You are on page 1of 6


Denim Fabric Denim Fabrics woven of 100% cotton would be very strong and durable. Traditionally Blue Denim is warp faced cotton fabric with 3 x 1 twill construction with warp being dyed in a solid colour and weft left un-dyed. The look and quality of the Denim Fabric shall improve after dyeing, the process of which differs from plant to plant. Normally the process of dyeing dictates the technology of Denim manufacturing. The dyeing for Denim Fabric happens at the sizing stage. Generally there are two most popular methods of dyeing Denim Fabric. They are Rope Dyeing Sheet Dyeing This process eliminates a few intermediate processes of the rope dyeing. The yarn sheet is washed with chemicals such as caustic and washing soda and after squeezing the excess water; the yarn sheet is allowed to pass through Dyeing Troughs one time for oxidation and development of dye on yarn. After dyeing, the dyed yarn is washed again with fresh water for two-three times and finalIy squeezed before allowing it to pass through 36 drying cylinders. Even today Denim Fabric without Indigo Dyeing is not called authentic Denim. Initially when Denim Fabric entered the fashion market, Denim manufacturers were using Natural Indigo Dye, which was costly and giving a natural finish. Though Synthetic Indigo Dye has gradually replaced Natural Indigo Dye, some unorganised manufacturers still prefer the latter and attract premium after branding them Natural Dye Used. Dyeing: The unique feature in the manufacturing of denim fabric is the dyeing of the warp yarn through a long chain Indigo Dye Range. The logs of yarns from the warping process called "ball warps" are loaded at the entry end of the range and are processed through a series of boxes which contain dye to build the shade and through boxes that rinse the yarn of excess dye. Between boxes, the ropes are exposed to air in a process known as skying, where oxidation or fixing of the dye takes place. At the end of the range, the yarn is passed over steam heated dry cans for drying.

Process controls are located throughout critical components of the Indigo Range and processing is monitored and controlled. When the yarn leaves the dry cans, an in-line color monitoring system measures its shade and provides immediate feedback.


Features. Total length of yarn sheet in machine = 700 meter Speed of machine = 60 meter per min (average used 25-40 meter per min) Scour box = for pre treatment and can be used for sulphur dying Skying rollers = 35-40 rollers Skying time after every dye bath = 1-2 minutes or depend on the speed of the machine Total number of dye bath = 8 baths Steamer = for the fixation of sulpher dyes Total number of washing baths = 3 washing bath (2 for cold and 1 for hot wash) Total number dryers = 36 (4 TEFLON coated and 32 are stain less steel)

Usually in US Denim mills 12 24 ropes are simultaneously process on the rope dyeing machine. Prior to dyeing, the ropes are boiled out and treated with caustic-soda and wetting agent to remove from the cotton oil, impurities which could influence the fastness for the dye. To dye with indigo, the ropes are immersed into the dye-bath. To dye in rope 30 60 seconds immersion (20 meters yarn) and 60 - 180 seconds are required for the oxidation of the Indigo dyestuff to ensure that also ends in the centre of the rope are equally dyed. Please note that squeezing pressure is important 5 tons as fastness of colour and shade depends on even squeezing pressure. The comparatively long immersion and oxidation time requires a comparatively expensive equipment of machinery. In order to obtain the required deep shade of blue colour the ropes are 5 6 times immersed in a sequence of dye boxes with an oxidation range then so called skying after each dye box. (Indigo belongs to the group of the vat dyes which is water-soluble in reduced solution and becomes an insoluble pigment when oxidized. Having passed the dyeing and oxidation rage the ropes are guided through 2 or 3 washing boxes to wash off excessive loss pigments in the last box softener are added to ease the opening of the ropes. They are dried in series of cans. The dried ropes which contain 380 420 ends are

then deposited into large coilers Rebeaming with 300 380 ends per rope is easer. These coilers are placed behind the long chain beamer where the Rebeaming and opening of the ropes takes place. In order to guarantee even yarn tension through Rebeaming on to a back beam ready for sizing the ropes are guided over a tension device which is placed approx. in 10 -11 meters distance from the long chain beamer. Broken ends which very really happen process of the rope are repaired at this process stage. Initially these machines were supplied without yarn stop motion but are available now a days on special request. This is of major importance as lost ends, fluff, 3 tail ends and yarn remnants can cause inferior performance in weaving. The so prepared beck beams are now sized in a sizing machine preferably with 2 size boxes. The size pick up varies between 8 10%. In Europe mainly modified starches with binders are used, whilst in USA certain low % of PVA is applied sin combination with starches by some companies. Depending on the final finishing process (washed denim) with no filler also CMC gives excellent performance in weaving. Special size mixes for soft denim will be discussed separately. We recommend however not to use PVA for sizing of denim as a surface of denim may show a leather skinned appearance.

Process Control of Rope Dyeing for denim.

1. Concentration of Hydrosulphite It is measured by tytano meter. It should be from 1.5 gpl to 2.5gpl , or by redox potential of dye bath which should be from -730 mV to -860 mV. 2. Caustic Soda or pH value Should be from 11.5-12.5 3. Dye concentration in Dye bath it is measured by spectrophotometer. It should be in g/l

Guidelines High Indigo Concentration --> Shade is greener and lighter Low Indigo Concentration --> Shade is dull and Red.

High pH or Caustic Concentration --> Redder and lighter Low pH or caustic concentration --> greener and darker Dipping Time Longer the dipping time, better will be the penetration and lesser will be the ring dyeing effect. It varies from 15-22 seconds. Squeeze Pressure High pressure will lead to lower wet pick up and result in lesser color and better penetration. At rope dyeing, squeeze pressure is 5-10 tones, i.e. wet pick up is as low as 60%. Hardness of squeeze roller is about 70-75 deg. shores. It squeeze rolls are too hard then there are chances of slippage and uneven yarn tension. If squeeze rollers are too soft then shading will occur. Surface of the squeeze rolls should be ground twice a year. Airing Time It should be 60-75 seconds. Longer airing time results in high tension on the yarn and subsequent processes will become difficult. Drying Insufficient or unevenly dried yarns will result in poor rebeaming Calculation of Replenishing Dye feed/min Conc. of stock vat is g/l= 90 range speed in yards/min=25 count = 7s total ends = 4100 Wt of yarn dyed /min= (4100*25*1000)/(7*840*202)= 7924 gms shade desired = 2% Amount of dye to be replenished/min= 158.5 gms Effect of pH

At pH of 10.5 to 11.5, there will be formation of more monophenolate ions, which lead to higher color yield, as strike rate of the dye to the yarn bundle is very high, and wash down activities will be very good. At pH higher than this, dye penetration will be less and wash down characteristics are also poor. Testing 1. Alkalanity in Dye Bath Liquor Pipet 10.0 ml of vat liquor into 100ml of distilled water in a 150 ml beaker. place under continuous agitation and insert the electrodes of a pH meter caliberated at pH 7.0 with standard buffer solution. Titrate with tenth normal HCl ( 0.1 HCl) to pH 7.0 (ml = A) calculate g/l of NaOH = A *0.40 2. Hydro in Dye bath Liquor Add 2 ml of 37% HCHO to 150 ml beaker. Add 2 ml of dye range liquor . Add 6 ml of 25% glacial acetic acid solution prepared by diluting 1 part acid with 3 parts water. Add 2 ml of starch/KI indicator. Add ml of water. Titrate with 0.046 N ( prepared by diluting 460 ml of 0.1 N Iodine to one liter ) solution until the color changes from emarald green to bluish purple. G/l of hydro= mo fo 0.046N of Iodine Importance of High Concentration of Free Hydrosulphite The clearest shades with minimum reddish streaks are observed at by relatively high conc. of hydrosulphite. On the other side, with lack of hydrosulphite, the leuco indigo is less dissolved and thereby adheres to a greater extent to the fibres. With lack of hydrosulphite furthermore, the amount of unreduced dyestuff by oxidation at the upper level of the liquor and through activiation of unfixed dyestuff, gets separated from the fibrous material would constantly rise as the reducing agent for creating leucoform would be missing. Under these circumstances a reddish bronze like

shade results due to dispersion of not reduced dyestuff in the yarn. The min. proportion of hydrosulphite should be around 1.3 to 1.5 gpl in case of rope dyeing and 3-4 gpl in case of sheet dyeing. Also to avoid the lack of hydrosulphite or Indigo at certain places in the immersion, vat, the whole quantity of the liquor should be circulated 2-3 times every hour. Reaction Time At very short reaction time, an adequate liquor exchange ( i.e. the amount of chemicals consumed and replaced by fresh addition of reduced indigo) is not assured. This has a negative influence on dyeing and depth of dye penetration. In addition to this the time available for diffusion of dyestuff until oxidation commences is too short. To ensure an even and good depth of dye penetration by dyeing in several passages, the reaction time should be 20-30 sec. for each vat (eg. at a speed of 20m/min for a reaciton time of 10 seconds, the immersion path should be maximum 3.3 meters). A reaction time exceeding 60 seconds should be avoided as the amount of dyestuff again get reduced and released may again supersede that of additionally take up dye stuff, resulting in higher shades. Softening Agent: 8 g/lit Drying: Rest humidity should be 30% and then sized.

Indigo Dye Range Sizing of yarn in Set/ Beam to Beam Position. The object of Sizing is to improve the strength of yarn by chemically binding the fibres with each other and also improve upon its friction resistance capacity by chemically coating the surface of yarn/fibres. Further, number of threads in warpers beam sheet is very less against number of threads required in whole width of fabric. Hence multiplication of sheets by drawing yarns together from many warp beams and again making one sheet is also performed on sizing machine. On sizing, normally, 8-12 % size material on warp thread is applied. This improvement in strength and frictional resistance characteristic of warp yarn is essential because during weaving, yarn has to undergo severe strain & stress as well as frictional operations.