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18 July 2012
(See Post Script dated 25 September 2014 at end of letter)
Jaipur Leads India in Pothole Repair Technology during Monsoon
Dear Highway Colleague:
Are you still filling the potholes with soil and stone during this monsoon? If so,
it’s a shame for us – the highway engineers of India! We can send Chandrayaan
to moon but we are using 19
Century technology for repairing potholes during
monsoon. In civilized countries, potholes are filled promptly as soon as they
appear with readymade cold bituminous mix during rainy season and winter
season. Are we competent technically to do the same? The answer is mostly YES.
Do we have the desire and necessary WILL to do the same for the sake of our
country and motoring public? Unfortunately, the answer is mostly NO.
However, there is some light in this utter darkness. There is the Jaipur
Development Authority (JDA) which is using the latest readymade, generic, cold
bituminous patching mix technology during monsoon since 2010. They have done
this kind of patch repairs worth more than one crore of rupees with great
success. After all, they have to maintain over 6,000 km lane of roads and streets
in and around Jaipur. Now, Rajasthan PWD is following JDA’s lead and is using
this technology all across Rajasthan during 2012 monsoon. [Please see the news
which appeared in Dainik Bhaskar daily paper dated 11 July 2012; see the
bottom left of the attached page; for those who cannot read Hindi, an English
translation is also attached.]
What is this generic (unpatented), readymade cold bituminous mix technology?
While working in the State of Pennsylvania, USA as Chief Asphalt Engineer, I
had the privilege of developing a simple and effective cold bituminous mix for
potholes during early 1980s. This mix can be used to fill potholes during the
rainy season even when they are wet. No preparation of the pothole is required
for this “idiot proof” mix. In a nationwide US Strategic Highway Research
Program (SHRP) field study, this mix was adjudged as number one in terms of
its durability in potholes. About 78% of the patches survived for over 4 years.
When introduced in Pennsylvania, USA this mix was unofficially called
“Kandhal mix” by contractors. It has been used in extreme cold and rainy
weather in the US for over 30 years. This durable readymade cold mix can be
made and stored for 6 months. It can be made by any bituminous mix plant
(portable or stationary) in India using local materials. I have also successfully
tried it on Jaipur streets and on Jaipur-Agra Road with the help of the students
and faculty of Malviya National Institute of Technology in Jaipur and IJM. It
also has been tried successfully by the West Bengal PWD and IIT Guwahati.
The nuts and bolts of this unpatented, generic readymade mix, as to how it is
made are given in a paper published in the Journal of the Indian Roads
Congress, Volume 69-3, 2008. This paper can be accessed at the following link (a
copy is also attached for ready reference):
With my voluntary technical assistance, the JDA is using this mix successfully
since 2010. They have issued work order worth more than Rupees one crore. Mr.
Sapan Mishra, JDA Engineer, can be contacted at firstname.lastname@example.org
if you have any questions on its large scale field use in Jaipur. JDA has named it
as “Kandhal mix” in specification/tender/contract documents to differentiate it
from other patented readymade mixes such as Shelmac.
Now, as mentioned earlier, the Rajasthan PWD is using this mix during this 2012
monsoon across the whole state. I have trained their highway engineers in
producing and laying this mix. I prepared the attached specifications for them,
which can also be used by you if you have the WILL. If you read the
specifications and IRC paper carefully, you do not need any training, it is all
common sense. Cost analyses for producing and laying this mix based on
Rajasthan PWD Basic Schedule of Rates is also attached for your information so
you know what to expect when calling tenders.
Let me make it very clear again that I am just an Indian citizen volunteer
sharing this technology in my mother country; I do not have any patent on this
mix; I do not have any company which produces or sells this mix; I am not a
paid consultant to JDA or Rajasthan PWD. In other words, I do not have any
ulterior monetary motive whatsoever.
Unfortunately, you will find in your organization (public or private) many
people who are very good in finding excuses/negative points for not trying a new
material/technology. Some of the possible lame excuses are as follows:
It is too expensive. Cost analyses have shown the cost of repairing
potholes with readymade cold mix is less than the cost of repairing with
hot mix because the latter is more labour intensive (squaring the pothole),
material intensive (binder for tack coat), and equipment intensive (need
for roller). Moreover we cannot use hot mix during rainy season any way.
If we consider that potholes get larger and deeper during the three
months of monsoon and therefore will require much more hot mix, the
cost of prompt repair of potholes with cold mix may be half that with the
hot mix. “A stitch in time saves nine”. Moreover, what is the cost of
injuries/fatalities; vehicle repair costs; and user delays resulting from
unfilled potholes? It is very hard to estimate these costs. If we are a
civilized country we simply cannot wait and repair potholes after
monsoon ends as we have been doing for the last 65 years after
There is no Indian Roads Congress (IRC) or MORTH specification for
readymade cold patching mix. This is again a lame excuse. The
specifications prepared by me have been adopted by the JDA and
Rajasthan PWD. Why can’t you? Moreover, many of you are already
using patented readymade cold mix made with foreign technology and are
paying premium price. This proposed generic mix is less than half the
price of those patented mixes. Why are you paying more when this mix
can be made by your local contractor? [For your information, I had
submitted the draft specification for this generic readymade cold patching
mix some two years ago to the Flexible Pavement Committee of the Indian
Roads Congress (IRC). I have no idea if and when it will be adopted by
IRC. I sincerely hope they adopt soon.] [See Post Script at the end of this
letter for update.]
This mix is also very handy for contractors who are responsible for maintaining
national highways, state highways or PMGSY roads during the concession or
warranty period. If there are a few potholes there is no need to arrange hot mix;
take some bags of this “idiot proof” mix and a labourer in a car or pickup and
get the potholes repaired.
So what are you waiting for??? I sincerely hope we still have some dedicated,
honest, and enthusiastic mayors/engineers in the metros, PWD, CPWD,
MORTH, NHAI, BRO, Army or anywhere in India who really care for their city,
state and country. Hopefully, they will produce this mix and use it during
monsoon and throughout the year. The public will see the difference and will
appreciate prompt and durable repair of potholes. I am ready to assist the
government or private agencies on a volunteer basis. With the availability of this
mix, there is no excuse to use 19th Century technology for filling potholes on our
streets and roads in India. Again, I am attaching the two specifications; cost
analyses; IRC paper on this technology; and news on the success of this mix in
Do you still have an excuse?
Prof. Prithvi Singh Kandhal
Home page: www.eng.auburn.edu/users/kandhps
POST SCRIPT (25 September 2014)
After persistent efforts by the write for the last 6 years, the Indian Roads
Congress (IRC) has finally adopted the so-called “Kandhal Mix” as a standard
readymade pothole patching mix with cutback bitumen. Hon. Nitin Gadkari,
Minister for Road Transport and Highways officially released the IRC:116-2014
Standard Specification on 19 August 2014 in New Delhi.
It is hoped this “idiot-proof” unpatented mix would now be used across India
throughout the year to tackle the menace of potholes. Specifications, rate
analyses and “G” Schedule used by the Jaipur Development Authority (JDA) for
the past 4 years are attached for including this mix in the Basic Schedule of
Rates (BSR) and for calling tenders.
Rate analyses indicate patches made with the Kandhal Mix are more economical
than those made with hot mix asphalt because the latter is labor intensive
(squaring the pothole), material intensive (use of binder for tack coat), and
equipment intensive (use of roller). Patches made with this mix are also more
economical and faster than those made with the so-called automatic patching
machines called by fancy names such as “road ambulance” and “road doctor”.
These machines require capital outlay and are also difficult to maintain. Also,
the cost of Kandhal Mix is about one-third the cost of many patented readymade
mixes such as Shelmac.
“American roads are not good because America is rich, but America is rich
because American roads are good.” - John F. Kennedy
ABOUT THE WRITER
Prof. Prithvi Singh Kandhal is Associate Director Emeritus of the National
Center for Asphalt Technology (NCAT) based at Auburn University, Alabama,
U.S.A. NCAT is the largest asphalt (bitumen) road technology center in the
Prior to joining NCAT in 1988, Prof. Kandhal served as Chief Asphalt Road
Engineer of the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation for 17 years. He is
the first person born outside North America, who has held the following three
national and international very prestigious positions in the asphalt road
President, Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists (with members
from all continents in the world)
Chairman, American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
International Committee on Road Paving Standards (responsible for over
200 standards used worldwide)
Chairman, Transportation Research Board Committee on Asphalt Roads,
U.S. National Academy of Sciences
Prof. Kandhal has published over 120 technical papers and has co-authored the
first ever textbook on asphalt road technology, which is used by more than 25
universities in the U.S. He has travelled to various countries in South America,
Middle East, China, Vietnam, Japan, Singapore, and Australia to provide
training and consulting services in asphalt (bitumen) technology. He has been to
China three times to train their highway engineers in building world-class roads.
Prof. Kandhal has been a practicing highway engineer in India for 20 years and
in the US for 30 years. Recently he has drafted many standards for the Indian
Roads Congress including specifications for dense graded bituminous mixes,
stone matrix asphalt and readymade pothole patching mix. He was also
instrumental single-handedly in introducing viscosity grading of bitumen in
India in lieu of penetration grading in 2005.
In August 2011, Prof. Kandhal was inducted on the “Wall of Honour”
established at the largest asphalt road research center in the United States. In
April 2012, he received the “Lifetime Achievement Award in Asphalt Road
Technology” from the International Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists
during their annual banquet held in Austin, Texas, USA.
News in Indian Daily “Dainik Bhaskar”, 11 July 2012 [English Translation]
Now roads can be repaired during rains
Cold mix used for immediate repair, Use by Jaipur Development
Authority (JDA) gave excellent results
To repair potholes which develop during rainy season there is no need now to
wait until the rainy season is over. Rajasthan PWD has issued orders to do such
patch repair with readymade cold pothole patching mix at all divisional head
quarters on roads which fall under its jurisdiction.
Jaipur Development Authority (JDA) has used this repair technology with
positive results. That is why; Rajasthan PWD Minister Shri Bharat Singh has
taken the initiative and decided to use this mix on roads throughout Rajasthan.
According to Prof. Prithvi Singh Kandhal, who invented the formula for this
cold mix in the US, the state government is taking this initiative after he made a
presentation to the Minister. Since this mix was invented by Prof. Kandhal, JDA
engineers have named it “Kandhal Mix”. Kandhal developed this mix in
Pennsylvania, USA where he worked as Chief Asphalt Engineer for 17 years.
Why use cold bituminous mix?
Normally hot bituminous mix is used for patching roads. However, hot mix
cannot be used during rainy season and therefore engineers wait until the rainy
season is over. It cannot be claimed whether the hot mix patch will last until the
next season. Kandhal has claimed that patch repair made with this cold mix will
last at least for 4 years although the road may develop new potholes around the
How the cold mix is made?
This mix is very easy to make. Many JDA contractors are making it locally.
According to Kandhal, bitumen (MC-800) is heated to about 75 C and mixed
with aggregate. Aggregate size generally ranges between 9 mm to 4.5 mm.
Although about 5% bitumen is used in hot mix, this cold mix requires about 5.8
or 5.9% total cutback bitumen. This results in about 5% increase in price but
since cold mix requires minimal labour, total price in place is about the same.
This mix is packed in plastic lined bags and its shelf life is at least 6 months.
How to fill pothole with this mix?
When this readymade cold mix is used there is no need to square the pothole as
is done in case of hot mix patch repair. The mix is placed whatever the shape of
the pothole is. The mix is placed in the pothole and compacted with a hand
rammer. Traffic consolidates this mix in the pothole and forces it in the cavities
around the pothole thus locking it in. That is why this patch is permanent for 3
to 4 years.
JAIPUR DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY, JAIPUR
Name of Work: Production and Supply of Kandhal Readymade Bituminous
Pothole Patching Mix to Zone Area JDA at Location
(Godown)………………………… (Rate Contract)
S.N. Particulars Qty. Unit Rate to be
Producing and supply of Kandhal
readymade cold bituminous
patching mix in 50-kg plastic
lined, sturdy bags for repair of
potholes in adverse climatic
conditions including the
bituminous mix with a minimum
of 5.6% MC-800 cutback bitumen
(containing a suitable anti-
stripping agent) by weight of mix
and in strict conformance to
gradation and other requirements
such as 6-month storage life as
per the enclosed specification
dated 1 February 2013; transfer
with all leads and lift complete in
all respects as per direction of
1. Specification for Kandhal readymade bituminous mix dated 1 February 2013
is enclosed. Its strict compliance is required in production and supply. The
contractor shall be solely responsible if the mix is not workable and is not
usable for a period of 6 months for making durable patches.
2. All 50-kg bags shall be transported to a storage facility designated by the
Executive Engineer. Since the mix contains volatile kerosene, sealed bags
shall not be stored in a closed building or warehouse. Storage shall be made
under an open shed or in a well ventilated warehouse. No open flame or
smoking shall be allowed in the vicinity of the stored mix.
I/we agree to do the above work on rate as quoted above.
Indian Roads Congress Version as of
1 February 2013 for Rajasthan PWD and JDA
Specification for Kandhal Readymade Bituminous
Pothole Patching Mix
The material shall consist of plant mixed readymade pothole patching bituminous
mixture composed of mineral aggregate coated with bituminous material. The
material shall be capable of being stocked for at least six months without stripping
and shall be workable at all times. Unless specified otherwise, this mix shall be
supplied in 50-kg plastic lined, sturdy bags. This material is intended for patching
potholes up to 75 mm (3 inches) deep. For deeper potholes, patching mix shall be
placed and compacted in 75 mm thick layers.
Medium Curing Cutback Bitumen MC-800 conforming to Indian Standards
Specification IS: 217 Specification for Cutback Bitumen shall be used in preparing
the patching mix and shall be supplied by a certified manufacturer of this product. For
proper mixing, the bitumen shall be heated as specified in Section 3.
MC Cutback Bitumen shall be treated with a proper type and amount of an anti-
stripping agent by the approved bitumen supplier so that when combined with the
proposed job aggregate the resulting mix shall pass the Wet Coating Test, Static
Immersion Test and Stripping Test as given in Annexure I. The antistripping agent
shall conform to IS 14982. The contractor shall furnish the sample of the job
aggregate each year to the bitumen supplier for these coating and stripping tests and
obtain a certificate that the bitumen material has been treated to suit the job aggregate.
This yearly certificate must be on file and shall be available at the asphalt mix plant
when required by the Engineer. The contractor shall also forward a copy to the
Engineer. Under no circumstances, the contractor or the department shall be permitted
to manufacture the MC cutback by blending paving bitumen and kerosene.
2.2 Coarse Aggregate
2.2.1 The coarse aggregate shall consist of crushed rock, crushed gravel or other
hard material retained on 2.36 mm sieve. It shall be clean, hard, durable and cubical
shape, free from dust and soft organic and other deleterious substances. The aggregate
shall satisfy the physical requirements specified in Table 1.
2.2.2. Where crushed gravel is proposed for use as aggregate, not less than 90%
by weight of the crushed material retained on 4.75mm sieve shall have at least two
fractured faces resulting from crushing operation.
TABLE 1. Physical Properties of Coarse Aggregate
Property Test Requirement
Cleanliness Grain size analysis Max. 2% passing
IS 2386 Part I
Particle shape Flakiness & Elongation
Max. 35% IS 2386 Part I
Strength * Los Angeles Abrasion
Max. 40% IS 2386 Part IV
Aggregate Impact Value Max. 30% IS 2386 Part IV
Durability Soundness (Sodium or Magnesium), 5 cycles
Sodium Sulphate Max. 12% IS 2386 Part V
Magnesium Sulphate Max. 18% IS 2386 Part V
Water absorption Water absorption Max. 2% IS 2386 Part III
* The coarse aggregate may satisfy either of the two strength tests.
2.3 Fine Aggregate
Fine aggregate shall consist of crushed mineral material passing 2.36 mm sieve and
retained on 75-micron sieve. It shall be clean, hard, durable, and free from dust and
soft organic and other deleterious substances. No natural sand shall be permitted.
2.4. Composition of Mixtures
When tested in accordance with IS:2386 Part 1 (wet sieving method), the combined
aggregate grading shall fall within the limits shown in Table 2. As far as possible an
aggregate with water absorption of 1.0 or less shall be used. The amount of residual
bitumen binder (total cutback bitumen minus diluent such as kerosene) in the mix
shall be as shown in Table 3. The readymade patching mix shall be rejected if it does
not meet the grading (especially the 0.075 mm sieve) and the minimum residual
bitumen content. The produced mix shall be tested by an independent approved
testing laboratory before its acceptance by the Engineer.
Table 2. Gradation of Stockpile Patching Mix
Sieve size, mm Percent passing
4.75 40 – 100
2.36 10 – 40
1.18 0 - 10
0.075 0 – 2
Table 3. Minimum Residual Bitumen Content by Weight of Mix
Aggregate water absorption,
Minimum residual bitumen content,
Less than 1.0 4.5
1.1 to 1.5 5.0
1.6 to 2.0 5.5
Based on the characteristics of the aggregate and the performance of the mix, the
Engineer can specify amount of residual bitumen higher than that shown in Table 3.
The contractor shall ascertain from the supplier of MC-800 as to how much residual
bitumen it contains. For example, if the MC-800 contains 80% bitumen and 20%
kerosene and a total of 6.0% MC-800 is used by weight of the mix, the residual
bitumen content in the mix will be 4.8 percent.
3. Preparation and Storage of Mixture
The Kandhal readymade patching mix shall preferably be produced in a conventional
batch type hot mix plant. However, if a portable or stationary asphalt drum plant is
used, under no circumstances drying/heating of aggregates with a burner flame and
mixing with MC-800 shall be carried out simultaneously because MC-800 containing
volatile kerosene will catch fire and pose a safety hazard. The contractor and the
engineer shall ensure there is no open flame inside or outside the drum when
MC-800 is added for mixing.
The mix should be such that it can be stocked, handled, placed, and finished without
stripping of the bitumen from the aggregate. To help prevent stripping and avoid heat
buildup in a stockpile (which may burn the entire stockpile), the mixed material
should not be stockpiled no higher than 1.5 m for the first 48 hours. The stockpile
then can be raised in height and made conical in shape. Unless specified otherwise,
the readymade cold mix shall be placed and sealed in plastic lined, sturdy 50-kg bags
The mineral aggregate should be clean and surface dry before mixing. The
temperature of aggregate and bituminous material should comply with those shown in
Table 4. Temperature Ranges for Producing Stockpile Patching Mix
Bituminous material Aggregate temperature, C Bitumen temperature, C
MC-800 25 – 65 75 - 95
Since the range of aggregate temperature is rather low and the maximum aggregate
temperature is restricted to 65 C, it may not be possible to dry the aggregate within
this temperature range. Therefore, the aggregate can be processed in a dryer at high
temperatures and allowed to cool before the bituminous binder is added. Pre-drying
the aggregate at high temperatures will also help in reducing the fines (material
passing 0.075 mm sieve), which will go into the baghouse. The resulting mix then
would have fines less than 2 % as required in the stringent gradation specifications.
High aggregate temperature while mixing with the cutback bitumen will not only
cause excessive loss of kerosene from the cutback but will also pose a safety
hazard in the plant pug mill. Proper and adequate venting of the pug mill is
necessary. Under no circumstances there shall be any open flame in the vicinity
of MC-800 cutback because it contains volatile kerosene.
Since the mix contains volatile kerosene it is not safe to store the loose mix or
sealed bags in a closed building/warehouse. Store under an open shed or in a well
ventilated warehouse. No open flame or smoking shall be allowed in the vicinity
of the stored mix.
4. Quality Control and Acceptance of Mixture
The composition of the produced mix (gradation and bitumen content) shall be tested
by an independent, approved testing laboratory before acceptance by the Engineer.
Before conducting the bitumen extraction test to determine residual bitumen content
in the Kandhal patching mix, the sample shall be cured completely to remove all
kerosene. Curing shall be done as follows. Place the loose mix in an open metal
container and heat slowly on a hot plate with frequent stirring until a constant weight
The following two tests shall be performed by the contractor (in presence of a
Department representative) on the mixture, freshly prepared or taken from a stockpile
or sealed bag at any time during its storage life (usually 6 months).
Water Resistance Test (See Annexure I, Test C)
Workability Test (See Annexure I, Test D)
The water resistance test would indicate whether the patching mix has a potential for
stripping in the pothole in presence of water. If the mix fails this test, it means a
proper type and/or amount of an antistripping agent has not been used in the
If the mix fails in workability it could be due to improper bitumen type, low bitumen
content, excessive fines or improper gradation. Even one-half percent lower bitumen
content can make the patching mix unworkable and useless.
Stocked patching material may be rejected, at any time during the six month period if,
in the opinion of the Engineer, the patching material has stripped (more than 10%
uncoated particles) or otherwise become unfit or unworkable for use.
5. Measurement for Payment
The tonnage of the Kandhal readymade pothole patching mix shall be measured and
determined from the actual plant batch reports as recorded by a representative of the
Engineer assigned to the work. In case the Kandhal mix is supplied in plastic lined,
sturdy bags, each bag must weigh at least 50 kg and the number of bags shall be
counted for payment.
The Kandhal readymade bituminous patching material shall be paid for at the contract
unit price per ton or per 50-kg bag, FOB the asphalt mix plant, at the work site, or at
other destination as specified in the contract. A reasonable amount of earnest money
will be kept by the Department for 6 months or on depletion of the stockpile,
whichever is earlier, to ensure the product is satisfactory for use and meets all tests
specified earlier during the life of the product.
A. Wet Coating Test
Heat the unwashed job aggregate, cutback bitumen and distilled water to 40 C in a
suitable oven. Weigh 100 g of dry aggregate into a suitable mixing container (such as
seamless tin can, 16 oz capacity). Add 3 ml of distilled water. Mix thoroughly with a
spatula until the aggregate particles are uniformly wetted. Add cutback bitumen
equivalent to 5.0 +/ 0.2 g of bitumen residue. Mix rigorously with the spatula until all
aggregate is coated, but not more than 5 minutes. Transfer the contents into a 400 ml
beaker containing 150 ml of distilled water (22 – 32 C). Let stand for 15 minutes and
visually determine the percent of retained coating, which should be at least 98
B. Static-Immersion Test
The coated aggregate as prepared in the preceding wet coating test shall remain
immersed in the beaker of distilled water (22 – 32 C) for 24 hours. At the end of this
period, visually determine the percent of retained coating while the sample remains
immersed in water, which should be at least 95 percent.
C. Water Resistance Test
Fifty grams of patching mix, whether freshly prepared or taken from the stockpile or a
sealed bag, shall be heated at 120 C in a laboratory oven for 1 hour, cooled to 95 C in
laboratory air, and then placed in 400 ml of boiling water in a 600-ml glass beaker
and stirred with a glass rod at the rate of 1 revolution per second for 3 minutes. The
water shall be decanted and the mix shall be spread on an absorbent paper for visual
observation of the coating. The aggregate shall be at least 90 % coated with a
D. Workability Test
Approximately 2.5 kg of the patching mix shall be cooled to –7 C in a freezer. After
cooling, the mixture shall be capable of being broken up readily with a spatula that
has a blade length of approximately 200 mm. This test shall be performed when the
mix is produced and thereafter anytime during storage. If the mix is not workable at –
7 C, it shall be rejected and the composition of the mix shall be properly modified (for
example, by increasing the bitumen content and/or gradation changes). This test is
also applicable in areas with hot climate because it amplifies the workability
characteristics of the mix by using a lower test temperature.
JAIPUR DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY, JAIPUR
Name of Work: Placing and Compacting Kandhal Readymade
Bituminous Patching Mix in potholes on various roads in Zone…..
Area JDA, Jaipur (Rate Contract)
S.N. Particulars Qty. Unit Rate to be
Placing and compacting Kandhal
readymade cold bituminous
patching mix in potholes in
adverse weather as per enclosed
specifications including cleaning
of potholes; placing and
compacting the mix; sprinkling
sand to prevent pick up by traffic;
and documentation of patches,
with all leads and lifts complete in
all respects as per attached
specifications and direction of
3. Specification for placing and compacting the Kandhal readymade bituminous
mix dated 1 February 2013 is enclosed. Its strict compliance is required.
I/we hereby agree to do the above work on rates as quoted above.
Signature of the Contractor
With full postal address and Mobile Number
Indian Roads Congress Version as of 1 February 2013
Specifications for Placing and Compacting Kandhal Readymade
Cold Bituminous Mix in Potholes
These specifications cover placing and compacting the Kandhal readymade
patching mix in potholes including transportation of the mix from the designated
storage facility to road sites as directed by the engineer. The work involves
cleaning and preparation of potholes; placing and compacting the mix; applying
sand to prevent pick up by traffic; and documenting the number and sizes of the
patches. The Kandhal readymade cold patching mix is suitable for patching
“potholes” only and shall not be used for patching long stretches of deteriorated
2. Preparation of Potholes
Pothole shall be cleaned with a stiff wire brush and all loose material including
dust shall be removed with a soft brush. Pothole need not be dry. However, excess
water shall be swept off the pothole.
If the pothole is deep and extends to WMM or granular base, it is recommended to
apply a prime coat consisting of MC-30 Cutback before placing the patching mix.
If angular aggregate (nominal size 25 mm) is used to partially fill deep potholes,
the aggregate should be compacted thoroughly and primed with MC-30 before
placing the patching mix. At least 50 mm thick pothole patching mix shall be
placed at the top.
3. Placing Kandhal mix in Potholes
The Kandhal mix is intended for patching potholes up to 75 mm (3 inches) deep.
For deeper potholes, patching mix shall be placed and compacted in 75 mm thick
Sufficient material shall be placed in the pothole so that after compaction the
patch is about 10 mm above the existing road surface.
4. Compacting the Kandhal mix
First the outside edge or periphery of the patch shall be compacted with a hand
rammer and then compaction shall proceed inwards. To prevent initial pick up of
the loose mix by the hand rammer either continue to wet the hand rammer with
water or place empty plastic lined bags on the loose mix.
For deep potholes, place the patching mix and compact in 75 mm thick layers.
After compaction, the compacted patch shall be about 10 mm higher than the
existing road surface to allow for further compaction by traffic.
If there are numerous closely spaced patches, it is preferred to use a small roller
rather than a hand rammer.
5. Applying Sand to Prevent Pick up by Traffic
Before opening the compacted patch to traffic, sufficient amount of clean sand
shall be sprinkled on the patch to prevent pick up by traffic.
6. Documenting the Number and Sizes of Patches
The contractor shall document and the engineer shall verify the following on a
daily basis: (a) Number of 50-kg bags used; (b) Name of road and chainages
where patches were made; and (c) Average sizes of potholes patched by
measuring their average length, average width and average depth.
7. Measurement for Payment
The total number of 50-kg bags of Kandhal mix placed and compacted by the
contractor shall be recorded by the engineer for payment. Payment shall be made
at the contract price per 50-kg bag.
Cost Analysis of Supplying Kandhal Readymade Bituminous Pothole Patching
Mix to Department Godown
(Revised 16 March 2013)
Assume one ton (1000 kg) of the mix is to be made and filled in 20 bags of 50 kg
each, which will be supplied to Department Godown for use later.
A. Cost of Materials
1. Aggregate of specified gradation; rate of Rs. 300/ton;
Add extra cost 10% for special size; total rate is
Aggregate 940 kg @ Rs. 330 per ton………………………………….. 310.20
2. Bitumen MC-800 Cutback supplied in drums:
60 kg @ Rs. 60,000 per ton……………………………………………. 3600.00
3. Anti Stripping Agent @ 0.3 % by weight of MC-800
1.8 kg @ Rs. 165 per kg…………………………………………………. 297.00
Total for A 4,207.20
B. Production Cost
1. Portable Mini Hot Mix Plant with capacity of 8 tons/day
Rent for one day = Rs. 1000. Rent to produce one ton will be
one-eighth of Rs. 1000, that is, Rs. 125………………………………… 125.00
2. Fuel costs: 24 liters per day; 3 liters per hour
3 liters @ Rs. 50 per liter……………………………………………… 150.00
3. Labour: 8 labourers needed per day to produce 8 tons
1 labourer needed per ton @ Rs. 300 per day…………………………. 300.00
Total for B 575.00
C. Packing, Handling and Transport to Department Godown
1. Cost of 50-kg empty bags
20 bags @ Rs. 12 per bag……………………………………………….. 240.00
2. Labour for filling, weighing and sealing bags;
3 labourers can fill 160 bags in one day (20 bags in one hour)
Cost of labourers for one day = 3 times Rs. 300 = Rs. 900
Cost of filling 20 bags in one hour = 900/8…………………………….. 112.50
3. Transport of bags from plant to department godown
(average 10 km lead) 1 ton@ Rs. 200 per ton…………………… ……. 200.00
Total for C 552.50
D. Total of A + B + C……………………………………………………. 5,334.70
Contractor’s overhead @ 10% of D........................................................... 533.47
Royalties, sales tax, income tax etc. @ 4.5% of D....................................... 240.06
Add 10% contractor’s margin……………………………………… 610.82
Total Cost per ton (20 bags of 50 kg each)…………………………..Rs. 6,719.05
Cost per kg……………………………………………………………..Rs. 6.72
Cost per 50-kg bag……………………………………………………..Rs. 335.95
Revised 16 March 2013
Cost Analysis of Laying Kandhal Readymade Bituminous Pothole Patching Mix
(As of 16 March 2013)
Assume Eight (8) tons of the Kandhal mix will be laid
in potholes in one day. Costs for one day operation are as follows:
1. 4 Labourers @ Rs. 300 each…………………………………… 1,200.00
2. Transportation of bags from Department Godown to
laying site (average one-way lead of 20 km)
(a) Rent of tractor = Rs. 600
(b) Cost of diesel = Rs. 400 (tractor will consume one liter
per 5 km; 8 liters for 40 km @ Rs. 50 per liter = Rs. 400
Total transportation cost = 600 + 400 = 1000…………………… 1,000.00
3. Sand bags for sprinkling sand on patches to avoid pickup:
2 sand bags @ Rs. 10 per bag………………………………………20.00
Add 10% contractor overhead……………………... 222.00
Add 4.5% for royalty, sales tax, income tax, etc……………….. 99.90
Add 10% contractor margin…………………………………….. 254.19
This is the cost for 8 tons.
Cost per ton = Rs. 349.51
Cost per kg = Rs. 0.35
Cost per 50-kg bag = Rs. 17.48
(As of 16 March 2013)
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