Case 7:10-cv-00107-JCT Document 22

Filed 07/16/12 Page 1 of 15ERK' OFFI U' DI COU) CL Pageid#: 539 ST. S CE S. .,
AT ROANOKE,VA FI LED

I TH E U N I N TED STA TES D I STRI CO U R T CT FO R TH E W ESTERN DI STR I O F V I I I CT RG N A R O AN O K E D I ISIO N V JEFFREY LI K OU S, N
Pl nt f , ai i f

JUL 16 2 1 22
J U 1Y; 3 , DUD CL ERK x

C i lA c i n N o.7: CV - 07 vi t o 10- 001

M EM O R AN D UM O PI I N N O
C R AFTM A STER M A N U FA CTU RJN G , IN C. , Def endant.

By: H on. m esC .Tur Ja k Seni Unied St es D i ri Judge or t at st ct

Thi c ec s as omesbef et Co to dee ntsMotonf SlmmayJ or he ur n fnda ' i or l r udgmen ( . t Dkt

No.8)a plitf sOpposto ( . 1 ) Thepli ifs eq l fl amotonfr nd anif iin.DktNo. 3 . antf ubs uenty ied i o ado i ofhi orlarume .( . 21.Thepa te weehe r onJ 25, 2, t pton s a g nt DktNo. ) ris r ad une 201 and he matri now rpef diposton.Fo t ras stfrh beow,dee ntsM oi ( tNo. te s i or s ii r he e ons e o t l fnda ' ton Dk. 8)i GM NTED. s
1. Fact and ProceduralBackground ual

Pli ifJ fryLi antf efe nkous(ia ûi t nkous'br tt sa tonunde t Ameia wih ' ough hi ci ) r he rc ns t Dia ltesAc (t s biii t C ADA' a Til VI oft Ci lRi t Ac of1 (l-l Vl'.Li ' nd te I he vi ghs t 964 çlte l' nkous ) -i ) ale t tdee ntCr t atrM a a t i l (l at a tr'unl ul de edhi lges ha fnda afM se nufcurng,nc. ' fM se ' awf ly ni m cr )
a a om m oda i f a di a lt asr qui e unde t AD A ,a t m i t d hi asr t i ton n cc ton or s biiy e r d r he nd er na e m e ala i f op i s xualha as m e ti vi a i ofTil VI ûa / be aus ofhi di a lt a o or posng e r s n n ol ton te l i nd or c e s s biiy nd/ r pe c pton t the w a di a e a ort f iur t gr nta ac om m oda i i vi a i oft r e i ha s s bl d nd/ he a l e o a n c ton n ol ton he

ADA. ( t No.1a l. ' Dk . ' t)

1

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A . D ef endant sEm pl ent atC raf M ast ' oym t er

D urng 2006 a 2007, nkouswase pl d a a tuc oa ng s i ls a i nd Li m oye s r kl di pec a i t t Cr fM a t r a com pa t tm a a t e a s lsdoor f r s den i lus ,a t co pa s a t se , ny ha nuf c ur s nd e l s or e i t a e t he m ny'

waeho ei Clrsins g, r ni ( . l a 4)Neihe pa t diputst tLi r us n zita bur Vigi a.DktNo. 3 t . t r ry s e ha nkousi s
an e oyeeunde t mea ngofbot t ADA a Til V1,a t tCr fM ase i a mpl r he ni h he nd te I nd ha a t t r s n
em pl rundert s m e W hen Li oye he a . nkous se pl e e d w ih Cr t a t r i Oc o ' m oym nt nde t afM s e , n t ber

2007, ha wor f t compa ont s paaeo a i ,a c i l snc 1 L= he d ked or he ny wo e rt cc sons nd ontnualy i e 996.d,
The pa tesdi pu e t qua iy ofLi ous' pe f m a e asan e pl e. B o h pa tes ri s t he lt nk s r or nc m oye t ri

agr et tLi e ha nkouswa dicplne a l a tf tmesbewe n Aug t20 a Oc obe 2007, s s i i d t e s our i t e us 06 nd t r andm uli etmesi pr c ng mont f ofe e i l ng poorpe f m a a tpl i n e edi hs or f ns s ncudi ror nce nd

i ubor nai ( .No.1 a 5, . 9a 5) Li ns di ton.Dkt 3 t DktNo. t . nkouscai ,howe r t thewas l ms ve ,ha
s ngl outf rhei e d punihm e r a i t pe re pl esbec us he r a e y i ed o ght ne s nt el tve o e m oye a e epe t dl def nd a vi tm ofs xua har s m e ,a s eq nty pa tc pa e i a w or ac e ed c i e l a s nt nd ubs ue l r i i t d n kpl e

i si to oft s e nt i Augus 2006.( . 1 a 5) nvetgain he e ve s n t DktNo. 3 t .
B. Pl nt f ' R ol i a W orkpl SexualH arass entInci ai i f s e n ace m dent

On A ugus 21 2006,Cr f M as e be n a i tga i r ga di t a l ge s xua t , a t t r ga n nves i ton e r ng he le d e l ha as m e ofa e pl e.Li r s nt n m oye nkous wasone ofs ve ale pl e i ewi w ed du i t e r m oye s nt l e r ng he

i tgai ( t No.1 a 9) Thet tmonyofLi nvesi ton.Dk . 5 t . esi nkous t vitm,a ot re oye ,he ci nd he mpl es
c im ed t e s e e ofi pr pe c onfr he xit nc m o r onduc by t o e pl yee .Cr fM as e t r i t d one of t w m o s a t t r e m na e

t empl es awa e ema ge , ar ul oft si ope c he oye , r hous na r as es t hi mpr r onduc .DktNo.9a 4) The t( . t .
pa tesdi put Li ri s e nkous' r e i t s xualha a s en e s ,how e r Cr fM aserr e st s ol n he e r s m t pi ode ve . a t t ef r o Lil r koushavi ( lm ied r e asa c w bo a i w ine s ' whe e Li ng t i t ol a ol r tng t s , ' r as nkous e e s y xpr s l

c le st sc r trzai a i ufiint ( . 9a 1 Dk . 1 a 6) halnge hi haacei ton s ns fce . DktNo. t 8, t No. 3 t .

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Li ko c am st the s r d asafe ntde e roft vitm t oughoutt n us l i ha e ve r que f nde he c i hr he

wor a haasme .I rtlain frt sr e Li kplce r s nt n eaito o hi ol, nkouscamshewa s j ce t hei tne li s ube td o ghe d
punihmen f a tonsrl i t pe rempl es ( tNo.13a 5)Li s t or ci eatve o e oye .Dk . t nkousa srshi se t s
s r s wasi e i z d t r m ove hi t ough di c plna y m ea bec us t s pe vi o upe vi or nc ntvi e o e m hr si i r ns a e he u r s r w oul be a e t m or e iy ha as hi vi tm i Li d bl o e as l r s s c i f nkousw a go I Li us a s c ai st t s ne. d. nko l o l m ha afe t i s i a i t r por e s xua ha a s en c i t r he nve t g ton, he e t d e l r s m t ontnued f o a di f r nts r s rwho rm f e e upe vi o r e ved a wa ni durng t i tga i butwasnott r i t d. nkous c e t tt s ec i r ng i he nves i tons e m na e Li ont nds ha hi

c i dhaasme e nt lyrs t i t r i tonoft vitm.DktNo.1 a 8. ontnue r s nt ve ual e uled n he esgnai he ci ( . 3 t)
Li usc am st the c i d t def ndt vitm durng t spe i a t thec i ued nko l i ha ontnue o e he c i i hi rod, nd ha ontn
te o xpere r t i t y tea m e f om s r i or t oughoutt r m a nde ofhi t nur w ih i nce e ala or r t nt r upe v s s hr he e i r se e t Cr fM ase .l Lil a t t r d. rkous a s cl i st the w a de e a opporuniy t a y f ras i t nt l o a m ha s ni d n t t o ppl o ss a

wae ema ra wasgi t ras t theha $ bi mout andsa te t muc rhous nage nd ven he e on ha di g a h trgdl oo h s t'( . 1 a 2) Cr hi. DktNo. 3 t . ahmatrprs nt e de t tt r wasno s hpr tonas ' se e e s vi nce ha hee uc omoi
Li uscame ( . 1 a 11 . nko camst tt rtlaor te t ntc mi t nko li d. DktNo. 5 t ) Li us li ha he eait y rame ul naed
w he he w a tr d f nott ki a dr t t n s i e or a ng ug es .

Lit rkousa Cr fM ase diag e a t whe he Li nd a t t r s r e s o t r nkousf c dipa a ete t e tt n a ed s r t r am n ha
c o ker . Li ow r s nkouspoi s t c nt o owor rJ m Dobbi ,who w a notfr d a tr f ii a dr ke ol ns s i e fe a lng ug

t tase de eo dipart teame t ( . 1 a 1 . Dobbi hadr eve wrte es, vi nc f s ae r t n. DktNo. 3 t 6) As ns ec i d itn
w a ni a ha be n puton pr to f bot s f t vi a i a une us a e es r ngs nd d e oba i n or h a e y ol tons nd xc ed bs nc , Li nkouscl m st the a D obbi ha sm ia di c plna y r cor . nkous c a m st tt i ai ha nd ns d i l r s i i r e ds Li l i ha he r dif r ntt e t e w aspar oft r t i t r t e t e t tf l w ed Li f e e r a m nt t he e ala o y r a m nt ha olo nkous spa tc pa i i ' ri i ton n
t sexualharass enti t gaton,I he m nves i i d.

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Cr t a t rof e s e de e t tD obbi w ass t t d dif r n l fom Li afM s e f r vi nc ha ns iua e f e e t y r nkousunde r t i t s i polc a t toft t tng c pa D obbi t a f ie a dr t s , he e s he r e tng i y nd ha he es i om ny. ns ook nd a l d ug e t w r a Li nkous sfr tt s a a ed ale e D o nsw a t n of e e t opporuniy t pa tc pa e i ' i s e t ppe r t r d. bbi s he f r d he t t o rii t n

dr te t nt whe ea Li uswa ofe e af l up t tb r f e t s i a s mpl ug r a me , r s nko s f r d olow- es ut e us d o ubm t n e.
Cr fM a t ra g st tt y di nots D o nsa Lil usass m ia l s t t d gi t s a t s e r ue ha he d ee bbi nd r ko i l r y iua e ven he e f c ualy dif r ntcic s a es Cr t as e a s pr s t e de e t i t pas ,i has a t l f e e r um t nc . afM t r l o e en s vi nc hat n he t t

t r i t an e oye f pr di as e i y a t r t s e m naed mpl e or ovi ng e m ngl dule aed mnpl wihoutal wi t e t lo ng he

e oyeea opporuniyf ar t t( t No.1 a 5) mpl n t t or ees.Dk . 5t .
C. Pl ntf N onai irs subm i si t O bs s on o erved D rug Test

Li nkousw a t r i t d a t r a s he e f l - dr t ti whi h he di no pr de s e m na e fe c dul d olow up ug es n c d t ovi a ne es a y urne s m pl Pert polc ofbot Cr fM a t ra t t tng co pa t s c s r i a e. he i y h a t s e nd he es i m ny, hi

qualfe a apostvet t ( . 9a 8) Thi d gt twass he e f l ngarndom iid s ii es. DktNo. t . s nl es c duld olowi a dugts o Se e r1 2007,whiht tsi c nyt ug ha be nale e ( . r et n ptmbe 9, c he etng ompa ho ht d e tr d.DktNo. 1 a 1l DktNo. a 6) Folowi t ss pii t tt t tngcompanyake Lil t 3 t , . 9 t . l ng hi us cous es,he esi s d lkous o
s tt a obs r d dr t ta t rofi e. daThepa tesdiput t f t lcic sa s ubmi o n e ve ug es t hei tc L. ri s e he acua r um tnce
oft st s ,butbot pa te a e t tLi hi e t h ri s gr e ha nkousdi notur na e a t tt t tng co pa d i t nd ha he esi m ny

consde e t sapostvet t Afe t t tng c i r d hi ii es. tr he esi ompa a s d Cr t a trt tLil ny dvie afM se ha rkous dr f e t s i't t t t Cr fM a t rt r i t d Lil se us d o ubm t' o he es, a t se em na e rkousbe us t t si c ca e he e tng ompa ny
cons d e r f a a pos tve t tunde t pr e esofbo h Cr f M as e a t t s i i er d e us l ii es r he oc dur t a t t r nd he e tng

co ny.( . 9a 7,Dkt No.1 a 11. mpa DktNo. t . 3t )
Bo h pa te a ee t tLi t ri s gr ha nkousw e t t t s i f ciiy,w a a ke t urna e i t nt o he e tng a lt s s d o i t n he

prs nc ofadocor anddi notd s ( . 9a 7,Dk . 1 a 1 .Thepa tesas ee e t, d o o.DktNo. t tNo. 3 t 2) ri lo
a e t tafe a pe i ofw aii t doc orha t l a a a t t tw a r r d t be gr e ha t r rod tng, he t d o e ve, nd s he es s equie o

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obs r e t d t as Li e v d,he ocor ked nkoust urnaei t prsnc ofaCr fM asers r s r L. o i t n he ee e at t upevio .d z
Li ko c a m st the a t m pt d t c pl t t dr t s , nd l f onl a t ra houra a ha f n us l i ha t e e o om e e he ug e t a e 4 y f e n nd l

offie ef t.Dk . 1 a 1 ) Cr fM atrcai t tLi ald fors ( t No. 3 t 2 . at se l ms ha nkousrf s t u i t i fon e u ed o rnae n r t oft s r iora lf t prmiesf lwi t doco ' r uet ( . 9a 7) he upe vs nd e the e s olo ng he trs eq s. DktNo. t .
Lit rkouscai st thewasuna et urna ebe aus he s f r fom pa ur i,mor l m ha bl o i t c e ufe s r r ess e
c m o y kno n asts bl dde s om e, whi h wholy pr ve e hi f o be ng a e t om nl w thy a r yndr ' c ' l e nt d m r m i bl o

s tt adnz t ti whih s oneha t wac hi u i t.( . l a 1 . nkous ubmi o g es n c ome d o th m rnae DktNo. 3 t 3) Li c e t thehass fr fom t saflci snc hi te geye sa t ti Shi ontnds ha ufeed ' hi fiton i e s e na ar nd ha f t s r l s r s rldi notknow t si or ton,i i be a et yhadno bot e t as '( . upevio s d hi nf mai t s c us he t herd o k. DktNo. ' 1 a 1 . e de ofhi paur ss Li 3 t 2) As vi nce s r ei, nkousofestsi fr e tmonyfo apr esort thi c s r m of s ha s a e t ppeast beacls i ca eofpaur i. ( .NO.1 a 1 ) Thi pr e s r e da t r o a a sc s r ess' Dkt ' 3 t 4 . s ofsor eviwe n
a tda tls i Lit ' ale s pt s butne re l t d o s fi vi itng rkous s l ged ym om , ve va ua e r poke t Li o nkousi pe s n r on.

Li nkousdoe notpr f revi nc t thee iil i or d eihe t t tngco pa or s ofe de e ha xplcty nf me t r he esi m ny
Cr fM ase ofhi di gnos s ofpa ur s s a any po n prort hi t r i ton. nkous a s does a t tr s a i r ei t i t i o s e m na i Li lo

nots ubmi e de t thee ras d f orne deda s tofac omm oda i f hi pa ur ss t vi nce ha ve ke or e ny or c ton or s r e i
a w or t k.
l1 St . andard ofR evi ew

S mmayj d me t sp o e wh r th r i n g n ieis a t a ymaeil a t n u r u g n i r p r ee l ee s o e un sue s o n tra fc a d t t emo i gpat i e tte t j d me ta amatro lw. Fe . Ci P. 6 a .n c n i eiga h v n ry s n ild o u g n s te f a ' dR. V. 5 ( ) l o sd rn '
motonfrs i o ummayj r udgme ,ûhec ti r uie t viw t fcsa drw r as bl ntt our s eq rd o e he a t nd a e ona e t
i e e si a lg m os f vo a e t t nonm ovi pa t ' Sha v.St o 1 F. 791 798 nf r nce n i ht t a r bl o he ng ry. ' w r ud, 3 3d ,

( hCi. (iainsomit ,c r. ni 513U. 81 ( 994) A genui is ofmaeilfc 4t r) ctto ted) e tde ed, S. 3 1 . ne sue tra a t

exit whe ar to lf ti r c i rngt e d ncei t s ss n aina acfnde, onsdei he vie n he ummayj r udgme rc d, nt e or

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c dfndi fvoroft non- ngpary. c v.De ea 1 S. .2658,2677( 9) oul i n a he movi t Rici stfno, 29 Ct 200 . Ho ver ûgjnui is sofmaera fc cn tbeba e onme es c ai ort buidi we ,s e ne sue g t il a t nno sd r pe ulton he l ng ofonei ee eupona t r'Ba ikv. l e Co .736F. 946,963(t Ci.1 4) nfrnc nohe . m c Ceotx m , ' 2d 4h r 98 .
Fur he m or t he m e e exi t nce ofa s i il ofe de e i s t r e, t t r se c ntla vi nc n uppor ' f t nonm ova ' t' or he nt s

po iinwil o d f a amoi nfrs mmayj d me tAn es nv. bet Lo b lc, 7 sto l n t ee t to o u r u g n . d ro Li rv b y,n .47

U. 2 2 2 2( 9 6 . s mmayj d me tmoin s o l n t eg a tdt ne stee tr S. 4 , 5 1 8 ) A u r u g n to h ud o b r ne ç ls h nie u r c r s wsarg t oj g n wihs c caiya t la en r o f rc nr v rya e o d ho ih t ud me t t u h lrt s o e v o o m o o to es nd
e t bls a fr a i y t tt a r e pa t ca tpr va lu ra cic uns a es' s a ihes f i m tvel ha he dve s ry nno e i nde ny r t t nc . '

Ca mpbelv.He t,Colma & Asoc ,l ,21F. 52,55(t Ci.1 4) Summay l wit e ns s s. nc. 3d 4h r 99 . r j udgme s dbee e e howe r i t Co ttnds atrasr ousr viw oft r c d, nt houl ntr d, ve ,f he ur i , fe cupul e e he e or

t a n r ao a ej r c u dr tr av r it o ten n mo i gpat S eEv n v Te hs h t o e s n bl u y o l eu n ed c f r h o - v n ry. e a s . c .
Applc tons& Se v.Co.80F. 954,958(t Ci.1 . iai r , 3d 4h r 996)
1 1 A na ys s 1. l i
A . Pl ntf s Am eri ai if' cansw ih Di ltes Act Cl m t sabiii ai

Pl ntf cli t t1 unde t ADA, h bldde s o i ads biiy, nd2)a ai if ams ha ) r he s y a r yndr me s ia lt a

r a o bej rrc udc n l eb s do t i rc r ta CrfM a trfrdh m b c u eo h s e s na l u o o l o cud a e n h s e o d h t a t se ie i e a s f i d sbit . Dk . 1 a 2 ) ia l y ( tNo. 3 t 2 . i
l de e m i ng whe he pa r s s i a di a lt und t A D A , r vi w oft c e 1 w n t r ni t r nle i s s biiy er he a e e he as a s st tt r a e no ca e i t Fourh Cicui t tde e m i t tC hy bl dde s om e ' how ha he e r s s n he t r t ha t r ne ha t s a r yndr ,' orpa u es s i a di abiiy r cog z und rt A DA . a ntf c t t t e ng c e on s r r i , s s lt e ni ed e he Pl i if ies he s adi as l hy

bldd rs ome,' l a vv.CivofNe Yor 601F. 1 ,1 n. ( Ci. 0) buti a e yndr 'Kime r t w k, 3d 51 57 3 2d r 201 , n
t sca e, he Se ond Ci c te es l di l r ol w he he C h bl dders om e c n be a hi s t c r ui xpr s y d t es ve not t r sy a yndr ' a
di lt undert AD A .'To det m i w het pl ntf had a di abiiy undert AD A ,t s sabiiy he ' er ne her ai i f s lt he hi
6

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c tmus l k t t ADA e f c i att tme ofhi tr na i i Oc obe 2007. e our t oo o he fe tve he i s e mi ton n t r Se

Coc a v.Hol r 436F.App' 227( hCi.2011 ( di t tt ADA Ame hrn de, x. 4t r ) hol ng ha he ndme sAc nt t of2008doesnota yrtoa vey)Thepe tne ve sonoft ADA dei sû s biiy'as ppl er di l . ri nt ri he tne û a lt ' di

t p y ia o me tli ar n ta s b tn ilyl t o eo mo emao lf a t te o ( h sc l r n a mp ime t h t u sa tal i s n r r j r ie ci is f a mi vi
s h i vi .' U. C.j 1 02.Thepl nifi t rquie t ma at eepa ts ng uc ndi dual'42 S. 21 aitf s hus e rd o ke hr - r howi a pr 1 )t theha aphysc orme a i ime ,( t tt si ime i iat a nd ove t ha (1 s ial ntlmpar nt 2) ha hi mpar ntmplc es t las o mao lf aci t a ( t tt lmiai i s tni . Hei v.Col e t ne j r ie tviy, nd 3) ha he i tton s ubsa tal' ko ' ombo Sa ngs vi Ba 434F. 249,254( h Ci. nk, 3d 4t r 2006) .
l de e m i ng w he he a di abiiy ha be n e t bls unde t A D A , he Su e e n t r ni t r s lt s e s a i hed r he t pr m
Courtcr ed a ldem andi sandar 'i Toyot M ot M f v.W ilnm s,534 U . 184,197eat i ng t d' n a or M. li S. 98

( ) bysrcl i epr tngt sdei tont rquiet tt ha adia lt one' tha 2002 , tity ntr ei hi fnii o e r ha o ve s biiy, ç mus ve
a i pai ntt tpr ve sor s ve e y r t i t t i vi ua f om d ng a tvii t ta e of n m nne ha e nt e r l esr c s he ndi d l r oi c i tes ha r

c ntali tnc t mos peo e' dal lve .'e e r mpora e o t pl s iy i s'(mphassa d) TheSuprmeCour we ton i dde . e t n
t hol t tm e el ha ng a m e c li paim e doesno m a one di a e f t pu pos s of o d ha r y vi di a m r nt t ke s bl d or he r e t AD A .l W he he a i vi he d. t r n ndi dualha a di a lt de nds o t ef e toft i pa r e ,not s s biiy pe n he f c he m im nt

t dignoss 1 l t ca ea ha pli if sonl e de t thehasa i nne a al i he a i. d. n he s t nd, a ntf ' y vi nce ha n mpai nt t l s
hi ow n t tm ony.H e ne rdi c s d hi i pa r e twih hi e pl rore s s esi ve s us e s m im n t s m oye ver oughta c dvi e a uti f om a m e c lpr e s ona . ar es , ven i pl i ifhad be n di gnos d w ih bo t r di a of s i l Reg dl s e f a ntf e a e t pa u es s t de e m i ton ofw he he he ha a di a lt w oul c e f om t efec t r r i , he t r na i t r d s biiy d om r he f t he pa ur i ha on t pl ntf ,nott f c t the ha pa ur i . s Cou tw ila s e r es s d he ai if he a t ha d r es s Thi r l s um , a g ndo,t tpl ntf ha m e t f r tpa tofhi r quie btr n t the ha C n i pa r e t' r ue ha ai i f s t he is r s e r d tde ha s ' m im n . a '

Pli ifmus alos t thi i r nta f tdamaorlf a tviy.l Hei t antf t s how ha s mpaime fece j ie ci t n ko,he FourhCic tdee ne t tt û lmi tonofbodiywat'wa amaorlf aci t Hei t rui tnni d ha he t i nai e l se' s j ie tviy. ko,
7

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43 F. a 255. urna i i a elmi to ofbodiy wa t ,pl i ifhasm e t s condpa t 4 3d t As i ton s n i nai n l se antf t he e r
ofhi r r s i s equied how ng.

To m e tt t r pa tofpl i tf sr q r d bur n,pl i t f m us s e he hid r a n if e uie de a n if t how t thi ha s i pa r e ca e a s t ntallm ia i on hi a lt t urna e. m im nt us d ubs a i i t ton s biiy o i t Unde t Supr m e Cour ' r he e ts i m a ng' s a r i Toyot ,a i pa nne tm us d e nto s r l r s rd ' a a viy t d de ndi ' t nda d n a n m i n t i ve r eve e y e ti ' n di t o pr be a s t n i llm ia i Toyot ,534 U . a 1 98.l H e ko, he Fourh C ic thel t t ubs a t a i t ton. a S. t 97- n i t t r ui d ha ( por di orot r s t m por r i pa r e sdo notq lf a s t nta lm ia i . Hei t a c s he wi e e a y m im nt ua iy s ubs a i l i t tons ' ko, '

434 F. a 257. 3d t Unde t sfa e k, antf cn tme tt t r r quie s r hi r m wor pl i if nno e he hid e r d howi t thi ng ha s
lm ia i i s t nta , nd hi c ai t the ha a di a lt unde t A DA f is i t ton s ubs a i l a s l m ha s s biiy r he a l. l t pr s ntc s ,pl i ifgi onl one s c fc e m pl ofbe ng c pl t l una et n he e e a e a ntf ves y pe i i xa e i om e e y bl o

urna ebe a eofhi di or r whi h wa durnghi obs r d dnl t t hiepl ntf cli s i t c us s s de , c s i s e ve g es.W l ai if am
t the e r e e di fc t i publc urnal o w he a ke t urna e unde diec obs r ton, ha xpe i nc d f i uly n i i s r n s do i t r r t e va i he wasa e t m a ge t s di fc tesby s m pl us ng a ba hr bl o na he e f i uli i y i t oom s a la c osng t doo , t l nd l i he r or us ng t r s r i he e t oom w he ot r we e no pr e . a n ifpr s nt no e de e t thi n he s r t es nt Pl i tf e e s vi nc ha s

i ime pr ve e ors ve ey r src e hi a lt t urna ea wor ori t communiy, mpa r nt e ntd e r l e tit d s biiy o i t t k n he t
whi h c c ouns sagai tfndi hi i pa r e w a s t nta .1Pl ntf ss ce sa m a i el ns i ng s m im nt s ubs a i l ai i f uc s t nag ng hi ditc t w as s n by t f tt the ne no ii hi l t r e pl rofhi s fi uly how he ac ha ver tfed s ong-e m m oye s pa ur s sors r ei oughtm e ca t e t e f hi di or r di l r a m nt or s s de . A spl i ifde ons r t sonl one e m pl ofar s rc i s ve e e a ntf m t a e y xa e e t i ton e r nough t ac ualy o t l pr n hi fom be ng a e t urna e a al, s h, s i pa nne i a m os d por c, a i eve t m r i bl o i t t l as uc hi m i nt s t t t adi ' nd t s '
lw he de em i ng i apl ntf s fr as t ta lm iaton u rt ADA ,t coreci m e s e t tt n t r ni f ai if ufes ubsanil i t i nde he he r tve a ur s ha he

i vi ha e o d a er e ntt t dee mi ton.Sutonv.Unie Ailnes l . 527 U. 47l(1 99) l a ndi dual s mplye r elva o he tr na i t td ri . nc, S. 9 .f
pl ntf e plysco r tvem ea ur t ts f inty bl tt i c oft i im e ,he t pl ntf i no ai if m o reci s es ha ufk e l un he mpa t he mpar nt t n he ai if s t dia e unde t ADA be us t plitf i r e doe notrs t as tntallm iaton.l a 482- l s bld r he ca e he an ifs mpaim nt s ie o ubsa i i t i d. t 83. n t pr e tca e Li he es n s , nkoushasi c t d o yone i tnc whe ehewaspr ve edfom urna i a i ev yot r ndia e nl nsa e r e nt r i tng, nd n er he i t nc hew a abl t m ii t hi i pa r e by us ng a sal ora e pt r s r . ns a e, s e o tga e s m im nt i t l n m y e toom

8

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c nnotqualf asa s t i lmiai He ko, F.d a 257.l Roha v. t ks a iy ubsantal i t ton. i 434 3 t n n Newor

Pr e ainsLLC,375F.d 266,268- ( hCi.2 , pli ifs fr dfom epiode whee esntto 3 9 4t r 004) a antf ufe e r s s r
s wasi pa e ofi er c i w ih o he s w hi h w e e s pt a i ofpos taum a i sr s he nca bl nt a tng t t r , c r ym om tc tr tc t e s

dior ra s ve ede es i f lwi c l s de nd e r pr son olo ng hidhood s xua a e. Fourh Cic thel t t30 e l bus The t r ui d ha
oft s e s ,whi h l t a m uc as30 m i e ea h,w e e ts adi ' a t tt s he e pi odes c ased s h nut s c r ipor c ' nd ha hi

v lmewa Sns fiin t e tbihas b tnili tt no amao lf a t t ' I a 2 6 ou s i u fce t o sa ls u sa ta lmiai n j r ie ci y. d. t 7 . i o vi '
Li nkous salege c to a heha d m onsr td onl one i t nc wher hewaspr ve e ' l d ondii n, s s e tae y nsa e e e nt d
f om urna i i m uc m or s a c a c nnotbe c i r d i ubs a i ' unde t s r i tng, s h e por di nd a onsde e t t ntal' s r hi pr e nt ec de . A ddii ly,t hol ng i Ro n s st te n lm ia i t tha a s ve e i pac tona l he di n ha how ha ve i t tons ha ve e r m t

on ape s n' lf ca bef r o s ie n ound nots t nta e ugh t co tt e adia lt Des t t f c ubsa il no o nsiut s biiy. pie he a t
t tRoha sc ii r ha n' ond ton ende e herc pl t l i a bl ofi e a tng w ih ot r , he Fo t rd om e e y nc pa e nt r c i t he s t urh

Cic tf md e n t ss ve e lmiai n di notq iy a as t nta lmia i l r ui ot ve hi e r i tto d ualf s ubsa i l i tton. d.

Si lry,i Boes v. n. il Ope ai sI .25F. x. 408(t Ci. mial n rt Ge M ls rtons nc, App' 403, 6h r zoo t zlunpubls ,hecour f t tt lmiainofpl ntf' se t bewee t a ihed)t t ound ha he i tto ai ifs lep o t n wo nd f hour perni C i notrs t t lvelofadia lt und t ADA.' spli ifha our s ghtl d) ie o he e dl sbiiy er he 'Thi antf d

h sa iiyt e g g i amao l ea t t c t nh l, n tec ur f u dt a t swa n t i b l o n a e n j r i ci y u i af a d h o t o n h thi s o a t f vi
s t nta lm ia i Li ubs a i l i t ton. nkous s i pa nne ,whi h he c ai sha c us d hi di fc t o y i ' m i nt c lm s a e m fi uly nl n c o de r toom sand a urna s i m uc l s s ve e t n m a i pa r e st tw e e f r w d esr t i l,s h e s e r ha ny m i m nt ha r ound nots t nta eno h t c tt e di a ltes ubs a i l ug o onsiut s biii .

Ast pli tf i Hei wa f undt acualy ha a s tntallm ia i a o he a n if n ko s o o t l ve ubsa i i t ton, nd ne

afeci t s memao lf a tviya t twhihLiko cams ac rs bewe nt f tng he a j r ie ci t s ha c n us li , ompa ion t e he
f ualcicum sancesi t case and t pr act r t n hat he esentone f t show sw hy Li urher nkousdoesnotm eet 9

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hi ne es a y bur n. n H e ko,ç o ac om pls t e va e tofurna i n,Hei ha t i e ta s c sr de l i s c t ih he qui l n i to ko d o ns r ne dl i o hi s gi ly- a hi d f sul a t t rhi s l t a di l i m a ne t r e e nt s ur ca l f s one i t a nd e he m e f o a ys s chi h ee a tr fe noons pe w e k, or a t a oft ee hour . He ko, 4 F. a 257. he e H e ko had t r e f ot l hr s' i 43 3d t ' W r as i o unde go t spa ns a ng pr s t ( i t ' a a l pl i i fdo notc ai t tt r i a hi r hi i t ki oce s o t na e ' t l, a ntf es ur l m ha he e s nyt ng

t tphysol c ly sopshi fom urna i lke a ne es Hei f l c pa eofurnai as ha i ogia l t m r i tng i nyo le. s uly a bl i tng
l a he ha a m ea ur ofprva y, c a sal doorore pt r t oo c e iy pr vi . ong s s s e i c whi h t l m y es r m an asl o de H e ko s w st tt bur n t esabls a di a lt i e pe i l hi h.Pl i if si pa r e i ho ha he de o t i h s biiy s s c aly g a ntf m im nt doe no c e c os t t l ve ofs ve iy ne s a y t cons iut a s t ntallm iaton ofhi s t om l e o he e l e rt ce s r o tt e ubs a i i t i s a lt t urna e. biiy o i t Li nkoushasf ie t s a l d o how t thi i pa r e c us s a (s t nta lm ia i ' o t ha s m im nt a e tubs a i l i t ton' t he

maorlf a tviyofurnai Hi i i nti as a mos tpo a c,' nds e nty j ie ci t i ton. s mpanne s lo t t k r di 'a ubs que l s
c nnotqualf a s t nta . ddii ly,i pa r e sm or s ve e t n t tf o whi h a iy s ubs a i l A tona l m im nt e e r ha ha r m c

pli ifc am shes f r ha be n f antf l i ufe s ve e ound nots t i .Pli ifc nnotmee t bur nt ubsantal antf a t he de o e t bls t thehasa C s biiy'unde t ADA . pl ntf i notdia e unde t ADA,he sa ih ha t a lt ' di r he As ai if s s bld r he
c n ha no cl i f wr a ve a m or ongf di c r ba e o hi a l ge di a lt ul s ha ge s d n s le d s biiy.
B . Pl ntf Til VII R et i i C l m ai irs t e alat on ai

Pl ntf alobrngsaTil V1 c am alegngt thi t na i n wasi r ala i f r ai if s i te l l i l i ha s enni to n et iton o
hi r e i a i i ntofs xualha a s e a hi pa tc pa i asa w ine st r of Til Vl ' s ol n n nc de e r s m nt nd s r i i ton t s he e . te l s a ir t la i pr s on f r ds a e pl rf om di c i i tng a i ta e pl e t c us nt -e a i ton ovi i o bi n m oye r s rm na i ga ns n m oye û a e be he hasm a a cha ge t s i i d, s s e orpa tc pa e i a m a ri a i tga i n, de r , e tfe as i t d, ri i t d n ny nne n n nves i to

pr ee ng,orhe rngunde t ss oc di ai r hi ubcha e . 42U. C.j2000e3() Tobrngacli f ptr' ' S. - a. i am or
r t la i n, a ntf ha t i ta bur n t e t bls a pr m a f ci c s ,w hi h he c n s ts y by e a i to pl i if s he nii l de o s a ih i a e ae c a a if

ma ngat e pa t howi ( )t thee ki hre- r s ng 1 ha ngage i apr e tdaci t ,( CrfM a tra t d n otce tviy'2) a t se ced
10

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a rel ag ns hi a ( t prt tdaci t wasc us l c dves y ai t m; nd 3) he oece tviy a aly onnece t t a re td o he dves
a ton.Hola v. ahi onHomes l ,48 F.d208(t Ci. ) Asumi a g ndo ci lnd W s nct . pc. 7 3 4h r 2007 . s ng r ue
t Li hat nkouscan pr enta prm a f e case,çt bur shi st t em pl es i aci she den ft o he oyert ari at a o tcul e

l gii a e, e tm t nondi c i i or r s f t a r e e pl ym e ac i n.' ilv. khee s r m nat y ea on or he dve s m o nt to ' H l Loc d

Ma tnLocitc M g .l ,35 F. 277,285( h Ci.200 .Clhi blr n, ve ,sa ri sis mt. nc. 4 3d 4t r 4) i- s zde howe r i bu d n ofpr re oduc i notpe s s on.' as ng on H om e ,l ,48 F. a 21 Oncet ton, r ua i ' W hi t s nc. 7 3d t 4. he e pl ye hass m o r hown t s C he bur n s fs ba k t t pl ntf t pr by a pr hi , l t de hi t c o he ai if o ove eponde a e of r nc t e d nc t tt e pl rss a e r as ç e e notist u r s , wer a pr t xt'' he vi e e ha he m oye ' t t d e ons w r t r e ea ons but e e e .'

Hil354F. a 285( i Re vesv. ndes nPl ncPr .l ,530U. a 1 .See l, 3d t quotng e Sa ro umbi ods nc. S. t 43)

as Da vs a v.Gr e ,404F. x.8 8 (t Ci.201 . lo r ihin e n. App' 22, 28 4h r 0)
Pl i tf hass a n if hown t the ha e ge i t pr e t d a tviy oft tf ng i a ha s nga d n he ot c e c i t es iyi n w or a e s kpl c exua ha a s e i s i ton,a t tCr fM a t rt r i ed hi e pl m e t He l r s m nt nve tga i nd ha a t s e e m nat s m oy n . hast s t s i t fr tt o pa t ofhi r quie prm a f c e c e.W hie t sCour doe not hus a i fed he i s w rs s e r d i a i as l hi t s t nk t tLi hi ha nkousha m e hi bu d ofs i c us to e n i pl i ifha es a i he hi s t s r en how ng a a i n, ve f a ntf d t bls d s prm a f c e c e, c l o s c ed on hi r t la i n c a m be a e he c t o pr t i a i as he a m t uc e s e a i to l i c us a m t ove hat Cr fM a t r s r as f t r i tng hi w a apr t xtf r dic i i ton. a t s e ' e on or e m na i m s e e o s r m na i Cr fM a t rpr e ed e de e t tLi a t s e es nt vi nc ha nkousw a t nni t d be us Cr t a t r s e na e ca e afM s e be i ve t tLi ko ha r f e t t ke a f l - dr t s . st sdr t tw asa f l up le d ha n us d e us d o a olow up ug e t A hi ug es olowdr t s a t rLi us s tr tt s a ug e t f e nko ' i s e t ppea e t ha bee a t r d,t Com pa de e m i d t t r d o ve n le e he ny t r ne ha

Pli ifa a e t be' ni ubor naedr gus rtyi t a ddeeci '( . 9a antf ppe r d o d ns di t u e r ng o voi t ton.'DktNo. t a
1 . ni Cr t atrsbeift tpl ntf ha rf e t pr deas mpl wasmitke a 6)Eve f afM se ' le ha ai if d eus d o ovi a e sa n, nd
pl ntf waspr ai if event f doi so becaus ofhi shy bl ed rom ng e s addersyndr e,ias l ast om s ong he em pl oyerdi char t em pl s ged he oyee becaus i hones l beleved t t em pl et ty i hat he oyee had engaged

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i m ic n s onduc , he t e pl rhasnotdi c i i t d o t bass ofdi a lt ' Pe e v. t t n he m oye s r m na e n he i s biiy.' nc

Te c Aut Opeai Co. 1 F.App' 8 811( hCi.2006) Thus Crfmatrs nne o o. rtnc , 69 x. 08, 4t r . , a t se '
dec s on t t r i t Li i i o e m na e nkous ba e on t t s i c pa r por t tLi sd he e tng om ny e t ha nkousha r f e t d e us d o t ke t f l - t tw asnotdi c i i to a he olow up es s rm na i n.

Be aus Cr fM ase ha a tc a e anon- s rm i t y r s f tr i tng Li c e a t t r s riult d dic i naor ea on or e m na i nkous ,
t bur n s fst Li he de hi t o nkoust s w t tCr hM a t r spr f r r as w asa pr t xtf r o ho ha a s e ' of e ed e on ee o r t la i n. nkouscoul dem ons r t pr t xtby s i t tCr t a t r sç of e e e a i to Li d ta e ee how ng ha afM s e ' t f r d pr

e a toni unworhyofce e. Hola 487F. a 218( tngTe De . xplnai s t rdenc ' lnd, ' 3d t cii xas ptof
Commu t Afar v.Bur ne 450U. 248, 6( 981.Pli ifc nno me t sbur n, niv fis di , S. 25 1 ) antf a t ethi de
how e r be us Cr f M as e s w ed t ti t r i t Lil usi a co da e wih isow n ve , ca e a t t r ho ha t e m na ed rko n c r nc t t dr po i i s The ef e t t r i ton wasnota p e e . ug lc e . r or , he e m na i r t xt

P an ifatmp e t p o i ee i n eta J h Do bisk pt i j bu e tesme litf te td o r v d vde c h t o n b n e h s o nd r h a
c r l s a est de whi h pl i ifw ast r i t d.Li iclm t nc m r c a ntf e m na e nkouscl m s t the a D obbi we e ai ha nd ns r s m ia l s t t d w ih r ga d t t i di ci i r r c ds a t tr t i ton c be i e r i l ry iua e t e r o he r s plna y e or , nd ha e ala i an nf r ed f om Cr fM a t ' di par t tea m en ofDobbi ' f l t s a Li r a t s er s s a e r t t ns s aied e t nd nkous sdi put d t s s ' s e e t. Cr fM a t rs st tD obbi t k a f l d one t s ;how e r Li a t s e how ha ns oo nd aie et ve , nkous s it d a ubm te s pi ous s m pl a t n r us t t ke a t rt t U nde t polci ofCr us ci a e nd he ef ed o a no he es . r he i es ahM a t ra s e nd t t s i a nc Li he e tng ge y, nkous st o di put d t s s a e no s m ia l s t t d t D o ns sone f ie ' w s e e t r t i l ry iua e o bbi ' a ld

t t ( . 1 a 5 . antf ha n s we a ras why Cr fM a trsr s nf gi ng es.DktNo. 5 t ) Pli if s ot ho d ny e on at se ' ea o or vi
dif r ntt e t e t t e t o f c ua l d f e e tc r u s a s i unw orhy ofcr de e. f e e r a m nt o hes w a t ly i f r n i c m t nce s t e nc Cr fM a t ra s pr e s e de e t ti ha t nni t d a e pl a t s e l o es nt vi nc ha t s e na e n m oyee f pr di a s e i y or ovi ng e m ngl a t e tr ts pl wihouta l w i t te pl e a opporuniy t r t t A s pl i if ler d i s nm e t lo ng ha m oye n t t o e es . a ntf sm ia l pr de a s em i y a t r d s m pl butw a a l e t o i l ry ovi d e ngl le e a e s low d he pporuniy t pr de a t t o ovi 1 2

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r t s , ai ifca e e t pl ntf nnots how t thewa sng e outf dipar t te t ntby Cr t aser ha s i ld or s ae r a me afM t .
Thus r ar e sofw he he pl i ifc n m a a prm a f c e c e, a ntf ' Til V l c a m m us , eg dl s t r a ntf a ke i a i as pl i if s te I l i t f lbec us he cam ots ai a e l how a r t la or pr t by r bu tng Cr t a t r sl gii a e r a on f e a i t y e ext e t i afM s e ' e tm t e s or t r i tng hi . e m na i m

Furhe m or ,t Cour be ivest pl n ifha f ie t m a t r quied s wi of t r e he t le hat aitf s al d o ke he e r ho ng c us ton t pr s ntaprm af c ec e. antf doe notpr s nte a ai o e e i a i as Pl i if s e e nough e de e f a vi nc or

ra o a l j r t i e t a h wa tr n tdb c u eo hspat iaini t es x a e s n be u y o nfr h t e s emiae e a s f i ri p to n h e u l c
ha a s e i tga i Somepli if brngi Til Vl cli a ea et s if t r s m nt nvesi ton. antfs i ng te l a ms r bl o atsy he
c us to r uie e by s i a c os t m po alpr xi iy be w e n a pr ec e a tviy a a a i n eq r m nt how ng l e e r o m t t e ot t d c i t nd a a r e e pl en ac i n. spl i ifw a t r i t d 1 m ont afe e gi i a n dve s m oym t t o A a ntf s e m na e 4 hs t r nga ng n pr t c e a tviy, w e r he cn o e t d c i t ho ve , nnotde o t a e a ca a i e enc ba ed on t m por l m nsr t us l nf r e s e a

pr miyal Se 800t v. avlnd,3 F. x.301 31 ( hCi. oxi t one. e h M r a 37 App' , 0 4t r 2009)(ttngani sai ne
m o h g bewe n t pr e t d a tviy a a r ee oy e aci c d no s nt ap t e he ot c e c i t nd dve s mpl m nt ton oul t uppor an t

i ee eofca ato ;s ealoPac lv. nfrnc us inl e s sua Lowe' HomeCe es I ,l F.App' 2 233 s ntrsnc. 93 x. 29, ( h Ci.2006 (ttngat eet f t mont pei t l ofapei t esabls ac us 4t r ) sai hr o otr h rod oo ong rod o t ih a al
co tonbewe nt s e nt) nneci t e he e ve s.
Ot rc t ha a l e pl ntf st s ts y t ca a i n r r m e by s i a he our s ve low d ai i f o a if he us to equie nt how ng

co nai offcor .Se Farelv.Plntr Liesve sCo.206F. 271( Ci.2000) mbi ton a t s e rl a es f a r , 3d 3d r .
ûFa t spe tne t t c us t o el m e m a i l t m por lpr m iy be w e n t t o t c or ri nt o he a a i n e nt y nc ude e a oxi t t e he w e n s a i er ni pater ofr t i t r c ve t , n nt ve ng t n e ala o y onduc ,i ons se r as by t e pl yerf t t nc i t nt e ons he m o or he ad r e ac i a dif r nta t e t e ofot r e pl es' J udo v.El rH e t l ,1 ve s ton, nd f e e i l r a m nt he m oye . a n ' de a1h, nc. 25

F.Supp. 1 1 ( M d.2000 ( tngFarl,206F. 271 279- ) Be us pli ifha 2d 53, 65 D. ) cii rel 3d , 81. ca e antf s
no e de e oft por lpr m iy a hasnotof e ed a e de t tCr t a t rha of e e vi nc em a oxi t nd f r ny vi nce ha afM s e s f r d

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i nss e r a ons f rhi t r i ton,pl i ifm us r l on a i e v ng pa t n of nco i t nt e s o s e m na i a ntf t ey n nt r eni ter r t it y c e ala or onduc t pr ca a i t o ove us ton.

Plitf ag e ta h wa s b e tdt av reyo f r o rtlao yc n u t anif r u s h t e s u j ce o ait f o ms f eaitr o d c
su undi hi a tw ng s ppea a easa wine si t s xua ha as me i tga i Pl n ifc am s r nc t s n he e l r s nt nvesi ton. aitf l i
t the wasde e a oppo t t t a y f as i t ntw a e ha ni d n r uniy o ppl or s s a r hous m a ge a gi n asa e na r nd ve

ra ont tShe ha abi mo ha sa tedlt muc s t'( . 1 a 2) Li e s ha d j d g ut nd trg oo h hi. DktNo. 3 t . nkous g '
c ai st tc m e ti a e m pl ofr t la or c l m ha om n s n xa e e a i t y onduc on t pa toft Cr f M as e t he r he a t t r s r s be us ofLi upe vior ca e nkous sr e i t s xualha a s e i tga i Rega dl s ofw ha ' ol n he e r s m nt nves i ton. r es t

t ema a e ma o ma no h v s i,j v nl (.j(n lds aa i c mme t, i h n g r y r y t a e ad du e ie .. a d ip rgng o n s whl e
u e a ,d note nc a pate ofr t i t r co uc . Br n v. npl as nt o vi e tm e ala o y nd t' va Luce Te ' nt chnol es l . oci . nc ,

307F. Supp. 7 7 ( M d.2004) Li 2d 26, 41 D. . nkousalocamst tt i tgae s xua s li ha he nvesi td e l
ha a s e di no e w ih t i ve tga i a t the c tnued t e r s m nt d t nd t he n s i ton, nd ha on i o xpere r t la or i nce e a i t y t e t e be us ofhi r e i def ng t vi tm . a ntf pr e s no e de e, e r r a m nt ca e s ol n endi he c i Pl i if es nt vi nc how ve , t the ort vi i eve m a a herc pl i t Cr fM a t rc ha he d m r de not om a nt o a t s e once ni t s e tnued r ng hi on i

te t nt( tNo.1 a 9- 0 . rame .Dk . 5 t 1)
Re r ng Li ussc am sofCr fM ase ' dif r nta te t tofot e o s ga di nko ' l i al tr s fe e il r a men her mpl yee , t sCo ta e s dpl ntf' cli sa utJ l Dob nse ri i t opi on, antf a s hi ur ddr s e ai ifs am bo om bi a ler n he ni Pl i if lo
cl i st the r c i d hei e pmzs e sf wor a i de sasr a i ton,a gi s a m ha e e ve ght ned i hm nt or kpl ce nci nt et la i nd ve a e m pl whe e a f l e pl e r c ve a w rte w a i f a i de of n xa e r elow m oye e ei d it n m ng or n nci nt

i ubor nai whee Li ns di ton ras nkouswass pende frt e da f asmia i de .Dk. us d o hr e ys or i lr nci nt( tNo. 1 a 1 . Sg eel lbei c 3 t 0)Butdml r y a lng onduc a rt itr doe no makei s 'Br n,307F.Su t s ealaoy s t t o.' ya pp.
2d a 7 . t 41 The f c ua r c d m a s c e rt tdif r nte pl esr c ve di f r nt a t l e or ke l a ha f e e m oye e ei d f e e puni hm e sa dif r nttm e f rdi f e i i nt . s nt t f e e i s o fer nt nc de s
14

Case 7:10-cv-00107-JCT Document 22

Filed 07/16/12 Page 15 of 15 Pageid#: 553

Fi ly,Li nal nkousgi no c e bl e plna i f why Cr t a t rdeci d t t m i t ves r di e x a ton or afM se lne o er na e
hi f a o ofhi s ve aldi c plna y i de sbe w e n Se e ber2006 a Se e be m or ny ne s e r s i i r nci nt t e pt m nd pt m r

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pl ntf num e oustm e prort hi a t lt r i ton a c e nott do s Lil ai i f r i s i o s c ua e m na i nd hos o o. rkousw o d ul ha t Cour bele t tCr hM as e waied untlove a yea a t hi pa tc pa i n i t ve he t i ve ha a tr t i r r fer s r i i to n he pr ec e i s i ton t fr hi . G i n t i t r ni opporunii f Cr fM a t rt tr ot t d nve tga i o ie m ve he n e ve ng t tes or a t s e o i e

Li us Li nko , nkoussc r ofr t lai n l c c e biiy.Furhe ' ha ge e ai to a ks r di lt t nnor ,whe Cr t a t r e n afM se
fna l di fr Li us t y a tc a e a c ea r s f doi s t tco ple w ih c pa i ly d i e nko , he r i ul t d l r ea on or ng o ha m i d t om ny polc Thus Li i y. , nkous c m otm e tt r quie btr n f hi Til Vl r t la i c a m . H e ha al e he e r d lde or s te I e a i ton l i s f ie t m a outa prm a f ci ca e a m or i pora l e n i he c d m a a prm a f i a l d o ke i a e s nd e m t nty, ve f oul ke i ac e

c e,Li as nkousc r s amot how t Cr fM ase us d apr t xt r a on t fr hi . hat a t tr e e e ual e s o ie m
1V . C oncl i us on

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Senl Unied St es Di ' J or t at s ct udge 15