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Drug Name Drug Action Indication and Dosage Adverse Reaction Pharmacokinetics Pharmacodynamics Nursing

Consideration

Ethambutol is a Bacteriostatic Oral -Optic neuritis It is well Ethambutol is an Perform visual


bacteriostatic against actively PRIMARY is the absorbed from oral acuity and color
antimycobacterial growing TB TREATMENT OF inflammation of the chemotherapeutic discrimination
drug prescribed bacilli, it works PULMONARY AND the optic nerve gastrointestinal agent which is test before and
to treat by obstructing EXTRAPULMONAR that may cause tract and well specifically during therapy
tuberculosis the formation of Y TB a complete or distributed in effective against
(Mycobacterium cell wall. partial loss of body tissues actively growing Ensure that any
tuberculosis). It Mycolic acids Adult: As vision. and fluids, 50% microorganisms changes in
is usually given attach to the hydrochloride: Initial is excreted of the genus vision don’t
in combination 5'-hydroxyl 8 wk: 15 mg/kg/day -Color unchanged in Mycobacterium, result from an
with other groups of D- or 30 mg/kg thrice blindness, a urine. inclu underlying
tuberculosis arabinose wkly given with color vision ding M. condition
drugs, such as residues of isoniazid, rifampicin deficiency, is tuberculosis
isoniazid, arabinogalactan and pyrazinamide. the inability to (PDR,1989). Obtain AST and
pyrazinamide and and form For patients with perceive Ethambutol is ALT levels
rifampicin. mycolyl- history of differences bacteriostatic and before therapy,
arabinogalactan- antimycobacterial between some appears to inhibit and monitor
It is sold under peptidoglycan therapy: Initial doses: of the colors the synthesis of these levels
the name complex in the 25 mg/kg/day for 60 that others can one or more every 3 to 4
"Myambutol". cell wall. It days, thereafter distinguish. It is metabolites, thus weeks
disrupts reduce to 15 most often of causing
arabinogalactan mg/kg/day. genetic nature, impairment of In patients with
synthesis by Child: For treatment but may also cell metabolism, impaired renal
inhibiting the of drug-resistant occur because arrest of function, base
enzyme tuberculosis: 15-25 of eye, nerve, or multiplication, dosage on drug
arabinosyl mg/kg daily or 50 brain damage, and cell death. level.
transferase. mg/kg twice wkly. or due to
Disruption of For congenitally No cross Always give
the acquired tuberculosis: exposure to resistance with drug with other
arabinogalactan Neonates: 15 mg/kg certain other available antituberculotics
synthesis once daily and ≥1 chemicals. antim to prevent
inhibits the mth: 15 mg/kg once ycobacterial development of
formation of daily or 30 mg/kg 3 -Peripheral agents has been resistant
this complex times wkly for 2 mth neuropathy is demonstrated. organisms
and leads to initial treatment the term for Etha
increased phase. damage to mbutol has been Monitor uric
permeability of Elderly: Should be nerves of the shown to be acid level;
the cell wall. taken with food peripheral effective against observe patients
nervous system, strain signs and
which may be s of symptoms of
caused either by mycobacterium gout.
diseases of the tuberculosis but
nerve or from does not seem
the side-effects to be active
of systemic against fungi,
illness. viruses, or other
Peripheral bacteria.
neuropathies Etha
vary in their mbutol is also
presentation and active against
origin, and may some atypical
affect the nerve myco
or the bacteria
neuromuscular including M.
junction. kansasii.
Primary
-Arthralgia resistance
(from Greek to ethambutol is
uncommon in
arthro-, joint + developed
-algos, pain) countries but
literally means resistant strains
joint pain; it is a of M.
symptom of tuberculosis are
injury, readily produced
infection, if the drug is used
illnesses -- in alone.
particular
arthritis-- or an
allergic reaction
to medication.

According to
MeSH, the term
"arthralgia"
should only be
used when the
condition is
non-
inflammatory,
and the term
"arthritis"
should be used
when the
condition is
inflammatory.

Hypersensitivity
Category B: Either animal-reproduction studies have not demonstrated a foetal risk but there are no controlled studies in pregnant
women or animal-reproduction studies have shown an adverse effect (other than a decrease in fertility) that was not confirmed in
controlled studies in women in the 1st trimester (and there is no evidence of a risk in later trimesters

Absorption delayed or reduced by aluminum hydroxide. Synergistic effect with other antitubercular agents.

Precautions Impaired pre-treatment visual acuity, elderly, children. Perform liver, kidney and visual acuity tests
regularly. Caution when assessing visual acuity in patients with cataracts, DM, recurrent eye
inflammation to make sure that changes are not due to the underlying causes.