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Minglebox Engineering Prep

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the mobile charges are electrons. one can infer that there are two types of charges in nature. By convention. the sum taking into account proper signs) of all individual charges in the system. ±3.. Quantisation of electric charge means that total charge (q) of a body is always an integral multiple of a basic quantum of charge (e) i.com . Conductors allow movement of electric charge through them. 2 Minglebox Engineering Prep Minglebox. the charge on a glass rod rubbed with silk is positive. additivity and conservation. ±1. Proton and electron have charges +e. From simple experiments on frictional electricity.. q = n e.. –e. that on a plastic rod rubbed with fur is then negative. For macroscopic charges for which n is a very large number.Electric Charges and fields Electric and magnetic forces determine the properties of atoms. and that like charges repel and unlike charges attract. Additivity of electric charges means that the total charge of a system is the algebraic sum (i.e. respectively. insulators do not. where n = 0. ±2.. in electrolytes both positive and negative ions are mobile.. Electric charge has three basic properties: quantisation. In metals. . molecules and bulk matter. quantisation of charge can be ignored.e.

F21 = force on q2 due to q1 = k(q1q1)/r 212 K = (1/4π ε0) In SI units. The experimental value of the constant ε0 is ε0 = 8. This means that when bodies are charged through friction.854 × 10 –12 C2 N–1 m–2 The approximate value of k is k = 9 × 109 N m2 C–2 The ratio of electric force and gravitational force between a proton and an electron is ke2/Gmemp = 24 * 1039 3 Minglebox Engineering Prep Minglebox. the unit of charge is coulomb. Mathematically. there is a transfer of electric charge from one body to another.com . Coulomb’s Law: The mutual electrostatic force between two pointcharges q1 and q2 is proportional to the product q1q2 and inverselyproportional to the square of the distance r21 separating them. but no creation or destruction of charge.Conservation of electric charges means that the total charge of an isolated system remains unchanged with time.

The electric field E at a point due to a charge configuration is theforce on a small positive test charge q placed at the point divided bythe magnitude of the charge. the force on q1 due to q3.com . For an assembly of charges q1. The relative closeness of field lines indicates the relative strengthof electric field at different points. if q is positiveand radially inwards if q is negative. Electric field due to a point charge q hasa magnitude |q|/4πε0r 2. the force on any charge.. they crowd near each other in regionsof strong electric field and are far apart where the electric field isweak. electric fieldalso satisfies superposition principle. . Like Coulomb force.. it is radially outwards from q. say q1. An electric field line is a curve drawn in such a way that the tangentat each point on the curve gives the direction of electric field at thatpoint. q3. the force is given by the Coulomb’s law for two charges stated earlier. and so on. 4 Minglebox Engineering Prep Minglebox. the field lines are uniformlyspaced parallel straight lines.Superposition Principle: The principle is based on the property that the forces with which two charges attract or repel each other are not affected by the presence of a third (or more) additional charge(s). For each pair. Some of the important properties of field lines are: (i) Field lines arecontinuous curves without any breaks. In regions of constant electric field.. is the vector sum of the force on q1 due to q2. q2.

com . the planeperpendicular to its axis and passing through its centre) at a distancer from the centre: E = (-p/4πε0)*1/(a2 + r2)3/2] = -p/(4π ε0r3) for r>>a Dipole electric field on the axis at a distance r from the centre E = (2pr)/( 4π ε0(r2 – a2)2) = 2p(4π ε0r3) for r>>a 5 Minglebox Engineering Prep Minglebox.e. Field of an electric dipole in its equatorial plane (i. An electric dipole is a pair of equal and opposite charges q and –qseparated by some distance 2a. Electrostatic field lines start at positive charges andend at negative charges —they cannot form closed loops.(ii) (iii) Two field lines cannot crosseach other. Its dipole moment vector p hasmagnitude 2qa and is in the direction of the dipole axis from –q to q..

ΔS The vector area element ΔS is ΔS = ΔS ˆn where ΔS is the magnitude of the area element and ˆn is normal to the area element.com . a dipole experiences a torque τ given by τ=p×E but experiences no net force. which can be considered planar for sufficiently small ΔS. 6 Minglebox Engineering Prep Minglebox. In a uniform electric field E. The flux Δφ of electric field E through a small area element ΔS is given by Δφ = E.The 1/r3 dependence of dipole electric fields should be noted in contrast to the 1/r 2 dependence of electric field due to a point charge.

The law is especially usefulin determining electric field E.Gauss’s law: The flux of electric field through any closed surface S is1/ε0 times the total charge enclosed by S. The electric field outside the shell is as though the total charge is concentrated at the centre. outward on either side. (iii) Thin spherical shell of uniform surface charge density σ E = q/4πε0r (r >= R) E where r is the distance of the point from the centre of the shell and R the radius of the shell. The same result is true for a solid sphere of uniform volume charge density.com . when the source distribution has simplesymmetry: (i) Thin infinitely long straight wire of uniform linear charge density λ E = λ /2π ε0r where r is the perpendicular distance of the point from the wire and ˆn is the radial unit vector in the plane normal to the wire passing through the point. q is the total charge of the shell: q = 4πR2σ. (ii) Infinite thin plane sheet of uniform surface charge density σ E = σ/2ε0 where ˆn is a unit vector normal to the plane. The field is zero at all points inside the shell = 0 (r <R) 7 Minglebox Engineering Prep Minglebox.

how much time is required to get a total charge of 1 Con the other body? Solution In one second 109 electrons move out of the body. therefore. however also important to know what is roughly the number ofelectrons contained in a piece of one cubic centimetre of a material.The time required to accumulate a charge of 1 C can then be estimatedto be 1 C ÷ (1.Sample Examples If 109 electrons move out of a body to another bodyevery second. It is.6 × 10 –19 × 109 C = 1. Thereforethe charge given out in one second is 1. 8 Minglebox Engineering Prep Minglebox. a very largeunit for many practical purposes.6 × 10–10 C.5 × 10 24electrons. One coulomb is. from a body from which 109 electrons move out every second.25 × 109 ÷ (365 × 24 ×3600) years = 198 years. A cubic piece of copper of side 1 cm contains about 2.com .6 × 10 –10 C/s) = 6. Thus to collect a charge of one coulomb. we willneed approximately 200 years.25 × 109 s = 6.

q3 each equal to q at thevertices of an equilateral triangle of side l. AD = AC cos 30º = ( √3/2 ) l and the distance AO of the centroid O from A is (2/3) AD = (1/√ 3 ) l. 9 Minglebox Engineering Prep Minglebox. if we draw a perpendicular AD to the side BC.Consider three charges q1. q2. By symmetry AO = BO = CO. What is the force on acharge Q (with the same sign as q) placed at the centroid of the triangle? In the given equilateral triangle ABC of sides of length l.com .

It is clear also by symmetry that the three forces will sum to zero.Force F1 on Q due to charge q at A = 3Qq/42πε0l2 AO Force F2 on Q due to charge q at A = 3Qq/42πε0l2 BO Force F3 on Q due to charge q at A = 3Qq/42πε0l2 CO The resultant of forces F2 and F3 is = 3Qq/42πε0l2 along AO by the parallelogram law. 10 Minglebox Engineering Prep Minglebox. where rˆ is the unit vector along OA. Therefore. the total force on Q = 3Qq/42πε0l2(r – r) = 0.com .

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