Let  the by start the condition a jointline move towards equilibrium along it resultant gross force. X of) the variables x and y should be functions of the same values in the metaphorical language above employed that the charioteerpleasures should drive their : teams together team should over the plane of xy never be urged in . 11.
sd¥\ rdn\ — fdn\ fd?\ = —[—(_. appears from (1) and (2) there is a U. where dp — Dn = . the downward ordinates representing negative pleasures. the index placed anywhere in this and if account be taken of the . portions of the spheres underneath the plane of the paper. the impure (part of the) contractcurve. as Mr. The contract curve the centres. It . If the index. is not therefore indicating immobility. contractcurve) either vanishes or becomes Accordingly the maxima and minima of P and H present . — <j d [d a being an increment of the length of the infinite. mutatis mutandis. be placed anywhere in this portion it will run up to a centre.PURE CONTRACT. let 25 employ an arbitrary function to denote the unknown principle of compromise between the parties supus . au contraire. where DP =r— or . Marshall might call it. portion of the ' locus f . is easily seen to be the line joining less centres Supposing that the distance between the than the less of the radii. each called. that e s » is (in v general) where either =— ) b d(J DP . It appears that the pure and impure parts of the contractcurve are demarcated by the . Dn  changes sign.] Then. it appears that the total utility of the system is a relative maximum at any point on the pure contractcurve. as it might be This might be illustrated by two spheres. points .)( —— \dxJ \dyJ \dxJ \dyJ . similar statements hold. is having the plane of the paper as a diametral plane. But between the centres the contractcurve is portion is immovable pure. part of the contractcurve is impure. pose the ratio of the sines of angles made by the resultant line with the respective lines of pleasureforce. by reasoning different from the pre ceding only in the point of view.
which corresponds to a maximum in reference to the upper hemisphere. demarcating points. relevant to cases where the commodity of one party a discommodity to the other. the centre of each sphere. 23].20 MATHEMATICAL PSYCHICS. This pure. For. but the same point be the same point — only an accident that it should would not be the same point if you suppose mum slightly distorted spheres) affords a miniin relation to the lower hemisphere. P = F 3 3 . will be (subject to prethe which the consent reservations analogous to those analysed in the ceding paragraphs) Eliminant. P =F 2 Let P = ¥ 1 persons and several variables. P is stationary either a maximum or minimum. but unstable (part of the) contractcurve is exemplified l in certain cases of that unstable equilibrium of trade. a minimum in reference The impure contract curve the lower hemisphere. The preceding theory may easily be extended to 2 . which has been pointed out by Principal Marshall and Professor Walras. (x y z) denote the utility of one of three parties. Then the contractsettlement. But even in the pure contractcurve all to is is points do not in the same sense indicate immobility. d~Px dx 1 dV dy x dVx dz . '. IT beingconstant. utility and similarly depending on three variables. — — . Marshall's figure 9 but not his figure 8 for the delicate relation between the conceptions instability of Trade (where perfect competition is presupposed) and instability of contract in general is not one of identity. Mr. the arrangement for the alteration of all three parties of cannot be obtained. the contractcurve may be treated as the locus where. p. xy z several x . accord ing to the consideration (3) [above. for example. Thus any point affords a in our case of in (it it maximum two intersecting spheres relation to the upper hemisphere is .
PURE .
the labour given by Friday. And similarly for larger numbers It is in hyperspace.). any point between these lines represents a contract. three contractcurves presented bounded by the cessively by suc supposing each pair of individuals to be in contract with respect to x and y. Let Eobinson Crusoe =X. from the same point along Then accompanying figure 1. Represent y. and measure x\ the remuneration given an eastward line (See by Crusoe. But there is a class of contracts to the variation of which the consent of both parties cannot be obtained. by a horizontal line measured northward from an assumed point. of settle . fix purpose of the present To gather up and our thoughts. labour to be given by the black.28 MATHEMATICAL PSYCHICS. Fig. let us imagine a simple case Robinson Crusoe contracting with Friday. It will very generally be the interest of both parties to vary the articles of any contract taken at random. not necessary for the study to carry the analysis further. The articles of contract : — wages to be given by the white. i.
. arrangements about the mode of work). should be some settlement. say rj x northwest. which are respectively the intersections with the 1 contractcurve of the curves of indifference for each Thus the utility party drawn through the origin. 22. At or rather. undecidable 2 opposition of interests. 29 These settlements are represented by an indenumber of points. Eobinson Crusoe to give Friday in the way of Industrial Partnership a fraction of the produce as well as wages. De Corona. or finite rather. may still be represented as a along which the pleasureforces of the conis tractors are mutually antagonistic. the contractcurve CC. one of the contracts represented by the contractcurve between the limits. deadlock. and y £ southwest. aKpirbs e/ns koi the interest of both parties that there It is Tapa^q. But is arbitrary in the absence of the interests of the two adversd pugnaiitia arbitration. merits. a certain portion of it which may be supposed to be wholly in the space between our perpendicular lines in a direction trending from southeast to northThis available portion of the contractcurve lies between two points. is for of the contract represented by >j Friday zero. the contractlocus sort of line.PURE CONTRACT. it analysis that in the case of any further appears from the preceding number of articles (for instance. Y desiring to get as northwest far as possible southeast towards y  which of these contracts . the same as if there was no contract. fronte all along the contractcurve. or again. An accessory evil of indeterminate contract 1 the See p. —  This simple case brings clearly into view the characteristic evil of indeterminate contract. east . «27 that point he would as soon be off with the bargain work by himself perhaps. a locus. 2 Demosthenes. X toward 770^0 And.
how much of an article he would take at 3 .30 MATHEMATICAL PSYCHICS. plus impersonelles en quelque sorte. greater than in a lation ' . in particular to whose varied culMessrs. to trace out all the branches of a complete system. but is hardly to be fully understood without mathe The mathematics of a perfect market have been matics.' highest price which he. if buyer. des concurrents augmente. Catallactics. As Professor Jevons l says with reference to a similar case. Such a transaction must be settled upon other than strictly The art of bargaining consists economical grounds. Jevons. tivation of the reader first is mathematical science. the willing to give. full market. . towards dissimuand objectionable arts of higgling. . Art. les conditions d'echange deviennent plus necessaires. 134. ' Theory. That contract in a state of perfect competition is determined by demand and supply is generally accepted. Marshall. Of. tendency. 50. Walras . book ii.' his You might suppose each dealer to write down demand. the referred who wishes to dig down to the root of principles. in the seller buyer ascertaining the lowest price at which the is willing to part with his object. to gather fruits rare and only to be reached by a mathematical substructure. without attempting to conceal his requirements and these data having been furnished to a sort of marketmachine. Elements. . (/?) a mesure que le nombre CourcelleSeneuil says. each price. the 2 Compare CourcelleSeneuil's man account of the contract between a hunter and a woodin an isolated region. p. possible. 3 Walras. worked out by several eminent writers. With contrasted this clogged and underground procedure ' is As the smooth machinery of the open market. the price to be passionlessly evaluated. 2 Traiti. without disis closing.
appropriate. the catallactic atom. The articles catallactic molecule is compounded. of the labourer is deducible from considering his utility 1 It must be carefully remembered that Prof. Es. a typical couple (see properties of a market. nor by reconThe advantage tract within the field of competition. Ps. p. Ls. is presented in the case above described in the . Walras. by from among sets of labourers. 17. Zs. Jevons's See p. Thus the actual commercial among sets of landowners.PERFECT COMPETITION. Ys. &c. . couple. 98). 2 See p. The isolated would obey our (a) law. ducts among a set of consumers Qs. Fomiulse of Exchange apply not to bare individuals. but to individuals clothed with the (as he himself sufficiently indicates. As. 1 The familiar pair of equations first is deduced : 2 by the present writer from the principle Equilibrium is attained when the exbe varied without recontract isting contracts can neither with the consent of the existing parties. suppose the solved Xs and Ys dealing in respect with several sets of Zs. 31 There emerges amidst the variety of construction and terminology noWcov ovojioltojv [xopcf>r) fxta. called. of this general method is that it is applicable to the parwhere the conticular cases of imperfect competition of demand and supply at a price are no longer ceptions . when we each of several . As. field a case re might be represented each X buying labour entrepreneurs Xs. Appendix V. use of land from sets of by M. Cs. Js.). an isolated couple. an essentially identical graphical form or analytical formula express whereof the ing the equation of supply to demand the catallactic molecule. and selling proconsisting of the sum of the three aforesaid classes and the entrepreneurs of a the Ys and Zs. as it might be simplest type. Ks. 38. Bs. As the demand species different from X. Bs. use of capital from among sets of capitalists. definition of perfect competition.
the This is a very catallactic formula? become applicable.g. 410 (end) 411 (beginning). 231. which has received its coup de grace from Mr. the migration from one employment to another. pp. &c. 1879. abstract representation (abstracting e. supposed a definite relation connecting the produce with agents of production and entrepreneur's labour. risk. Sidgwick has so clearly demonstrated in words is selfevident in symbols. have appeared untenable from the humblest mathematiinterest the consideration of the simplest of perfect competition from which also it must type be added that Mr. Arts. so the of the entrepreneur is deducible from considering his utility as a function of (1) his expenditures on the agents of production (2) his expenditures in the way demand . foreign trade.' September. The indirectness of the relatiori between wages and ' — which Mr. The predeta minateness of the wagefund. Fortniyhtly . — — 1 This permeability between employments (such as explained in Economics of Industry with reference to the supply of unskilled and skilled labour and of business power) tends to a level of utility. Sidgwick. must always. . 4 here misinterpreted statement. 1879. who apparently makes the more abstract e. Sidgwick's recently added to Economic Science to the contribution Fortnightly Eeview. wages received and work done. 242. Elements.' ' faisant 2 From vantage the point of view just reached may with adbe contemplated one of the domains most Mr. 31. that contract perhaps cal point of view. but there being is not an article of contract variable . 1 supposition of a sort of frictionless entrepreneur. &c). Sidgwick'sperhaps inadvertent. (3) his receipts . 4 Review. 17. one would think. 3 2 See pp. ni perte ni benefice.g. Xs becoming Ys. yet more concrete than that of M.32 as a function of MATHEMATICAL PSYCHICS. from sale of produce of consumption The lastnamed (4) his labour of superintendence. Walras. 3 .
' 3 That ' the labour of managing capital does not increase in proporis so far from creating any that it is rather of the essence of the peculiar difficulty. e. Sidgwick seems to imply. it is submitted. Sidgwick's strictures 2 on Prof. T) . (Gain of course in this statement measured objectively. 18. the mathematical theory of catallactics. It is further submitted that Mr. is indeed a peculiar circumstance but it is of a sort with which the Jevonian formula. does not. appear tenable. the complex relations between entrepreneur. That the labour of managing capital increases not only not at the same but at a less rateofincrease than the amount managed. as Mr. p. 411.g. capiAnd so there talist. 33 in between employer and operative even the case of what is here called perfect competition. and labourer are best made clear. a class of the same for capitalistentrepreneurs. ' a priori ground for supposing that industrial competition tends to equalize the rate of profit (as well as is interest) on capitals of different amount. not subjectively in utility). is quite competent to deal. say in money. pp. Marshall has dealt in his second class of DemandCurves . 2 3 Fortnightly Revieio. (JK)s. . if there is in the field X as for another one J as for another in addition to the classes prescinded. with which in fact Mr. * Jevons are hasty for that by a (compound) employment of the Jevonian (or an equivalent catallactic) for. 412. so. 1 See Defin. the comparison we abstract rent. theory of exchange quite congruent with the familiar tion to the amount managed . is indeterminate. As the gain per unit of produce is the same for one is X.PEKFECT COMPETITION. But no equation is made between the even if to simplify gain of a (J K) and the sum of the gains of a J and a K . and the gain per unit of capital lent J . the gain per unit of produce is the same for one (J K) as for another (J K). ' circumstance that the disutility of (common) labour (labour subjectively estimated) does not increase in proportion to work done (labour objectively estimated). mula.
which is tract It is difficult than the general problem of uncontract already treated.34 MATHEMATICAL PSYCHICS. « dy dxdxf continually negative. Appendix V. especially in regard to abstinence from capital. or commodity manufactured. that continually J P being the utility of X. and in case of pur1 offered in 2 See these laws stated in the companion calculus. And y is the objectively measured remuneration of X. i. accordl ing to the two first axioms of the Utilitarian Calculus. d~P is Lh Ju neqative. without acknowledgment. The proofs were Mind. (2) f*. discussion of pure Catallactics. above put (p. the law of increasing labour. of the cumidative proofs already adduced by Prof. competitive field. It is not necessary qualified to resolve analytically the composite mechanism of a much more It will suffice to proceed synthetically.) No doubt these latter conditions are subject to many exceptions. Let us start. from the abstract typical case and Y dealing respectively in ing utility. (Attention is solicited to the interpretation of the third condition. not necessary for this purpose to attack the gmeral problem of Contract qualified by Competition. and the law of decreas. 4—o. J —r dy positive. Of. Jevons. because without knowledge. . then. observing in a simple typical case the effect of continually introducing into the field additional com petitors. But it is not the purport of the present study to attempt a detailed. 2 (l) — . Here x represents the sacrifice objectively measured of X it may be manual work done. much less a polemical. 28). J v 2' 2' dx . or capital abstained from during a certain time. Hence it may be assumed. but rather (y) to inquire how far conis determinate in cases of imperfect competition. an X x and y.
For The Vo say slightly northwest of y o g it will in general be possible for one of the Ys (without the consent of the other) to recontract with the two Xs. but with a view to resale and in the sort of cases comprised in Mr. those three parties the recontract is more advantageous than the previously existing contract. the same nature as X the old X . are yet perhaps of to one taking a general abstract secondary importance view. It will generally be the interest of the of one couple and the Y of the other to rush together. of two Xs and two Ys. settlements. 35 chase not for consumption. Still.IMPERFECT COMPETITION. though they the watertightness of many of the reasonings in destroy this and the companion calculus. at another point. these exceptions. And for the sake of illus tration (not of the argument) let us suppose that the new has the same requirements. For (1) if possible and another couple let leaving their partners in the lurch. Class II. curves. points of the contractcurve in the immediate cannot be final neighbourhood of the limits y £ an d if the system be placed at such a point. Marshall's . Then it is unless (1) all point is on the contactcurve. will in general curve drawn altogether within the indifferenceFor the indiffrom the origin to y £9 lie D 2 . and similarly that the new Y is equal natured with the old. X and sists This being premised. X one couple be at one point. let us now introduce a second a second Y so that the field of competition con. it will be the interest of all parties to descend to the contractcurve. For the right line joining the origin to (the neighbourhood of) y g . evident that there cannot be equilibrium the field is collected at one point (2) that . And (2) if the common point is not on the contractcurve. so that for all .
Jhus the figure 1. at the contractcurve the two indifferencecurves X and Y touch. curve (so far as we are concerned with it) is convex to the abscissa. in general is convex to the abscissa. where F' is put for the P M y\ 2/ . and also such that its coordinates are the sums (respectively) of the coordi nates of two other points. namely y * ^ . as it may be said). For equation _dy = dx ( ^ d¥(xy) \ dx ' d~F(xy)\ ( whence _ r L da y dx 2 2 (UL) \ dx J + (M. is which for Now.) r (lil) + ) V d x ) L \dxdy) d* F 1 dy d y~\ dx J Therefore the indifferenceperfectly positive. page 28. will it with coordinates ~ 2 %2* appears from previous reasonings that there {x'y') be a contractrelation between and (^ ^).\Ajl\ dx J \dxdy) dF ( \ dy ) + (11. *. These latter points to more advantageous for be occupied by x and 2 X X may be properly regarded (owing to the as coincident. . indicating that a point x'y' can be found both more advantageous for Y than the point on the contractcurve y 1 ^l (on an interior indifferencecurve.36 ferencecurve its differential is MATHEMATICAL PSYCHICS. is proved to be a correct representation. \ ) = (•* V ™ (of . both an X. . symmetry and competition) Further.
37 first partially derived function this (—y . For this represents the last point at which 2 Ys can re contract with 3 1 Xs with advantage to all five. of equations must be employed. .IMPERFECT COMPETITION. able for the Xs as ~ A %r. and third If now a third X Y ^— . are obtained x' y' 2 x 2 y' . down to a point £3 y 3 x whose conditions. is And a cer an abstract typical repre sentation will go on as long as it is possible to find a point x' y' with the requisite properties._ JL from those just written by substituting for ^ introduced into the . Y with the result that the system will be worked down to the contractcurve again to a point at least as favourx u . mentary & in the point *V x (x y) m ( u) ^2 2 . He will now strike in. provided that f L M falls within the indifferencecurve for Y drawn through (2 y 2 ). If otherwise. &'. a slightly different system be (still equalnatured) the system can be worked field. come to a stop if at a point it on the contractcurve y 2 £2 such that a line to the origin intersect the curve. analysis in Analyti Compare the Appendix VII. y x x y' then <J> (f3 y 2 ) = 4> (x f ?/'). A Thus the Ys will have lost some of their original advantage tain process of which this by competition.} When relation is satisfied the system of three 2 who might remain in the position reached but for has been left out in the cold. Attention to the problem joining will show that the process will . the supplecontractcurve as it might be called.
In case of the first alternative we have h) v ).= 0. been described. it would be possible to give a more formal proof. it would have been worked down by competition between the Xs determined by the intersection with to the same point / the contractcurve of^F'a? + ^r j. For 4> ( v) = <J> {d y') = 0> ( (1 + h) f (1 + second alternative \1 _ ^L j not falling within the indif first in ferencecurve of Y) is not to be distinguished from the the limiting case. satisfying one or other of the Item atives corresponding to those just mentioned. For the three curves evidently intersect in the same point. Whence by difIn the limiting case h is infinitesimal. geometry we shall have (x <t r y') coincident with (^ yj). bringing out the important result that the common tangent to both indiflerencecurves at the point £ r\ is the vector from the origin. or as we may say for convenience (f 77). of the advantage of Y) than £2 2/2respect when the Xs and Ys are indefinitely (equally) multiplied. and similarly the competing Xs towards the southeast : we see that . Taking account of the two processes which have . will show that this point is lower down (in In tne limit. for the same point is determined by the intersection of either curve with the contractcurve. If this reasoning does not seem satisfactory.38 cal MATHEMATICAL PSYCHICS. By a parity of reasoning it may be shown that. if the system had been started at the northwest extremity of (the available portion of) the contractcurve. And the ferentiating the above equation is obtained. the competing Ys being worked down for a certain distance towards the northwest.
We are back again to case (/3). demand. just = ^^ = and £YX + ^F^ subject to. nishing as (For additional illustrations see Appendix V. or 0. £$'x + 77 obtained correspond to Professor Jevons's two equations of exchange. (— = ) is the demandcurve. By a well known only property of analysis /dV\ = ( — J represents not points. which one moving continually in a fixed right line from the maximum origin over the utility surface would reach.curves. tan 9 will then be the of exchange. on which some further brought remarks have been conveniently postponed to this place. We see that the dealer at any given . and. This might be elegantly ex rate pressed in polar coordinates. from £m y m to xm rj m at any point of which if the system is placed. if P be the utility of X. a quantity continually dimigeneral for . in 39 any number short of the practically infinite (if such a term be allowed) there is a finite length of contractcurve. but minimum points . the lowest depths of valley. His formulas are to be regarded as representing the transactions of two individuals in. . the law of. demand curve corresponds Mr. it cannot by contract or recontract be displaced that there are an indefinite number of final settlements.) The two conditions.PERFECT COMPETITION. of plurality Our assumed nature in the midst unity of of persons naturally The represented two brings out the same result. we approach a perfect market. a market. as each expresses curves may be called the amount of dealing which will afford to one of the dealers the maximum of advantage at a certain rate of exchange a value of *L . This minito mum portion of the Marshall's Class II. as well as the highest elevations.
' Here the it is attempted to proceed without postulating l phenomenon of uniformity of price by the longer route of contractcurve. And (as in the. Compare also Cournot on price. supposed close together . are the centres of X x and X 2. namely the four lines joining the centres of the circleC2 2 wherein d. about an average). not equally. Walras's terminology. we have C^. for rate of exchange in general. according to the wellknown logarithmic law. in which there prevails what may be called the law of The dealing the relation between the individual's requirements and that quantity coUectivelydemandedata^iice.40 MATHEMATICAL PSYCHICS. and similarly 1 C'x and C' 2 for the Ys. natured and of two . CjC'g. * Concurrence. let us suppose that the field consists of two Xs. fifth Appendix) similarly related. It has not the properties of a genuine demand curve. C . let the indifference curves consist of families of concenYs Then. tric circles. rate of exchange. Then. far from resting and having his end at a point on this part of the curve. is elegantly exhibited by that author. usually designated by the term Demand. ae The term will sometimes Le used here by M. of an individual in an open market. a contractregion. or bundle of contractcurves . will tend to move away from it. we have to suppose a plurality of contractcurves (which may be appropriately conceived as grouped. by considerations analogous to those already employed. but nearly equally. it may appear that the quantity of final settlements is diminished as the number of competitors is increased. Walras. To facilitate conception. When we suppose plurality of natures as well as persons. . between little d and big D in M. the lines CjCj. instead of a single contractcurve. C 2 systems.
on the line C 2 C'2 outside the two indifference curves drawn for X and Y 1 . 41 the What corresponds here to that settlement of the whole field at a single point in contractcurve. Take a point i\y)\ on one of the contractlines. say CjC'i and let X x and Y x . and leaving their deserted consorts to look out for only by moving off with the two Xs. / 2. ^''ii/'i. but not necessarily equally (suppose mX. . x respectively through £Wi (2) indifferencecurves drawn for . Fig.PERFECT COMPETITION. which we had under consideration in reasoning about equal natured Xs. rushing into each other's arms. . Let X2 Y2 be placed at a neighbouring such that (1) £A\r(\ is point. where m and n are indefinitely large) xr yr represent the dealings of any X. if and nY. may thus be indicated. as in the previous case by which process the system may be worked down to a neighbourhood describable as £2 y 2 In the limit. X r and similarly £ and r) be employed for the dealings of the Ys. . ^'ii/i is outside the two X 2 and Y 2 respectively through Pii/\. when the number of Xs and Ys are increased Y new one alliances. viz. Eecontract can now proceed Y . __c c2 Then the settlement cannot be disturbed by an a X and simply changing partners. we indefinitely. be placed there. should find for the 2 : 2m + 2n variables the following m + 2 n equations (1) m + n equations indicating that each X and each .
Marshall.g. to Supply. or S?/ Demand 2rj. transform to polar coordinates. as p = f (0) and thence obtain two collective demandcurves p = S/(0) and = H (0) substantially identical with those collecp r . p. and so fruitfully applied by Mr. which might perhaps be called par excellence the equation of £. we see how contract is more or less indeterminate according as the field II. A last either condition. we might <f> . in the light of the conceptions lately won. similarly each Y X Then. First let n = n'. m d Fr (x r dxr yr) + d Fr Jr (x r yr ) = Q dy r of (the differentiation being of course partial). = h = h = &c r 7 . ings of each and termined. .42 MATHEMATICAL PSYCHICS. it appears that contract is as indeterminate as if the field consisted of only nX. there are as many and the same final settlements as in that case. Let there be equal numbers of equalnatured Xs and equalnatured Ys. Walras. is less or more affected with the first imperfection. is Y on his individual demandcurve (compare the condition stated below.s and nYs that is to say. deal namely. tive demand curves so scientifically developed by M. subject to the condition that each can deal at the same time with only nXs. proceeding by degrees from the case of two isolated bargainers to the limiting case of a perfect market. Thus. and with only n'Ys. + n 1 equations indicating uniformity (2) m — priced (3) =&= &c. 48). limitation of numbers. If Sx = 2 all = Thus the are completely determinate and de we write any individual demandcurve. e. represented by the same portion of the contractcurve .
First. Let n! diminish. Let diminish. 43 between (say) %y and xt). and n' Ys in each Y combination. The worth of tested this abstract reasoning ought to be by comparison with the unmathematical treatment of the same subject. Contract be comes more indeterminate being more favourable existing. in the same sense n' that explained in the last paragraph. and : the quantity of final settlements being thereby diminished. Then contract of is as indeterminate as if the as field consisted — Xs and — n n less Ys . Combination tends minateness . Let there be an equal number N of equalnatured Xs and equalnatured Ys. the added final settlements to the Ys than those previously The theorem numbers. Contract becomes more inde terminate. in the same sense in the last paragraph. typical of the general case in which natures.COMBINATIONS. and let each set be formed into equal combinations. Let n' increase. £ moving southeast. as Contract becomes indeterminate. in. The added final settlements are more favourable to the Ys than those previously existing. is to introduce or increase indeter and the final settlements thereby added are more favourable to the combiners than the (determinate or indeterminate) final settlements previously existing. The subtracted final settlements are most favourable to the Ys. let n — n'. and the quantity of final settlements being thereby increased. Let . As far as the writer is aware. n' increase. Combiners stand to gain in this sense. . The theorem admits of being extended to the general case of unequal numbers and natures. Contract becomes less indeterminate £ moving northwest. there being wXsin each X combination. and combinations are unequal.
as Mr. Cairnes on Trades Unions (first sections) . is that those who form themselves into compact bodies abstract by combination do not tend to lose. pects of Trade Unionism the effect of increased mobility. and more perfect in respect of extent (diminishing our first imperfection. the wagefund (in the intelligible sense of that term). . ante. may increase. as here ignore the abstract themselves to other asquestion altogether. which in view of foreign competition is likely. when contract is qualified. can be increased. for instance. or what the writers suppose would happen. alike of goods and men). p. which is a function not only of the (objective) remuneration. there were two or three combinations on one side and two or three on the other . p. the one thing from an point of view visible amidst the jumble of 2 catallactic molecules. . confining supposed ? Writers either l its tendency to promote &c. What is the effect of combinations on contract in an otherwise perfect state of competition. CourcelleSeneuil on Coalitions. while they seem to admit that unionism would have the effect of raising the rate of wages. contract unqualified by competition. to gain in point of utility. the competition more normal. a straightforward answer has never been offered to the abstract question. in our terms. Fortnightly at any rate some Review. Or. to render communication. 33. however slightly. one might think. therefore. 411. But if our reasonings be correct. But this hardly affords any indication of what would happen. for such is . by competition as if. might be thus construed?) others have observed the momentous deadlock resulting from the complete solidification of the whole operativeinterest and the whole employerinterest 1 — . mobility. but also of the labour. but stand to gain in the sense described. Fawcett although the remuneration decrease well "sees (in respect to the question of unproductive Mr. the jostle of competitive crowds. . . Sidgwick indeed (if the passage already referred to.44 MATHEMATICAL PSYCHICS. and which. to be long the concrete case. 2 Cf. they yet deny that the total remuneration of the operatives. our (a) case.
and the Ys stand to gain. made subject to the condition that to at least n Xs must be by a Y and similarly is for an X n' Ys. First. Sidgwick in the article already referred to) much less does it follow (as aforesaid) that there should be diminished that quantity which alone the the rational unionist is concerned to increase . as uncertain a sound about Trades Unionism. n n more indeterminate. Let n' increase.' cli.). the obvious reply is that unionists. — * seems to be implied in this subject. let n=n'. . iv.COMBINATIONS. iv. Let there be an equal number N of equalnatured Xs and Ys every contract parties. the untutored mind to the ' of the workman had gone more straight point than economic intelligence misled by a bad method. reasoning without mathematics upon mathematical subjects. If this view be correct. — labourers as if. it does not share is diminished (the loss may fall on the labourer's produce is capitalist and the entrepreneur. much that has been written on it is attempted to enforce the argument Trades Unionism by the consideration that it against tends to diminish the total national produce. as well as in that of the predeterminate wagefund. whose compressibility has been well shown by Mr.' are not Because the total produce. ' l follow that the diminished. To appreciate the quantity of indeterminateness likely to result in fact from these imperfections (operawould require a knowledge ting separately and together) 1 See the remarks in Appendix VII. . total as concerned with the economic men. utility. it would seem ' in the matter of unionism. 45 Manual. And if. And conversely. though he gives so consumption. Contract as indeterminate as if the field consisted of — Xs Contract becomes and —Ys.
46 of concrete . but has been (abstraction being made of custom) by what it the Art of Bargaining higgling dodges and designing obstinacy. It is imperfection applies to Monopolies. and * very generally unique. if the contract of an entrepreneur with foreman. it would seem that this species of indetermiuateness Now. of a cooperative association of workmen (or a comThis view must be modified bination) with a manager. of arrangements a priori possible. a law of Nature. . and other incalculable and often disreputable accidents. towards one of which the system is urged not by the concurrence of innumerable (as called were) neuter atoms eliminating chance. first The The second imperfection may be operative cases in many Suppose a of an equal number of masters and market. dealer but there are an indefinite number . offering respectively wages and service to the condition that no man can serve two masters. may we say. or of the average. or suppose master employ more than one man established between such parties to equilibrium already no . arrangement towards which the system tends under the operation of. — managerial work does not admit of being over several establishments. and which would be predictable if we knew beforehand the real requirements of each. phenomena to which the writer can make no claim. solution of the other cases. Then there is no determinate. affects shown hy Exceptions are the multiple intersections of DemandCurves Mr. of being sold in distributed bits. Walras. consisting subservants. 1 .MATHEMATICAL PSYCHICS. be disturbed by any sudden influx of wealth into the hands of the masters. Marshall and M. ject of contract for personal service. as supplying a clue for the perhaps chiefly important.
the present inquiry finds that. limited number of dealers). where the field of competition is sensibly imperfect.COMBINATIONS. or more exactly l by the equation between managerial wages and the remuneration in other occupations. Cliff LesUe) our free communication about articles of conSee p. impugned by Mr. Starting with complete monopoly. tract (in normal market) is not to be confounded. and by other practical consideraany degree of whole interest third imperfection may have importance up to the point where a The (labourers or entrepreneurs) is solidified into a single This varying result may be tolerably well illustrated by the case of a market in which an competitive unit. we shall find the price continually diminish as the number of monopolists increases. indefinite number of consumers (a case : are supplied by varying properly belonging to our first imperfection namely. \ . 352. but limited by a particular condition. in so far as cost 47 managerial wages are determined by the of production (of a manager !). run The dom In virtue of permeability between occupations postulating (1) freeof choice between different occupations. not without trembling. number a case if of final settlements are different final settle ments would be reached down 1 the system should from different initial positions or contracts. 18. ' ' uniformity of'price not (it is Cournot. . perfect competition tions. where the remuneration is determined by a process of the nature of . an indefinite that in such possible . Walras's Elements. which may be called submitted) abstractedly necesin cases of imperfect competition? sary Going beyond '. until the point of complete fluidity is reached. numbers of monopolists This gradual extinction of the influence of monopoly is well traced by Cournot in a discussion masterly. s. (2) knowledge of circum With the latter sort of knowledge (so warmly stances determining choice. 2 Cf.
change ^. If. there would still be that sort of indeterminateness favourable to unionists may 1 above described. venience. That is to say. namely. though not spontaneously as by perfect competition. and in the absence of imposed conditions. there does not necessarily the case of imperfect as there does in the case of perfect competition a certain property (which some even mathematical writers may appear to take for exist in in the case all along supposed granted). for instance. being left to each capitalist to purchase as much labour as he might demand at that rate. no doubt would be very generally the the property of indeterminateness. that of Xs and Ys dealing respectively in x and y if any — — XX give x in exchange for y r he gets no less and no more y than he is willing to take at the rate of ex. does correspond to different results. not powerful trades unions did not seek to fix the quid pro quo. but not because that un mathematical writer has told . imposed by custom and conIf. And in general. theoretically unimportant in perfect competition. the said final settlements are not on the demandcurve. but on the contractcurve. it quite competent to seek). as case. should generated by imperfect be introduced ah extra. this condition. will abide. but only the rate of exchange.48 sort MATHEMATICAL PSYCHICS. settlements will now be by way of demandcurve. however. believe. The geometry of this case be understood from an attentive consideration of suggests. of difference which exists between 1 Dutch and English auction. As Thornton Now we us. different final settlements in imperfect competition. the amounts of labour exchanged for wealth (which they would be contractcurve. nevertheless Only the final plurality of final settlements.
workmen. To fix the ideas. a sufficiently general case.. The Determinateness will depend not so much upon the number of individuals as upon the number of associations in the field. As cooperative cceteris association becomes more prevalent. contract will not be more determinate (owing to the fact that all the members of other — the association are in contract with each usual. And. And in a similar result would hold if. of course. or what comes to much the same thing. the fig. the form of the function being a contractvariable. indeterminateness here indicated would paribus. E . perhaps associa for a long time. consisting each of 100 chiefly members. the decrease. or. with more generality. chiefly capital. 50 contributing labour. we suppose members contributing labour and capital varying amounts. suppose tions of capitalist. notindividuals. there being assumed a function of given form containing any number of constants.COOPERATIVE ASSOCIATIONS. in the most. likely to operate in the case of cooperative associations up to the time when the competitive field shall contain a practically infinite The fourth imperfection would seem number of such bodies .000 The point here indicated is that. subject. if we introduce different that the kinds of labour and other concrete complications. withstanding the numerical size of the field. and 50 Let the field of competition consist of 1. each for himself contracting if the field consisted of 10 indi not. at any rate. to the condition sum of the portions assigned is equal to the distribuend. similarly. illustration at the end of Appendix V. no doubt. a function of the sacrifices. 49 typical 4. and remunerated for their sacrifices according to a principle of distribution . that is. as now with employer) than viduals. which are articles of contract.
should appear that the field of competition is deficient 2 in that continuity of fluid.' and the reverence for competition would be no more. pp. 5. — have complacently acquiesced. not only the regularity of law. and cooperative association with the fourth. * 3 Above. if not for the present. but even the impartiality of chance the throw of a die loaded with villainy economics would be indeed a dismal science. association is be accompanied likely indeterminateness. Nevertheless. if unionism is affected with of two great coming institutions. it does not seem very rash to infer. that multiety of atoms which 3 constitute the foundations of the uniformities of Physics. be conjectured. as if worked out by a play competition in whose results of physical forces. the reverence paid to may impair. what would be the consequence. 18. impersonal. with regard to the comparative remunerations of capital and labour. whatever Altogether. found wanting. a considerable extent of indeterminateness. it is submitted that the to rise of cooperative with the prevalence of l opinion we may form about the possible regularity in a distant future. the field of competition being thus broken up. tradesthe third imperfection. the sundry kinds of contract and divers species of articles. observed in cooperative associations. at least in the proximate future. Of justice and humabut there seemed to comnity there was no pretence mand it But if respect the majestic neutrality of Nature. — . Theory of Vortices and Theory of Atoms. I believe. .50 MATHEMATICAL PSYCHICS. impartial economists Of this inference it To . that dispute without any principle of decision which is the characteristic of contract. and both with the second. in consequence of the great variety of cooperative experiments. if competition is — — ' 1 There has been.
arise a general 51 for a principle demand And this aspiration of the commercial world would be but one breath in the universal sigh for articles of For almost every species of social and political peace. the principle of contract shall have replaced both the appeal to force and the acquiescence in custom. in the general absence of a mechanism like perfect competition. 1 the distribution of a joint product between cooperators ? Nor is the equity so often invoked by a high for authority on cooperation much more available is the particular principle of distribution recomlohy . Where. Equity and fairness of division know k of Herbert Spencer. creation groans and yearns. would a world weary of The whole — strife the moralist to seek a principle of arbitration ? In justice. are ready to expound the principle. criterion ' of what is to be done. even quantitative. Book II. a Essays. classes. in domestic politics between nations. an end of strifes. e 2 . are not here of much avail. Throughout the whole region of in a wide sense contract. replies and a long line of philosophers. from Plato . . . with the growth of intelligence and liberty. contract is affected with an indeterminateness like that which has been described an evil which is likely to be much more felt when. Herbert Spencer. p. sexes. But their expositions. desiderating a principle of arbitration. . and of great hortative value for those who already their duty. 164. the same essential indeterminateness prevails in international. and 2 delighted Dugald Stewart with the appearance of mathematical certainty but how would they be applicable to are charming in the pages .NEED OF ARBITRATION. 1 Data of Ethics. There would of arbitration. Corollary. however elevating in moral tone. where the tiling sought is a definite. then.
eradicate the ' controlless core ' of human selfishness. . authority. or exercise an appreciable force in comparison with the impulse of selfinterest. or neither. Sidgwick acknowledges two supreme Egoism and Utilitarianism of independent . It is far conflicting dictates . But. operatives to take any fraction which might have been agreed upon. from the spirit of the to depreciate the 1 importance of religion philosophy of pleasure but in the . Holyoake duct. even admitting a disposition in the purer wills and clearer intellects to accept the just as finis litiam. party. human admitting nature a tendency towards and feeling after utilitarian institucould we seriously suppose that these moral tions could considerations were relevant to war and trade . principles — by the masterly analysis of Mr. Justice requires to be informed nite principle. See review of Thornton on Labour (as well as Utilitarianism). paying wages to the other). and perhaps that the interest of all is Bentham. as Mill and The star of justice affords l by some more defi — those who have loosed from the moorings of custom — the rays of a superior luminary— unless for it Mr. irreconcilable.52 MATHEMATICAL PSYCHICS. and to say nothing of capital) more equitable than an indefinite number of other principles of distribution (e. It would have to be first shown the interest of each.g. (operatives to take net pro mended by Mr. roughly speaking. reflect utili tarianism. Mr. . but which for ever dispelled Sidgwick. may have is lent some countenance. paying therefrom a salary to manager. and the useful as the definition of the just that there exists in the higher parts of . an illusion to which the ambiguous language of Mill. unless indeed by religion. manager the remainder either . Sidgwick reason no certain guidance well.
y £ will have been displaced in a northwesterly and x in a southeasterly direction. What. of utilitarianism. As the coefficients of sympathy increase. For the required between economical contractors is . but in those regnant moments which characterise an ethical method may propose to himself as end n + \x P. the contract tending to the greatest possible total utility of the conIn this direction. effective moment where X is a coefficient of effective to maximise.PRINCIPLE OF ARBITRATION. we might suppose that the object which X (whose own utility is P). from the principle of selfinterest to the principle. but P + A n — not of course while rushing to selfgratificasympathy. 17). is not P. and dealing with the lower elements of human nature. utilitarianism becomes more pure.(**) (*Z) = \d x) \d y) hy the 0. in virtue of any other moral peculiarities : » Where the contract. then. (cf. will be the conThe old contract curve between tractcurve of these modified contractors ? ' Y— . tends in a calm. And similarly ' tion. narrower limits. pp. 53 present inquiry. the contractcurve narrows down to the utilitarian point. is to basis of arbitration be sought the required principle. contracts). 12. In fig. jj ' . The theorem is Here may he the place to observe that if we suppose our contractors to he in a sensible degree not ' economic agents. visible to it is a circumstance of momentous interest — sense when pointed out by matheone of the in general indefinitely numerous settlements 1 between contractors is the utilitarian matics —that common arrangement of the tractors. transition. articles of contract. the utilitarian point has coordinates determined equations the roots of which evidently satisfy the contractequation. or at least the practice. 1. ' 7 — — and one day perhaps in political. in the absence of principle of selection. it may be conjectured. evidently some settlement and the its utilitarian settle ment may be selected. but actuated in effective moments by a s} mpathy with each other's interests (as even now in domestic.curve is (™) \d xJ d ( *) \d yj . a Now. we should have to seek a more obvious more earthy passage. quite general.
' : unconsciously implicit first principle is Units of pleasure are to be equated irrespective of persons. in view also (if one may be allowed to say so) of a possible difference in the entre8 preneur's capacity : suppose.54 its all. this circumstance. Whereof the Timeintensity . book II. s. let it be attempted to arbitrate upon some principle of doctrinaire justice some metaphysical dogma. case. that a more highly nervous organisation required on the average a higher utility. xiv. &c. bursting the cobwebs . 3 See p. to abstract also the correlated bar gains with capitalists. Walker on Wages. for instance. And. 7. Assuming as economists assume (see Mill. first. of equality that the entrepreneur shall have an Now. pose that in consequence of combinations competition fails to determine the contract between entrepreneur and operatives. MATHEMATICAL PSYCHICS. These considerations might be put clearest in a Let us supparticular. Therefore. is fair division there is no presumption that this : — ' ' ' ' utilitarianian . for instance. though still very abstract. and to suppose a single entrepreneur in dealing with a single operative. landowners. 58. minimum of means to get up to the zero of As there is no presumption that the proposed arrangement is utilitarian. equal share of the produce. in view of the different character of the entrepreneur's sacrifice. satisfying the l sympathy the sense of justice and (such as it is) of each with 2 utilitarian equity. One (a) — of the parties is indeed here collective but it is allowable for the sake of illustration to make abstraction of . an however slight clinamen from the rectilinearity of the 2 ' 1 economic man. so there is no presumption that it is on the contractcurve. chap. the selfwill concur to bulge away interests of the two parties from the assumed position and. The case becomes that described under deadlock between two contracting parties. &c).
which has certain distinguishing features and the utilitarian peculiar attractions as above described — arrangement. may be cases of multiple solutions of a problem ' in the Calculus of Variations. to descend with irresistible force to some point upon the contractcurve. this might be quantitative mean would likely mean. Aristotle's metaphysical theory that virtue is a mean between two is analogous to the mathematical theory that a maximum of pleasure 2 vices is a mean between two minima. Todhunter's beautiful and delicate problems . Seep.' arrangements. the problem of maximum utility. Suppose that by repeated experiences of final settlements lie this sort the contractcurve has been roughly ascertained positions — a considerable number of statistically tabulated. rather than resort tc selection. It is difficult to allude to Mr. considering the whole 1 line of possible split the difference. they might agree and meet each other in the neighbourhood of the cen to ' tral point —the ' quantitative called. apt in a 2 dialectical atmosphere to bloom into the qualitative ' ' ' mean 1 ' of utilitarian equity. Or perhaps. and. 55 of doctrinaire justice. this very notion of mean appears to be the outcome of a rudimentary implicit justice. own way. first. 135. But.' as it to be nearer than the extremes to the utilitarian point . some process which may up. Now these party his . both parties may virtually amount to tossing agree to commute their chance of any of the arrangements for the certainty of one of them. and in a reverse order of desirability for each it may seem to each that as he cannot have in the absence of any definite principle of he has about as good a chance of one of the arrangements as another. So also Aristotle's notion of two species of excellence (dperij). further. Well.PRINCIPLE OF ARBITRATION. and more generally all cases in which there seem to be two (or more) best ways of acting fusing the superlative in a sense analogous to the proper mathematical sense of maximum ').
the (y) quality and (8) number of popu(/3) lation.56 MATHEMATICAL PSYCHICS. sketched in a previously published paper. —To — find (a) the distribution of means and of labour. path there may appear. at however great a distance. Definitions. so that there may be the greatest possible happiness. leads up to the utilitarian cal the faint outlines of which. . is it eliminated. Problem. and between selfinterested contractors sumtotal utility. the tender power of sympathy and as the gentler forces right would become appreciable . of the magnetic field are made manifest when is terrestrial magnetism. Mathematics by men who are acquainted only with its elements. ' (1) Pleasure (in is used to for ' preferable authority. by being opposed Upon the whole omitting what — to itself. may be accepted as the second subdivision of our Second Part. feeling in general deference high though the general term does not appear to call up with equal facility all the particulars which are meant to be without once more inviting attention to the versatile features and almost of that species of Calculus which seems most directly so different from the brutal rigour ascribed applicable to the affairs of men human complexion lo . obvious to a understand reasonings about the are to spirit in : which very abstract a star to be regarded affording specify a bygeneral direction. UTILITARIAN CALCULUS. the is basis of arbitration the greatest possible Thus the economical culus . a general indication that competition requires to be sup — not a fingerpost plemented by arbitration. Or less specifically may we say that in the neighbourhood of the contractcurve the forces of selfinterest being neutralised.
Thirdly. when for the same amount whatsoever of purchased command means he obtains a greater amount of pleasure. he may be treated as in respect of one if having more capacity for pleasure in general. The greatest possible value of / / / dp dn dt (where dp corresponds to a just perceivable increment of pleasure. dt to an instant of time). 57 included under but rather the grosser 1 feelings than for instance the 'joy and felicity' of devotion). An individual has greater capacity for happiness (3) than another. ' ' is imperfectly individuals may enjoy the advantages not for any amount of means. most and the greatest pleasures. such 1 as those of affection and virtue. a pedant invented the term. but only for values above a certain amount. to be deter . one individual has the advantages in respect of But. dn to a sentient individual. Greatest possible hapthe greatest possible integral of the differential piness Number of enjoy ers x duration of enjoyment x degree is ' term includes absence of pain. If the higher ' pleasures. The other mined bv the Calculus of Variations. one individual may have the advantages kind of means. limits are variable. and also for the same increment (to the same amount) whatsoever of means a greater increment of pleasure.' Arnold 2 says. another of another. chiefly wealth as destined for consumption and thereof (cf. axiom below). The it. The limits of the timeintegration are and a. may be the case with the higher orders of evoluAgain. the present and the indefinite future. as Mr. 2 (2) Means are the distributable proximate means of pleasure. One imperfection doubtless (like Euclid's) is that some This tion. the two advantages may not go together. This definition of a thing realised. (what is conceivable if not usual in civilisation) the un of unproductive labour.UTILITARIAN CALCULUS. can Surely. Compare the base associations of ' Utilitarianism.
the enjoy ers it is of possible (though not probable ?) that the higher pleasures should derive from the zero. xi.58 MATHEMATICAL PSYCHICS. With pared these reservations the reahty of the definition may be the definition allowed. of means (and a fortiori for all superior values) an amount of pleasure greater than another class of enjoy ers.. it seems (speaking generally) to be the fact that. and secondly artificial.' often ' cited below). or rather a certain minimum. say the sensual. Barratt says in his able Note in Mind X. Further it will be seen that some of the 1 Pessimism. while greater prethe higher its capacity for pleasure ' ' . Roughly speaking. as Mr. the theory of population fourth imperfection in the statement of advantage would dominate the second the distribution A is that the units whose capacities are comare often groups of individuals. the higher a being in the scale of evolution. . first . most pleasurable which the most scientific l statement appears to have been given by Mr. not precisely ascertainable. even at present we can roughly discriminate capacity If the higher pleasures are on the whole for happiness. ' hardly be said to come from pleasure. In such a case the problem would be complicated. Sully then those who are most apt to enjoy those pleasures tend to be most capable of happiness. the of means. But. but the solution not compromised. But it may be though real. first. while at the same time the sensual obtain greater increments of pleasure for the same increments of means (above the minimum). being due to education. cision might be attainable by improved examinations and hedonimetry. fact of —a — Barratt says. can obtain for any amount whatsoever of means .stuff at all (as Mr. as families. note to chap. are first objected that differences of capacity. And.
Or not even the a case of the third . since the reality of the fourth if is we identify the definitions. —Pleasure .DEFINITIONS. differences of capacity. are commensurable : measurable. It is submitted that very this identification confirms the reality of the third definition. But worth observing that his conclusion. This fourth definition fections as the third. Axiom. in so far as it is it is true that improvement is not proportionately increased by the increase of the means of education. Of course. William Thompson's. in so far as labour is sweet (which is far according to Fourier). we undisputed. would hardly now be maintained in face of what is known about heredity. and all pleasures so much of one sort of pleasure is 1 Or this When the same amount of fatigue corresponds to a greater amount of work done. follows from his premiss only in so far as a proposition like our first postulate (below) is true of wealth and labour applied to education. more capacity for work than another. and the same increment (to the same amount) of fatigue to a greater increment of work. The third definition becomes the fourth. 59 applications of the problem turn upon supposed. latter change. when for the same amount whatsoever of work done he incurs a less amount of fatigue. if you change the signs of means and pleasure. may present the same imperIndeed the fourth definition is but both stating relation between means and pleasure. The second objection. rather than ascertained. . equality of distribution. and also for the same increment (to the same amount) whatsoever of work (4) An 1 individual has done a less increment of fatigue. put means produced for means consumed and the pains of production for the pleasures of consumption. must bear in mind that they are liable to be separated in virtue of the second imperfection above noticed.
or (time and persons being constant) a pleasure whose degree is a multiple of the degree of the given pleasure. are equateable. of : Implipleasures for all persons. or through a multiple time.  Wundt. . all pleasures are commensurable. the Fechstrativeness. Cf. Phys. not here insisted upon. 3rd edition. . The first principle of this method might be Justperceivable increments of pleasure.' notwithstanding personal differences. 1 Professor Bain has shown how one may correct one's estimate of one's own same principle senses . For Wundt has shown that sensuous pleasures may thereby nerian be measured. and. as the pleasures upon much the observations made with one's how one may upon the correctly estimate the pleasures of others principle 'Accept identical objective marks as showing identical subjective states. as utilitarians hold. number of persons. 295 above. p. p. It suffices to postulate the practical proposition that when (agreeably to Fech' is nerian conceptions) it requires n times more justperceivable increments to get up to one pleasure from zero than to get up to another. Psych. This ' moral arithmetic ' is method applied to pleasures in general. then the former pleasure enjoyed by a given number of persons during a given 1 Emotions and Will. by one sentient being eqnateable to so much of other sorts of pleasure felt by other sentients.. and elsewhere). cated with this principle and Bain's is the following all : 2 Equimultiples of equal pleasures are equateable where the multiple of a pleasure signifies exactly similar pleasure (integral or differential) enjoyed by a multiple . as of activity or demon perhaps to be supplemented by a moral differential calculus.' vii.CO felt MATHEMATICAL PSYCHICS. 8. Appendix III. The last expression is open to question (though see Delboeuf and Etude psychophysique.
or by the given number during the Just so one cannot reject the practical multiple time. The postulate asserts that the second differential of pleasure with regard to means is : continually negative. supposable (though not probable) that means increased beyond a It is also supposable certain point increase only pain. or by whatties. stellar populations. l now approach separately appropriate postulates. though one may object with Mr. Of course ' ' ' there are portions of the utilitarian whole unaffected by our adjustments at any rate the happiness of the . attacking and combined. . The proposition thus stated is evidenced by everyday the or experience 1 . time is 61 to be sought as much as the latter pleasure en joyed by n times the given number of persons during the given time. experience well focused by Buffon in his Jevons See the cumulative proofs of this postulate adduced by Professor in Theory of Political. ever irraycoyr) or €#107x09 is the method of practical its axioms.THE UNIT OF PLEASURE. Indeed these principles of ixerpqriKq are put forward not as proof against metaphysical subtleselfevident a priori. Venn to speaking of belief being numerically measured.' and do not increase with it. differential is It does not assert that the It is first continually positive. with the aid of The first postulate appropriate to the first inThe rate of increase of pleasure decreases as quiry its means increase. Let us inquiries. Economy. conclusions of Probabilities. asserting peculiar respect thereof there tends to be the greatest possible happiness. ' But this does not invalidate the postulate. do not come from pleasurethat the higher pleasures stuff at all. (a) is the Problem. does not prevent our for managing our that in ' small best. but as practical .
Doubtless there Cf. 6. Psychophysik. p. does not afford proportionately increased 1 pleasure. and partly peculiar to ' This empirical generalisation All the formulas suggested for the relation between quantity of stimulus and intensity of Professor Delbceuf. 'Me ' ratiocination to may be confirmed by from simpler inductions. Sidgwick in the thods of Ethics. coarse by 1 analogy from the Fechnerian experiments on the senses or by a more a priori law of relation in the sense of . in Moral Arithmetic. ix. Tims pleasure is not proportionately increased by increased glitter of furniture.' William Thompson his ' Essay on ProbaInquiry into the in his ' Distribution of Wealth. affording proportionately increased repetition of the conditions of pleasure.' . partly common the followers of Fechner. The very parameter virtue "of which such functional variation occurs in is exhibited by Professor Delbceuf in the case of eyesen2 that a similar variation holds good of pleasures sations . vol. as pleasures of mere intensity .' and Mr. But not only heightened by the function itself so varying (on repetition of the conditions of pleasure) that the same effect is means produce less pleasure.' Laplace bilities.02 1 MATHEMATICAL PSYCHICS. . in general is Bain's Law of Accommodation. Wundt. would describe. Increase of means then. 1 Etude psychophysique. ' ' pleasures indeed but the objects of much expenditure. sensation agree in possessing the property under conwhich is true then of what Professor Bain sideration . Fechner. &c. nor generally by increased whether in the general case scale of establishment is the function connecting means and such that the increase of means does not pleasure produce a proportionate increase of pleasure but this .
ing to each individual On it is the rectangle correspondrequired to construct a Let us proceed his means. increased means do not It may now be objected : introducing ' old pleasures. 63 are compensations for this loss echoes of past pleasures. the inequality of distribution. active habits growing up in the decay of passive impressions. degrees of capacity for happiness on an abscissa (supposing that the values of a single variable capacity is indicated by This being postulated. let us mark off the . would probably (if the pleasurecurve is not Not only would very complicated) become a fortiori. but even the equally capable might then not all receive equal means. parallelopiped representing in the first inquiry a the distribuend means to impart tnven distribuend to given distributees doing each a given — amount of labour —by way of small increments. Indeed the difference of individuals in res constitutes a large part of pect to these compensations the difference of capacity for pleasure. the number of individuals of an ordinate representing that degree of capacity. the less capable receive then still less means. tions may more than counterbalance the accommodations. the At each degree erect proof differs only in complexity). cannot be continually negative. but also by operate solely by repeating also the to new (e. travel) compensa' . Let us start with the assumption that each individual has . : It is generally replied In so far as a part only of hapto its means. if by the values of a function of several variables.LAW OF DIMINISHING . Its being negative for If it does affect a space may not affect the reasoning. UTILITY. the reasoning. one conclusion. the piness increases only proportionately with regard to means second differential of happiness That second differential does not cease to be negative.g.
must by the postulate reach a point such that an increment of means can be more first. . and to bring him up ' the economical after natural minimum first who shall have the of wages '). minimum of means just sufficient to the zeropoint of happiness (a conception facilitated by. We may have any number of maxima by . felicifically assigned to an individual of the second section (the next highest capacity) than to one of the The second section will then be taken into distri bution. 1 Thus the distribution of means as between the equally capable of pleasure is equality . in the plane of the capacities and means. For it is educible from the postulate that there is only one family of megisthedones. say To different distribuends correspond a megisthedone. they will not continue sole assignees. Thus a first dividend will be assigned to the first section (all the But individuals of the highest capacity) exclusively. and generally is such that the more capable of pleasure shall have more means and more pleasure. in preference to the same individual by the postulate. though not quite identical with. Their means only. family continuous solution. being continually increased. If tacking between different members of the but the greatest possible value is afforded by the we now remove 1 the condition that each individual ? shall retain his minimum. definition Another individual of the highest capacity. Thereincrement of means ? By an individual of the highest capacity (at least supposing the minimum to be the same in all capaWho shall have the next increment of means ? cities). of unequal distribution is given by a plane curve.04 MATHEMATICAL shall retain that rSYCITICS. The law megisthedones differing only by a constant. what happens Simply that Compare the reasoning in the ordinary Theory of Rent.
But is improbable that they should dip very low under the minimum at the lower end while they the megisthedones it may now rise very high above the minimum at the higher end . 65 dip below the minimum line. as of equality — posterity.. These conclusions if may be affected by the imperfecfirst tions of the third definition. then by investigating the radius of curvature it is shown that. privations cannot be counterbalanced by any superfluity of refined pleasures. The second megisthedone superimposed upon the first will more or less deform {e. there will be a residue distributed as before. were not horizontal. Barratt) is deduced by a parity that the rate of reason from the parallel second axiom of increase of fatigue increases as the work done inwhich is proved by common experience and creases. the most capable groups are made up of individuals not most capable as individuals. (for muscular work) by the experiments of Professor F . pleasure and pain). By the imperfection. it. Lastly. Secondly. as the distribuend dimin of means corresponds Wundt's curve of ishes. but the ' minimum ' line according to a second megisthedone. In since excessive physical fact.DISTRIBUTION OP MEANS. (j8) The conclusions may be The distribution of labour (to which attention : has been called by Mr. the unit distributee is a married couple. suppose that the individuals who have less capacity for pleasures in general have a special capacity for partiThe bulk of means will be distributed cular pleasures. in respect of often a group their common affected.g. in so far as menage). the line. is megisthedone tends to become a horizontal In famine the distribution even between unequals abstracted ulterior considerations. if we assume that the zero of to infinite pain privation (cf.
do more work— fatigue. : It is deducible that the rowers of a . As appears in deed from Professor Delbceuf 's formulas. vrjbs iicrr)<s shall equal fatigue it is to equated be recollected that the fatigue or pain of work under consideration may be negative. but with the similar operatives in similar cooperative associations is except. 1 This inference requires the second form of the fourth definition. the first and second postulates are to a certain extent implicated (whereby the first postulate gains strength). indeed. determine by the Differential Calculus the constants of a megisthedone and a brachistopone such that the means distributed distributed by the former may be equal to the work by the latter and that the (algebraical) sum of the pleasures of consumption and the pains of production may be the greatest possible. Or. to that of the but the fatigue of the pilot is oarsman. given in the Note. we may determine the means and fatigue as independent variable functions satisfying those two conditions. labour as between the equally capable of work is equality.workers. and generally is such that the most capable of work shall so much more work. by the Calculus of Variations. In particular. 1 as to suffer more The inquiry presents the same declensions as the first. Who shall do the now first increment of work ? Of course one of the most And so on. ab initio. Let us arrange our individuals according to their capacity for work. so far as the work done a symmetrical function of the effort of fellow. All the while have not to be (aft) To combine the first and second inquiries. (' Etude Psychephysique ').66 Delbceuf MATHEMATICAL PSYCHICS. and proceed as before. . cooperatives are to be compared not inter se. The distribution of capable of work.
DISTRIBUTION OP WORK.
67
/X
where x
is
x
n [F(x y) — p— c{y
—/
(js
p) } Id x
if possible,
degree of either capacity, or more elegantly, a third variable in terms of which both caexpressed
;
pacities
x x and x are the given limits of integration (the number and quality of the distributees being not in the present inquiry variable) n is the number of each section F(xy) is a unit's pleasure of consumption, being a function of x his quality (capacity for
may be
;
;
is
pleasure) and the independent variable y his means p the unit's pain of work, another independent variable
;
function
relative
;
c is
maximum
the constant incidental to problems of f(xp) is the work done by the unit,
;
being a function of his quality (capacity for work) and
fatigue (effort).
Greatest possible happiness
= greatest
possible value
n [¥(x y)
— p] d x —
greatest possible value of V, c being taken so that
iL1 = f x n[yf(xp)]dx J
0.
The second term of the
variation of V,
is
Therefore continually negative by the postulates. is when its first term value of the greatest possible The first term of variation, of variation vanishes.
V
F 2
68
vanishes only
MATHEMATICAL PSYCHICS.
when both
'
Wy/
\dpJ
c'
If these equations hold, the two rules (a and y8) hold. Q.E.D. The combined solution takes for granted that the means of pleasure and the pain of work are inde
pendent variables. fail to be the case.
And to a certain extent this mayAn individual may want strength or
time to both enjoy the means and do the work which In that case there will the double rule assigns to him. be a compromise between the two rules.
is
third postulate simplifying the third inquiry that capacity for pleasure and capacity for work
(y)
;
The
that they both rise generally speaking go together with evolution. 1 The quality of population should be the
2 that the first improvided highest possible evolution of the third definition does not give us pause. perfection
—
To advance
the whole population by any the same of evolution is then desirable ; but it is probably degree not the most desirable application, given quantity of a
For it is probable that the of means of education. highest in the order of evolution are most capable of
education and improvement. In the general advance the most advanced should advance most.
postulate essential to the fourth inas population increases, means (the disthat, quiry This is given tribuend) increase at a decreasing rate.
(S)
is
The fourth
by the Malthusian theory with regard
of extractive labour.
to the products
And
this is
3
sufficient.
For the
second differential of the whole means with regard to
1
See
New and
is
old
Methods of Ethics (by the present writer),
p. 72.
3
s
Ibid. p. 77.
This
not quite accurate.
For a part of the distribuend may increase
by increased pro
more than proportionately
in virtue of economies effected
UTILITARIAN SELECTION.
69
population is still negative, even though a part of means increase proportionately to the number of population ; for instance, unproductive labour requiring little or no
balletdancers), or those manufactured articles of which the cost is not appreciably affected by
materials
(e.g.,
the cost of the
it is
premiss but the hedonical conclusion
raw material. From this Malthusian deduced that population should be limited
;
is
not necessarily of the
same extent as the Malthusian (cf. below ayS). A simple inquiry under this head is the following. Assuming that
the sections (degrees of capacity or orders of evolution) multiply equally, and that each section reproduces
all
exactly his kind, to find the (utilitarian) rate of increase ? more important inquiry is not assuming that (yS)
A
:
sections multiply equally, to find the average issue for each section, so that the happiness of the next geneall
ration
may
be the greatest possible.
First let us introduce a conception
more appropriate
;
than was possible under the preceding head namely, that each section does not reproduce exactly its kind,
but that the issue of each (supposed endogamous) secthus —
v
tion ranges
,3.
on either
X
side of the parental capacity, as
o
=
b
fie
x o
n
;
where £
is
the capacity of the
parental section, n
duction.
its
number ( = something
like
Ae
—
'.At
g~
•
In the same manner, and for the same may have a plurality of intersections with a vector from the origin (Cf. Mr. Marshall's theorem) corresponding alternately to maximum and minimum reason as a demandcurve
utility, so there
may be
a plurality of values for the sought number of
population, corresponding alternately to utilitarian and pessimistic arrangement. The highest value which satisfies the equation to zero of the first
term of variation must correspond
to a
maximum.
The imperfection
of this postulate does not affect the reasoning based
upon the other postulates.
Todhunter's Eesearches. population tends inartificially to become nearly stationary if to the contemplator of all time generations fade into differentials we may conceive formed a . This being granted. it is required to determine what wavelet each section of each wave proximate propagated wave. of the average issue. are postulated. it is deduced that the average issue shall be as large as possible for all sections above a determinate degree of capacity. But can we be certain that this method of total selec tion as it might be termed holds good when we provide not only for the next generation. p. If in the distant future. so that the whole sum of light of joy which glows in the long line of waves shall be the greatest possible.70 MATHEMATICAL PSYCHICS. variation of /3 alone determines the natural maximum. either analytically with the aid of Mr. wave propagating wave onward through all time. shall contribute to the equation connecting the population of one generation with the population of its successor and indifferential 1 See Appendix I. or artificial limit. . v is the number of issue of capacity x. Galton.' or by unaided reason. but for the indefinite future ? In the continuous series of generations. agreeably to the views of Herbert Spencer. . &c). is to be conceived as under a curve of possibility cf. 03. The fifth postulate appropriate substitute in one generation for to this case is that to any number of parents an equal number each superior in capacity (evolution) is beneficial for the next generation. but ' l zero for all sections below that degree. nor the particulars of this conception. b is constant for all the curves of issue the haps since the parental generation . . Queranging Pertelet. But neither the symmetry of the curves of possibility.
Thus our principle modified. if possible let the most Then a total selection beneficial selection be not total. can be arranged more beneficial If only we have swum through the waves ! to a terra For. Again. and requiring to be modified in practice. Researches . Todhunter's principle. But a further calculator is not at sea) it is postulate is population while the present initial irregular disturbances are far from the tranquil waves of the stationary state. but zero for all sections below that degree. may be useful. founded on very first. these rules are very general. our position need not appear outlandish. Again. though it can only be approached avQoomivois. abstract tendencies. mitigations might be provided for the classes not 1 certainty and political security. . This ' ' is required for so long as the movement of not amenable to infinitesimal calculus . the average issue for each section. if and so forth. since to exclude some sections from a share of domestic pleasures interferes with the principle of (a). 71 volving an independent variable function. 93. of selection might be should not be the rule. This postulate being granted. without the highest scientific Again to indicate an ideal. To substitute in one generation sixth postulate might be for any number of parents an equal number each supe: rior in capacity (evolution) is beneficial for all time. in so far as endogamy the higher orders of evolution have a greater tendency to reversion (in violation of the fifth and sixth postulates). Jirma. below p. What approach is useful in such cases 1 is to be determined by Mr. it could not be expedient to sacrifice the present to the future. By the Calculus of Variations (if the educed that the average issue shall be as large as possible for all sections above a (for each time) determinate degree of capacity.UTILITARIAN SELECTION.
if the distribution of means is supposed variable. provided that the later postulates are not affected by that distribution. 1 MATHEMATICAL TSYCHICS. What remains variable is # . And this they might be on Mr. that the distribuend does not vary with population as in an isolated island where the bounty of nature could . The weak could find a welcome and a refuge in celibate . Pessimism.72 selected. . Under this head may be considered the question What is the fortune of the least favoured class in the Utili: tarian community ? Let us consider first the case of emigration for the benefit of the present generation. not be affected by human exertion. also Sully. petition. But in Herbert Spencer's more probable view of the relation of affluence to populousness. Let us start with the supposition. In particular. The happiness of the present generation may be symbolised n [F(# y) rp — c y] dx + c D where D is is notation the given distribuend and the rest of the as above (a/3). however inappropriate. Doubleday's hypothesis. p. they might have the benefit of almost cut away by the struggle of com rule (/3) now . Cf. By the third postulate x x is given as the highest existing degree of capacity. the first rule (a) will become a fortiori. But the reasoning is unaffected. Again. At 1 ' Galton. emigration might supplement total emigration from Utopia to some unprogressive country where the prospect of happiness might be selection comparatively zero. 302. (ayS) In the preceding analysis (yS) the distribution of means (and labour) was supposed given. monasteries/ &c. the abscissa of emigration.
. For the Utopians have such Then c is positive. zero. which (presupposed a utilitarian intelligence) is probably never negative (above Postulate I. Write the distribuend the effort of each unit nf(xpN)dx Xq .THE LEAST FAVOUKED the limit ~F(xQ y CLASS. of the least favoured class is This conception assists us to conpositive happiness. Only. for it equals fy—). the differential of \dy J regard to means. and y is essentially posi Therefore ~F(x y ) is positive. It cannot be zero. pleasure \ with But this is not postulated. determining a what sections shall if immigrate from our unprogressive country. Now c is positive.). ceive that a similar answer would be obtained if the increase of the distribuend with increasing population In this case the conditio n were small. condition of the least favoured class is positive. the zeropoint of pleasure corresponding to a positive minimum of means. so far supposed given as a function of x ndx. N is Differentiate the x it* Substitute x for x and distribuend with regard to x Then the call the curve so presented the Malthusian.' plethora of means that their happiness would be increased by a diminution of their means. tive. Small in of the least relation to the megisthedonic share favoured class. where p is worker. 73 — ) cy first = 0. or . then immigration will set in until the point of satiety be at least repassed. if f— — j is negative. we ' are dealing with the external case of the inquiry. .
of capacity selection. the happiness of some of the lower classes be sacrificed to that of the higher classes. negative happiness. And. In fact. of issue for capacity £ where B is the natural maximum Then n\ the line of possibility for the next .74 MATHEMATICAL PSYCHICS. I generation. where ex is a con venient designation for the utmost extent of variation x is given by the variation in the Darwinian sense. though out of order. Our uncertainty as to the condition of the lowest class increases when we consider the case of selection for the benefit of the next generation. here to may add) our uncertainty increases when we suppose the laboriousness also of population variable. again. where by the postulate x\ . 1 clR =0 from which it is by no means clear equation . equal to. — that the condition of the least favoured in the second generation is above zero. what is variable is # the abscissa of total The happiness of the next generation l Ii 1 = / J — oc [n (F(xy)—cy)]dx + cT>. j$— x 9 be the curve ^ — ) of issue. Nothing indeed appears to be certain from a quite abstract point of . the happiness of part of the second generation may be sacrificed to that of the succeeding generations. iifth l is^ is I Xq B e T 2 <j>(x + z)dz. according as at the limit the ordinate of the Malthusian is less than. or greater than that of the megisthedone. Let ?i=(j>(x) be the curve of possibility for the pre—C Tl (X Let v — Be/— sent generation. Moreover (it is convenient. given as the highest existing degree .
p. Herbert Spencer's theory of population it do. And this (ft) does not interfere upon Mr. to be sacrificed the future it is though in general how much of the present as nice a ence. 75 View. and before should come into force and above it — —because that con much It the pleasures of the most favoured could not weigh against the privations of the least favoured. however. expedient to sacrifice to the future must be question in political. If now Hedo But if abstract Hedonics point to a limit below that hard and fast line which the consideration of human Simply that populainfirmity imposes. in the totle. the play and the readjusted. Contrast. or because only through the comfort of the lower classes can population be checked from sinking to the starvingpoint (Mill. even if abstractedly desirable. Les Antonins. what occurs ? well. as in personal prud (a/3yS) Contemplating the combined movements we seem to see the vast composite flexible organism. 1 work of whose members by degrees advancing up are continually the line of evoluiii. lower classes produces political instability (Aris&c). Wundt's pleasurecurve. there would be no sideration work done. would not be humanly attainable whether because discomfort . 277. that a limit below the zero of happiness. &c). 1 would to The present then may have . (Cf.) may be admitted. . (Jhampagny. except that the required limit is above the starvingboth because in the neighbourhood of that point point .THE LEAST FAVOURED CLASS. (/3yS) Under head should be considered whether rule with rule (yS). Let politics and political economy fix some such limit above zero. — nics indicate a limit still superior (in point of comfort) tion shall press up against that this line without pressing it back. however.
is the ideal of the future. But we have a large experience of the progress of Physics it is well seen how she goes but is the movement of Morals so . ! before that inferiority should prejudice. ' ' ' ' Grote faith —whatever to works. The end of conduct is argued to be Utilitarianism. it our faith. Corollaries.76 tion . Utilitarianism.' by deducing from that general principle maxims of common I. No one would listen to Professor Clerk Maxwell iridavokoyovvTos about the atoms without a mathematical correspondence of his theory and the facts. The final shape of the great organism. the parts about the front advancing most. let it be settled what degree of accuracy was here to be expected. by her method Whatever the method for Universal Eudasmonism prescribes no dogma about the origin of her supremacy affiliated as readily to practical reason as pure passion. as exactly defined in the ' perhaps as the constitution of matter is proved by deducing from the theory experimental laws.) to subordinate rules of con The duct. indifferent about the means. or the level of modern revolution. the members of the other extremity more slowly moving on and largely dying off. is still perhaps a (in judgment. Methods of Ethics. the Faith of a Green or Ideals of a ! familiar that the true science should be manifest — . whether the graduation of a Greek sense) aristocracy. may be divined that we shall not far err in . looks only to the more for prejudice than supreme end. when we descend from criterion for requiring a alternative actions. (I. . with eye undistorted by subject prepossessions. MATHEMATICAL PSYCHICS. whether its bounding line of possibility shall be ultimately perpendicular.) to first application of these inquiries is principles (II. What inferior accuracy in the moral universe indeed But sense .
There may be needed an a£ia for Now inequalities of fortune — abstracted unequal distribution. an The grace of life. All this mighty moral force is deducible from the practical principle of exact Utilitarianism combined with the simple laws of sentience (a and /8). of talent. mais souvent plus fin et toujours plus sur que le produit direct de la raison. 392. that large section of Consider first distributive justice. or rather of which Yet in the minds of many the necessity is regretted. that deep principle upheaves the crust of convention. there appears a deeper sentiment in favour of the privilege of man above aristocratical privilege — brute. and This sentiment of right has a ground of the male sex. rank not unreasonably received the Pp. 90. the cases of for governor and general and every species of trustee of others — are the advantage generally explained by utilitarians as the consequence of conventions clear and fixed and preventing confusion and encouraging production. Capacity for pleasure is a property of evolution. Of. of utilitarianism supposed differences of capacity. But Equality is not the whole of distributive justice. however 'Methods of Ethics.PROOF OF UTILITARIANISM. Moral Arithmetic n'est en general qu'un raisonnement implicite moins clair.' distantly. which once at least in distinguished rank.) 1 : ' Le sentiment .' (He is proving our first postulate. following. but not otherwise desirable. 346. the right of equals to equal advantages and burdens. 1 77 of the the procedure then Equality. Buftbn. good men among the moderns and the wisest of the ancients. the charm of courtesy and courage. essential attribute of civilisation (a). &c. of birth. of civilised above savage. en which continually 7roXXao)J/ 7ro\la>i> KariXvcre Kapr/va tj8' (cat XiKrei' tov ydfi Kpdros e'crrt piyurTOV. 2nd edition.
though often Economics may afford upon the sentiment — Woman Are is as moonlight unto sunlight the lesser man.' has many other elements. see a reason deeper than for the larger pay. Agreeably to such finer sense of beauty the modern lady has received a larger share of certain . To lower classes was assigned the work of which they seemed most capable the work of the higher classes being different 1 If we supin kind was not to be equated in severity. that mixed sentiment which took its rise in the It is exancient chivalry. we may more agreeable work. 4 Emile. p. 2 . It utilitarian : 1 Cf. for the evepyelai of action and contemplation . of skill and talent. Burke. but do so much more work as to suffer 5 more fatigue where fatigue must be suffered (ft). » Essay. See note.. p. iv. 4 Now attention to the weaker sex. Livy. (3. . 3 and by the passionate Eousseau ^voj/oorepws. and her passions unto mine and as water unto wine. 5 . pose that capacity for pleasure is an attribute of skill and talent (a) if we consider that production is an unsym metrical function of manual and scientific labour (/3) . ' 2 plained by the polite Hume as attention to the weak. 2 ii. means to enjoy and to transmit (a). The aristocracy of the aristocracy of sex is similarly grounded upon the supposed superior capacity of the man for happiness.78 MATHEMATICAL PSYCHICS. are agreeable to the theory that the stronger should not only do more work. 66. certain kinds of beauty and refinement. to Her supposed generally inferior capacity is supposed be compensated by a special capacity for particular emotions. lantry. 32. But galluxuries and attentions (Def. certain a sub finem). and woman's right not only to certain attentions in polite society but to some exemption from the harder work of life. 14.means. .
among other reasons. competition has interfered. from the stronger sex. there appears a nice consilience between the deductions from the utilitarian principle and the disabilities and privileges which hedge round modern womanhood. Physical privations are pitied the existence of a subordinate and . conduces to Utilitarian selection. there appears a general correspondence between the populationtheory above deduced (yS) and the current ethics of marriage. lastly. But. This being borne in mind. But in the to the consideration should equally be due weaker members of the same latter case there is fix the associations of duty and. common sense anticipates no Utopia of equality. account being . Utilitarian also is the custom of family life.PROOF OF UTILITARIANISM. whether true or false. less fortunate class of Providence. success. in so far as (contrasted with communistic education) it secures for the betterborn better educational influences (y) . if egoist or intuitivist are not to be altogether 1 3 In respect to population. opinions about the nature of woman. Altogether. Burke on the labouring poor. which impose x only a precedent condition. Barratt may suggest. while competition between man and woman has been much less open (and much less obviously useful to the race). share of good society in early life. taken of existing.' in Regicide Peace. hereditary or personal. in the struggle for life. ' Cf. in particular a larger life. 3. 79 may be objected : wanting a natural instinct predisposing to the duties of benevolence there has been wanting also a fixed criterion of strength to . The universal principle of the struggle for as Mr. 2 does not seem to accuse the bounty With the silence of common sense accords the uncertain sound of exact Utilitarianism (ayS). . Concerning the classification of future society.
. That the same reasonings should lead up to a general principle and down again to its applications that the theory should be tolerably certain. Barratt thinks of Politics as plausible. should not have reason to think that they would fare better under some other Two contracts present these qualities the contract. those who. of the pleased ? Exact Utilitarianism may also. the naturally fewer. one of the gratifications of the egoist benevolence. though outweigh the more numerous by strength. the practice is not more paradoxical than that indefinitely remote II. more powerful class. 1 A political interests ' contract ' for the should have two adjustment of conflicting It should be clear and fixed. It should be such that interpretable in the same sense. to cooperate. p. as Mr. one of the virtues of the inrational tuitivist. Sidgwick. rough and ready first ^socratical. The first contract excels in the quality . 2 The triumphs of Hedonics. are equally remote but they do not so certainly become . no less a possibility than to triumph over the second law of Thermodynamics. universally qualities. 1 Compare the * ClerkMaxwell. present the end of Politics . the susceptibility. if equally conceivable. the second in the second. For can there be a rational wish to please field common — without a willingness to estimate the duration of the pleasure. Utilitarianism. at least the dealing with his exact definition may tend to mark out and reclaim from the indefinite one large of conduct. the exact possibly aristo cratical. and capacity . converted by the deductive process of Mr. Theory of Heat. — — the demonstrator of the atomtheory should foresee the remote possibility of its application. Corollary of the Economic Calculus. based upon selfinterest. 308. as well as the number. ability.80 MATHEMATICAL PSYCHICS.
the principle ' Every man. here briefly and diffidently indicated. should never overtake the subtlety of feeling ! Faint and vague and abstracting many things which ought not to be abstracted. plied. The end of action being defined as above. without in the present state of society. prejudice to the supremacy of the supreme principle. he should tack at least) more considerably (in the present state of storm than the inexperienced voyager might advise. No one can misunderstand this selflimitation of Utilitarianism for it has been explained by Mr.' J. as the chart of Sidgwick shows) but that. the : utility of competition. (points toto ccelo apart. . Mill's ideal and cultivated. for life is but also upon capacity for happiness. the Hedonical Calculus supplies less a definite direction than a general bias. S. not that the Utilitarian should change his destination from Universal to Egoistic Hedonism . infers a different conclusion that Utilitarianism should resign in favour of Egoism. while constant to his life's star.' should be very cautiously ap In communistic association such should be) the distribution of produce should be rather upon the Universal equal principle of Fourier than of Owen. Pending a scientific hedommetry. suffrage is less conferred votes likely to be approved than plural not only (as Mill thought) upon sagacity.' are not necessarily desirable. But surely the inference is. not para mount ends to be sought by revolution or the more tedious method of depopulation. Sidgwick least of all ' ' — .APPLICATIONS OF UTILITARIANISM 81 more conceivable when considered more remote for what if in the course of evolution the subtlety of science . to be encouraged. and every (if woman. within limits. The play of the struggle Mr. Barratt indeed from the same premisses. the Jacobin ' ' ideal All equal All equal and rude. to count for one.
And we may have so here not only a direction. allowed 1 more For. while we calculate the utility of preutilitarian are impressed with a view of Nature. Essays on Nature and lielif/ion. without abdication. we We conservative caution in reform. to our end. all bad. the Egoist of the supreme command is much more necessary in the — case of the supremacy of selflove (Butler. but a motive. as in the picture left by Mill. but a first are biassed to a more approximation to the best. as potent than the great utilitarian has are the motives to mo rality which religion finds in the attributes of God. . &c). institutions. not. Nature is judged more good. 1 Mill. for a similar delegation. Lastly.82 MATHEMATICAL PSYCHICS.
might be uninteresting to the a^sio/Jbsrp'qTos. ou de n'etre reelles qu'entre de certaines limites. as the representative of the contrasted view the very able author of a review (on Prof. the nature of the subject is such that a single instance by a mathematical induction. p. I. if the writer's views are correct. sont absolument inassignables. d'etre indefiniment croissantes ou decroissantes. in any case. Jevons' ferred to. 61. p. ON UNNUMERICAL MATHEMATICS. et al'aide des signes propres a l'analyse. des fonctions inconnues peuvent cependant jouir de proprietes ou de caracteres generaux qui sont connus. conduire a des relations De egalement generates. ' * Theory ') already re ' L'une des fonctions les plus importantes Cournot says de l'analyse consiste precisement a assigner des relations determiners entre des quantites dont les valeurs numeriques. en raison de leur generalite meme. would be superfluous to the mathematician. See also Preface. par exemple. viii.' as it has been called a sort of — ' — ' ' single representativeparticular authenticated instance of mathematical reasoning without numerical data is sufficient to establish the general principle. ou : ' — d'etre periodiques. it may be well to add a few words of exposition after first precising the point at issue by citing on our side the father of Mathematical Economics. peuvent toutefois. D'une part. semblables donnees quelque imparfaites qu'elles paraissent. et meme les formes algebriques. Indeed. and. g 2 . However.APPENDICES. qu'onaurait difficilement decouvertes sans 1 Theorie des Rirhesses. It seemed undesirable to load our opening pages with a multiplicity of illustrations which.
' determined.' 1 Compare its also the ' exclusive 1 upon algebra and adaptation to the subjects for which it is comspirit of his remarks 2 Logic.' Compare Mill : — festly inapplicable Such principles (mathematical) are maniwhere the causes on which any class of phe* nomena depend are so imperfectly accessible to our observation. we have merely wrapped up a plain statement in a mysterious collection of The reader is referred to the whole article as typical letters. but that does not help us. indeterminable. Mr. must instead of helping us. . ' the equations to be legitimate. and Mr. lois ' The tell les lois generales des phenomenes de la confirmees par l'observation.' can Saturday Review' (Nov. assuming them to us to be simply useless so long as the functions are obviously . be in some way capable of numerical expression we must be able to say. Thus. sans connaitre la loi de decroisseen partant du seul principe que ment des forces capillaires. he wraps up his mysterious conclusions in symbols which are mere verbiage.. for example. . If we say that G represents the confidence of Liberals in Mr. 9. that we cannot ascertain by a proper induction their numerical laws. Gladstone. that the pleasure of eating a beefsteak is to the pleasure of drinking a glass of beer as five to four. again. chap. and infer that .. Disraeli. in order to fit a subject for mathematical in We quiry. pleasure must . and D the confidence of Conservatives in Mr. 11. APPENDICES. vi. 1871) :—. it is not sufficient to represent some of the quantities concerned by letters. p.' We that one pleasure is greater than another . . s Book iv.84 ce secours. 6. . chap. Gladstone's tenure of . et ces forces sont insensibles a des distances sensibles. To apply the mathematical methods.' of the literary method of treating our subject. les geo metres ont demontre capillar it e. seems to shirk the question.. book iii. remind him that.. Jevons. O'est ainsi que. . The words convey no particular meaning to us . p. seem . They are merely a roundabout way of ' express ing what And. office i depends i upon some equation involving = d G dx and j dD =— dy . and y the number of those parties . xxiv. as they contain functions which neither are nor can be may be better said in words. again.
in their ' Treatise on Natural Philosophy. those of which 85 investigations the have been already reduced to the ascertainment of a relation between numbers. 1 Above. namely. &c). they go on cient for a practical solution of the problem of determining P and Q will be given later. . In the meantime. (in an analogous problem). that a certain hypothesis as to the ultimate constitution of matter corresponds with the observed phenomena of attraction. monly employed. it is obvious that each decreases as x increases. 320. it is obvious (compare the premises of as Thomson and at Tait's reasoning) that . And from such data mathematical reasonings show several interesting results. from (what may be called in reference to numerical measureprinciples suffiments) a priori considerations. d P £— ax 2 continually negative. properly projected in a perfect incompressible liquid will seem It is suggested. that two balls ' : ' ' to attract one another. The pracsolution of the problem of determining P and Q. 4.' p. A sufficient to that already cited in the text seems single instance oppose to this popular impression about the limits — — of mathematics. P increases ^ x increases. discuss the problem of a ball set in motion through a mass of incompressible fluid extending infinitely in all directions on one side of an infinite plane. if P be a person's pleasure considered as a function of x his means.' functions denoting quantities of pleasure in terms of external ob' Now jects (means.' Compare also the views of Comte to which he refers. but a decreasing rate whence — con tinually positive. p. But certain properties of such functions are given. tical here is the type of mathematical psychics.UNNUMER1CAL MATHEMATICS.g. Thomson and Tait.' e. Thus. I think. and After constructing the Lagrangian equations originally at rest. is not yet given. Hence the equations of motion show several deductions which are truly most remarkable and very suggestive. It has been suggested that a certain hypothesis as to the ultil mate principle and supreme standard of morals corresponds (to an extent not usually noticed) with the observed phenomena of human action.
we obtain an expression for an wave involving two (almost) independent arbitrary atmospheric 2 Without suppofunctions.' In employing =— dV d r^. As we are not able to say that P is to Q as 5 to 4.' if only the general errors. 23. of which the very genius is generalisation. without clipping into particulars. The so may no doubt appear to literary common sense a very artificial and complicated statement of some such simple fact. soars from generality to geneI shall attempt. 3 Airy on Sound. For this same symbolspeech. we may deduce subsing the theory of sound </> On v/r 1 Here may be the place to notice the Saturday Review's criticism upon Professor Jevons's formulae for the ' law of indifference that his symbols ' : needlessly complicate the plain and simple facts of the market. even moderately .' Doubtless. nor appropriate nor serviceable. as compared with Thomson's. But the most potent instruments of research are open to similar criticism. however. no doubt foolishness to those who have no . (n 6 at — x) + the forms of <£ and i/r to be known. . I reply. ' we have merely wrapped up a plain statement in a mysterious collection of letters. would not be a plain statement. the argument 'conveys no particular meaning to us. needs not acquainted with the kinetics of fluids. to tell to any one.80 APPENDICES. namely. pp. mathematical deduction without numerical measurement. ! 1 ' view is correct. But how fruitful of deductions is this formula in connection called ' equation of continuity ' with other symbolic statements. What need to multiply illustrations of what is selfevident that mathematics. (n at + x). so harsh and crabbed as compared with literary elegance. One can imagine how might be in criticising the facetious the ' Saturday Reviewer ' method employed by Thomson and Tait in the above example. is gifted with a magical charm to win coy truth the brief and broken language which the love of abstract truth inspires. sympathy with that passion. as that matter cannot enter or leave a given space without crossing its boundary. to illustrate a little more rality the method of mathematical physics. what we know of P and Q might have been stated unmathematically in a roundabout literary fashion but that statement. 28. hoping that the fully professed mathematician would pardon in an amateur particular Si modo plura mihi bona sunt.
and the very large all class of similar physical problems. a conception. to an arbitrary function. and II. however. 78. would not. the forward and backward waves are of identical form. At the same time.UNNUMERICAL MATHEMATICS. may be said that the data from which the expression for wavedisturbance was deduced. the differential ing' 5 equation k 4 . insist too much on this particular instance. or repulsion between two particles is some function of the I. 1 Id.. p. it will suffice to show the validity of the method in two provinces of mathematics least distant from the sphere of psychics I. The hypothesis distance between them. possessing not even that degree of grossly approximative accuracy.. as in For no doubt it respects typical of psychical reasoning. 87 stopped at both 1 as that. From this loose indefinite relation. that the attraction implication. whereas (some of) the data of psychics consist of loose general relations. if we disturbance. then the consider as premiss the integral equation for the method of psychics is fairly well exem pKfied by the employment in the theory of sound and elsewhere of arbitrary functions . directly or by as a first or proximate principle. 3 Principles of Science. of natural forces assumes. when a tube is I ends. express the motion of a particle of air * is 2 — 2  dt 2 = — is dx 2 k . 21. positive or negative. But it would exceed the ability and requirements of the present writer to justify the method above postulated (deduction from loose and numerically indefinite relations) by a general review of the uses of arbitrary functions . 3 beyond which even Professor Jevons in his illustrations of mathematical reasoning does not appear to extend his view. without knowledge of the form of the function. the most im1 Airy. stantial conclusions . p. the theory of natural forces and energy . the fact of increase or decrease. ' that this of premiss of the nature of numerical precision made up factors supposed at least approximatively measurable . . which had never been entertained by those who object to mathematics' inability to deal with the complexities of social science as if any degree of complexity might not be attributed . the calculus of varia — tions. one might suppose.
that the motion is one plane. the objection applies at most to our dynamical illustrations. there is also something definite and precise. the hypothesis of natural forces. there is also 1 . something definite and precise for inis only one price in a market. 5. is nothing not to be supposed that the data of social science have While there is something in them indefinite 'precise. p. The great theories relating to energy present abundantly mathematical reasoning about loose indefinite relations. it to be suggested between energy and pleasure). tical data.' that there sented by pure analysis. Suppose a swarm of particles so moving under terms. as Professor Jevons has pointed out. then from the principle of the conservation of energy we obtain the general idea that the 1 As aforesaid. obtaining by mathematical deduction a general idea of a state of motion. of reasoning at natural forces that they are now all clustered near each other. . As a very simple example portent conclusions may be deduced. by the calculus of variations. firstly. Conservation of energy is implicated with such a relation. The principle of conservation of energy affords instances of what diction in is vulgarly supposed a contra once mathematically and rra^vXws. But the hypothesis in question would generally be admitted to hold of the systems of matter immediately concomitant with mental phenomena. not to those which will be pre and stance. and supposed to be And statisuniversally. the mutual attraction of particles according to some function of the distance between them. admit of the same sort of precision. so that the deductions therefrom may well be of great psychophysical interest (especially in view of the analogies And again. loose.88 APPENDICES. for instance. characteristic of applied mathematics. now all fly asunder to a distance. Without take the motion of a particle round a centre of force. and so forth. In fine. the very conception of uniform acceleration. which is generally. a proposition which possesses that degree of at least approximative precision. that the velocity is inversely proportional to perpendicular from centre upon tangent. we deduce that equal areas are swept out by the particle in equal times. No doubt indefinite it may be objected that while there is something and loose in the premisses. the ' law of indifference. knowing the form of the forcefunction.
the greater c&teris paribus its energy. consisting of discharged rifle and shot bullets. The 1 great BertrandThompson maximumminimum prin The comparison between pleasure and energy may be viewed under two aspects first (than which not more is asserted here). with respect to the total energy. . the smaller the bullet. That a system tends to its least potential energy. in is not necessarily in proportion to pleasure. as in the text (pp. than a thousand years of the declining Roman Empire. So.UNNUMERICAL MATHEMATICS. so familiar to the unmathematical as not to desiderate illustration. Thus. Hellas than Barbaria in a century of the age of Phidias. & and The comparison assists us to conceive what appears to some inconceivable. this principle affords us in innumerable instances a general idea of the system's position of rest . or more correctly their kinetic energy is greater. secondly. Energy is the product of mass and the square of velocity. we may obtain a general idea of its position of equilibrium. or the now abandoned but still interesting (Thomson . ' ' Tait) corpuscular theory of light . But the conception of an integral is not. in the social system. . yet elegant and convenient. In the system. And. depends not only on its mass. 91 5) a deep or real analogy. more evepyelai in the oracular lanin Athens than exist in one poet than many boors . we may thus obtain a general idea of the motion. precise law of the forces. More energy of guage of Aristotle. From the principle of least action we infer that a particle under any (natural) forces constrained to move on an equipotential surface will so move that its path from point to point is of maximum or minimum Without knowing the length. may the rest of Hellas. as in the very simple case of equilibrium being stable when the centre of gravity is as low as possible. as not known to be more than a metaphor. without knowing the precise shape of a body. we must accustom ourselves to believe that the importance in respect to the utilitarian greatest possible quantity of each class its numbers. perhaps. but on its velocity. that equality is not a necessary condition of greatest happiness. in the third Appendix. for instance. No doubt this property is implicit in the definition of integral pleasure as defined. indeed. like the hypothesis of fluids in electricity. there lives more energy in the little whiffling bullet than the heavy recalcitrant rifle. when they swarm together than when they 1 Peculiarly typical maximum and are widely dispersed. the precise shape of the potential surface. of psychics are the great principles of minimum energy. 89 movements of the particles are on an average more rapid. Therefore the importance of any part of a system. the maximum of pleasure in psychics being the effect concomitant of a maximum physical energy.
the connections and configuration being unaltered. Compare with the last the reasonings in moral science. that the motion of each particle is perpendicular to a certain velocitypotential surface passing through it. By first Upon analogous that. the potential energy of deformation due to given force applied from without will be 1 Diminution in the premisses.) productive of maximum pleasure holds. we may obtain certain general ideas of the arrangement of energy in the system under consideration. from the Thomsonian principle. the connection remaining unchanged. that the motion of the liquid is unrotatory. if conclusion. If the stiffness in any part or parts of the system be diminished. 3 We may not know the precise form of the functions which express the distribution of electricity over the conductors . the resulting kinetic energy under given (however complex and undefined) impulses from rest must be increased. and their statical analogues present abundant instances of mathematical reasoning about loose. in each case. Electricity. &c. indefinite relations certain velocities be imparted by impulses to the bounding ! increased. a general idea of the resulting motion. we be able to Watson & Burbury. we know be a given distribution of electricity over the conductors in a field. one of the series of such surfaces being the two paragraphs principles the arrangement (of social institutions. know. 09. the strains throughout the dielectric are such that the potential energy of the whole system is a minimum. . Generalised Ibid. if we had 3 these data. if the masses of any part or parts of a material system are diminished. 98. Arts. we may obtain mathematically a general idea of it as that one arrangement is better than another. loose. increase in the So again. that the energy of a system to which We impulses (or or finite forces) minimum have been applied is the maximum Without knowing consistent with certain data. indefinite relations. by reasoning.90 ciples APPENDICES. bounding surface. would Coordinates. 2 surface of an incompressible liquid. 2 ClerkMaxwell. if there principles in statical electricity. without having more than a general idea of the distribution of these given velocities. I think. we may obtain. much 1 less. the data precisely. Thus. Without deducing precisely ivhat this best arrangement is. &c.
book impossible. In the simple cases which in the infancy of Mathe matical 3 Psychics are alone presented in these pages. The latter condition is negative (mutatis one of those loose. sources of mathematics are exhausted in calculating. Todhunter's application of the same to a particular problem. and of the nature of what may be called momentumpotential rather than forcepotential. of variation vanishes . You find continually. convex or concave.Maxwell. for a minimum). in a higher dimension. . all the difference between a maximum and minimum. 5 and realise how a mathematical . and the reasoning iv. constituting. pp. the sign The reader should consider Jacobi's of the second term. 6165. 9. indefinite relations which we have been all along describing. 24. ch. we know by observation not %vhat the second term is. to the same relation. p. the function whose respective differentials shall give the strain in each direction at any point. II. method of discrimination. indefinite relation. Yet it is something both tangible and promising to know 1 mathematically that the potential energy is a minimum. in the statement of a problem. Todhunter's i Miscellaneous Observations reasoning ' tions through the calculus of variaparamount importance. Researches in the Calculus of Variations. but that In more complicated cases the reit is continually negative. pp. Analogous remarks are applicable to the somewhat 2 analogous theorem of minimum energy of electric currents . or rather Comte's double objection against Mathematics that the premisses are unattainable. 1 Clerk. indefinite relations of or negative. Consider also the many positive directed of Mr. not a but a loose. Art. while the second term is mutandis. Todhunter 4 and Mr.UNNUMERICAL MATHEMATICS. Ibid. That something is the type of what mathematical psychics have to teach. 91 calculate the potential. indeed. for instance. 2126. It is the first principle of the calculus of variations that a varying quantity attains a maximum when the first term. 2630. may turn upon the loose. See above. definite numerical. 283. by Mr. is All the relation of 1 Compare Mill's : in Social Science 2 3 4 5 —Logic. pp. as I think it may be said. as stated.
say 7r = / F (y x) d x between . 286. it ' may be observed. of capacity for happiness with evolution. the increase of one quantity with another. 3 Todhunter's Researches. pp. or rather in the companion paper. combined with an indefinite datum. 262. or diminution of share of means in utilitarian distribution. breaks up into factors. but only (as in the case of physics) some. There are two other leading principles of the calculus of variations which seem calculated to illustrate the method of psychics. there are. if dF —— dy breaks up into factors. there 1 ' Researches in the Calculus of Variations. (In the simple cases alone presented in these pages. tion to zero. several different functions. 68. maximum mentioned character. constitutes a main pillar of utilitarian calculus . from this equation to zero. or rather may be. p. convex so rough and unshaped are the materials with which ' . is the equation of the first term of variaof a definite precise rather than a loose indefinite But. 3 several solutions. quarried mathematics from such data as the law of decreasing utility. shows that if the Haupt Gleichung. for the exact statement and proof of which the reader is referred to the economical writings of Professor Jevons and Principal Marshall. we may deduce another indefinite quantitative relation. namely. is able to build. again. cavity. in2 crease. Above.' as Stranch calls it. the leading in general differential equa — — tion. 117. Accordingly. the condition that a required curve shall be. of increasing fatigue. It may be said that the former condition of a lately. of diminished returns to capital and labour. to any particular measurements or determination of the forms of functions). in which the expression whose maximum is sought does not involve any differential coefficients. or shall not be. . it is to be repeated that all the data of mathematical psychics are not indefinite. a consideration of first principles (prior. 80. First. which must be satisfied in order that the first term of variation should vanish. limits. p. Now this very relation of connot a whit more indefinite in psychics than in physics. where y is an independent variable function then. each corresponding to a maximum or minimum.92 APPENDICES.
and as the ' plain man might almost suppose. in psychics as w ell r as in physics. — The remark. are not to be though they may mixed and compounded.UNNUMERICAL MATHEMATICS. in view of each established constitution. such complicating imposed conditions have some analogy with the conditions imposed by necessity upon practical politics and For Qpovrjais has often to be conapplied utilitarianism. will 93 in general. obey some one of the laws supplied by the solution It is submitted that this property of the Haupt Gleichung. passim. and the next step But the different laws or function. Any one portion of the required curve 1 must and subject to the exceptions of the following paragraph). . be multiple solutions. and the complexion of a wise benevolence. it comes to be applied to the The is abstract maximum. Todhunter's calculus of variations with the subtle. custom. course must be adopted. the fact that there are sometimes two best ways of attaining an end if the superlative best may be employed in a technical sense analogous to the To realise the best. must not It is submitted that exclude a given point. 1 Todhunter. tent not with the best course. first term of variation should be known to be negative (and Such knowledge is generally the obversely for a minimum). one step according to one law. I think. as in Mr. Compare the subtle spirit of Mr. not a confusion of the two. one or other superlative maximum. church. must be convex. . but the best subject to existing conditions. that a curve must not pass outside a given boundary. Sidgwick's ' method of utilitarianism. according to another law.) A curve between two given points required to fulfil some maximum condition may be discontinuous. is affected with a congenital resemblance to the wily charms of the calculus of variations. thus be employed successively. Todhunter's problems result of imposed conditions . comparatively simple but the concrete is complicated by imposed conditions. sophistical spirit of Mr. subject of discontinuity leads up to another general It is not universally necessary that the first term of It suffices for a maximum that the variation should vanish. may be made up of the different solutions. (in general has its counterpart in human affairs . when actual world in which we live.
what possible. 1834. . the method might Professor Cairnes 1 Sir William R. Hamilton. in his review of Professor Jevons's ' 2 Economy. Darwin. 1835.' appears. as in the devotion of Plato to the idea.' But the limits are to be traced by a loving hand. tion of utility. though are not valuable . abstracted from practical. Political grounds. 1875.' as by the practical conl sequences of his discovery. not without reason. might be understood in a too restricted sense. 8 3 Fortnightly Review. 85). though unfruitful. objected that mathematical psychics. Thomson and Tait. Preface to Logical Method. genius who reduced the general dynamical problem to the discovery of a single actionfunction was as much affected by the ideal beauty of ' one central idea.94 APPENDICES. 3 himself admits that the mathematical be useful. the Jevonian thought of referring economics to pleasure as the central idea might be equally splendid. (x. And so Mr. it In the example first cited from might have happened that the generalised ' coordinates employed did not yield that ' first vindemiation of Yet the Lagrangian conception truth above described (p. II. to prefer the mathematical method on theoretical. when it has been blessed with the production of the useful. and great. than for their own charm. For It may be no philosophical objector would maintain that the love of the soul for the universal is then only legitimate. and promising. Philosophical Transactions. I say valuable rather than. The Grossenian. The love of the soul for the universal is undoubtedly capable of extravagance. useful. If so. H. though not indispensable. ON THE IMPORTANCE OF HEDONICAL CALCULUS. and not to be narrowed by a too severe construc The great generalisations of mathematics have perhaps been pursued and won less for the sake of utiHty to be Certainly the superior produced. of considering the energy of the whole system as a function of the position and velocities of the immersed bodies would still have been legitimate. 'Amor ipse ordinate amandus est.
in the competent judges. 95 in economics might be position of the mathematical method to that of quaternions. but still a guard. ? species. if it conduct to no theorem not otherwise deducible. a . perhaps. Tait. A fertility. trodden. what would be the most beneficent arrangement that the men tions. Theory of equal sacrifice in taxation. — should have the same fatigue. 1825. 1. When Fanny Kemble visited her husband's slave planta found that the same (equal) tasks were imposed on the women accordingly. without having himself . suffering much more fatigue. and to leave the distribution of the burden to the philanthropist. of labour at the disposal of the community to be quantity suddenly increased. and challenge the aysoyfxsrprjros to answer the following examination paper. even compared. how will the new labour be distributed ? Will more or less additional labour be employed on any acre according as it is more or less fertile. or not only 2 more task. as it may be said. deduces theorems already elegantly and. but more fatigue 3. naturally and philosophically. than the blind and elephantine formulas usually employed for the purpose. Supposing the husband to insist on a certain quantity of work being done. the sublimer path ? But is the method unfruitful in social science ? The black relative value list in our appendix ' may show the possibility that mathema here no guide.' But I go further. in consequence of their weakness. yet. communistic society owns land of varying degrees of which land it cultivates so as to obtain with a given Suppose the quantity of labour the maximum of produce. is it for one who is not conversant with both methods to offer an opinion on their opinion of some ! known more to declare forbidden. Cf. At any rate.IMPORTANCE OF ITEDONICS. which calculus. Mill's Edinburgh Philosophical Transactions. those whose of production (do not diminish or) increase as the expenses 1 Commodities being divided into two Cf. tical reason is Social Problems to be solved without Mathematics. she the men and women. or otherwise ? 2.
attended with a considerable increase of demand. from an on each indefinite number of masters and transformed by tradesunions and combinations of masters into a small number of competing (corporate) units on each side. however infallible a ber. 7. i. is men competing ation be advantageous to both sides ? 6. p. which species is it abstractedly preferable to tax ? ' 5. turning away contemptuously from such questions. Cunvnghame. that individuals have their happiness differently related to means. There are those no doubt who see nothing in all this. as the dog when you try to put him on a scent which nature or discipline has made to him insignificant. 2nd edition). chap. 9. or is not. is not unlikely to be in this numBut the professed mathematician.' p. show that it is abstractedly expedient to tax one of these species rather than the other.90 APPENDICES. guide upon the purely mathematical side (and sure to find many errors in these pages should they be so fortunate as to come 1 See Notes on Exchange Value. between cooperators (labourers and capitalists associated) is Discuss this question. Can this transformside. derive different amounts of happiness from the and same means show that to attain the end defined happiness its means must be either both equally or both unequally . The labour market. is desirable. ' Methods of Ethics. Mr. Sidgwick in the 'Methods of Ethics' (iv. Commodities being divided into two species. though not necessarily of the of happiness. having defined the utilitarian end as the greatest possible sum of pleasures. distributed. It has been said that the distribution of net produce. according as a slight decrease of price is.). and even to tax one so as to bounty the other (Marshall's theorem). . proceeds to observe that with a view to this end means equal distribution of happiness. 256. 4. arbitrary and indeterminate. it must be owned with regret. The professed mathematician. Assuming what the author's note seems to imply (cf. amount increases and those whose cost of production diminishes with the amount produced . by H.
as incompatible with the higher feelings. catching apt to dismiss the to be insisted. destined.IMPORTANCE OF IIEDOXICS. defied by Here and Athena. There is the old prejudice still reviving. addresses his rebuke not to the inveterately obstinate one. but the leading thoughts of leading Englishmen and cornerstone con and morals. is the of the mere metaphysician need give us The noble Hegelian. but also. lished. to forego its prejudices against this sort of calculus. is ignorant of his ignorance and vain of his inanity. it is hoped. equality of sacrifice and enjoyment. A notable authority forsooth. greatest avern^e happiness. what is even more unphilosophical. whose chosen philosopher and guide is not only blind to truth in her clearest manifestation. but only to the rebellious goddess of "Up?) §' wisdom — ovti Toaov vejiecri&Tai ov8i \o\ovTai' oi eoodev (viKh. but the very substance of modern civili materials with which exact social science sation. sight And again. these are no dreams of German metaphysics. whole affair But. 97 under his notice) is not necessarily an infallible guide over the untrodden pass here supposed to exist between the heights of physics and psychics. much the attempt to estimate quantitatively pleasure. quantity of pleasure. As the Olympian Zeus. The reign of law is estabbecome more oppressive to feeling by be coming mathematical. supposing that his attention has not been directed to psychological problems. upon the science of quantity and its limits . common is is it such terms as hedonism. and of will not But it is too late. Nevertheless. and notable authorities and judges of authority are those his followers. might smile at The authority less pause. Non ragionam di lor. the is concerned are no metaphysical shadows. great authority of the masters of the supreme science. against the reign of law in psychology.au otti vorjar)' aul yap so a serious argument sense is is addressed not to the incorrigible mystic. as metaphysical. ere long to become embodied in practical politics Quantity of labour. doubtless. H . however often slain. sense. Common addressed and may be persuaded. from the transcendental heights whence he looks down upon Newton. this demolisher of Newton.
no doubt. an argument to the man who (with Professor Jevons). however. 1 man can form (I. following in his footsteps. and of Henry Sidgwick. much difficulty here. And yet it may be admitted that there is a potentiality of precision about even the looser physical demonstrations which gives them a In physics.) of Theory of Political Economy. p. There is. when we deal with an indefinite certain prestige. admitting mathematical reasoning about selfregarding of mathematically pleasures. endeavour to gain as clear a view as may be. Jeremy Are they not all quantitative conceptions.98 ceptions.) of other people's. . best treated by means of the science of quantity ? III. At least it is hoped that we may sight an argumen tum ad hominem.' in psychics we are so far from expecting. (II. there is some ' understanding that principles sufficient for a practical solution of the problem of determining P and Q will be given later. of John Mill. APPENDICES. that it seems doubtful whether we can even conceive precise measurement. the existence and We nature of a unit of pleasure. with reference different persons' pleasures. as described by Professor Jevons. and the risen and hedonism may still be science is still obscured by clouds . to this question of /MeTprjTiKrj and pleasureunit consider separately the quantitative estimate which a his own pleasure. ON HEDONIMETRY. possibility. Whereas Yet the conceivability at least may be thought necessary to mathematical reasoning. or. definite as It has been shown that some of the data of physics are as insome of the data of psychics. what is must then carefully consider this much the same thing. P and Q (to revert to an earlier example). in the state of heat or electricity before they became exact 1 Let us. 9. sciences. denies the possibility comparing Let us accordingly. upon which rest whole systems of Adam Smith. of Bentham.
' may be treated as a quantity ' Now. Of course such a way of turning the subject has no pretence to deduction.HEDOXIMETRY. to be the method let of attaining mathematical axioms. perhaps. different quantities are the same. if one of the increments exceeds the other in pleasurability. there must. is not treated Let us suppose as a unit in the cases with which physics deal. more usual. or with different organs of In one sense. But. when it is asked. Bain on Axioms. I.'' what unit is one intensity said to be greater than another ? Utility. 2 3 Of. the the minima sensi being equated. certainly subjective estimates. the just perceivable increment. ' 99 Jevons (writing exclusively of of measurement). such increments. Essai Philosophique sur les Probabilites.' Turn the matter as we please. according to which cases about which we are I think. I think. to the first principle of 3 probabilities. is felt is. between which we perceive no material difference. In virtue of of two dimensions. the minimum sensibile. not without hesitation. firma may plausibly be objected. equally undecided. but for which It it might be hard to give a reason. or not being pertinent to the present inquiry). bilia is In another sense. by that sort of internal experience and handling of ideas which seems * the answer must be. 2 For if possible one just perceivable increment be preferred to Then it must be preferred in virtue of some difference of pleasurability (nonhedonistic action not existing. then that one is not a just perceivable increment. h 2 . count as equal . which be postulated some such equation as the above. p. 7. 5th edit. I think. 51. may be compared. Laplace.' which may be shown. what contended. are here leaving the terra It must be confessed that we of physical analogy. And is this latter sense. to be viewed as p..' says Professor the first sort l ' Just perceivable increments of pleasure are equatable. that for the same objective increase of temperature or weight (as estimated by the approved methods of physics) I have at different times. perhaps. my body. The increments 1 in question are. Theory of Political Economy. but consists of at least two another. The stream of thought * meanders level with its fount. a principle on which we are agreed to act. it appropriate to our sub ject.
objective time. the equation. rather APPENDICES. and intensity.ents above zero. as Locke intimates. as Professor Jevons says. the rate seems high. The same obtime may correspond to different rates jective (say horological) of thought and feeling at different periods. Cf. Why.' Encyclopaedia Britannica. than In dreams. in question exists not in fact as in the limit of perfect evolution. but three dimensions. subjective time. of this. above zero. their objective duration being the 1 See the remarks of Clerk. as already intimated. which philosophers have distinguished as more good. The imdoes not treat a unit of pleasure in the perfect intelligence so much future as equal to one in the present. 2 Theory of Political 3 Economy. Act iii. intellectual exercise in particular. however. And perhaps some states. each inclination of the illustrated treated as equal by the rational intelligence. that the rate of the former is double that of the latter. p. As to the dimension of time a similar line of remark is open. for probably it is more competent to consciousness to combine into a single mark the two considerations of rate and intensity. will is Indeed. And so a pleasure would have not only two low. 2. ' Essay on Atoms. tion 1 by that of a force just sufficient to turn a balance overcoming friction. Sully's remarks on Illusions of Perspective. may so differ. presenting to conscious same number of inte7isityincrem. p. intensity dimensions. 78. Abstracting from the of the future. sc.Maxwell. another about two. Compare As You Like it. and elsewhere. ness the should differ in this rate of flow.100 finite differences. Suppose one state presents about three pleasureincrements. namely. 38. than as genuine differentials (a concepwhich need not militate with the employment of the notaThe conception might be tion of the differential calculus). no proof is to be expected. the mere circumstance of futurity uncertainty affects the estimate of a pleasure. or equatability. And yet the correction may not seem very important. So far about the dimension of intensity. the others. Now it is only in the ideal limit that q becomes equal to unity. though not more pleasurable. which depreciation the Jevonian factor q 2 denotes. as I understand. Mr. 3 It is conceivable that two states. .
say three and two to the former. Now it is the same sort of here contended that there are as many. if the correction suggested in the last paragraph be admitted. moment to moment the hedonimeter varies . continually registering the height of pleasure experienced by an individual. 101 same. in this estimate of pleasures by the sentient himself (which is yet admitted by Professor Jevons. as over the egoistic. low sunk whole hours in the neighbourhood of zero. over this utilitarian. Then the quantity of happiness between is The two epochs represented by the area contained between the zeroline. precise the ideas. a psychophysical machine. . and then to mulor by a sort of unconscious multiplicatiply the marks of each tion to mark at once six and two about for the comparison not of pleasures as to quantity is here admitted to be vague than the comparisons made by an examiner as vaguer perhaps to excellence. where numerical marks are usefully employed. The integration must be extended from the present to the infinitely future time to constitute the end of pure egoism. the delicate index now flickering with the flutter of the passions. — . two and one to the latter. no doubt. and difficulties. or. The same primal mystery of an ultimate axiom hangs. . another dimension will be required for the representation. perpendiculars thereto at the points corresponding to the epochs. let there be granted to the science of pleasure what is granted to the science of energy . p. II. The variation of subjective time for different individuals. . 1 See ClerkMaxwell. thus: Any just perceivable pleasureincrement experienced by any sentient at any time has the same value. and substantially by common sense). The equation is only true in the limit of perfect evolution.HEDONIMETRY. 139. as in the estimate We have only to modify our axiom of other people's pleasures. exactly according to the verdict of consciousness. or From rather diverging therefrom according to a law of errors. Theory of Heat. or momentarily springing up towards infinity. continually indicated height is registered by or other frictionless apparatus upon a uniformly photographic moving vertical plane. now steadied by intellectual activity. first principle. and the curve traced by the index . to imagine l To an ideally perfect instrument. is it better to give two marks to each state.
nor yet ' counts for one. there has been granted to imperfectlyevolved mortals an inter The mediate temperate region . one in may be equally well illustrated by ideal have only to add another dimension expressing the number of sentients. . a wider average to the theory of probabilities. the position of one for whom in a calm moment his neighbour's happiness as compared with his own neither counts for nothing. It may be objected that the just perceivable increment is given by consciousness in the case of one's own pleasures. only inferred in the case of others. . just as. of a single. 57. in his remarks p. IV. to constitute the end of pure integration The mechanism.) by multiplying each pleasure. ' the tions with a less perfect instrument. But it has not been observed that between these two extremes. It may be replied. ON MIXED MODES OF UTILITARIANISM.' but must modify the utilitarian integral (Appendix III. for pleasure. Herbert Spencer. by Mr. perhaps exercise of higher intellect exceptional. by a fraction a counts for a fraction. however accurate. except the pleasures of the agent himself. — Data of Ethics. greater 1 uncertainty of hedonimetry in the case of others' pleasures may be compensated by the greater number of measurements. We utilitarianism. and to integrate through all time and over all sentience. individual.' is is accompanied with greater capacity proved by taking a wide average rather than by the selfobservation. for presents no greater difficulty than the variation dividual.102 APPENDICES. distinction between egoism and utilitarianism has been drawn with matchless skill by Mr. as defined above We — 1 This is a distinction insisted on on utilitarianism. between the frozen pole of egoism and the tropical expanse of utilitarianism. Sidgwick. according greater accuracy may be attained by more numerous observaThe proposition.
Mr. Spencer's gloomy picture. and jocose selfindulgence. the selfindulgent nonutilitarian. . in a life ordered according to the method of pure utilitarianism there may be tracts of egoistic distance when the agent gives full swing to selfinterest. keep the quod est demonstrandum continually before the mind. chap. the intelligent utilitarian will cultivate a temporary relaxation and forgetfulIt never was meant that he ness of his supreme principle. it is not necessary that the general good should be always present to conscious have an hour to prove a theorem at an examination. In order that one's life should be subordinated to the general good. l — a wet should wrap himself up in his utilitarian virtue so as to become 2 blanket to his friends. I suppose. 2 See Mr. speeches. xi. There is not much more difficulty about this intermediate conception than about the extremes. It never was meant. For example. employ as an argument against utilitarianism the utilities of 'For his wife he has smiles. in a cool moment. times whether on having his attention directed to the alternative between methods. as Austin says. Spencer appears to expressions of able thinkers. having collected himself. labour a point which has been explained by Mr. Sidgwick describes as the selflimitation of a method. that the sound utilitarian should have an eye to the general good while kissing his wife. If a man has a day to write an article. presented by the phenomena which Mr. The test whether such an agent is really a pure utilitarian would be. he would or would not calmly and deliberately sacrifice his own It seems superfluous to greatest happiness to that of others. If I I shall do well not to 1 Data of Ethics. Sidgwick. Yet that there is some difficulty about this rhythm between sovereign and subordinate method may be inferred from the Thus. leaving out of sight his utilitarian creed. if selfindulgence and the not taking account of the general good has such an agreeable effect. though the whole time may be consecrated to ness. factor doubtless diminishing with 103 what may be called the social between the individual agent and those of whose pleasures he takes account. The chief difficulty is one which is common to the extremes.MIXED UTILITARIANISM. but to let the mind range among theorems which may serve as premisses. action.' and so forth But.
then. 203. And the reconciliation between egoism and altruism. mation of mixed into pure utilitarianism. Spencer could not be grafted upon pure utilitarianism would imply a ' different conception of a method of ethics from that which may be derived from Mr. fessor Jevons. ^' tical ~ f i ' = : 2 (y) x . have been suggested by Professor Jevons's formula. the psychical side of may be dimly discerned as a sort of V. 3 mula Let x manufacture the > . You cannot disprove the authority of utilitarianism by proving the utility of egoistical. Sidgwick's great work. that the utilities described by Mr. Professor Jevons's formula. p.y) )  x ' = ". gradual process and ideal limit beautifully described by Mr. the purpose. a mixed utilitarian. Our for employed also is adapted to take account of the labour of 'producthe 'complicated double adjustment' glanced at by Protion. agreeing with the view suggested that the concrete nineteenth century man is for the most part an impure egoist. the transfora physical change in what hedonico' magnetic field. To argue. p. practice.104 APPENDICES. Spencer. is almost iden with our "{ ¥ y (x. would be upon the view suggested here. That as a ' matter of fact the utilities of egoistic action do not now spring from a root of pure utilitarianism would be freely here admitted . 108. article which he exchanges 3 for y. could not each. 2 Theory. ON PROFESSOR JEVONS'S FORMULAE OF EXCHANGE. 34. Above. . not the sum of two functions of The inquiry suggested at p. 14. x Almost for the notation here is slightly more The utility is regarded as general. p. it may be expedient to banish the purpose during refreshment or exercise. a function of the two variables. Theory. near foot. or any other.
the toilsomeness of e. by eliminating must always be equated to zero. unstable equilibrium of dealer in polar From the point of view here adopted the utility of a x may be written P = F ( — x. y).g. as it is ' convenient here to write. we come on our old form F (x y).FORMULAE OF EXCHANGE. differential with regard appears that I = the to e e Hence. Walras. the definition connects two properties II minimum. Transformed to coordinates P = F ( — p cos 0. means wish to change. measure of work. however. But the most important sort of instability is perhaps that which may be presented in the case of (Mr. / (e) is the subjective . points are arranged alternately along unstable positions where ( ^— = J does not correspond to a e. Then (by a 105 violent but not dangerous abstraction) his utility may be written where e is the objective measure of labour {e. phenomenon pointed out by both Mr. the rate of exchange. Marshall's) Class of which. J For this locus expresses the utmost amount of dealing to which the dealer will consent at any given rate of exchange. Marshall and Mr. By is a general property of analysis the maximum and minimum any vector. ] as e is partial not an article of contract. fatigue / (e) is the produce. or F (— x. But the locus also expresses positions for which the utility is a minimum at any given rate. This y). This property connected with the property of alternately stable and closely unstable equilibrium of trade. as I take it. . corresponding to it Now. time of work) . p sin 0) when tan Q expresses . . I think. Mr. Marshall's figure 8. And this part of the locus is not in a genuine Each point represents a position not which the dealer will not consent to change. but which he would by all demandcurve.g. The demandcurve is I — = 0. complicated double adjustment' maybe illustrated by a brief reference to that interesting trade. the amount for which his utility is a maximum at that rate. There are.
100
APPENDICES
(1) diminution of value in exchange upon increase of exports, with (2) diminution in the expense of production upon increase
of wares produced for exportation. It is interesting to see from our individualistic point of view how these two properties are
connected.
The
.
analytic condition
this condition
of the first
property
is
_2_
(
J
=+
For
must hold from the point P,
where the property in question
sets in (see figure) to the point
3.
Fig.
P 2 where
,
the property ceases.
At each
of these points
^ =
'
0.
The
analytic condition of the second property of Mr. Marshall's

definition (the first in the order of his statement) is
*y2
de
+
;
where
(as before) e
is
the objective measure
e.
*
of labour, /(e)
is
the amount of product corresponding to
It
may
d
be shown, then, that
positive.
fd P\
(
^_
J
can only be positive
when =3/f
1
is
For, agreeably to previous notation, put
;
Other than that which the produce itself presents e.g., length of time during which a uniform muscular energy is put forth by a workman.
FORMULAE OF EXCHANGE.
107
F = F(f(e)— pcos 6,p sin#)— /
condition
(
(e).
Then we have always the
rd Pi 2 ^— subject
to this
fd P \ ~
— = 0, and we have to find
J
condition.
Now,
as 6
is
whereas
e is
considered as a variable, dependent on p,
y
throughout treated as constant, it will be
convenient to denote the object of our inquiry as
d2 P —
without
brackets, denoting by brackets differentiation, which is partial with respect to p, does not take account of e's variation. With
«.
notation,
=—
W
to
=
(f)=0,g
be
found
(g)
+
,
(£§)
£
where
is
dp
" (—) = ( ^)_ \d eJ \d e J
from the equation to zero of
d
d
J
,
'
Whence
—= dp'

(
d* F
\dpdeJ
F\
)
(d t
Therefore
dj
* dp
2
f^sY^Y \dp \dpdeJ
l
J
\d e 2 /
de 2
7
o

Now we may
when
2
be certain this expression can only be positive
is
^
positive, if
we are
certain of the laivs of sentience
]
which were postulated on a previous page. For, writing a for f(e) (the a employed in Professor Jevons's equation of exchange), and y for p sin 6, we have
(d„F\
[
\dp
—^ J = da cos ^
,
d2 F
2
2 /,
z
+2
,
d2 F
(<hl\= da2 \de 2 J
where
it
d
Z\dJy +il M da de \_dej
2
1
dady
7
7
a a sin 6 cos 6
.
+ ^— dy
,
dJ?
2
.
sin
a
0.
the righthand side.
does not seem necessary to bracket the differentials on Substituting these values in the expression
Page
34.
108
for
APPENDICES.
d2P
dp
2
we
see that that expression is certainly negative
:
upon
these conditions
2
(1)
^
,
jBj
(both) continually not positive.
d2 F
(2)
dady
da
»
j>
(3) 7
continually not negative.
(4)
>>
>5
de2
(**)
^2
condition
is
no ^ P 0S ^ive.
secured by Professor Jevons's law of
The
first
diminishing utility, our first postulate (see p. 61). The second condition is an interesting variety of the same ; that the rate of increase of utility derived from one sort of
wealth diminishes with the increase of other sorts of wealth. The third condition imports that utility at least does not
decrease with increase of wealth
;
which in a
civilised
country
may be
allowed.
is
The fourth condition
1
Professor Jevons's law of increasing
toilsomeness of labour, our second axiom (see p. 65).
If then these laws of sentience hold,
five
r
P d 2—
es
„
can only be posi
/r
when
d
cy
tion
however abstract and typical a form of the more complicated phenomena of the market to the simple laws of
sentience
is
— in
^ is e
2
f
positive.
It is
submitted that this subordina
—
not without interest.
:
the formulae here emwith a general, and perhaps it ought to be added ployed, along a filial, resemblance to his, present two points of contrast which deserve especial attention: (1) Graphical illustration
But
to return to Professor Jevons
has been more largely employed here. Now in some sense pure Analysis may appear to be the mothertongue of Hedonics ;
which soaring above space and number deals with quantities of
1
Theory,
p.
185.
if either bodies (qua individual or qua union) (1) one of the trading or (2) the commodity supplied by one of the dealers. In this respect at least Mr. 134). Caiaphaslike. not naked abstractions like the isolated couples imagined by a De Quincey or CourcelleSeneuil in some solitary Each is in Berkleian phrase a * representative partiregion. namely. 2 Foreign Trade. 109 pleasure. employing the Calculus of Variations. pp. But on the other hand 1 the differential equations which occur in the theory of exchange are of such a peculiar character that it is rather difficult. Why. indeed. but there is presupposed a class of competitors in the background. and. be indi(pp.' an individual dealer only is presented. that exchange is indeterminate. 19. Marshall's preference 2 for geometrical reasoning would seem to be justified. Theory. the most sublime branch of analysis. 29). The whole subject of the mathematical theory of 1 exchange p. as Comte. Philosophie Positive. a sort of typical couple. clothed with the property of ' Init. 31). cases (pp. and suggested the distinction submitted in these pages &c). (2) It has been prominently put forward in these pages has place only where there is competition. called the branch most applicable to Sociology. but it does His couple of dealers are. a reference to first principles and the presupposition of competition would have introduced greater precision. cular. should an isolated couple exchange every portion of their respective commodities at the same rate of exchange ? that the Jevonian ' Law of Indifference ' Or what meaning can be attached to such a law in their case ? The dealing of an isolated couple would be regulated not by the theory of exchange (stated p. 132. 19. to handle them without geometrical apparatus. 99. 98. as may presently appear. visible or not perfectly divisible. I take not seem to be lost sight of. indeed.' whose origin in an 'open market' is so lucidly described 3 . Le^on 3 8.FORMULAE OF EXCHANGE. 'perfect competition. This consideration has not been brought so prominently forward in Professor Jevons's theory of exchange. but by the theory of simple contract (stated p. difference. . This might safely be left to the intelligence of the reader in the But in dealing with exceptional general case of exchange.
Jevons's statement of the The case. and thereby y for each be found as a function of x. \ xyt^ =0. 11. by the possession of varying In fact x is now a function of y> quantities of beef and corn. the resulting equation in x and y is the locus of the required (3) The problem and solution Jevons's problem and solution. in quite a different sense from what it was before. =& x dx means. as we see. as substitution. that the rate of exchange if will vary according to some complex law. obtained on the contrary supposition. of . he But the other quantities are will receive twice as much beef. If he doubles the amount of corn. is (2) The following a solution of this problem. / l Eliminate ^between dx point.fmd ax/ ) x and y two quantities such. 1871). he will receive a proportionate quantity of beef in exchange. the equation =.' I submit (1) the following ( is a significant problem. simply that. we could tell precisely what effect will be produced on the mind of the parties to the bargain. and both (functional) values of =^ s (a) the two (quantitative) values of y are equal to each other equal to y. however much corn A gives to B. ) Given two differential equations F. that is. namely. =^ Cb Ou and (6) the two (quantita tive) values of are equal to other. F dxJ 9 \ ( xy ^ =0. therefore.for ~ x dx is a mistake.110 APPENDICES. correspond to Professor .Fjxy^l)^ a \ \ dx) dx) 2 0. the equations F (xy^ )=0. Jevons proceeds to apply this equaReviewer says tion to the solution of his problem. might easily be foreseen from Mr. would be put in a clearer light by considering the objections which have been brought against Professor Jevons's theory by an The able critic in the 'Saturday Review' (Nov. determinable. if x be substituted in both (functional) values of CO 00 y. y~ Translated into plain English. that if each differential equation be solved. and thence for each—=£ be derived ax as a function of x : then. he appears to us to fall into ' : a palpable blunder. When Mr.
4. in those problems where we have multiple solution subject to the condition that there shall be will find I am no abrupt change of direction. They could not well be so involving second. A cycloid is generated by a circle of given on a given horizontal line.FORMULAE OF EXCHANGE. differentials. but familiarly employed in the Calculus of Variations. The reader any number in Mr. the diameter rolling startingpoint that is where the generating point of the circle is on the of quickest descent. if on the cycloid such that Find (the locus of) a point P a particle starting from rest slide . horizontal line — — being M arbitrary. The conception thus introduced is not only legitimate. For the geometrical equivalent is simply: Eequired a point at which two curves each given by a differential equation Or even more briefly: (of the first order) meet and touch. Todhunter's problems ' are exactly parallel to ours. the source of our economical curves. where they involve first. Find the locus of contact between members of two families. Todhunter's Kesearches. Ill Let us take these propositions in order. the shortest line and line Fig. Take the straight line and the cycloid. But it is easy to construct an exactly parallel problem with curves presented by maximum analysis.' not concerned to show that Mr. (1) This proposition by its extreme bumblediness illustrates what was above said about the advantages of graphical illustration.
fly off at a tangent. Then F. and there through a given point 0. it will pass The solution above offered is easily verified. . The mathematician is prepared for such freaks of analysis. Therefore p 2 x =p .E. only the cycloid is imaginary. F 2 (x y£>i)=0. In the particular case just put of the cycloid ' let the differential equation be^= a / * ^. Mar1 2 .112 down the (2) APPENDICES. And we have seen that similar caution required in handling the analytical expression of the contractcurve (p. Also F 2 Since the point is on the elimi(x y p 2 )=0. scene of contact between a cycloid and line. Then the required = "—E. where p is x the value of 1 (X00 for the first curve when x nant is substituted for x. (x yj&. cycloid from the horizontal line as far as P. Thus the origin. the alternate intersections of the demandcurves are (as Messrs. if it can . and it F 2. Again. Having eliminated J between F. 342. p. the economist should be prepared for somewhat simi' lar freaks 2 on the part of his similarly obtained demandcurve. shall & Walras have shown) positions of tradeequilibrium only in is name.' To avoid misconstruction solution it may be as well to add that this if bv elimination of J ~ dx would not have been admissible See Todhunter's Differential Calculus. 26). take any point x y on the eliminant. as it evidently ought. Q.)=0. is not in any sense a position of equilibrium not even being on the contractcurve. and draw through a curve of each family. where p and q are the coordinates of locus is V y xq a curve of the third degree passing through the given point.D. though an intersection of the demandcurves. and the differential equa tion of the line ^ ax x — q the given point. for the given point may be too far from the horizontal line to be reached by generating circle In this last case the point is still the or generated cycloid.
1 Theory. then the locus of is the the point of contact to any curve of a tangent from locus of vertices of rightangled triangles described on OC that described in OC. Taking for origin the point at which the dealing begins w here x and y are zero. a semicircle . Jevons's problem will a case of the problem here proposed.which x none other than our old friend the ^i (2/) demandcurve? y — =^ dx I considered as an ordinary differential equation. ' Again under the headlearn (b) Theory of Exchange 2 we may that the the dealer's change of 'position ^ which expresses is at the point of equilibrium =?lA presses ——  '• But by (a) the is — which ex the dealer's change of position continually— CO Therefore by the principles just quired point is now laid down the locus of the re. whether in the language of pure analysis or of geometry. sqq. . found by eliminating ^ between (a) and (6) is whence ' tlA ^=. a result which of course might is. t. An show that it is attentive consideration of Prof.' which the Keviewer may be supposed to have had dimly in view. et seq. mongrel (3) differential equation.FORMULAE OF EXCHANGE. T we see (a) by the law of indifference that each dealer must move along a straight line given by the differential equation l ~=ax ing x ' (the Eeviewer sees this much). 103.(2/) ' It is the differential equation of our curves of indifference? The problem under consideration may be expressed Find the : We may ~ v recognise another old friend in the equation — locus of the point where lines from the origin touch curves of If (as before supposed) the curves of indifference indifference. consist of a series of circles round a point C. 2 P. 98. I take the latter for brevity and to illustrate its convenience. sort of ' 113 first Elimination would in this case have resulted in that Mixtumque genus prolemque biformem. there had been other differentials besides those of the order. p.
114
APPENDICES.
be obtained analytically according to the method here described. Transforming to the point of bisection of OC, and putting c= — c)2 + &2 = r2 £ OC, the equation of any indifferencecurve is (y
.
"Whence the
differential
equation of the family
J
ax
=—_
y—c.
is
And
Ydx
the differential
equation of a straight line from
=x
Eliminating
y ax upon
c
2
the
principle r
here
de
fended,
we have x 2 + y 2
=
the equation of a circle whose
5.
Fig.
diameter
is
OC.
intersection of
Q E D. The determination of a point by the the locus thus obtained, with another locus
The conjoint detersimilarly obtained, presents no difficulty. minate problem may, as we have already seen, be thus expressed. Draw from the origin a straight line, which at the same point touches two curves of indifference. As we have seen, the problem of determinate exchange may be turned in a great
Turn it as you will, the essential corvariety of other ways. rectness of the formula under consideration emerges clearer.
'.
Merses profundo pulchrior evenit. Luctere multa proruet integrum
; ;
Cum
laude victorem.
FORMULAE OF EXCHANGE.
115
Reviewer
The
remaining
objections
of
the
Saturday
against this formula are based upon the interpretation already shown to be erroneous that the formula is applied to solitary couples, such as those which political economists delight to
place in lonely islands.
is
It happens, indeed, that the Reviewer not enabled by his literary method to deduce correct conclusions from these premisses of his own assumption. But we are
1
here concerned not with his fallacious reasoning from assumed
premisses, but with his undue assumption of premisses or ignorantia elenchi. are only concerned to show that his ob
We
jection does not apply to a typical couple in a market. He puts the case of A and B, dealing respectively in corn and beef, and supposes that at a certain rate 5 of corn to 1 of
would exchange 20 of corn against 4 of beef and no in so far as this objection might apply to the formula which we have been building I do not say typical that the Reviewer aimed at this structure, but I am concerned to show that he does not hit it it might import that a typical dealer would refuse to deal if the price of his article were to be raised, would not consent to such a rise of price, which surely In symbols, P being the utility of requires no refutation.
beef
A
more.
Now,
—
—
dealer in x, and tan 6 the rate of exchange, =— = a v
dP
is
continually
is
+
;
it
being understood, of course, that movement
;
along the
demandcurve of P for, as we are here concerned with typical individuals in a market, there is no talk of movement other than along demandcurves, and the case put shows that the
position of the index
is
on P's demandcurve, say at the point
q (on the last figure). Well, then, subject to this condition, namely
(
—=—
)
=
0,
P
increases continually with 0.
For
dV
fdV\ fdV\dp Joido) + [P being here supposed = F
1
K^m=
(a
(dV\ d¥ a dF cosd a {de)= dT Hm6+ dy.
,
—p
cos 0, p sin 6)
],
which
is
An attentive consideration of his hypothesis will show that he supposes that there can he a settlement not on the contractcurve which is untenable.
;
I
2
116
continually f increase as to
,
APPENDICES.
unless
it
become a
disutility.
can be supposed that wealth can so Q. E. D.
But,
it
may
be said, and not without plausibility, of course
A
would be willing enough to make the change you describe, but B, though by hypothesis he is willing to make changes in
direction, is not willing to
make a change in that direcAnd, true enough, a mere B, unclothed with the properties of a market, might well be unwilling to make that change. Referring to the same figure, let us suppose that B's curves of at centre. Then we see that indifference are circles with for all points above Q where a curve of indifference of B touches the demandcurve of A, it will not be for the interest of the But the individual B to move up the demandcurve of A.
some
tion.
C
typical competitive representative B cannot help himself. The force which moves him is not his maximum utility barely, but
subject to competition ; the best that he can get in short. And this play of the market, as fully explained here and by other writers, leads to the formulas which have been so often returned
'
to our inquiry.
VI.
ON THE ERRORS OF THE
'
ayecoperp^roi.
'
Ecquid tu magnum reprendes Homerum,' Egregio in corpore naevos,' and whatever adage is applicable to carping smallness, might occur at sight of the undermentioned names, if the critic did not hasten to disclaim any disrespect for these great names, and to explain that the argument of this work, to
If, however, the competition between the Bs is not perfect, it may happen that they cannot force each other up to T, the intersection of the demand curves but that the system will reach a final settlement at some interme1
;
diate point q (as intimated at p. 48), supposing that the system is contained for in the absence to move along the demandcurve of (our old X)
A
;
of this imposed condition
it
would run down to a
final
settlement on the con
tractcurve, not necessarily nor even probably T, the point where the demand curve intersects the contractcurve (in this case a straight line), CC.
And. the criticism in the text appears hypercritical. with his predecessors also. ov nepi rp'nrobos 'AXka nep\ ^vxrjs. vii. how great is that darkness. 2) into exaggerating the democratic or isocratic tendencies implicit in Utilitarianism to Bentham's . and Beccaria. if after all it appears to the reader that the list of the accused and that the accusation are not of very formidable length.).g. or would Mathematics. f. what shall we expect from the unaided reason — — of others ? And. let it be applied only to such of Bentham's followers as may have been led by Bentham's incautious use of the phrase (e. contention is not for victory but for the sake of instruction. It was not. ii. That the great Bentham should have adopted as the creed and watchword of his party an expression which is meant to be quantitatively precise. vindicate 117 method in Social Science. 130). chs. 328) to have corrected this phrase in later life. does the I am aware that Bentham is said by Bowring (Deontology. if there is the ends of action. it may be useful to note the errors of genius. could be completed by showing that the probest. the means about — must there not be all obscurity about the conception of error and confusion about light that is * If the the middle axioms of morality ? in thee be darkness. hi. admission. Priestley. divisa uel maggior numero. at least.' ' La massima felicita .CRITICISM OF BENTHAM. foundest thinkers would have thought more clearly upon Social Science if they had availed themselves of the aid of the mathematical only. and yet when scientifically l of his life appear almost unmeaning.' Bentham. he will please to consider with reference. however. mathematical aid. importance is this more intelligible of the greatest number happiness illumination with the greatest number of lamps ? than * analysed may ' — ' greatest Suppose a number 1 smaller greater illumination attainable with a of lamps (supplied with more material). is significant of the ' Greatest to be attached to the science of quantity. to the two first and the two last of the reviewed authors both who they are who are here suspected to have erred. as our bis latest works (Constitutional Code. Fallacies of Confusion. If after the preceding. p. and what If these have erred from want of the subject of their error. corrected in And at any rate. even if they were at length selfcorrected. ch. and in view of a subsequent (p.
and that the tone of Mr. though not always. by the . For. S. 3 Thus Mill's definition of Value appears to be the same. themselves precisely. press few ? if they would ex The principle of greatest happiness lost its ' popularity. Theory of Political Economy. and as before a fixed distribuend.118 criterion in this case AITENDICES. to maintain that these critics have been unnecessarily severe. tarian Nor is Mill any clearer about the definition of the UtiliEnd indeed. but one equation. pp.' have gained its the addition ' of the meaning. tion. it might be possible for Mill to have a saving knowledge of the mysteries of Supply and Demand. on which it is fallacies of the unnecessary to dwell. darkens the subject (as many critics seem : to have felt). supposing the number of distributees fixed. but it greatest number. 2 Theory of Political Economy. And again. give a certain sound? Nor can it be contended that variation of number could not have been contemplated in Bentham's day.' which he lays down ' ' as the principle of taxation.' what then ? least In the Political Economy of Mill occur some species under notice. even though he may have acknowledged. Thus the equation to zero of Virtual Velocities includes in the general 1 See tins point examined in present writer. by may J. Marshall improving upon Mill by the aid of Mathe matics is more proper. since they have been more than abundantly exposed by Professors Jevons and Walras. not two 4 For it is possible mathematically equations. Mill. ch. perhaps. indeed. should not correspond to possible sumtotal of sacrifice. to subsume several equations in one condition. i. so well expressed. as that of Professor Jevons. might not the sumtotal of happiness be greatest when the greatest part of the sumtotal. 2 It might be possible. New and Old Methods of Ethics. 3 4 . Elements d'Economie Poli tique. 2nd edition Theory of Pure Trade. 4. or at any rate larger portions. 12. by imposing the condition of equality of distribuSuppose that equality of sacrifice. were held by a Which perhaps the aristocratic party. might contend.
does not denotation. p. Review. Lecon 15) . i. in 2 presuppose and take for fact. 1875. 42. 15.CRITICISM OE MILL. See the only too lenient criticism of Mr. It will be found very difficult to seize the connotation of the 5 The phrase increase in the aggregate amount of values. however numerous. the equation of Demand to Supply . 5. his inability to contemplate scientifically the psychical mechanism underlying the phenomenon 7 of exchange. ' appear to afford any significant a definition.' rather than ' despoil a an author will use unmathematical language about mathe matical subjects. must vitiate. But it is none of our part. presupposed and understood what. to identify Hedonical with Physical Maximum. he must expect a doubtful interpretation and Professor Cairnes. which might be described as granted— — 3 (1) the fact. Darwin in Fortnightly Ibid. p. Above. 2 3 4 5 If our reasonings are right. economists only too readily two sets of conditions. 6 Leading Principles. Walras has discerned the allcomprehensive character of the prin he has not ventured. the equations of Political Economy. 119 case of a free rigid body six. Geo.' the two instances immediately preceding. (2) the uniformity of price. fame. one should think. we have 1 seen above that the conditions of tradeequilibrium are not necessarily stated in a bilateral and symmetrical form. And. may be subsumed under one. See Index sub voce Price. ' through the foe. Agamemnonlike. common attribute to constitute The amazing 6 blindness of this author in view of the mathematical theory of exchange. what he 1 Mr. as ciple of Maximum (Elements. Pope. Iliad. though far as I am aware. Political Professor Cairnes's substantial contributions to the matter of Economy might surely have been enhanced by being framed in a more mathematical form. but may be subsumed in a single solitary condition. to come nearer the mark.' 4 camp If to go and rob an ally. 7 . p. and may include any number of And thus we have seen reason to suppose that all equations.
1 of the quantity y of commodity No. . and e. I. No doubt he occasionally detects a vulnerable point in Mill (p. pp. at (2) (1) Supply of Supply of rate of exchange fd) = a. 108. 116) which had already been more clearly exhibited by ProStill I venture to think that the contentions of Professor Cairnes about the definition of Supply and Demand are much more a dispute about words than could be evident to the one who had no grasp of the forces determining a market. = b. Let facts. Cf. (the usual definition. I. . whether we commodity No. fessor Jevons. = a.120 has to as tell APPENDICES. us of ' demand ' in the desire for general ponderous phrase. This is a purchasing power. 3 Theory. . ^j (y) <£ i/r represents the utility to dealer No. 2 the pleasure I say to be thus obtained from having noiv the quantity of y (whether to be consumed gradually or perhaps exchanged for other commodities). but in the general case the pleasure to be obtained both in the immediate and more distant future. 2 . of Demand commodity No. as Plato would say.' . ' subject as to which he who despises the science of quantity is not likely. 2 Theory. p. When the fact expressed by the symbolic statement has been grasped. II.g. at rate of exchange © 1 = p. to be himself kvapiOixos. reduced to the common measure so to speak of present pleasure (by way of the Jevonian factors for risk and remoteness). 36.. Cairnes. 38. 117. define it is only a dispute about words. 3 commodity No. or of supply. II. with sufficient accuracy for the present purpose. in the simplest abstract case the pleasure to be at once obtained by the consumption of y. be in Professor Jevons's symbolic statement. Demand of commodity No. I think). ' summed up *h (y) x f 2 ( b  2/)' where are the first differentials of <I> M*.
60). 21. is quantity y exchanged for x. cost as measured in number of days. be inconsistent with the premisses. &c. labour. value. . and the other the (total) amount of remuneration which the employer is willing to give. It would have been sug gested that the WageFund or Offer. m. Professor Cairnes's exposition of the bargain between employer and employed would probably have been enhanced by the use of demandcurves. still he may seem both to have had the latter quantity in view. 24. 25. of Cairnes. p. 70. Cf. that. 121 measured by the 2 (3) Demand Demand for commodity No. not pretended that Cairnes language is justified. 389). It would not then. though for a given rate of wages it have a determinate. 1. But I know what angry susceptibilities are awakened by the dogmatic terms Supply and Demand. 62. Professor Cairnes's whole contention that fice. pp. and decline a contest in a region which has been darkened by such clouds of dust. one representing the quantity of work which the labourer is willing to give. The demandcurves may intersect more than once. (p. 1 I. Notes on Exchange Value. that the effect of a tradesunion might be to shift the position of the bargain from to the third (or rather from third to first) intersection. (4) is (?) Such commodities. I think. ' 2 Id. whole he uses his ' sacrifice and ' cost of production 4 as an ' objective not a subjective quantity.' ' cost means sacri &c. p. 5 Appendix IV. though it uses it with any definite meaning. by the first intention of the term demand. may seem an unconscious tribute to the im portance of the quantification and measurement of the sense of If it is admitted that on the sacrifice. subjective labour.' 3 In this case the demand for y might perhaps the desire for is ' be represented by yjr (y). would have been suggested as above. &c. and to have foregone some of the advantages which would have been obtained by more clearly distinguishing it. our e rather than ' ' ' our / b {e). though the labourer might have less total remuneration in consequence of first it the Also 1 Cairnes. at a certain rate of wages. though it might be with the conclusions. and abstinence (p.CRITICISM OF CAIRNES. has not necessarily a unique. Cf. 3 4 Cunyngham.
6 How could ' the principle of equity be worked in the entangled case of co7 But to the principle of greatest happiness all operative work ? is simple.' armed with the Calculus of VariaThe most capable of work shall do most work . 7 See above. See above. 86. p. 1.) To insist that altruistic requires egoistic pleasure. yet he labour. having less Mr. 67.' or some such definition is ' of the pleasure unit. 6 p. is objected to Utilitarianism. among whom the produce is to be distributed. Book iv. au contraire. but had the procedure (' been according to the forms of quantitative science the verdict ' Everybody to count for one might have been different. Consider the whole produce as a given function of the fatigues of the labourers. Spencer has ' tried the Utilitarianism of Mr. Mr. C D. 8 (S. xiii. the definition symbolised above. Sidgwick's definition of the Utilitarian End. 6467. See above. Spencer. might have more utility. . Spencer does not enter into Mr. the tions. in order whole may be heated. is the utilitarian principle of distri (S. 51. 85. What then ? Is it not conceivable that to each part should be imparted just 1 2 4 6 Data of Ethics. p. and condemned it . but this equation as interpreted by Mr. p. ch. As to the that the physical illustration (p. the pleasure of each as a given function of his portion .1:22 A1TEXDICES. grant that. § 2. the parts must be heated. Equality of distinction ' no 'proprium of this definition. 4 Not everybody to count for one. should be the greatest possible.) The case of A B. producers. minus the sum of the fatigues. 5 bution. 228). greatest possible product of number x ' 1 ' 2 3 average happiness. and determine the fatigues and the portions so that the sum of the pleasures. 8 See above.). 8. presents no theoretical difficulty to the impartial spectator. is open to the remarks above made (Appendix IV. a tradesunion. ch. See above.' but every just perceivable increment of pleasure to count for one. while the sum of the portions equals the whole produce. most capable of pleasure shall have most produce. 3 See Index sub voce Equality. Sidgwick Data of Ethics ').
that the average temperature of the entire cluster. and below. increases by radiation the temperature of its neighbours. Gene ralised Coordinates. Capacity for selfregarding and for sympathetic pleasures. Let us suppose that the elements have different thermal capacities. Arts. multiplied by the number of the elements.. . 17. or that the same amount of energy being imparted causes different increases of temperature . Thomson & Tait. 123 that amount of heat which may conduce to anintegral maximum. Heat.' Let us state. The illustration suggests a very different view from the author's. however. Watson & Burbury. p. viz. bably increasing with evolution. Cf. 3 bracket ? Utilitarianism. 131. possibly also capacities If either or both species continue to differ. Pure Utilitarianism is not now absolutely Some comment. But can we receive this ? Can we suppose that the Examinationlist of the Future will consist of an allcomprehensive If capacities for work differ. Then it is mathematically deducible and accurately true 5 that certainty in curves.' the case of ' 1 See ClerkMaxwell. and (not troubling ourselves about the conservation of energy) that each element. 65. it is submitted. should be the greatest possible. and impart to its extremities given impulses. unequal distribution. for pleasure. 16. without diminishing its own temperature. SPENCER. 4 Appendix IV. A general agreement has been already 4 expressed with the author's view that right. may be made upon the ' ' suggested comparison between absolute Tightness in the case of an irregular imperfectly evolved society and mathematical crooked lines and brokenbacked Take a piece of string as crooked and brokenbacked as you please. will continue to have a function not contemplated by the Data. each pro3 See above. 2 then the larger portions of a given fund of energy shall be assigned to higher capacities. The possibility of differences of capacity in the final state of equilibrium does not seem to be entertained by the author. 5 2 Bertrand's Theorem. that there should not be ' equalness of treatment.CRITICISM OF MR. 59. p. If thermal capacity (the received definition of the ' term being inverted for the sake of the metaphor) and power of radiation and absorption go together. p. as the end to be realised.
' &c. a definite curve may be hypothetiassumed. either the capacities for happiness For. should be stand. It is not for one whose views about changes in the ' general purchasing power of gold are veryhazy to criticise a theory of that subject. Sidgwick's ethical analysis are where mathematical safeguards were required. as defined by Pure Utilitarianism. Fortnightly Review. ' 1 2 Book iv. 1879. however. motion of each element is such that the whole initial energy of the string shall be maximum. in general. equal. he supposes (as I underuse always very difficult to catch hold of those who ordinary language about mathematical subjects) that happiness. It may be allowable. though what that action termined. Probably the only flaws in Mr. advanced in the article cited. If they are (as defined above. 64).' 2 after defining the Utilitarian End as the greatest sum of happiness. Sidgwick. or are not. p. So then it might be even now absolutely right that each individual should act so that the general happiness. then. unfortunate opinions of Cairnes x upon the application of Mathematics to Political Economy. but it is distributed equally. 57) are. equal. February. If brokenbacked. to mention that the haze has not been removed by the theory of ' aggregate price. though not the means of happiness. In the ' Methods of Ethics. But this supposition is repugnant to his definition. unequal. it has been impossible to conceal the impression that this distinguished analyst would have taken the field in Economical speculation in a manner more worthy of himself if he had not embraced the noticed. Sidgwick's Economical reasonings have been already Close and powerful as these reasonings are. The supposition. neither (p. 310. then both happiness if and means should be distributed equally .124 the initial APPENDICES. should be distributed equally. we must that form cally is know the (original) form of the string. that happiness. is in general repugnant to the Utilitarian End. p. Mr. though not the means of happiness. No doubt to actually determine by the Calculus of Variations the motion for each element. should be a maximum . is can only be approximately de Mr. 385. p. .
CRITICISM OF MR. for values of that higher for means above the cheerful have greater capacity for happiness. These are slight steps of reasoning . 'We case would seem to be this : the minimum of means is corre sponding to the zero of happiness (above. pp. p. Sidgwick. though distributed distributed equally. discussed. The is ' confirmed by explicit recognition of such (p. SIDGWICK. ' 125 In general . and grasping. 64) the discontented than the cheerful . then it is just possible that a given distribuend would be most felicifically among given distributees when the not the means of happiness. shall have a reaching the zero of happiness. where a slip is ruin. Some The prorequire more and some less to be equally happy.' The precision. contented.) larger portion of means. then the cheerful minimum (See above. has in view differences of capacity for happiness. the distribuend be sufficient to admit of all at least If. for the beauty of mathematical analysis is that it directs our attention not only to general rules but to exceptions. but they are at enormous height of generalisation. should be happiness. selfsacrificing people.' blem raised in that context is not treated with mathematical should have to give less to cheerful. as the former can be made happy with less. an 1 I cannot refrain from illustrating this proposition by one more redoubtless ference to Principal Marshall's and Professor Walras's similar unstable independent theory of multiple intersection of demandcurve. then. 57. 256). than to the selfish. 65. Suppose the two properties which constitute the definition of capacity for happiness not to go together. . — — equilibrium of trade. in the passage just interpretation that Mr. as in the third imperfection of that definition noticed on the same page . discontented.
then. The consideration. Cairnes. Sidgwick in behalf of ' EconoPrinciples mic Method renouncing pretensions to precision of detail. Let us suppose. of modern Logic hypothetical deductions to be corrected and verified by comparison and consilience with experience. Republic. Plato. even if this highly deductive method you propose ? should prove more potent than the present tentative sketch ' ' it would have power only to give general instrucnot detailed regulations. understanding in a We general way the nature and the need of deductive reasoning in Sociology. Mathematical Psychics would at best furnish a sort of patternin the language idea to be roughly copied into human affairs . draws the line at deductions couched in the language of literature. b. Mr. Bain.' Mr. that an intelligent reader.' and practically by repeated cautions in his 'Political Economy. of a real case may serve to put our method in a clearer light. attracted by the heading of this Appendix.t26 APPENDICES. VII. tion it might be possible to discern the outlines of a distant may warrant. inquires of what possible use can Psychical Mathematics be in real First. Jevons in of Science. however superficial. but hardly the bypaths in the plain immediately below. Cf. We must take for granted that our intelligent inquirer understands what is intelligible to the intelligent. refusing to 1 employ as signs s. it If he believe not the authowould not be worth our while to resuscitate considerations long consecrated by universal acceptance. What then do For. From such a height of speculations. vi. This ' general character of deductive reasoning in Sociology has been exhibited by Mill theoretically at length in his ' Logic. ' upon method — Cornewall by almost all considerable writers It cannot be expected that so terse a treatise as the present should go over ground exhausted by such writers. rities just cited.' The the ' steps of Mill are followed Lewis. it life ? must be pointed out that deductive reasoning is not to be too sharply pulled up with the demand. of general conceptions 501. ON THE PRESENT CRISIS IN IRELAND. country. . can only consider the position of one who.
) First the political aspect of the case has Calculus anything to teach ? the is Nothing as to practical politics . character. present some further case of a country convulsed by political conspiracy and econo mical combination. and Appendix I. 2 why should not general reasonings about quantities be assisted by the letters appropriate to the science of quantity. in fact. be attempted here to illustration. it would be first if replied by most intelligent persons of the nineteenth century.POLITICAL UTILITARIANISM. Such. as well as by ordinary ivords ? Ego cur. The motives to Political Utilitarianism are the same as in the case of Ethical Utilitarianism. to be the ground on which the objections against econoappears mical mathematics are based by Cairnes Cairnes. illustrated. 26. Many . Practically. the objection solvitur ambulando. 1879. and they would have to grope for a proof of utilitarianism. What the first principle of politics ? Utilitarianism. but as to principles of political theory perhaps something. Economic Method. at least — — by reference to the achievements of mathehowever. 1 Fortnightly Review. 2 3 See pp. whose opinion . while with the other hand he His method proceeds by comparing grasps the polar principle. Sidgwick grasps at with one hand. by the march over the 3 flux and of science which walks more securely on this subject is shared 1 ' ' through the intricate in the clear beam of mathematical inThe uses of this method may have been already tuition. Of this basis what is the ground ? Here we leave the visible con structions of external action descending into a subterraneous region of ultimate motives. as to (I. The theoretical weakness of this position is that there is no logical ground for drawing the line. invideor ? the generalising genius of Mathematics unanswerably demands. Walras are of this prcdeterminate Wagefund is a signal instance. The of the errors criticised hy M. in different terminologies. other than the prejudice that mathematical reasoning imports numerical data. such as Mr. 127 mathematical symbols along with ordinary words. is To treat variables as constants the characteristic vice of the unmathe matical economist. This prejudice having been cleared away. some would say. matical economists. introduced by the conspicuous It will. by a still more distinguished analyst. yet virtually with one accord. acquirere pauca si possum.
systematising it and rendering it consistent with itself. not the solid ground. And cf.128 APPENDICES. pp. But by what mechanism the force of selflove can be applied so as to support the structure of utilitarian politics. 7680. first deductions from the utilitarian ' principle with moral senti' ments observed to exist philosophical intuitionism does not come to destroy commonsense. 1 3 Corollary. p. But to others it appears that moral considerations are too delicate to support the gross structure of political systems . clipping off the rough edges of unmethodical thought. proving these moral l judgments to be consilient with deductions from Utilitarianism. . nor any deductive egoist has made clear. the rarefied atmosphere of speculation that the secret springs of action take their rise. Thus the terms of the social contract are perhaps a little more distinctly seen to be the conditions of ' Greatest Happiness. the landlord and the tenant class for instance. common be assisted. ' to fling upon the floodtide of practical politics. the remedy is utilitarian legislation as is already felt by all enlightened statesmen. and of his success. But they are not perhaps out of place when we remount to the little rills of sentiment and secret springs of motive where every course of It is at a height of abstraction in action must be originated. 53.' If the political contract between two classes of society. by the science of quantity . but to fulfil it. Now this method may . the proof of utilitarianism in New and Old Methods of Ethics (by the present writer). with regard to certain quantitative judgments of sense. at It is divined that best a flying buttress. 4 Above. Sidgwick takes {Fortnightly Revieiv) of Bentham's aims. the pressure of selfinterest must be brought to bear. neither Helvetius. 29. nor 2 Bentham. affected with the characteristic evil of contract ' undecidable 4 and deadlock. and a direction is imparted to the pure See above. To expect what Bentham has left obscure were presumptuous it does seem as if the theory of the contractcurve 3 is calculated to throw light upon the mysterious process by which a crowd of jostling egoists tends to settle down into to illuminate indeed. is disturbed. Considerations so abstract it would of course be ridiculous strife . Yet the utilitarian arrangement. 2 I take the view which Mr. p.
. however remotely.EQUALITY. The province of ends is thus within the cognisance of Mathematics. such as had already been given by Bentham and the Benthamite William Thompson.' and even more communistic schemes. And it is much to be feared that a similar confusion between ends and means is entertained by those wellmeaning. What shall we say of intermediate. is a thing so much to be inquire whether the level of equality desired "per se. principles mately and might conis here no guide. generally working. but still a guard. laying down some metaphysical rights of man. But the very essence of the Utilitarian is that he has put all in subjection. members of the social hive. or in an 2 earlier work. by our expropriation of peasant proprietorship. New and Old Methods of Ethics. 2 offered in ignor K . 129 fountains of youthful enthusiasm whose influence will ultimately affect the broad current of events. practical principles For. are talked landlords. who seem more concerned about the equilateralness of the honeycomb than the abundance of the honey. in that he has put all in subjection under it.' ' of the Even Mill never quite disentangled what may be a proximate from what is the final end of utilitarianism. or proxiThe quantitative species of < Keason ? final. irregular Let us take a question suggested. Bentham. p. When ' of. and even the age. and abstracted from the expediencies of the hour. The reasoning was ance of the analogous Benthamite reasoning. G4. under the supreme principle. * Greatest the symmetry of the Social Mechanism from the 1 maximum of pleasureenergy ? By mathematical reasoning such as that which was offered upon a previous page.' there are those whose way of thinking carries them on to ' heading.' at present be something more in some distant stage of evolution ceivably related to the present (agreeably to the general description of to the violent evolution) as the regularity of crystallization movements of heated gas. who ridicules the metaphysical rights of 1 man and suchlike ' anarchical fallacies.' Above. he has left none that is not put under it. How then is it possible to deduce Equality from Happiness . will make short work matter. of course. The demagogue.
(i.) First. vol. Civil. there is (indication and probability of) difference . Or if any socalled utilitarian. 4. by a parity of reasoning which makes palpable the parity of proviso provided that there be no dif: If. some thirtyfold. and in parable. i. more than might have been inferred from some of his phraseology. speaking both literally ferences of quality in the ground. the presumption is that more should be given to the good ground. Traites de Legislation: Code. vi. ch. or those concave functions. i. ' The argument might be made palpable by a parallel argument. vol. then. sentativeparticular numbers 2 to Equality by a even though he employ * reprerather than general symbols. some sixtyfold. as they might be called. thus evincing a perfectly clear idea of the utilitarian end. Foreign Trade. it may be admitted that there is a difference with respect to capacity for happiness between man and the more lowly evolved animals . . the privilege of man is justified. Is there then any indication of such difference between sentients ? tion. &c. . ii. refuses to admit its sequence from the premiss. Principles of Pathology (Bo wring's edition). affirming some first principle in favour of the privilege of his own species. constructed upon another of the great arches of exact social science. and also in case he protests against the oligarchical — 1 Bentham apud Diimont. he must be gently reminded that this affirmation of first principles not subordinate to the Utilitarian ' ipsePrinciple is exactly what the great utilitarian called dixitism'. over the area . down from Greatest Happiness strictly method mathematical ' . admitting the practical conclusion.130 reasons APPENDICES. Cf. in to virtue of which the Calculus of Variations becomes applicable human affairs the law of diminishing returns. equally. 2 Often a precarious method. We may not refuse once more to touch this ques. and that therefore among or above other considerations the interests of the lower creation — — are neglectible in comparison with humanity. p. Marshall. ib. A given — quantity of labour (and capital) will be expended most productively on a given piece of land. 228. ch. and odious to our democratical philosophers. . . when it is distributed uniformly. if for the same seed and labour some ground brought forth a hundredfold. however unwelcome to the modern reader otiose to our un philosophical aristocrats.
the to himself. ought not to be admitted . And everyone is acquainted with those whose physical or intellectual power he himself could not equal. Not only do we see no reason why the latter difference. It would be a strange sort of rational benevolence which in the distribution of burdens would wish to equalise the objective circumstance without regard to subjective differences. or pleasure in general. (n. it may be admitted that there are differences of capacity for work. is the oligarch. namely the (neighbourhood of) the infinite value of fatigue to different external work done. of race. But the pure Utilitarian.EQUALITY. drawing no hard and fast line. the admission of different relations (in. for age. p. but also we see a reason why it has not been admitted or not observed. tendencies of our position oligarchical 131 not we. But is this observation insufficient ? Or can it be indifferent to the utilitarian whether a given opportunity or increment of means is bestowed where it occasions but a single simple sen suous impression of fiovo^povos 1 ?]&ovi]. takes every in and every kind. to differences of wages prove. corresponding. the same quantity of feeling in different individuals corresponding to different values of an external variable. or a pleasure truly Above. if agreeable to observation. as statistics about example. 59.' though creature he sees to be unequal. demagogue levelling down drawing the line. and.) Again. the happiness of every sentient in every stage of evolution. For in the former case we have what in the latter case we have not. k 2 . according to the logical divisions of scholastic genera or preDarwinian Real Kinds. of sex. and there —that he.) Now (as aforesaid ) l between external circumstances and internal feeling in the case of one species of (negative) pleasure in different individuals is favourable to the admission of such differences in the case of other species of pleasure. whereas in the case of limits of ' owing apparently to the rarity or irregupleasure in general we are reduced to of the very high values of pleasure larity — — the observation of different increments of pleasure occasioned by the same increment of means. *not even if he were to burst himself. and admitting no ultimate * ground of preference but quantity of pleasure.' and ' sees with equal eye.
Kal XeXe'^erat. taking no account of difference of quality. which. v. KaXhiara yap 8q tovto Xe'yerai Politica. 65. a theory of knowledge which. 3 5 —Plato's Republic. not only of the Or should we be present. he provides for the happiness (it is 3 submitted. more Noachian than Darwinian. and.' and sometimes an utilitarianism. would probably reShall we resign ourselves to the sult in the ruin of the race ? authority of preDarwinian prejudice selves ? Or not draw ' for our very different consequences from the Darwinian law ? ' 4 rather. conveying an impression of what other Benthamites have taught openly. Sidgwicks happy phrase. Gal ton ? Or. such as Plato adumbrated in the Kepublic. by : giving all to experience gives nothing to heredity.' or ' ' liberal. Avith a so dissimilar from the Platonic ideal ' ' — more modern spirit both of science and romance — but the principle of selection. but of succeeding generations ? affected by the authority of Mill. Hereditary Genius. with due deference to Aristotle ). Above.' or ' refined ' think it indifferent whether the former or the into latter sort of sentience shall be put into play ? or brought (iv. Galton (insisting only on quantity of population) and.) Put into play. capacity 5 for happiness . p. adopt the laws and consequences of Mr. to come nearer the mark. as pointed out by Mr. l inspired with an explicit. end of penultimate chapter. if not equal. existence. a theory of population. unconsciously implicit. in virtue of equal educaOr not connect this impression with the more transitability ? tory parts of Mill's system a theory of Eeal Kinds. i integrated by redinreflection from the tegrating memory. 6tI to fiev axfieXifiOP Ka\6v. are at least equipotential. that all men. .1 3*2 APPENDICES. the selected characters perhaps not wise and loving. not intellect so much as feeling. : To sum up the powers claimed for our method if in some distant stage of evolution there may be conceived as practicable a distinction and selection. then the delicate reasoning about capacity 1 9 Mr. in fine raised to all the breast polished powers of a scientific and a romantic imagination? Can we called higher. For at what point 2 shall we ' stop short and refuse to follow Plato while. 4 to be ftXaptpov alaxpov. multiplied by repeated 1 of sympathisers.
to which the negation is inconceivable. 164. p. And at any rate the history of all dogma shows that it is not unimportant whether a faith is accretion. ' rather confounds. From semiapriori innate perceptions dictated by an ' ana' ' l lytic and ' intelligence. 62. For though the abstract conclusions have no direct bearing upon practical politics (for instance. in the course of a prolonged discussion of cient (and it Persistence. if distinct at least about a subject so amenable to prejudice as equalness and equity most likely to be wrong. 69. at whatever distance. s s. s.' and equalness of treatment. ss.' never clearly distinguishes. if they gave any distinct ' ' what is given by merely be very likely to give a wrong direction.EQUALITY. or. 18. would Hedonism or Principle of Utility established by the more inductive methods of Sidgwick and of Hume. held by its essential substance. meaning one which is opposed to the Univerdirection at all (other. is it safe.' ' fairness of division . nay. s. determined by more proximate — ings would have some bearing upon the general drift and tendency of our political proclivities.' inverse square is ' — 1 Herbert Spencer. if not symbols. To show which danger it is suffidictates indistinct ' ' — ' ' — appears necessary. or some accidental And the reasonings in question may have a use in keeping the spirit open to generality and free from prepossession.' from equity. lb. applied to Physics. extension or redistribution utilities his abstract preference for equality does not militate against the institution of property nevertheless it can hardly be doubted that the ideal reason —just as Bentham protests that of suffrage). the pure ideal free from the accreting crust of dogma. at a not unfelt sacrifice of deference) to observe that the same semiapriori method. 2 which. lb. From salistic and confusing. but one deone of ductible mathematically from the relations of space 4 Is it wise. Id. Conservation of Momentum and Conservawhile it is distinctly stated that the law of the tion of Energy ' Force ' and its ' ' ' ' ! not simply an empirical one. Data of Ethics. to contemplate the potentiality and shadow of such reasoning. than 3 utilitarian considerations). First Principles. etc. 68. And even at present it is well. " 2 4 60. . of course. 133 would seem to stand in need of mathematical. at least conceptions.
by the ordinary (Deductive) that there is attraction between — method of Inductive Logic. where the vanity and the very equity. but in a philosophic sphere in which Napoleon had neither ' part nor lot. come any development. 4 1 The fair rent Bourrienne's Memoirs. And lastly. democratical passion. the pure ethereal sense and unmixed flame of pleasure. ciple of utility as the basis seen to be the utilitarian rent. illuminate the troubled scene of deadlocked dry light may unions . 3 Read Mr. not slight the advantage of approaching the inquiry in the calm spirit of mathematical truth. and which he scouted as Ideology. there will not . oligarchical pride. pp. not dissociating the faith of love from the dogma of and isocratic prejudice of Benthamite utilitarianism. weight and cramp science with apriori dogmas such as this in view of the possibility of a ClerkMaxwell after all discovering. 82. The mathematical method has no place in camps * or cabinets . perturb the measurements of utility . Calculus. or whether not about a subject so illusory.' (II. atoms according to a law of inverse fifth power ? An inductively deductive method in Sociology may have similar surprises for the dogmatic isocrat forthcoming but they will certainly not come. virtues of our nature. Thus it appears that the mathematical method makes no ridiculous pretensions to authority in practical politics. and by an unobvious path lead up again to the prinis 3 of arbitration. and realise the need of 4 Her principle of arbitration.134 appendices. Orornpton some Conciliation (cf. which the : 2 Here also the present crisis in Ireland is thought to involve. if we resign ourselves with a Byzantine sloth to apriority or other authority more dear to the utilitarian .) before us Let us turn now to the economical aspect of the case combination of tenants against landlords. Majesty's Commissioners of Inquiry into the working of the Land . from the accreted partyspirit * ' ' ' . There is no room for the sarcasm of Napoleon complaining that Laplace wished to govern men according to the Differential The sense of practical genius need not take offence. 2 The Pall Mall Gazette has persisted in regarding the agrarian as in Industrial Trades Unionist outrages. whether these things are so. 83).
&c. ours and theirs. concerning the irregular and accidental character of mercantile phenomena as contrasted with what may be called perhaps the oldKicardian view. namely. The importance of the second imperfection affecting contract with regard to certain kinds of — Act of 1870. our second and fourth imperfections have not perhaps been noticed elsewhere. having sanctioned and supposing settled a 'fair rent. a case of our first imperfection. so they may be all exposed to the same attack. But he submits that the imperfections which it has been in these pages attempted to point out in the case of cooperative association and to trace in the case of tradesunionism.' recommend that the unearned increment which may accrue should. tend to disappear. C. do not exist in tendency. does not form any part of these fragmentary studies . 2 Ibid. 3 Pp. but rather to increase. and therefore may be neglected by abstract science. Again. Leslie's contention against occasionally overlap. be divided equally between them. though existent in fact. 47. 2 Cliffe Leslie l and Mr. analytically considered. in the ' ' absence of first principles to determine the distribution between landlord and tenant. the imperfection of the labour market. in particular Mr. &c. the equality of profits. &c. do not tend to disappear. the bisection of the indeterminate reach of contractcurve. may be mutually corroborative . we have here a simple exemplification of the theory that the basis of arbitration is a point on the contractcurve. while. roughly and practically as here the quantitative mean. 18G5. . As there is a certain relation of alliance between these considerations and those. in different occupations.COMBINATION OF TENANTS. 142). . This is a matter of fact upon which the present writer is illqualified to offer an opinion. 55). though they Thus Mr. Frederick Harrison in a human spirit dwells is. Frederick Harrison. The two sets — of considerations. on the other 3 hand. 1 Fortnightly Review). Here 135 it may be proper to indicate the relation which preconsiderations upon indeterminateness of contract are ceding supposed by their writer to bear to the considerations recently adduced by others. due to the immobility of the labourer upon which Mr. that the irregularities in question. Observing that the contractcurve in this case is the representation of all the possible rents (p. 46. in the proximate future at least. Hermathena. but they are for the most part distinct. theoretically the qualitative mean the utilitarian point (p.
chapter 6. Cliffe Leslie's considerations upon the inequality of re — might 1 perhaps stand or fall munerations. tained in the . the interest The premiss is is that the consequence of the a continually increasing ' check to the growth. of the action of Trades Unions 1 Above. ' so imperfectly suggests what it Vivre pour autrui. then. if the conclusion is that trades unions tend to defeat their of the unionists. combinations all. Lastly. with the importance of Mr. first. It is sion does not follow submitted with great deference.' diminution from what it would have been. ticular species Here. treated by economists. it is best to consider some parof combination.'' Keturning from this digression. 1 and 2 or rather a certain popular argument against §§ Trades Unions strengthened by whatever it can borrow from the passage under consideration. . To bring out the comparison. p. if at Let us take.' ' shed upon Combi minateness increasing with the increase of combination comes out perhaps a little more clearly in the mathematical analysis. Let us consider the argument about Trades Unions con' Economics of Industry. occurs the that the species as presented by the text of these difficulty supplementary remarks upon method has not been much. 47. a deviation from our subject for which the less apology is due as it is part of the purport of some coming remarks to insist on the essential unity of the different kinds of contract. Compare the analysis suggested in a previous part of ' this work with the general account of Monopolies and Combina' The conception of indetertions in Economics of Industry. that the conclufrom the premisses. which connotes.' book iii. let us now sift a little more accurately the light which Mathematics may nations.130 service APPENDICES. if the argument attempted in these pages concerning the indeterminateness of contract is as to the premisses somewhat similar to the Positivist argument. and disfigured by the unfortunately ugly — term Utilitarianism. it would fain be also the necessity of settling economical difas to the conclusion : here clothed in the language more ferences by a moral principle of Mill than of Comte. however. of workmen against employers . own object.
COMBINATION OF WORKMEN. this result would no longer hold if the unionists were to insist. and. far as human eye can see (not to 1 . nature of the functions of this surface it appears that the solid contents may be greater in the latter case than in the former. But. Let the remunerations at each time. for the Marshall argument scale. of course. be c is if y' > 5—^a1 — 9 Vts 2 — = b where b'<b. But the end of the unionists is not the ordinates nor the area. it is one beneto the unionists (presupposed. if combination is on a sufficiently large an effect is likely to be produced. the premisses are not universally true. but the hedonic integral represented by the solid contents of a From the certain quasihyperboloid described upon the quasihyperbola.from the present. ' positive. We have then V ~^ be new ordinate at any point y the percentage of loss of remuneration continually increasing. is a decreasing function of the same considered as ' it does not follow that there tends to deimplicit in labour .' would be to diminish ultimately the except Bemuneration. and so of the total Kemuneration of operatives. or rather timeintegral of Bather. though an increasing function of the remuneration. considered as explicit. if any effect is produced by unions. Now the series b (\ of remunerations. crease that quantity which it is the object of unions to increase — the ficial unionists' utility at each time. let let the approximate shape be given by —— a . and that. trouble ourselves about the vertex and the asymptote). since the utility of the operatives is a function not only of their remuneration. tract that. as they would have been. Let the present time correspond to the point where ?/' = y. t as 1 it is in consequence of the action of Unions. .E.' ' For though it be true that the action of unionists. If (in our terminology) they proceeded by way of contractployers to — Geometrically let an abscissa represent time. To fix the ideas. but their labour . those of the popular argument at least . being the old. — Q. leaving it to the emrate. 137 wagesandprofits fund.D. But. buy as much or as little work as they please at that but upon other terms of employment a certain quantity of remuneration in return for a certain quantity of work done. be represented by ordinates forming a sort of hyperbolashaped curve as to the portion of time at least with which we are concerned . ' keeps intra spem venise cautus. if they refuse to sell their labour at a reserve price. not on a rate of wages.2 2 \ — 1 = 0. intelligence on their part) . it appears from the general analysis of conutility. secondly.
in an eloquent address. . and bearing. who often express themselves rather confusedly. Morley's own opinion is not very directly expressed. Symbols are not to be multiplied beyond necessity. in face of the CairnesMarshall arguments. Kather the mathematical psychist should be on his guard to 1 See pp. reasoning about the tendency of combination to produce indeterminateness can with sufficient safety by a sort of mathematical reduction be extended from the general to a particular — — case.' p. it is submitted that this opinion. * those who deny that unions can raise wages.* not by way of demandcurve. 2 points out. Marshall. p. and that the lights of unaided reason though spark — are but a ling with eloquence and glowing with public spirit unless a sterner science fortify the way. 2 Fortnightly Revieiv. A much more favourable comparison would be challenged with the popular economists. show to advantage measuring itself with the ungeometrical arguments of Mr. the presumption is that their notion would increase not only their utility but their remuneration. Mr. And. can only be defended by the unexpected aid of mathematical analysis. 401. The Mathematical method does not. what is the burden of these pages. combinations have entered in. but also to make it indeterminate a circumstance of some interest as bringing clearly into view the necessity of a principle of arbitration where . but is presumably opposed to . 1877. 48. curve.' Now. 116. even under the garb of literature. 201). The incident may suggest. that human affairs have now reached a state of regular complexity necessitating the aid of mathematical analysis . precarious guide But what is all this to landlords and tenants ? Or can — your scanty analysis of combination in general be securely extended to the peculiar case of rent ? The reply is Yes the : . himself among the first of mathematical economists. For is that the tendency of combinations it appears from analysis not only to make contract more beneficial to the unionists.138 APPENDICES. the arms of mathematics which peep out in this very place (' Economics of Industry. it can hardly comprehend the whole truth. as Mr. of course. thirdly. even if the literary method by a sort of intuition or guesswork apprehends the truth. Morley.
or Mere tricks to show the stretch of human brain. We may ab stract all the complications of commerce. lines of previous trains of numbers of on the one and on the other side equalequalnatured landlords. however. and begin by imagining equal side . The quantity and the quality of the land possessed by each landlord are supposed to be the same the quantity limited. then. Let us represent the portion of land owned by the landlord as a portion of the abscissa o x. or more exactly less than a tenant if he had The to pay no rent would be willing to take into cultivation. And let us proceed to write down in this particu . upon the Fig. and suppose the competitive field to consist only of landlords and cottiertenants. let us attempt an analysis of the contract between landlord and cottiertenant.CONTRACT ABOUT REXT. To show. and also to further illustrate the general theory. the substantial unity of the theory of contract (whatever the articles). idleness : Or learning's luxury. this very thing. and the corresponding rent paid by a length measured along the other reasoning. coordinate. 6. and capacities of the tenants likewise are for the requirements moment supposed equal. Deduct what is 139 but vanity or dress. Let us start. natured tenants.
g. Since e (whatever x be a a function which according to the law of increasing its first and second differential continually is variable at the pleasure of Y. the landlord. 6). returns. . has its first differential continually positive. the functions whose general character has been already lar case described. x e is the total objecthe corresponding subjective labour. suppose that the landlord can always make sure of a certain minimum. he will vary it may be). fatigue has both positive. is — y) — ty (x e) subject to the condition (——) = 0. Here 3> as before is a e is the amount of objectivelabour (muspleasurefunction. Now is X'J by hypothesis positive the neighbourhood of the . or distive labour. is F (y) (subject P. not letting graziers. provided he gets the same (total) rent. II. of the tenant are given ) by the equation ( V. The indifferencecurves of the landlord if he have no other use for his land are horizontal lines . e. yjr (x e) utility . ^— d x d xJ in + ( — CO \dyJ ^— ) dy = 0. according to the law of diminishing . so that his utility as far as in ( him lies may maximum whence —=— \ cle / ) == 0. cular energy or other objective measure of labour) put forth by Y. the landlord's indifferencecurve may be represented by y and The indifferencecurves differential parallel lines (Fig. by employing his land otherwise. per unit of land. Let us however for the sake of il lustration. importing that it is indifferent to the landlord how much land he lets. and indeed as more real.thus employed at a certain rate per unit of land. and its second differential continually negative. </>(e) is the corresponding produce per unit a function which. Let us for convenience designate the function which results from the indicated elimination of e by 7r (x y). X the utilityfunction of <£ (<£ (e) Y the x tenant.1 II) APPENDICES. If then the landlord's but to capitalist income from lands thus other wise employed be proportionate to the land. it to cottier cultivators. the utilityfunction of to a certain discontinuity which will be presently suggested).
we should find that l the convex when ^ dx is negative. in other terms. if expanded rather lengthy. . And t— = ( > V " . which quantity is given by the equation (r>^>=°is And ($(S)=where f v <'*»»> o)=0. 141 x has been assumed less and negative ultimately since would be willing to take into than the quantity of land which Y cultivation without rent. o T r) s is a fair convex at starting. d f _j\3 \dyJ where u?. The attention of the directed to this. U?J I fd^\ = fd. for xvhich never a numerical datuvi The curves may be (I is postulated.CONTRACT ABOUT RENT. think) student representation of Y's indifferencecurve through the origin. The demandcurve of the landlord is the ordinate at the The landlord will be willing point x from above the point y to take any amount of rent for his land above that minimum ! Or. the last term being equal to zero in virtue of the 2 J dx equation =— J = 0. about a social subject. 36. Thus the indifference curve ascends in essentially negative. . . J And similarly for de 2 J the other second differentials of little ir. is mathematical reasoning. 35.U\ +a 9 f d2 U \de \srrJ dx + (d (de.y Ki?) (sJ + 2 TI\ (V d e ^ —2?. origin. Working out the somewhat elephantine formulae thus indicated. Thus in figure 6. ~dx 2 ~~\ dx) \dy 2 J dx dy\dxdyJ ^dyJ \dx 2 J _ . The curve through ym and (x' y') represents (part of) another member of the same family. the origin and descends as indicated in the neighbourhood of the figure to the point R — J ir (x. the quantity of land 1 which he offers at any Compare the reasoning at pp.. Again. and attending to the character of the functions curve is <J> <£ v/r.
the vanishing of a certain first term of is variation. p. locus of points of contact between vectors a part in our speculations. which plays so large functions. rate of rent (indicated by the angle between a vector and the The demand.112 APPENDICES. we 1 might conceive the contractors' jointteam driven over the plain up to the barrier y r) . occurs the interesting difficulty that the general condition Vo' . 2/o What is the rationale of this It may be thus stated. the portion of the orthe origin. . For instance. at the point T. the contractcurve ? The available portion of the contractcurve is y r) . dV dU _ dU _— — =— dV = dx dx . Now the case before us of quantity of land fixed and small constitutes such an imposed condition and barrier as is presented in so many of Mr. ...curve of is drawn in the figure. Todhunter. Now the condition of this maxi mum in general. In the figure it is supposed origin the last point indicating the to pass through T. Y and the indifferencecurve of X is a line parallel to 0y between which and the corresponding lines at each point the . however. Todhunter's problems...curve of the tenant is the abscissa) is o x. according to a principle discovered by Mr. ready to move on to the right of 1 Above. which is pro human bably of the greatest importance in the calculus as applied to affairs. . and R of land demanded by the tenant at rate of rent zero. The contractcurve expresses the condition donic (relative) of a certain he maximum.. 77. according to the general principles of the Calculus of Variations. dinate at x intercepted between the indifferencecurves from For it is easy to see that if the index be placed left (it anywhere to the cannot by hypothesis be placed on the right) of this line it will run down under the force of concurrent selfinterests to the line in question. 24. In the metaphorical language already employed. . . is But the general rule of the Calculus of Variations suspended in particular cases of imposed conditions . = is dy dy not satisfied by the line ? . the indifference. quantity So far as to what may be called personal or individualistic What of the mutual function. . . index will continually move down to the line xt] (assuming at least a certain limitation or relative smallness of ox).. „ . drawn from the and indifferencecurves. Here.
curve 1 p landlords can p. 2 Each recontracting for himself. That the quantity of land should be regarded as fluent it is it should be absolutely unlimited. The or at least the settlements to one of which it tends. curve or perpendicular at x' Accordingly. the process of . as in general articles of contract are to be regarded. field being concentrated recontract is possible ? which the whole Those at which p landlords can recontract of contractcurve 2 with q tenants. 4 It may be a nice question P. the indifferencecurves of Let us now proceed to investigate the final settlements in the field of competition just described. as in general articles of contract have a superior limit e. The first condition 1 of a final settlement is that the whole field be collected at a point on the contractcurve. contractcurve and a perpendicular to the abscissa at original the point x' such that p x ox = q x o x' and it imports that the recontractors tend to the following arrangement: the p landlords on a point. A little attention will show that p must be greater than q when the point y falls as in the figure below the point w to be presently deThe supplementary system then consists of the fined. how far. 35. 37. may be represented by a supplementary contractsystem constructed on the analogy of that above 3 indicated. with the supplementary contractdefinition . the fourth imperfection being 3 not in general presupposed. If the quantity of land were fluent. of course. The second condition is that What then are those points at recontract be impossible. the quanIt suffices that the quantity of tity of labour a man can offer. By p and q are unequal. recontract. if as just supposed the whole field is concentrated at a point xy on the contract. as a matter of fact. then the ordinary form of the contractcurve will reappear. and the q tenants on a point x'y' determined by the intersection of a vector through x y. the line either if 143 up the barrier were removed. 4 recontract with q tenants so long as y Above. of the original contractcurve. say x y..CONTRACT ABOUT RENT. more exactly that the angles made by not necessary that Y at each point of the ordinate with the direction o x should be greater than the angles made by the indifferencecurves of X. land should be large .g. but incapable of moving or down the line.
recontract in imperfect competition will involve the conception of rate cf exchange the tenant for instance endeavouring to vary any existing contract because at the rate presented by that contract. essential only to one species of contract. moving from y0< is impossibility of recontract deThe last point. The points beyond y m are final settlements.1 4 { APPENDICES corresponding point x' y' falls is such that the within the tenant's indifferencecurve drawn through x y. m is the smaller. It has — — seemed best in treating of contract in general to keep clear of a conception which is. point w m the indifferencecurve through which meets the vector from the origin on the ordinate at x" where mox" a . when we suppose the numbers of the parties the natures of the tenants. and what has been sighted in the abstract will not be lost sight of as it becomes immersed in the concrete on each side. rj Between m and y m there is a reach of contractcurve con The larger sisting of final settlements. Thus it is clearly seen how the increase of combination tends to increase indeterminateness in a sense favourable to the combiners. =(m — 1) ox. that determined by perfect competition. at which recontract is possible. it is submitted. he would be willing to take. the longer. the quantities and : qualities of land. the size of combinations. . curve in the neighbourhood of r) are not final settlements but that the system if placed at any of them will move away under the influence of competition between landlords on to . is It is clear that similar reasoning will hold if we suppose our landlords and tenants to be not individuals. therefore. in short. equal combinations as in these pages understood. &c. but equal corporate competitive units. By parity it may be shown that the points on the contract. to be unequal. the reach of indeterminate contract. Clearly seen in the abstract . It w ill appear that r the larger is the fraction £. more land. the ratio of the articles exchanged. The recontract will just be impossible when x' y' is on the intersection of the indifference and supplementary curves. as we ascend the con tractcurve ferred. is y mj the (tenant's) indifferencecurve through which meets the vector from the origin on the ordinate at x\ where (m—l)ox' = mox. he demands.
the same indifferencecurves. Now. it may be premised. But its treat ment is suggested by analogy. down which down from their maximum the tenants are worked by competition. where the vector from the origin touches the (tenant's) indifferencecurve on the contractcurve. p. has not been explicitly treated in these pages. the rent being represented Z (=Zj + Z y ). let might conceive the perfectly similar curves rj coincidently heaped up. treatment of different natures may be thus indicated in the important instance when the numbers on each side are indefiIn this instance. Or more precisely subject to the said condition. It would be easy. there are two species of land. for more rent. the tenants to have the same requirements. and therefore does not. for instance. L . to contemplate from this point of view the KicardoMill theory of the worst land paying no rent. draw a vector from the origin such each other. 2 Here we suppose all the intersection of the demandcurves. No tenant wants any more land at the rate of rent indicated by the vector. ence) curves. supposition of equality the points rj m and y m coincide at the point 77. And no landlord has an or even a slightly increased. If. as he otherwise would. vector . the further as utility they are less combined. since he has no more effective demand land. x and y. upon the nitely large. the contractlocus might be regarded as a curve of double curvature. : that it touches a member of every family of (tenant's indifferIt is clear that equilibrium is then attained. 2 Above.' &c. 141. which are touched at varying. 145 The treatment by the of different numbers on each side is suggested The theory of the supplementary contractcurve. tend to raise the rate in order to obtain more land at the same. were it relevant. rate. and which is accord And it is also on the ingly on the tenant's demandcurved And thus contract is determined by landlord's demandcurve. The preceding investigation applies to the case of different The case of different qualities is one which quantities of land. the natures the curves no longer identical slide away from We still keeping in contact with the itselfmoving subject to the condition that the sum of the lands let is equal to the sum of the lands rented. — — ' 1 See Index sub voce Demandcurve.CONTRACT ABOUT REXT.
while in the abstract symmetrical case equality of distribution between combiners might be taken for granted. but quite generalisable) laws of contract — contract qualified by competition. International traders . Many Mr. it may be observed that. With regard to combinations in the concrete. What it has been sought to bring clearly into view is the essential identity (in the midst of diversity of fields and articles) of contract . Landlords and Tenants. and the same property presents interesting peculiarities in the case of imperfect competition. * See p. irrespective of the diversity of their tastes. a sort of unification likely to be distasteful to those excellent persons who are always dividing the One into the Many. See above. Attention may be directed to the possible initial convexity of the tenant's It was not promised that this much indifferencecurve.' feelings different in different persons. we might write down I think some such (not the most general. It will depend upon the presence or absence of this property whether or not the tenant can be deprived by competition of the entire utility of his bargain in perfect competition. Employers and Employed. Cliffe Leslie is continually telling ' got from such abstractions as the desire of wealth us that nothing is to be and aversion for labour. though perhaps one who would yield knew where to look might find some slight vintage. Cliffe Leslie Thus confining our attention to the simple case desiderates. we must in case of unequal natures presuppose in general a principle of distribution as an article of contract between members of a combination presumably tending to the utili. p. tarian distribution. all two 2 sets of contractors.Ill) APPENDICES. and so forth. abstract desires. Lenders and Borrowers. preof — scinding this simple case for convenience of enunciation. and is 1 the information about particulars which Mr. final efflorescence of analysis additional fruit. . but do not appear very ready to subsume the under the One. 145. 17. Where the numbers on both 1 sides are indefinitely large. i. Xs and Ys it may be Producers and Consumers. Yet he would surely admit that there a general theory of of the bargain between individuals actuated by those contract.
Part l 2 II. S. third theorem J.CONTRACT IN GENERAL. paribus. 147 is in other is determinate. It is easy with Cairnes protesting against the identification of Labour with commodities to say 6 ' Verbal generalizations : Demand to Supply is what any costermonger will tell you. the supply on from increase of numbers on that side or otherwise. 5. coeteris stands to lose). Above. and an analogous proposition is true of imperfect competition. and competition respects perfect. The preceding and the many similar abstract theorems are im2 portant as well as those historical inquiries on which Mr. if the numbers on creased (or increased) each of the (original) side. Mill propounded his counsels to the wageearning classes. and vice of unsymbolical Economics. In perfect competition. . are of course easy. Above. — one side if the amount of article offered at each price this whole scale of offers is increased on one side. requiring for instance. and there are no combinations. There is room for 3 5 all. Marshall's Demandcurves Class II.' and the equation of ' 1 2 See p. paribus. 5 after all imperfectly because ungeo metrically apprehended. contract ii. contract is indeter minate. i. § 2. 127. Leslie It suffices to say that on a form of the lays so much stress. Leading Principles. whether —meaning if.. those. p. or other exceptional cases. at perhaps be called the special at length 4 3 first affected with what may corrected. as Prof. 4 6 Jevons points out in a temperate article in the Fortnightly Review. Review of Thornton. two theorems have important exceptions mostly mathematical analysis for their investigation . is Where competition Cteteris imperfect. IV. ch. then the other side gains .' But the noble costermonger would not perhaps find it so easy to tell us about Mr. in perfect competition gains in point of in imperfect competition stands to gain (or in. Marshall's second last class of curves (if The the introduced change might cause a first jump from the neighbourhood of the intersection of demand curves to that of the third). and shaped and reshaped the policy of millions upon a theory of capitalsupply. l one side are de members on that utility (or loses) . p. 43. which may be presented by Mr.
Sidgwick Mathematical Psychics. &c). the loss during every moment that its sale is delayed. must not allow this distinction and the associated moral sentiments to oppose the unifications of science and our reception It is very right and proper with Mr. of would of Mr. For is not the same true of capital and anything which 2 1 is for hire 3 —of the use of a cah. analysis may impressively conclude these somewhat unmethodical remarks upon method. and an example of the apparent deficiency in this respect of the highest philosophical. without mathematical. that the labourmarket to dwell upon the differentiae 2 of the is an unhappy figure But we must not allow ourselves to contract about labour. as it is here submitted. of lahour. yet at . an article that there is an abstract general mathematical theory of contract. 1865. as well as the in particular to dwell upon the high moral . Frederick Harrison ' for high moral purposes to insist that the labourer has not a thing to sell. Mr. But we attributes which distinguish him from other animals.148 APPENDICES. is a sense in which the labourer equally with forget that there . But not to exaggerate them. The need of this sort of generalisation is not imaginary. of the Darwinian theory. . Fortniyhtly Review. perfectly states that in unstatement of Walker upon wages restricted competition (presumably in what is in these pages called perfect competition) the bargain between employer and least correct — workmen case a). — by opposition to the. It is genus of Man proper to attend to the differentia. Sidgwick discussing the bargain between employer and workman with less than his usual clearness indeed. Of course it is right to notice differences as well as similarities. is as indeterminate in such a labourmarket as the bargain between a single employer and a single workman (our Which is contrary to the first law of To have improved upon the statements surely be a sufficient vindication contract. as Thornton perhaps does when he speaks of the continual perishing. such us those which are presented by imperfect competition (trades unions. as well as the lahour of the cahman ? Fortnightly Review. 3 any other contractor has a thing to sell.
121 CourcelleSeneuil. 58. 11. Fawcett. 76 Combination. 126 Barratt. 52 Crompton. 21 . 92. 78. 19 Fourier. 65. 126. 147 Capacity. 79. 62 DemandCurve. 138. 89. 17 Comte. 81 Beccaria. 148 Hegel.). 128 Holyoake. 62. H. 30. 134 Hume. 132 Delbceuf. 14. 75. 72. . Appen Article of contract. 40. 70. 3842 dix Y. 80. 94 Indifferencecurve. 96. 117. 109 Contract. 72 Bain. 17. 99. 99 Euclid. 5759 Capital. 91 Airy. 82 7 Cairnes. 55. 129. 94 Green. 44. 81 1 Burke. 127. 44 Field of Competition. Rowan). 867 Aristotle. Final (settlement). 44. 19 Cunynghame. 89 Darwinian. 97 Helvetius. 109 Cournot. 4348 Competition. 19. 128. 49 Cost of Labour. 121 Darwin (G. 119. 21 Grote (John). 85. 135. 77 98. 83 Harrison (Frederick). 133 Buffon. 60.INDEX. 57 Bentham. 94 Cooperative Association. 79 Butler. 11. 47. 76 Hamilton (W. 74. 1 7 Determinate. 117 Equality. 59. 91. ACT ind Action (momentumpotential). 132 Gossen. 17. 52. 19 Doubleday. 31—33 Galton. 60. 81. 94. 78 Indeterminate.
100 Means. 103104. 133134 Stewart (Balfour). 117 Wundt.150 JEV INDEX. 47. 118. ReCON TRACT. 42. 85. 143 See De Watson and Burbury. 127. Appendix 98. 48. 135146 Ricardo. 135. 138. 6. 18 Plato. Spoltiswoode 4c Co. 145 39. 62.92. 97 Variations.. 134 Appendix V. 13. 126 Sidgwick. 14 MaximumPrinciple. 54 3032. 22 Price. 134 Newton. 7. 5. 112.. 17 Rent. 81 Venn. See ' Combina Napoleon. 98. 122. 123. 21. London. 75. 126 Settlement. 57 MU1. 915. 91. 72. Neteslreet Square. mand and Supply Priestley. Morley (John). 7681. 78 Lagrange. 95. 7. 54. 73 26. 96. Jevons. 1. 12. 134 Stewart (Dugald). 51 Stranch. 61 Perfect (Competition). 52. 5. 72. 26. 46. 82. 33. 3033. 31. 129. 48. Printers. 61. 4. 105. WUN 33. 13. 10.. 94. 120. 40. 147 Tait and Thomson. 39. 142 tion. 47. 132. 124 Wealth). 8386 118. 148 93. 31. Appendix IV. 119. 105109. Appendix V. 125. Leslie (Cliffe). 24 Maxwell (Clerk). 30. 146. 52. 12. III. TradesUnion. 123 10. 124. Thompson (on Thornton. 135. 59. Marshall. 92. 55. 130. 32. 120. 60. 19 . 80. 145. 111. 7. 94 Saturday Reviewer of Professor Jevons. Calculus See Todhunter l ' of. 46. 90. 7. 76. 68. 147 Lewes. 51. 42. 93.. 137. 75. jc\ . 126 Rousseau. 147 Spencer (Herbert). PreferenceCurve. 118. 81. (on Wages). 148 Malthusian. 58. 16.' 6. 126.. 101. 126. 8387. 96. 98. 109. 125. 13 Lewis (Cornewall). 51. 4. 100. 62 75 . 127 n. 34. 62. 138 Todhunter. 92 Sully. 129 5. 126 Walker Walras. 90. 5. 118. Owen. Laplace.
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Francis Ysidro Mathematical psychics PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE FROM THIS CARDS OR SLIPS POCKET UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY . NOV 4  1966 HB 99 E34 Edgeworth.BINDING SECT.