Design and Flight Control of Miniature Aerial Vehicle

A THESIS SUBMITTED FOR THE DEGREE OF Master of Engineering IN THE FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

By Ch.Sunil Kumar

Department of Aerospace Engineering Indian Institute of Science Bangalore-560 012 July 2012

Acknowledgements
I would like to sincerely thank my research advisor Prof. M Seetharama Bhat for introducing me to this area of research. His constant guidance and dedication towards research helped me in understanding the practical difficulties faced by the people working in this area. He taught me the way of interpreting the results which helped me in strengthening my basic knowledge. I am very thankful to all my course instructors who helped me in understanding the subject in a better way. They have enriched my knowledge on various research topics that are currently being used. I would like to thank Titas, Harikumar, and Madhumita for being a great support in my research work. They helped me in analyzing the results and understanding the purpose of the experiment. I would like to thank Nsp Varma, Amarender, Reginald, Venkatesh, Akhilesh and Ramjee for their support in academic and personal life. Without them my stay in IISc would have not been possible. Their constant support helped in understanding the way to lead my life in a better way. I would also like to thank Dr. Prashant and Mr.Sam for coming to the institute to fly the vehicle whenever needed. I am grateful to my parents and my brother for bringing me up to what I am now. In spite of the family background, they encouraged and supported me in pursuing higher education. They were always supportive in all the decisions in my life. Finally I would like to thank all the people staying in IISc for making my stay in IISc a memorable one.

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Artificial stabilization is required to improve the flying qualities of the vehicle. The controller also needs to reject wind gust disturbances during flight. It has a low phugoid and dutch roll damping.000 at flight velocity of 8m/s to 18m/s. The wing and tail configurations of the vehicle are designed.000 and 215. This low damping makes it difficult for the pilot to fly the vehicle. It is readily available at low cost since it is manufactured in large numbers and sold to hobby flyers. It has good glide properties and hence it will land gently in case of power/battery failure.Abstract The term „Miniature air vehicle‟ (MAV) is used for unmanned aerial vehicles which are man-portable. The design and methodology of constructing a miniature air vehicle and its flight control is discussed in this thesis. It allows only PID based feedback structures to be implemented. This vehicle is selected as it has a stable operation in radio controlled mode. The limitations of the vortex-lattice simulation based sofwares used for modeling increases the uncertainty in the plant model. The vehicle is mathematically modeled. All the above requirements v . The vehicle should have a maximum take-off weight of 1. A typical MAV has a weight of around 2kg to 5 kg.5 kg and an endurance of 45-60 minutes. instead of constructing a new vehicle. wingspan of 1m to 2m. It should have a low stall speed which makes it possible to be hand launched. The digital integrator and differentiator implementations are non-ideal which further reduces the effectiveness of the control. The feedback for stabilization is implemented on the kestrel autopilot hardware. These MAV‟s are used in military and civilian applications. It is capable of autonomous and semi-autonomous flights after installation and tuning of feedback loops. the existing vehicle-Fpv Raptor is procured from the market. The vehicle should be installed with Kestrel autopilot system. The vehicle operates at Reynolds number between 90. Due to the availability of a similar kind of vehicle matching the requirements. Its range should be 1-2 km with an operating height of 100-200 meters and a cruise velocity of 15m/s and should be electrically propelled. hence gives no choice to the designer to implement higher order control.

damping of closed loop poles. To combine the effectiveness of robust control design and statistical learning theory. In the longitudinal dynamics. The statistical learning theory overcomes both the above problems but suffers with confidence and accuracy limitations. pitch rate and pitch angle feedback are used to improve the damping of the phugoid mode. gain and phase margin. a combined Monte Carlo and modified Iterative Linear Matrix Inequality (ILMI) algorithm is used to design the controller. and performance are simultaneously applied in the algorithm. . The designed controller is tested and the simulation results showed improvement in the performance of closed loop plant. The constraints on pole placement. The classical robust control design suffers either from over conservativeness or computational intractability.Abstract vi can be best addressed in robust control design. The PID control required for stabilizing the longitudinal plant model is designed by using the combined algorithm.

.22 2.....1 Introduction………………………………………………………………………….2 Technology Availability…………………………………………………………18 2..11 Organization of the Thesis………………………………………………………..22 2.8 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………….…………………………….....12 2..1 Motivation and Objective…………………………………………………………..2..........2...11 1.2.. MAV Design Process 15 2..2 Design Process of vehicle…………………..5 1.. Introduction 1 1..2.3 Fpv Raptor………………………………………………………………………...2 1.11 1.....2.2 Literature Survey……………………………………………………………………..2.…….2.2 MAV Design…………………………………………………………………………….2 Contribution……………………………………………………………………..2..2.17 2......1 Design Requirements……………………………………………………………..7 Path Planning and Following Algorithms…………………………………………8 1...Contents Acknowledgements Abstract Nomenclature and Abbreviations List of Tables List of Figures iii v xi xv xvii 1..4 1..2 1...5 Linear Matrix Inequality…………………………………………………………..3 Scope of the Thesis…….15 2...4 1.6 Statistical Learning Theory and Randomized Algorithms……………………….2....1 1.2...17 2..3.3 1.3 Mathematical Modeling…………………………………………………………......1 Miniature Air Vehicles……………………………………………………....2...3.....3 Initial Sizing……………………………………………………………..4 Robust Control Techniques………………………………………………………..4 Aerodynamic Design……………………………………………………………...……………………………………………………………….30 vii .1 1..7 1..

.4 Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………34 3.35 3..2......5 Actuator modeling………………………………………………………………...........2................40 3.5.3 Response to step input…………..........62 4.4 Generalized Plant for H2/H Control design…………………………………………….....2 Estimation of Moments of Inertia……………………………………………..1 The steps of modified ILMI algorithm……………………………………………62 4.........7 Monte Carlo based modified ILMI Algorithm…………………………………………...2 3.............3 Static Output Feedback for Non-Ideal PID Implementation…………………………..........4 Throttle Modeling………………………………………………………………..2........54 4....40 3.....44 Response to pulse input……………………………………………….…57 4..3 Stability and Control Derivatives…………………………………………..43 3......3..1 Linearized decoupled state space model…………………………………………39 3. Mathematical Modeling of Fpv Raptor 35 3..3....35 3....39 3...1 Generating Control and Stability Derivatives……………………………………50 4.1 3...67 ..2.........3.49 3..61 4....8 Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………...3 Open Loop responses for Longitudinal and lateral Model ……………………………...............5..............1 Introduction………………………………………………………………………………53 4.54 4.42 3..………………………………………………...48 3..66 4.....2....2 Mathematical Modeling……………………………………………………. Iterative Linear Matrix Inequality with Statistical Learning Theory 53 4..46 Response to 3-2-1-1 input………………………………………………………....5 Modified ILMI Algorithm………………………………………………………………..5 Appendix…………………………………………………………………………………50 3.6 Sampling Based ILMI Control Design………………………………………………….......Contents viii 2...4 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………….1 LMI for pole placement on the left side of ζ = α line in complex s-plane……….2.65 4...1 Introduction…………………………………………………………….............2 Linear Matrix Inequalities……………………………………………………………….

3 Lateral Control Design………………………………………………………………….2 Longitudinal Control Design…………………………………………………………….2 Feedback design using Monte Carlo based modified ILMI algorithm …………..2..3 Attitude Hold Control System…………………………………………………..2.70 5. Conclusions and Future Work……………………………………………………………..5 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………….....Contents ix 5.69 5.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………………………69 5.73 5.2.1 Classical feedback Analysis…………………………………………………….87 References 89 .4 Open loop and Closed loop simulation………………………………………………….80 5.84 5.86 6. Controller Design 69 5.83 5.

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Nomenclature and Abbreviations
AR b c
- Wing aspect ratio - Wing span - Mean aerodynamic chord - 2-D Drag coefficient - Normalized aerodynamic force in the X direction - Normalized aerodynamic force in the Y direction - Normalized aerodynamic force in the Z direction - 2-D Drag Coefficient - 3-D Drag Coefficient - 3-D Lift Coefficient - Normalized aerodynamic rolling moment - Variation of rolling moment with roll rate - Variation of rolling moment with yaw rate - Variation of rolling moment with sideslip - Maximum lift coefficient - Pitching moment coefficient - Normalized aerodynamic pitching moment - Variation of pitching moment with forward velocity - Variation of pitching moment with pitch rate - Variation of pitching moment with angle of attack
̇

- Variation of pitching moment with angle of attack - Normalized aerodynamic yawing moment - Variation of yawing moment with roll rate - Variation of yawing moment with yaw rate - Variation of yawing moment with sideslip - Coefficient of thrust

- Variation of X force with pitch rate
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Nomenclature and Abbreviations

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̇

- Variation of X force with forward velocity - Variation of X force with angle of attack - Variation of X force with rate of change of α - Variation of Y force with roll rate - Variation of Y force with yaw rate - Variation of Y force with sideslip - Variation of Y force with roll angle - Variation of Y force with heading - Variation of Z force with pitch rate - Variation of Z force with forward velocity - Variation of Z force with angle of attack - Variation of Z force with rate of change of α

̇

- Error in pitch angle - Moment of inertia around body fixed X, Y and Z axis - Cross moment of inertia between body fixed x and z axis - Derivative gain

- Derivative gain for pitch rate feedback - Derivative gain for pitch angle feedback - Integral gain for pitch angle feedback
- Integral gain

- Proportional gain for pitch rate feedback - Proportional gain for pitch angle feedback
L L/D M p q r Re S - Lift force of airplane - Lift-to-drag ratio also called glide ratio - Pitching moment of airplane - Roll rate - Pitch rate - Dynamic pressure = - Yaw rate - Reynolds number - Surface area of the wing

Density of air in Kg/ .Damping of phugoid.Quadratic Linear matrix inequality . short period frequency .Gain margin .Athena Vortex Lattice software .Aileron deflection .MAV used in this thesis .Computational fluid dynamics .Angle of attack .Proportional Integral Derivative controller .Phase margin .Forward velocity .Pulse width modulation . dutch.Brushless motor (nomenclature used by model motors) .Elevator commanded .Nomenclature and Abbreviations xiii u . dutch roll od short period modes .University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign .Roll angle .Dynamic viscosity of air .Miniature air vehicle .Lithium Polymer .Extended polypropylene (Type of foam used for model airplanes) .Angle of sideslip .Phugoid.Pitch angle .Linear Quadratic Regulator .Glenn Martin-15 airfoil .Bilinear matrix inequality .Xfoil software used for mathematical modeling similar to AVL .Flight path angle .Linear matrix inequality .Iterative Linear Matrix Inequality .Yaw angle .Elevator deflection α β γ θ ξ ω ρ Φ ψ μ AVL AXI BMI CFD EPP Fpv Raptor GM ILMI LiPo LMI LQR MAV PID PM PWM QMI UIUC GM-15 XFLR5 .

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10 Properties of Fpv Raptor……………………………………………………………………34 3..1 List of autonomous electrically powered miniature air vehicles……………………………..6 Open loop and Closed loop characteristics………………………………………………….List of Tables 1.3 Battery survey………………………………………………………………………………..8 Comparison of airfoil properties…………………………………………………………….1 MAV Design Requirements…………………………………………………………………..7 Characteristics of the vehicle designed using S1223 and Clark Y airfoils………………….4 Longitudinal PID gains………………………………………………………………………76 5.18 2...32 2.6 Airfoils having 5-7% thickness………………………………………………………………26 2..2 Longitudinal Control design requirements………………………………………………….5 Eigenvalue-Eigenvector of closed loop plant………………………………………………..24 2.5 Airfoils having 10-12% thickness shortlisted from database……………………………….1 Theoretical and experimental moment of inertia values…………………………………….76 5..3 Uncertainty considered for the stability derivatives…………………………………………73 5.21 2.19 2.7 Lateral Control design requirements…………………………………………………………83 xv .3 2.40 3..2 Characteristics of the plant model……………………………………………………………43 5...70 5.77 5.29 2.1 Eigen Vector analysis for longitudinal motion………………………………………………70 5.4 Initial Weight Estimate………………………………………………………………………22 2.9 Comparison of vehicle properties……………………………………………………………32 2.2 Motor Survey……………………………………………………………………………….

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List of Figures
1.1 Description of RRT algorithm………………………………………………………………9 1.2 Reactive Obstacle avoidance algorithm……………………………………………………...10 1.3 Construction of waypoint path in Reactive Obstacle Avoidance Algorithm………………...10 2.1 Flow chart for design and development of MAV …………………………………………...16 2.2 Power available and Power required curves versus velocity for 11×7 propeller…………….21 2.3 Airfoil of Fpv Raptor………………………………………………………………………...31 2.4 Fpv Raptor modeled in XFLR……………………………………………………………….31 2.5 Comparison of characteristics of Fpv Raptor and vehicle using Clark Y airfoil…………….33 3.1 Coefficient of Thrust versus Advance Ratio for 8×4 inch propeller………………………41 3.2 Power available and Power required curves versus velocity………………………………...41 3.3 Response of servo actuator to step input……………………………………………………..42 3.4 Response for unit step input to elevator……………………………………………………...44 3.5 Response for unit step input to aileron………………………………………………………45 3.6 Response for unit step input to rudder……………………………………………………….45 3.7 Response to unit pulse elevator………………………………………………………………46 3.8 Response to unit pulse aileron……………………………………………………………….47 3.9 Response to unit pulse rudder………………………………………………………………..47 3.10 Response to 3-2-1-1 input to elevator………………………………………………………48 3.11 Response to 3-2-1-1 input to aileron………………………………………………………..48 3.12 Response to 3-2-1-1 input to rudder………………………………………………………..49 4.1 General feedback plant………………………………………………………………………55

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List of Figures

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4.2 Closed loop system with PID-PD feedback………………………………………………….57 4.3 SOF closed loop system……………………………………………………………………...60 4.4 Generalized Plant…………………………………………………………………………….61 5.1 Longitudinal Nominal Plant………………………………………………………………….71 5.2 Root locus for pitch rate feedback…………………………………………………………...71 5.3 Step response of the closed loop system……………………………………………………..72 5.4 Longitudinal Generalized plant………………………………………………………………74 5.5 Nominal Lateral Plant………………………………………………………………………..77 5.6 Bode plot of the system obtained by breaking at the input…………………………………..78 5.7 Step response of the closed loop system for plant model at 8m/s…………………………...79 5.8 Bode plot of the system obtained by breaking at the input (plant model at 8m/s)…………79 5.9 Step response of the closed loop system for plant model at 18m/s………………………….79 5.10 Bode plot of the system obtained by breaking at the input (plant model at 18m/s)………..80 5.11 Altitude Hold Control System……………………………………………………………...81 5.12 Nominal Lateral Plant………………………………………………………………………82 5.13 Open loop response for a commanded elevator (step input)………………………………..83 5.14 Closed loop response for a commanded elevator (step input)……………………………...84 5.15 Step Response of the closed loop system…………………………………………………..86

Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 Motivation and Objective
The term „Miniature Air Vehicle‟ (MAV) is used for Unmanned Air Vehicles which are man-portable. A typical MAV has a weight of around 2kg to 5 kg, wingspan of 1m to 2m. Vehicles of smaller size and weight (micro air vehicles) are being developed around the world. These MAV‟s can carry a larger payload (hence more useful work) when compared to the smaller vehicles. They can operate in wind gusts which are intolerable for the micro air vehicles. These vehicles can be used in situations of natural disasters like earthquakes, floods or cyclones where human being gets trapped. There are helicopters used to survey the area and gather information but they are expensive and cannot be launched in large numbers at short notices. The MAV‟s equipped with a reasonable high resolution cameras can directly send video to the ground station giving an overview of the situation. The general payload carried by these vehicles is a high resolution camera which can directly transfer video to the ground station. They can be used in automobile traffic monitoring, wild land monitoring, pipelines and power line monitoring and for surveillance in areas having risk of illegal mining. They can be pre-programmed to visit a desired location and can be rescheduled during flight. In military use, the soldiers can carry these portable vehicles with them during any operation. They can be flown over the enemy territory in order to know the position of the enemy ground force before proceeding any further. They also can be used for border patrol. These vehicles can be equipped with explosives or biochemical weapons. These can be used to directly execute the enemy artillery in order to reduce the loss of our human life. With the evolution of present sensor technology, there are high quality, light weight sensors available for collecting weather information, detecting explosives and land resources. The MAV research is also interesting for a researcher because of the opportunity to build a real airplane and learn flying it. Flying the vehicle under wind disturbances and practically testing the 1

2 Literature Survey 1.2. The typical weight of these vehicles is around 2 Kg. The total weight of the vehicle including the payload should not exceed 1. The wing span is typically below 1. Their operating range should be more than 5 km as the ground force should not be too close to the enemy territory.1 along with their specifications. 2] and some of them are tabulated in table 1. can be hand launched and easily flyable. the vehicle should fly a fairly stabilized flight at a constant altitude so that the information from the camera installed onboard is useful. This allows higher navigation loops to be added for autonomous operation of the vehicle. Introduction 2 control system designed by them is very interesting and challenging. They use electric propulsion producing minimum noise and heat signature which makes them undetectable to the enemies while flying over enemy . The military specifications that these vehicles satisfy are given in [3]. For surveillance purposes. These vehicles satisfy the military specifications [3] and are being widely used for surveillance applications. The MAV‟s given in the table 1. There are various MAV‟s already designed and being used in military applications given in [1. 1. It involves knowledge from multiple disciples which improves the awareness of the researcher in various fields. Therefore.5 kg.1 Miniature Air Vehicles There are different types of MAV‟s such as Fixed Wing. Rotary Wing. The objective of this thesis is to develop a miniature air vehicle which is man portable.1 are used in military applications.5 km. The typical characteristic for these military vehicles is that they can be assembled and hand launched within a few minutes. The handling qualities of these vehicles are poor due to their low damped dynamics. They are carried by the soldiers in their backpack. Hence artificial flight stabilization is required in order to obtain a stabilized flight. The ceiling of the aircraft is from 3 km to 4.Chapter 1. The conventional fixed wing aircraft have good gliding ability and good handling qualities. development of flight control and testing its performance during flight is the highest priority. Flight stabilization improves the quality of the flight and reduces the pilot effort required. Tailless aircraft. They have an endurance of 1 hour and are operated at a height of 300-600 meters above ground level.5 m which makes them less detectable during flight and also easily portable. It should be electrically propelled in order to reduce the engine noise.

Conceptual Design: In this phase.85 ---1. battery. Introduction 3 territory. preliminary and detail design. The level of the detail of the design increases as we go through conceptual. The typical payload carried by these vehicles is a high resolution camera or infrared camera which can directly send the video to the ground station.46 0. This design includes the size and shape of the wing. Table 1.7Kg 45-60 min 100-300 1. . Preliminary Design: In this phase only minor changes are made to the configuration of the vehicle (wing or tail configuration).9Kg 80 min 1000 1.2 Design Process of vehicle The Design process includes three phases and is disused in detail in [16]. The brief overview of the design process is given below: i.Chapter 1. location of the payload. the design requirements are used to guide and evaluate the development of the overall aircraft configuration arrangement.42 MAV name Maximum Endurance Weight 45 min Range (km) Payload Aladin Bird Eye 100 Bush master Swift Eye Dragon Eye RQ-11A (Raven) 3Kg 1.8Kg 5km 5km 8km ---- Electro-optical camera -------Color TV-camera (fuselage mounted) Color TV-camera Motion camera or 60min 90min 40 min 2. the required tail geometry and its configuration.3Kg 2Kg 1.3 10km 1.1 List of autonomous electrically powered miniature air vehicles Operating Altitude (meters) 150-250 ---------300-600 300-600 Wing span (meters) 1. motor.1 10km electro-optical camera (nose assembly) Video and Infrared camera 1.2. Extensive wind tunnel testing and CFD ii.

The uncertainty is also introduced intentionally when the non-linear aircraft model is linearized for .Chapter 1. Detail Design: In this phase. The main goal of mathematical model of aircraft is 1. The equations of the model define relationship between system variables. placement of components are finalized and detailed drawings of the airplane are made. 1. fuselage configuration. aircraft and its surroundings) and a process (i. These are thoroughly discussed in [6]. derive servo and throttle commands. compute guidance parameters. Estimating the command inputs needed to guide the aircraft along a selected path following some predefined waypoints. At the end of this phase. At the end of this phase the wing. 1. These vortex based simulation softwares are not professional softwares and thus do not offer any guarantees of robustness and accuracy. control of the aircraft along some desired path). The size. For the aircraft the mathematical model is to describe both a physical system (i. Predicting the aircraft state using motion inputs. The mathematical equations and values are used to convert motion sensor inputs into measurements of aircraft state. the aircraft is ready to be fabricated. 5].2.e.3 Mathematical Modeling After design and fabrication of the vehicle. Using the above model we can design navigation and guidance systems capable of autonomously guiding an aircraft through predefined waypoints.4 Robust Control Techniques Robust control techniques are widely used in aerospace applications because of the uncertainties present in their dynamics and also in the environment in which they fly. the detailed design of each and every part (including the nuts and bolts) to be fabricated is done. tail configuration.e. Introduction 4 iii. mathematical modeling of it is done using vortex lattice based simulation softwares like XFLR5 and AVL [4. number and location of each component to be fabricated are calculated and detailed drawings with actual fabrication geometries and dimensions are made. 2. and perform co-ordinate frame transformations.2. calculations are done in this phase. The aircraft is a nonlinear system and this system is linearized into longitudinal and lateral modes which illustrate the longitudinal and lateral motion respectively.

The modeling errors are due to the inability of the wind tunnel to simulate the environment in which the vehicles actually fly or due to the approximations done by flow simulation software used to model the aircraft. The environment being an open space is difficult to predict and this introduces uncertainty in the vehicle behavior during flight. The modeling errors and the wind gust disturbances are the major source of uncertainties in the aircraft application. if we know the bounds on each of the parameters then the uncertainties can be modeled using Linear Fractional Transformation (LFT). Robust control theory is used to design the flight control system. The navigation control commands are produced by the deviation of real position data with the preset flight path.5 Linear Matrix Inequality The modern control design problem is to solve for a good solution for a problem with conflicting requirements which is similar to solving an optimization problem or feasibility . In [10] μ-synthesis is done on the LFT model and the resulting controller performance is shown to be better than the H-infinity based controller. In [11]. The uncertainty is also introduced due to modeling errors. in the flight control design we have to incorporate certain robustness to these uncertainties. The uncertainties can also be handled using a stochastic control technique in which the uncertainty is modeled as probabilistic variables and designing the control after introducing them in the dynamics.Chapter 1. In [8] LQR design is used in which all the states should be available for feedback. Introduction 5 control design. In case of an aircraft. the Eigen structure assignment is used in which the modeling uncertainties are not considered. all the robust control methods are briefly discussed. This is a robust control way of handling the uncertainties. In [12]. Integral separated PID controller and Adaptive proportion PID controller are compared for a UAV application. Therefore. In the aircraft application all the states are not available for feedback which requires a Kalman filter to estimate the unknown states which is a LQG design discussed in the same paper. the classical PID-controller. The uncertainty in the system can be handled by specifying bounds on the uncertainties and designing the control which gives satisfactory performance for uncertainties within these bounds. 1. In [7].2. This uncertainty is more like a disturbance the vehicle experiences during flight. The adaptive proportion PID controller is good in both stability and dynamic performance of pitch attitude control. A trajectory tracking system for UAV application is studied in [9].

Chapter 1. These optimization problems are convex or quasi convex problems and they can be expressed as Linear or Bilinear Matrix inequalities (LMI and BMI). In case of convex LMI problems. A number of algorithms to solve BMI are present .1) is a vector of real numbers which are decision variables of the inequality are real symmetric matrices is negative definite.2) A bilinear matrix inequality is of the form ( ) ( ) (1. These inequalities are always convex and therefore can be solved by convex optimization software. 1. interior point methods are used which cannot be used for BMI due to the non-convexity. are vectors of real numbers which are decision In case of aircraft.2) is always satisfied by F(x).1 is always convex because the condition for convexity (Eq. ( ( ) ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (1. ( ) ( ) All eigenvalues of F(x) are negative The linear matrix inequality of the form Eq. the closed loop plant is required to satisfy worst case stability criteria in the face of uncertainties and disturbances which works out to be a BMI problem. 1. The BMI problem is not a convex problem and is difficult compared to LMI which is always convex. satellite or missile.    (1. A linear matrix inequality is an expression of the form [13] ( ) where.3) where and variables of the inequality. Introduction 6 problem.

The starting point of the probabilistic approach is to assume that the uncertainty affecting the control system has a stochastic nature and to provide probabilistic assessments on the system characteristics i. sufficient conditions for feasibility are derived for a general class of convex regions of the complex plane.2. Therefore. If an efficient or poly-time algorithm exists for a particular problem. 1. the efficient algorithms are used to solve the LMI [16]. a characteristic ( norm. finding the solution is often difficult and many times requires searching. gain and phase margin) of the system is robustly satisfied in a probabilistic sense if it is guaranteed against most of the possible uncertainty outcomes.e. The design of state output feedback controller that satisfies additional constraints on the closed loop pole location is discussed in [15].2. 17] the design of multivariable PID controllers is done using LMI approach. H2 and H-infinity suboptimal control is also done with PID controllers. Though analytical solutions are used by most of the control design techniques. In [14.5 are either over conservative or computationally intractable [18]. then the problem is soft or tractable otherwise the problem is hard or intractable. In this paper. Introduction 7 since 1990s.4.Chapter 1. There is also research going on converting the BMI to solvable forms or approximating it and finding the global solution iteratively. .2. Multiple LMI constraints can be converted to a single LMI constraint by augmenting them into a single LMI [14]. These conditions are expressed in terms of LMI‟s and subsequently solved. There are many control design problems which have equivalent LMI formulations and these are discussed as follows. these design problems are transformed into static output feedback controller design problems which can be done solved using LMI‟s. If these are reformulated in linear matrix inequality feasibility or optimization problems then their solutions can easily be found by numerical methods.6 Statistical Learning Theory and Randomized Algorithms The classical robust control techniques discussed in the sections 1. For multi input and multi output (MIMO) systems which cannot be well approximated by the first or second order systems. the tuning of the PID controllers is very difficult. After the formulation of the LMI. norm. 1. Probabilistic and Randomized techniques have been used in various applications to tackle computationally difficult problems that are too hard to be treated using exact deterministic methods [18].

The input to the algorithm is a start ( ) and an end ( ) point. The probabilistic method gives the controller which satisfies the plant with the presence of these uncertainties. The price to be paid is that it works in most of the cases but fails in some. Rapidly-Exploring Random Tree (RRT) algorithm Vector Field Path Following Reactive Obstacle and Terrain Avoidance RRT Algorithm This algorithm builds a tree that uniformly explores the search space. on the line joining the start point and the point p. It is a probabilistic approach. The algorithm randomly selects a sample p from the space and then selects a waypoint ( ) at a fixed distance (D) from the start point. the trim condition cannot be maintained during the whole flight duration. The vehicles having stable flight with good damping characteristics can be operated autonomously with the help of path planning and obstacle avoidance algorithms. The introduction to Statistical Learning Theory and Monte Carlo simulation is given in [18. It checks whether the waypoint collides with an obstacle. Introduction 8 In the aircraft application. . The mathematical model is different for different trim conditions. 36]. the aircraft model is obtained from wind tunnel data or modeling software. The following three algorithms are widely used in this application and are discussed briefly. The uncertainties and disturbances are introduced as parametric uncertainties in the stability derivatives in the mathematical model of the plant. iii. In this way the algorithm finds a complete path through the obstacle area. The use of Uniform Distribution in robustness analysis is discussed in [20]. i. The disadvantage is that it cannot be applied for detecting moving obstacles. The algorithm uniformly searches the space between start and end point by randomly sampling from a uniform probability distribution. It considers the dynamic constraints like turn radius limitations and airspeed. The model considered for the controller design is for a particular trim condition (cruise velocity of the vehicle).Chapter 1. ii. Due to the wind disturbances and other environmental factors.7 Path Planning and Following Algorithms: The controller designed for an MAV improves its handling qualities which result in a stabilized flight. If the waypoint collides then it is discarded and a new point p is selected or it adds the waypoint to the random tree. 19]. 1. Some of these algorithms are discussed in [2.2.

1 Description of RRT algorithm Vector Field Path Following This algorithm produces a field of desired course commands that drives the MAV to the current path segment. Introduction 9 Figure 1. This method is effective in tracking paths with wind speeds up to 50% of the airspeed of MAV. imprecise sensors and controls. . This algorithm considers dynamic limitations. wind disturbances. This desired course is used to command heading and roll control loops to guide the MAV onto the desired path.Chapter 1. the desired course commands are calculated. At any point.

it detects the actual obstacle again and creates a new map obstacle as shown in figure 1. . Introduction 10 Reactive obstacle avoidance This algorithm uses a laser ranger to detect and avoid obstacles.3 Construction of waypoint path in Reactive Obstacle Avoidance Algorithm The waypoint path is constructed so that it is perpendicular to the map obstacle.2.3.2. When the aircraft detects an obstacle. Figure 1. where d is the turn away distance from obstacle as shown in the figure 1. It has two paths around the cylinder and it chooses randomly if both are similar (either free or obstructed). a cylinder with radius R as the actual size of the obstacle is unknown. The endpoints of the waypoint paths are selected so that the new way point paths are tangent to the obstacles in the internal map.2 Reactive Obstacle Avoidance Algorithm Figure 1. The radius R ensures collision free passage around the map obstacle. it constructs an internal map obstacle. As it tries to overcome the map obstacle. This process is continued till it overcomes the actual obstacle. Consider a situation as shown in the figure 1.Chapter 1. Let the vehicle has a minimum turn radius R. The new waypoints are located at a distance √ from the original waypoint.

These two improvements make the vehicle useful for long endurance surveillance operations.1 Contribution The contribution of this thesis can be summarized as follows  The preliminary design of the MAV involves the initial size estimates of the wing and tail geometry. The objective of this thesis is to develop a vehicle of lesser weight and with better endurance than the vehicles already available. The modified ILMI is used in designing the controller for UAV applications. from the market. the modified ILMI algorithm is applied in a probabilistic framework which combines the advantages of both the methods. 1. In the design process. The existing airfoils available in literature are analyzed and the characteristics . This combined algorithm is used to design the controller in this thesis.8 Conclusion The miniature air vehicle designed in this thesis is similar to the vehicles already available as shown in the Table 1. we realized that the detailed design of the vehicle requires extensive wind tunnel data. The vehicle has a low damped dynamics and requires artificial stabilization to improve its flying qualities. the preliminary design of wing and tail geometries of a miniature air vehicle is done. Therefore. the vehicle should be tested and again redesigned if any of the design requirements are not satisfied. The preliminary design satisfies the design requirements of the vehicle. In the case of unavailability of wind tunnel data.2.1. Longitudinal controller is designed for stabilizing the plant using Monte Carlo approach and modified ILMI algorithm. This whole process cannot be done within the specified time limit. structural calculations before fabricating the vehicle.Chapter 1. Introduction 11 1. This robust control method gives an over conservative design.3 Scope of the Thesis In this thesis.3. The closed loop plant is tested in Matlab for its improvement in performance. The vehicle –Fpv Raptor is procured from the market which is widely used by hobbyists and has good gliding capabilities. which satisfies the requirements. 1. In these applications. The miniature air vehicle has a low damped dynamics and therefore requires artificial stabilization. the accuracy of the model decreases and the above method cannot give good results. The vehicle is modeled using Xfoil softwares to obtain the mathematical model. After fabricating the vehicle. we thought of procuring a vehicle.

The wing and tail geometry calculations are done based on the weight and stability calculations following the procedure available in literature. The open loop response for a step input is compared with that of the closed loop response. A systematic method of designing control for the vehicle is done using Matlab tools.3. After fabricating the vehicle. The airfoil of the Fpv Raptor is analyzed. Therefore the vehicle-Fpv Raptor which satisfies the design requirements is procured from the market.Chapter 1. The wing and tail geometry calculations are done based on the weight and stability calculations following the procedure available in literature. During the design process. The above algorithm is used to design a longitudinal controller. After fabricating the vehicle. The contents of each chapter are given below. The modified ILMI algorithm is combined with Monte Carlo based simulation to design the controller.2 Organization of the Thesis The remainder of the thesis is organized in four chapters followed by conclusion and a list of bibliography. The vehicle is mathematically modeled after experimental calculation of the Moment of Inertia values. The additional dynamics introduced by non-ideal implementation of differentiator and integrator is taken into account in designing the controller. This whole process cannot be done within the specified time limit. The existing airfoils available in literature are analyzed and the characteristics of each airfoil are tabulated and compared to choose an airfoil suitable for the design requirements. it is understood that the detailed design requires wind tunnel data and structural calculations before fabrication of the vehicle. The controller designed is tested for the improvement in the performance of the closed loop system. Introduction 12  of each airfoil are tabulated and compared to choose an airfoil suitable for the design requirements. This whole process cannot be done within the specified time limit. the vehicle should be tested and again redesigned if any of the design requirements are not satisfied.   1. During the design process.  Chapter 2: The preliminary design of the MAV involves the initial size estimates of the wing and tail geometry. The controller showed improvement in the handling qualities (improved the damping) of the longitudinal mode. it is understood that the detailed design requires wind tunnel data and structural calculations before fabrication of the vehicle. the vehicle should be tested and again redesigned if any of the design requirements are not satisfied. Therefore .

Chapter 1. drag and pitching moment characteristics of the vehicle are compared with those of the vehicle constructed in the design process. The open loop responses for step and pulse inputs are analyzed to understand the performance of the plant. The combined algorithm implementing modified ILMI algorithm in probabilistic framework is finally presented. The vehicle is reconstructed using modeling softwares and the lift. The results of the closed loop response show an improvement in the damping characteristics (phugoid damping is improved) of the vehicle. Introduction 13 the vehicle-Fpv Raptor which satisfies the design requirements is procured from the market. The LMI‟s used in the algorithm are for pole placement. Chapter4: The modified ILMI algorithm is used to develop a multi-loop robust pole placement PID design. Chapter 5: In this chapter the longitudinal controller is designed for the Fpv Raptor vehicle using the modified ILMI algorithm in probabilistic framework discussed in the previous chapter. and constraints. The vehicle is tested in flight by the pilot by giving pulse and step inputs to the elevator. Chapter 3: The mathematical model of the vehicle is obtained using XFLR5 and AVL softwares. . The model is verified with the data obtained from the test flights. This robust design is done in a probabilistic framework using Monte Carlo simulation in order to reduce the over conservativeness of the classical robust control technique. The designed controller is tested for its closed loop performance using Matlab simulation.

14 .

Chapter 2 MAV Design Process 2. The airfoil selection is done based on analysis of existing airfoils. If in some phase the design goes out of the mission specifications. Designing and building airframes is expensive and highly 15 . conceptual. The vehicle is then fabricated and tested for its performance.1 are portable and can be carried in the backpack by a soldier. They can also be easily dismantled for storage and assembled when required.1 Introduction The miniature air vehicle is designed to be fixed wing. This is possible due to the characteristics like smaller wing span and lower weight. The design is challenging due to low stability of these kinds of vehicles. The detailed design process is discussed in [21] which consist of three main phases. After fabricating the vehicle. preliminary and detailed design followed by fabrication of the model. the area of the control surfaces are tested and their initial estimates are obtained. portable. In this chapter. design of a miniature air vehicle is discussed. The design process is a sequential approach from initial sketch to final fabrication and testing of the model. These characteristics must be met while designing the MAV. This process is an iterative process and these three phases are interlinked with each other. The different MAV‟s compared in table 1. the vehicle should be tested and again redesigned if any of the design requirements are not satisfied. then the design is reiterated to meet all the goals and this process is continued until the detailed designed matches the design specifications. During the design process. The stability and control analysis of the vehicle is performed. easily launched and recovered. The initial wing and tail geometries are estimated using calculations based on initial sizing. The wing and tail configurations are selected based on the available information about these kinds of vehicles. it is understood that the detailed design requires wind tunnel data and structural calculations before fabrication of the vehicle. The dihedral and sweep characteristics of the wing.

Chapter 2. MAV Design Process 16 Design Requirements Technology Availability Market survey for components Concept Sketch Initial Sizing Aerodynamic Design Stability and Control Analysis Review Design Requirements and Reiterate the Design Fabrication Test Flight Review performance and Reiterate the Design till requirements are satisfied Figure 2.1 Flow chart for design and development of MAV .

operating altitude. propulsion system and payload are suitable to their application as discussed in section 1. It is readily available at low cost since it is manufactured in large numbers and sold to hobby flyers. These requirements are based on the final application (military or civilian) of the aircraft. The design requirements of the MAV are given in table 2. Their characteristics like weight. 2. Therefore the vehicle-Fpv Raptor which satisfies the design requirements is procured from the market. 2. It is these requirements that the final design should satisfy in order to satisfy the customer. The payload comprising of the avionics is also a subsystem.1 Design Requirements The design of any aircraft begins with specific set of design requirements established by the customer.2.2 MAV design The design process is an iterative process and is done keeping into account the specifications and available hardware components. These subsystems are interrelated to each other and cannot be dealt individually.Chapter 2. The MAV‟s being used in military applications are listed in table 1. We will follow this flowchart for designing the MAV. Therefore. MAV Design Process 17 time consuming and the quality is also sacrificed during manufacturing process (as small quantity is manufactured). It has good glide properties and hence it will land gently in case of power/battery failure. endurance. takeoff and landing distances. This vehicle is selected as it has a stable operation in radio controlled mode. Stability and Control. The flowchart is taken from [22] and modified with the help of overall design process in [21].1. They include parameters such as aircraft range and payload. Structure. it is necessary to check the design requirements after each step of the design process.1.2. The flowchart in figure 2. These requirements are generally obtained from existing aircraft designs and modified for the present application. Propulsion. wing span.1 shows the whole design process. These fields are considered as the subsystems in the design process. structural design limits. maneuverability and speed requirements. The MAV being designed in this thesis is used for a similar application. They also depend on set of military and civil design specifications such as stall speed. These are Aerodynamics. These are discussed in detail in this section. Each of these subsystems consists of various factors to be decided while designing. .1. The overall design can be split into four major fields.

2. The vehicle should be hand launched from any terrain.Chapter 2. The wing span should be less than 1. The payload is a high resolution camera which can take photos and videos and directly send them to the surveillance officer at the ground station.1 MAV Design Requirements Maximum Take Off Weight Endurance Range Operating Altitude Cruise speed Maximum speed Propulsion Launch and Recovery Payload 1.1.2 Technology Availability This step is very crucial in the design process. The vehicle is being designed for surveillance in civilian areas like illegal mining areas unlike the military application as discussed in section 1.5 kg including the payload.5 m for easy portability. The endurance of the vehicle should be at least 45 minutes which is required for its application of surveillance. If the vehicle should have long endurance then it should be light weight with a high battery capacity. It should use electric propulsion to reduce the noise in civilian areas. The operating altitude should be around 100 to 200 meters with a cruise speed of 12 to 15 m/s. MAV Design Process 18 The maximum takeoff weight of the MAV should not exceed 1. Table 2.2. If the vehicle should be highly maneuverable and flying at high speeds then the structure should be rigid and the propulsion .5Kg 45-60 min 1-2Km 100-200 m 12-14 m/s 18 m/s Electric Motor Hand Launch and Skid Recovery Camera 2. The range can be limited to 1-2 km based on availability of the communication equipment.

2 shows the motors suitable to the requirements.6 A 1700g (weight of model) 0.1V) 11×7 EMAX GT2218 76 g 3 (11. The advance ratio J is given by the expression (2.2 Motor Survey No. low maintenance and less noisy source of propulsion.1) where V is the forward flight velocity.7A No load current Motor Maximum thrust Table 2. servo actuators and the avionics can be calculated and the battery capacity required can be estimated. MAV Design Process 19 system should produce the extra thrust required. of Weight (Voltage) cells Propeller (inches) 13×8 AXI 2814/20 106 g 3 (11.Chapter 2. The manufacturer gives the details like the maximum current drawn. The availability of the technology should be checked before proceeding with design. The maximum current drawn by the motor. Empirical thrust coefficient ( ) versus advance ratio (J) curves for different propellers are given in [23]. Thrust Modeling: The AXI motor can be used with two 13×8 inch and 11×7 inch propellers. D is the diameter of the propeller. Propulsion: The electric motor is a clean.1V) 11×3. The wind tunnel measurements for the 11×7 inch propeller are taken from UIUC Propeller Database [23]. The AXI 2814/20 motor gives the required thrust of 1500 to 1700 gm. The EMAX GT2218 motor gives a thrust of 1400g with a weight of just 76g. thrust available in no load condition for various motor-propeller combinations. The thrust coefficient is given by the expression . Table 2.8 1500g (weight of model) 1380g (weight of model) 0. n is the rpm of the motor.

D is the drag force generated.4. The power available is calculated from the relation where is the power available in watts. (2. For a particular velocity. is thrust available in newtons.4) where L is the lift force generated. MAV Design Process 20 (2.Chapter 2. is thrust required in newtons.6) where S is the wing surface area. is the thrust required. ρ is the air density. The power required is calculated from the relation where is the power required in watts.2. The thrust available is calculated from the Eq 2.2 for 5000 rpm of the motor. V is the forward velocity in m/s. The thrust required is calculated using Eq 2.5) (2. V is the forward velocity in m/s. The following equations are used in calculating the drag force experienced by the vehicle. are the 3D lift and drag coefficients of the vehicle. The curve for the propeller is available for different rpm with only slight difference. The thrust required is calculated using the following equilibrium steady flight equations.3) (2. advance ratio is calculated. W is the weight of the vehicle. The power required and power available curves for 11×7 propeller are shown in the figure 2. Using the curve the thrust coefficient is determined. (2.2) where is the thrust in newtons. .

The batteries compared are almost identical with Turnigy which is having a high discharge rate. The battery weight is around 650 g which is half of the weight of the aircraft. This is a good flight regime of operation and therefore.Chapter 2. The EMAX motor is considered as they are available in the local market and can be procured easily. MAV Design Process 21 Figure 2. of cells Capacity (mAh) Discharge rating 644 g 641 g 3 3 8000 8400 30C 40C Table 2.2 Power available and Power required curves versus velocity for 11×7 propeller From the figure. it is understood that the flight regime is from 7 to 18 m/s where power available is greater than power required. this propeller motor combination is chosen.3 Battery survey Battery Zippy Flightmax 8000 3S1P 30C Turnigy nano tech 8400mAH Weight No.3 shows the battery cells suitable to the requirements. The discharge rate limits the . weight and capacity of the battery. The manufacturer provides information like discharge rating. This AXI motor is widely used by hobbyists around the world and also gives the required thrust. Table 2.

4. Therefore. MAV Design Process 22 maximum current that can be drawn from the battery pack. the planform shape. The vortex lattice simulation based software. The airfoil effects the cruise speed. XFLR5 (an XFOIL software) [24] is used for analyzing the airfoils. It is also widely used and has good performance compared with the Turnigy battery packs.4 Aerodynamic Design The airfoil.Chapter 2. The initial weight estimate of the MAV is given in table 2. the Flightmax battery is chosen. .3 Initial Sizing of the vehicle The wing and tail geometries. The 30C discharge of Zippy Flightmax battery gives a current of 24 A which is equal to the current capacity of the AXI motor.2. The initial weight estimate required for aerodynamic calculations is obtained here. stall speed and handling qualities and overall aerodynamic efficiency during all phases of flight.4 Initial Weight Estimate Subsystem Motor(AXI 2814/20) with propeller Zippy Flightmax 8000 Kestrel autopilot with hardware + Autopilot Battery JETI speed controller(30A) Servo actuators Structure Total 1 4 Quantity 1 1 1 80g + 25g 25g 20g 590g 1500g Weight 116g 644g 2. wing and tail configurations are the various aspects in aerodynamic design.2. 2. propulsion system location and placement of the components are approximately finalized in the initial sizing. Table 2. The wind tunnel testing of airfoils is not done due to the time limitations.

5 shows the list of the airfoils along with the XFLR data.1. The XFLR5 data of some existing airfoils are compared with the wind tunnel data available in the literature. (2. wings and planes operating at low Reynolds Numbers. wing sweep.1 kg/m3 (density in Bangalore) v is the velocity of air ( cruise velocity of the MAV) =15m/s L is the Mean Aerodynamic chord (considered as 20cm) . MAV Design Process 23 XFLR5: XFLR5 is an analysis tool for airfoils. on the Vortex Lattice Method. 2.7) where ρ is density of air=1. This procedure is sequentially followed in this section. The procedure followed is outlined here. The simulation in XFLR is done for a particular Reynolds number which is calculated using the formula given in Eq. and on a 3D Panel Method Validation: This software is validated for the results before being used further in order to find the accuracy of the predicted data. It includes:   XFoil's Direct and Inverse analysis capabilities Wing design and analysis capabilities based on the Lifting Line Theory. There is slight deviation of the predicted data from the wind tunnel data which is acceptable. The stability analysis is used to estimate the size of the tail and control surfaces.       Choosing an airfoil Calculation of Wing loading Choosing the AR (aspect ratio) and calculating the Wing span Wing Configuration and geometry Tail configuration Tail Sizing These kinds of vehicles are generally designed with airfoils of thickness around 10%. The aerodynamic design is combined with the stability and control analysis. The airfoils are chosen by shortlisting from the UIUC airfoil database and AID Airfoil Investigation Database [25. 26]. wing dihedral.Chapter 2. Table 2.

50 Cl/Cd max 72 @ α=60 67 @ α=50 52 @ α=7.35 @α=120 1.05 0.85.31% 11.2 @ α =100 2.70% 12.002 -0.02 @α=110 1.50 72 @ α=4. The cruise velocity and the mean aerodynamic chord are considered from the data collected about similar kinds of vehicles tabled in 1.17% 12.71 % Clmax 1.2 @ α=120 1.273 -0.08 -0.075 The following properties are considered in choosing the airfoils: i.1 -0.44% 11% 9. .000 and this number is used for the simulation in XFLR. The weight of the wing depends on the thickness of the airfoil.50 Cm @Cl/Cd max -0.50 85 @ α=60 63@ α=60 71 @ α=3.50 63 @ α=3.1 in chapter 1.91% 10. The thickness should be small enough to reduce the weight and large enough to give overall strength to the wing. This benefits us in the way that a higher capacity battery pack can be used which increases the endurance of the vehicle.39 @ α=12.Chapter 2.3 @ α=120 1. Table 2. The structural weight of the wing and body should be as low as possible.1 @ α=100 1.02 @ α=110 1.5 Airfoils having 10-12% thickness shortlisted from database Airfoil E374 E224 E168 DF102 Dae51 Clark k S1223 Clark y Thickness 10.045 -0.052 -0.43% 11. MAV Design Process μ is the dynamic viscosity of the fluid = 24 Re obtained is 1.

where the glide ratio is high. should be far from the stall angle of attack ( ). The ratio (glide ratio) should be high. stall speed. The wing span required should be less than 1. The airfoils chosen have good pitching moment coefficients but the coefficient of lift is low which increases the required wing area. v. iv. The airfoils having good coefficient of lift has very high pitching moment coefficient and vice versa. iii. So there should be some tradeoff between the required values and this depends on i. The material to be used for construction of the vehicle depends on the required structural rigidity and overall weight of the vehicle.Chapter 2. the vehicle should be made of complete EPP (Extend poly propylene) foam (density 20 kg/m3) or foam reinforced with balsa (density 120-200 kg/m3) to get enough strength for the wing. The thickness of the airfoil is generally chosen by the amount of volume required for storing fuel. Maximum Lift Coefficient (Clmax) of the airfoil should be greater than 1. MAV Design Process 25 ii. Therefore. The tail volumes can be found out using existing formulae in the literature [21]. The operating angle of attack (α).6. The Lift coefficient should be high. . vi.5m with an aspect ratio of 1012. The results are shown in the table 2. The moment coefficient should be low which reduces the tail volume required for trimming.08 are acceptable. Pitching moments of the order 0. The value should be such that it does not give high wing loading for the required ii. As the structural weight of the vehicle should be small.This margin gives a wide range of operating α for the pilot. The value should be such that the tail volume required for trimming the vehicle should be practically feasible.5. airfoils of lesser thickness are chosen and similar analysis is done. the overall weight of the wing increases. This is an electrically powered vehicle and this way of choosing the thickness cannot be done. The thickness of the airfoil is greater than 10% and if we use foam reinforced with balsa for construction.

035 The wing structure can either be made from foam reinforced with balsa or using only foam which is available in the laboratory. It has good glide ratio and good . The stall angle is around α=120 which is far away from the operating angle of attack α=3.36@ α=100 0.50 1.3@ α=90 1.44@ α=90 1. The wing is then covered by glass fiber tape.50 59 @ α=40 91 @ α=50 but very sharp curve 64 @ α=6.1@ α=50 0. we made a rough model of the vehicle using foam and balsa. The wing is constructed using foam and reinforced with carbon fiber and balsa is used for reinforcing at the bottom part of the wing.12 -0.28% 5.5 @ α=3.50 but very sharp curve 89.9@ α=90 (Cl/Cd)max 85@ α=4.9 @ α=90 1.74% 7. Instead of using strong reinforcements for a thin wing and spoiling its airfoil shape.273) is too large.120 -0.115 -0. The airfoils are chosen from the shortlisted airfoils of 10% thickness. S1223 and Clark Y are considered and analyzed thoroughly and the results are shown according to the guidelines shown before. It has to be reinforced again which increases the weight beyond the required value. The airfoil “GM15sm” (5% thickness) is used for constructing the wing.45@ α=7. In order to verify the structural stiffness.50 70 @ α=40 96@ α=3.13 -0.2) but the pitching moment coefficient (Cm=-0. MAV Design Process 26 Table 2.81% Clmax 1.67% 6.94% 7.27% 7.02% 5. .50.Chapter 2.22 -0. a thick wing would be better. It is observed that the wing is very weak and that it flutters when the vehicle flies.50 Cm @ (Cl/Cd)max -0. S1223 airfoil: This Selig airfoil has a good coefficient of lift (Clmax=2.035 -0.6 Airfoils having 5-7% thickness Airfoil a18sm bw-3 E61 Gm15sm S6062 Lrn1007 NACA M6 Thickness 7.

the wing loading is determined purely by . MAV Design Process 27 Wing Loading: In most airplane designs. This vehicle which should have a good gliding capability and so the aspect ratio should be that used for the sail planes. The tapering of the wing makes the Lift distribution elliptical. Most wings of low sweep have a taper ratio of 0. . so the sweep is not necessary. This demands that the wing shape be an ellipse which is difficult to construct.45 which is generally used for many designs.Chapter 2.2-0. As landing distance is not considered in the design. It reduces the coefficient of lift at low speeds. The stall velocity is the minimum velocity with which the aircraft can fly without stalling.5 whereas most swept wings have taper ratio of 0. wing twist and dihedral. An aspect ratio of 10-12 can be used. taper ratio. The vehicle travels at very low speeds.3. a low aspect ratio wing stalls at higher angle of attack. From the formula b. The wing configuration is generally finalized from the data available in literature about similar kind of existing vehicles. the wing span can be calculated. Due to the reduced effective angle of attack at the tips. The stall velocity for these kinds of vehicles is considered as 6 to 7 m/s. Wing Configuration The wing configuration has certain aspects like wing sweep. The maximum subsonic L/D (lift to drag ratio) of an aircraft increases approximately by the square root of an increase in aspect ratio but the wing weight also increases with aspect ratio. By the Prandtl Lifting Line theory. induced drag reduces when the lift is distributed in an elliptic fashion. The wing taper ratio is the ratio between the tip chord and the root chord. Aspect Ratio (AR): It is one of the design considerations that should be taken into account.The taper ratio is taken as 0.4-0. The high-aspect ratio-wings do not experience much loss of lift and increase in drag due to tip effects compared to a low-aspect ratio-wing of equal area. The wing sweep is used for reducing the transonic and supersonic drag. wing loading is determined by considerations of and landing distance.

A dihedral of to is generally used for a mid unswept wing. The mid wing configuration is suitable for this vehicle as it is easy to manufacture and does not add additional drag. Fuselage Length: For the initial estimate of the Fuselage length. Tail Configuration There are different tail arrangements that can be possibly used. MAV Design Process 28 The wing twist is typically used for unswept and untapered wings. The dihedral is chosen from historical data and this depends on the high. It is used to prevent tip stall and to give an elliptic lift distribution. Calculating the planform area of the horizontal and vertical tail: ̅ where VHT and VVT are the horizontal and vertical tail volume coefficients. Without further analyses. Positive dihedral tends to roll the aircraft level and thus increases the lateral stability of the vehicle. The wing is constructed in XFLR and simulation is done.G of the airplane and the aerodynamic center of the horizontal tail. This makes the vehicle unstable at higher angles of attack. A dihedral of 30 proved effective from the simulation. =Horizontal distance between the C. the formula given in the [21] is used. The dihedral is used for lateral stability. the tail which is in the downwash also gets stalled. the horizontal tail comes under downwash and if the wing stalls by any chance.Chapter 2. For a sail plane Fuselage Length is given by L= where a=0. Thus the vehicle cannot be recovered from the stall region. low or mid type wing configuration. This vehicle does not require any wing twist as it makes its construction difficult. The T-tail configuration has the disadvantage that at high angles of attack (during climb).71 and C=0. the conventional tail is considered as it is easy to manufacture and also structurally strong. = Planform area of the horizontal tail .48 and is the weight of the vehicle.

= Planform area of the vertical tail ̅ = Mean Aerodynamic chord of the wing Tail Sizing The geometry of the tail can be calculated similar to the wing assuming it as rectangular tapered wing.G of the airplane and the aerodynamic center of the vertical tail. MAV Design Process 29 =Horizontal distance between the C.722 kg/m2 0. 5 cm 38 cm 7.5 cm The table shows the wing and tail geometries of both the vehicles. Table 2.246 m2 1. 6.Chapter 2.7 Characteristics of the vehicle designed using S1223 and Clark Y airfoils Characteristics Wing Loading Wing surface area Wing span Rectangular tapered wing S1223 airfoil vehicle 59. 4cm 14 cm 24cm.284 kg/m2 0. 11cm 44cm 10cm.7.73m for AR=10 1. The above discussed characteristics are calculated for both the airfoils considered. Tail aspect ratio and taper ratio for sail plane are taken from the historical data given in [21]. 5cm 16cm 12cm. The wing span of the vehicle should be within 1.5cm .5 cm according to the design requirements. A high aspect ratio wing has good .3 m2 1.55 for AR=8 21. 10cm (root and tip chord) Horizontal tail Span Root and tip Span Vertical tail Root and tip 10cm .6m for AR=10 Clark Y airfoil vehicle 49. S1223 and Clark Y and are listed in table 2.5cm .

The Clark Y airfoil with a reduced AR of 9 is finalized due to its good stability characteristics. The tail is constructed using NACA 0006 (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics) airfoil.3 Fpv Raptor During the design process. The body of the vehicle is constructed as shown in the figure 2.5. The Clark Y airfoil vehicle is longitudinally and laterally stable and the initial estimate of the control surface areas are obtained from the analysis.7m. wing and tail geometries are not calculated as a vehicle-Fpv Raptor is procured from the market. The wing and tail geometries are considered to be rectangular and the root and tip chords are mentioned in the table. MAV Design Process 30 gliding capabilities which are required for the surveillance applications. The vehicle .dat” format. The tail surface area is calculated from existing formulae from literature. The final estimates of the weights.7 m which gives makes the vehicle difficult to carry.6m while the wing span for the vehicle designed with Clark Y airfoil is 1.5 kg). The XFLR takes this file as input and can simulate the airfoil coefficients for required Reynolds numbers. The coordinates of the airfoil are entered in text file and stored in “. This is due to the high pitching moment coefficient of the airfoil as given in table 2. The tail surface is mainly used for stability of the vehicle. The Fpv vehicle has a pusher configuration (propulsion system).Fpv Raptor is chosen as it satisfies the design requirements.Chapter 2. The analysis shows that the tail surface of the S1223 vehicle is not sufficient for stabilizing the vehicle longitudinally. The weight of the UAV is 1. The wing span of the Clark Y airfoil is greater than 1. The predicted data in the . This airfoil is almost similar to a flat plate and is generally used for construction of tail. The wing span of the vehicle is 1.2. Modeling the airfoil and wing: The airfoil of the wing is obtained approximately from tracing it on a graph sheet. 2. The vehicles are constructed in XFLR5 and stability analysis is performed to calculate the areas of the control surfaces. In the next section. The wing span of 1. This vehicle satisfies the design requirements and is used instead of constructing a new vehicle.6 m for the S1223 vehicle is acceptable. This makes the vehicle easy to handle as the propeller does not damage during skid recovery.3 kg including battery and autopilot which is well within the range (1. The aspect ratio of 10 used in sail planes is used in this design. The UAV is procured from the market and is modeled in XFLR in the following way. these characteristics of the vehicle are compared with the Fpv Raptor vehicle. similar kind of high aspect ratio vehicles are searched in the market. The wing body interactions are considered to some extent in this software.

4 Fpv Raptor modeled in XFLR . The results show a decrease in lift coefficient. MAV Design Process 31 presence of wing-body interaction is compared with the data without body.3 Airfoil of Fpv Raptor The wing and tail dimensions are calculated and reconstructed using XFLR5.6. Figure 2. The model of the FPV Raptor is given in figure 2.Chapter 2. Figure 2. glide ratio and increase in drag coefficient.

The 3-D wing properties are shown in the table 2. Table 2. MAV Design Process 32 The Fpv airfoil is analyzed in XFLR5 and the resulting data is compared with that of the Clark Y airfoil data in the table 2.9 Comparison of vehicle properties Clark Y 24 @ α=4. and coefficient of lift and pitching moment is better for Clark Y airfoil when compared to the Fpv Raptor in simulation. coefficient of drag. coefficient of pitching moment and glide ratio plotted with α (angle of attack) for both Clark Y and Fpv vehicles. The Fpv is flown by many hobbyists and it is understood that the flying .50 72 @ α=4.50 -0. The glide ratio of the Fpv vehicle comes down steeply which is not a good flying characteristic.05 @ α= 100 62 @ α=30 -0.50 Fpv Raptor 16 @ α=10 0.075 Fpv Raptor 1. The pitching moments of both the vehicles are good.8.08 The glide ratio.42 @ α=4.8 Comparison of airfoil properties Clark Y 1. Table 2.50 operating 0.5 @ α= 10 The coefficient of lift at operating alpha is greater in case of Fpv Raptor but the glide ratio is smaller than that for Clark-Y vehicle.39 @ α= 12. This is not a good characteristic as the overall glide ratio comes down at higher angles of attack. The Fpv vehicle is trimmed with zero elevator angle and has good handling qualities. The coefficient of drag of Fpv vehicle increases steeply for angle of attack greater than .5 shows the coefficient of lift.7.Chapter 2. Figure 2. The vehicle can be made stable in the longitudinal motion with a slight elevator angle without saturating the servo. The coefficient of lift of the Fpv vehicle is slightly less than that of the Clark Y vehicle but increases with the same slope.

MAV Design Process 33 characteristics of this vehicle are good. The anomaly between this and the simulation results might be due to the inability of the XFLR software in estimating the properties of the new Fpv airfoil.5.5 Comparison of characteristics of Fpv Raptor and vehicle using Clark Y airfoil . Figure 2.Chapter 2. The properties of the vehicle are given in the table 2. It might also be due to the human error in exactly reproducing the airfoil shape.

The Stability and Control analysis is done to finalize tail geometry and area of control surfaces.327 m2 19. The thrust calculations. The results show a degraded performance of Fpv but it is due to the inability of the software in accurately predicting its properties.A.18. current calculations. final evaluation of aerodynamic design are not done as the vehicle is not designed for fabrication.G position from nose Wing incidence Fpv Raptor 1.C C. MAV Design Process 34 Table 2. .6m 0.56 cm x= 35cm y=0cm z=8. The Fpv vehicle is modeled and its performance is compared with the simulation results of the vehicle using Clark Y airfoil.60 2.8 cm .4 Conclusion The design of an MAV according to the design requirements is done in this chapter.360kg 1.10 Properties of the Fpv Raptor Name Weight (Flying weight) Wing span Wing Area Root chord and M.Chapter 2.5 cm 4.

The equations are repeated here for the sake of completeness. these equations are linearized and decoupled into longitudinal and lateral model. The aircraft motion can be categorized as longitudinal motion. For the purpose of designing flight control understanding of the system. Various inputs (step input and pulse input) are applied to the open loop plant in both longitudinal and lateral modes and their responses are analyzed.1 Introduction The aircraft dynamics is nonlinear and coupled system of equations.2. 3. The mathematical model of the aircraft. It is further considered that the aircraft experiences very small perturbations from its equilibrium condition during flight. 35 . a state space realization is used for the flight control system and simulation of aircraft under external disturbances. The purely longitudinal motion does not include lateral motion and purely lateral motion has very little effect on longitudinal motion. the XFLR5 and AVL softwares are used to estimate the mathematical model of the Fpv Raptor vehicle. six degrees of freedom equations of motion are used to define motion in flight. These decoupled equations are analyzed to understand the motion of the aircraft in both longitudinal and lateral mode.1 Linearized Decoupled State Space Model The decoupled perturbed linear equations of motion are taken from [27]. In this chapter. Therefore.2 Mathematical Modeling For a fixed wing aircrafts. lateral motion or a combination of both. to reduce complexity.Chapter 3 Mathematical Modeling of Fpv Raptor 3. the longitudinal and lateral motion are decoupled and defined as two separate motions with three degrees of freedom each. The compound pendulum method is used to estimate the inertia values of the vehicle. 3.

3) (3.2) (3.6 define the lateral motion.3 define the longitudinal motion of the aircraft and 3. The lateral (roll) and directional motion (yaw) are highly coupled motions and cannot be decoupled. and pitch rate.1) (3. velocity in the z-direction. The longitudinal motion is controlled by a deflection of elevator and change in throttle. They are identified as the forward velocity.6) The equations 3.4) (3. U is the velocity of the vehicle at equilibrium state of the aircraft.5) ) ̇ ( ̇ ̇ ( ̇ ̇ ̈ ̈ ̇ ̇ (3. This motion can be defined by a minimum of four states.Chapter 3. pitch. The system matrix entries are a function of stability derivatives.1-3. Linearized Longitudinal model The longitudinal motion is the motion of the airplane in the X-Z plane. These depend on the vehicle to be modeled and its desired equilibrium condition.4-3. The linear model is given here. ̇ . Mathematical Modeling of Fpv Raptor 36 ( ( ( ̇ ) ) ̇ ̈ ̈ *( ) ( ̇ ̇ ̇ ) + ) * ) ̇ * *( ̈ ̇ ( ) ̇ ̇+ ̇ ) + ( ) + (3.

Chapter 3. B= [ ̇ . C=* ] + ̇ ̇ ̇ ̇ ̇ ( ̇ ) ̇ ( ) ̇ ̇ ̇ ̇ ( ) ( ) Linearized Lateral model The lateral motion is the motion of the aircraft in the X-Y and Y-Z planes. The lateral motion is controlled by the differential deflection of ailerons and rudder. roll. These are the angle of side slip. Mathematical Modeling of Fpv Raptor 37 where A= [ ] . roll rate and yaw rate. ̇ . Its motion can be defined by a minimum of four states.

The AVL also . It takes the geometries of wing. The geometry of the vehicle is exported to AVL software. tail and the control surface geometries are calculated from the vehicle and are used in the wing and plane design in XFLR5 software. This text file is obtained from the XFLR5 software which has a user friendly editor. The AVL software does not have an editor and is very difficult to build a model directly. The vehicle is reconstructed in XFLR5 software as shown in Figure 2. The wing. B= [ ] . C=[ ] ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ( ( ( ) ) ) ( ( ) ) The procedure to obtain the mathematical model from simulation softwares is discussed here. tail and control surfaces in the form of a text file.Chapter 3. The mathematical model of the vehicle is the state space representation of the linearized longitudinal and lateral modes. The trim condition is calculated from the stability analysis provided by the software. Mathematical Modeling of Fpv Raptor 38 where A= [ ] .2. The state matrix consists of stability derivatives and the input matrix consists of control derivatives.

the stability derivatives for lower α are used to predict the plant models for higher α. This is due to the inefficiency of reproducing the actual airfoil shape. The model of the vehicle is calculated by entering the required trim velocity or angle of attack α. The AVL takes the geometric values and inertia values of the vehicle as input. The method is widely used to estimate the inertia values of rigid bodies and is discussed in [28-30]. This process is discussed in detail in section 3. The output file is a text file which contains both lateral and longitudinal model of the vehicle at the specified trim condition. The name is because of the squared moment arm that multiplies each infinitesimal volume during integration. Mathematical Modeling of Fpv Raptor 39 takes a mass distribution file as input which requires the center of gravity (C.Chapter 3. The XFLR software could not predict the characteristics of the 2-D airfoil at higher α.3. The mathematical model for different trim velocities can be obtained in a similar manner.G) location and moment of inertia values of the vehicle. The constant mass and density is assumed throughout the analysis. These result in unstable plant models at high α. 3. This method produced stable plant models for all the trim conditions. In order to overcome this difficulty.2.2. The estimation of the inertia values is discussed in the next section. we can use the simplified estimation equations ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ( ( ( ) ( ) ( ) ) ) ) ) .2 Estimation of Moments of Inertia The moment of inertia values are computed using compound pendulum method. The theoretical calculations of inertia can be done using second moment equations.

The masses are estimated approximately and each weight is taken as a point weight acting at xi.080712 0.Chapter 3.G = 8.G = 35 cm and yC.130254 0. . The power required and power available curves versus forward velocity are obtained using Eqs 2.5cm.3 Stability and control derivatives The stability and control derivatives are obtained from XFLR and AVL data and modified using Matlab.2. The advance ratio (J) versus coefficient of thrust ( ) curve for the 8×4 inch propeller is taken from the data given in [24] and is shown in Figure 3. Both Ixy and Iyz are zero because of symmetry and the C. The stability and control derivatives for a particular trim velocity are given by the numerical equations given in the Appendix.1.4 Throttle Modeling Fpv Raptor is throttled by an electric motor and 8×4 inch propeller. The wind tunnel data of propellers are given in [23].1 Table 3.2.145874 0. 3.004098 0. yi are the positions of the individual masses which make the UAV.0548 0.6 in Section 2.1088 0.2.233184 ----------- 3. The inertia values estimated using above method are compared with the theoretical values in table 3.1-2. The procedure is discussed in detail in Appendix given at the end of this chapter.1 Theoretical and experimental moment of inertia values Moment of Inertia Theoretical value in kgm2 Experimental value in kgm2 Ixx Iyy Izz Ixz 0. Mathematical Modeling of Fpv Raptor 40 ∑ ( ) ( ) where xi. yi.G location is taken as x C.2.

Mathematical Modeling of Fpv Raptor 41 Figure 3.1 Coefficient of Thrust versus Advance Ratio for 8×4 inch propeller Figure 3.2 Power available and Power required curves versus velocity .Chapter 3.

2. The maximum velocity is limited because of the unavailability of required power from the motor.3 Response of servo actuator to step input . Mathematical Modeling of Fpv Raptor 42 Figure 3. The gain of the servo in no load condition is 1 and this is assumed to be true in loaded condition.1 shows the response of the servo to a step input. The minimum velocity is limited by the stall velocity. The servo is assumed as a first order transfer function and its time constant is calculated from a simple experiment using a servo driving kit [31]. The actuator response is slower compared to the vehicle response which reduces the pilot authority to correct the motion. 3. The actuators in the Fpv vehicle have limited performance due to its small size and low weight. The horn is connected to a spring load and a potentiometer. Therefore. The output response is a step response and the time constant of the system is calculated from it. The servo is driven with a PWM signal to move the horn form one position to another.2 shows the flight regime in which Fpv Raptor can fly.7) The gain of the servo is the ratio of the amount of deflection obtained to the amount of deflection needed.5 Actuator Modeling The stability derivatives of the vehicle uniquely define its dynamics whereas the control of the aircraft also depends on the actuator used for control surface deflection. The figure 3. it becomes necessary to accurately model these actuators and use it while designing the control. The transfer function of the actuator is ( ) ( ) (3. Figure 3.Chapter 3.

72 1.65 The military specifications for these kinds of vehicles are given in [3]. The dutch roll damping is very low and . velocity in z direction. The longitudinal model has (forward velocity. roll rate.2 Characteristics of the plant model Aircraft Mode Phugoid mode Short period mode Dutch Roll Mode Damping (ξ) 0. The plant characteristics are compared with the given military specifications. yaw rate and roll angle) states. The short period frequency and damping are within the specifications.0282 Frequency ( ) in rad/sec 0.3 Open Loop responses of Longitudinal and lateral Model The mathematical model for a trim velocity of 12 m/s is given below. [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] Table 3. pitch rate and pitch angle) states.2. are the lateral state and input matrices respectively.982 7. Mathematical Modeling of Fpv Raptor 43 3.62 0. are the longitudinal state and input matrices respectively.Chapter 3. It takes the elevator deflection as input. It takes the aileron and rudder deflection as inputs.03 0. The lateral model has (velocity in y direction. The phugoid mode frequency is within the specifications but its damping is very low and has to be improved. The characteristics of the plant are given in table 2.

Chapter 3.4. The phugoid damping of the model is low causing the low damping observed in the plot.2-3.3. The open loop responses of longitudinal and lateral plant model for unit step. Mathematical Modeling of Fpv Raptor 44 also has to be improved. The positive deflection of elevator is downwards.4 Response for unit step input to elevator The figure shows that if the elevator is deflected by 1 degree. the variation in the longitudinal variables are within bounds and also practically feasible. The positive step is causing negative θ which can be understood by the θ/δ transfer function. Figure 3.3. The downward deflection causes the aircraft to pitch down which results in negative θ. aileron and Rudder and the responses are shown in the figures 3.3.3. 3. unit pulse are discussed in the sections 3. The aircraft‟s velocity increases when the aircraft is pitching down and this result .1-3.1 Response to Step input The open loop plant is driven with unit step input to the elevator.

Chapter 3. Figure 3. Mathematical Modeling of Fpv Raptor 45 in a positive deflection of forward velocity.5 Response for unit step input to aileron Figure 3. The vertical velocity changes as there is a component of forward velocity acting downwards as the aircraft is pitching down.6 Response for unit step input to rudder .

3. Similar analysis holds for the pulse input given in the next section and it can be seen that the response to the elevator input is within bounds but that of the lateral model is not. This is due to the unstable spiral mode.2 Response to Pulse input A pulse of 1 degree deflection is given for a very short period of time (around 0.3.Chapter 3. These problems must be overcomed in the closed loop system to be designed. Mathematical Modeling of Fpv Raptor 46 The response for the aileron and rudder inputs suggests that the damping of the dutch roll mode is poor and has to be improved.7 Response to unit pulse elevator .1sec) for the control surfaces and the responses are shown in the figures. The positive step input to the aileron rolls the aircraft to its right whereas a positive step input to rudder yaws the aircraft towards negative y-direction. The spiral mode is unstable due to the right hand side pole. Figure 3.

8 Response to unit pulse aileron Figure 3.9 Response to unit pulse rudder . Mathematical Modeling of Fpv Raptor 47 Figure 3.Chapter 3.

9. For the short period mode to be excited the value of Δt is 0.13.3. The output responses are shown in the figure 3.3 Response to 3-2-1-1 input The 3-2-1-1 input is chosen such that the all the modes are excited.11-3. Mathematical Modeling of Fpv Raptor 48 3.10 Response to 3-2-1-1 input to elevator Figure 3. the value is 0.15 and for the dutch roll mode. This is ensured by calculating the width of the pulses using the formula available in Appendix B of [34].Chapter 3. Figure 3.11 Response to 3-2-1-1 input to aileron .

it works well in our application. The responses indicate poor damping characteristics and the need for a controller to improve the handling qualities of the aircraft. This method is proven to give better results compared to other methods. The compound pendulum method is widely used for calculating the moment of inertia of the unmanned aerial vehicles. Although this process is not so accurate. The open loop step and pulse input responses are plotted. It is assumed as a first order system and its transfer function is determined.Chapter 3.12 Response to 3-2-1-1 input to rudder 3. . The servo actuator used in the vehicle is modeled using an experimental setup. They indicate the behavior of the aircraft for disturbances during flight.4 Conclusion The Moment of Inertia values of the vehicle are calculated using Compound Pendulum method. Mathematical Modeling of Fpv Raptor 49 Figure 3.

1 Generating Control and Stability Derivatives The xfoil softwares could not calculate all the coefficients for the required angles of attack.Chapter 3. In order to get a stable plant model for all velocities. Mathematical Modeling of Fpv Raptor 50 3.5 Appendix 3. The variation of stability and Control derivatives with alpha are numerically obtained. the XFLR and the AVL data is exported to Matlab and curve fitting is done. The variation of alpha with velocity is also obtained. So for a given a velocity. stability and control derivatives can be obtained using the numerical equations shown below. This caused instabilities in calculating the stability derivatives for some angles of attack. The angle of attack (α) for a given velocity (V) is given by the relation: The longitudinal and lateral stability and control derivatives for a given angle of attack α are given below: ( ( ) ) ( ( ) ) ( ( ) ) ( ( ( ) ) ) ( ( ( ) ) ) ( ( ( ) ) ) ( ) ( ) .5. the angle of attack. These instabilities cause an unstable plant model.

Mathematical Modeling of Fpv Raptor 51 ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ( ) ( ( ( ) ) ) ( ) ( ( ( ) ) ) ( ( ( ) ) ) ( ) ( ( ( ) ) ) ( ( ( ) ) ) ( ( ) ) ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ( ( ( ) ) ) ( ( ( ) ) ) ( ) ( ) ) ) ( ( ( ) ) ) ( ( ( ) ) ) ( ( ) ) .Chapter 3.

52 .

The solution is also constrained to satisfy the performance criteria. Optimal pole placement is done to maximize stability. 17] is a multiple objective automatic tuning algorithm. The solution is iteratively found by loosening the performance criteria which needs to be satisfied while optimally placing the poles to minimize the real part of the largest eigenvalue. There is no wind tunnel data to validate the results or to check the accuracy of the results. This makes the control design problem a fixed order multi-objective control design exercise. In order to get robust performance to overcome the above uncertainties and disturbances. The objective of the control is to improve the flying qualities of these vehicles by placing the poles of their dynamics at desired regions in s-plane.Chapter 4 Iterative Linear Matrix Inequality Algorithm in Probabilistic Framework 4. The iterative linear matrix inequality (ILMI) [15. which is not negligible. modern control synthesis technique has to be used. Therefore. The robust stability criterion is also satisfied by the obtained solution. the uncertainty in the model parameters is high.1 Introduction The mathematical model of the Fpv Raptor Vehicle is obtained using Xfoil softwares. The magnitude of the wind gusts or the wind disturbances during the test flights is unknown which puts a limit on the accuracy of the flight data. The non-linear equations are linearized in order to reduce the complexity of the controller design and this again limits the performance of the controller. The onboard implementable control structure on Kestrel [32] Autopilot hardware is PID based. low performance MEMS based sensors used on these vehicles have their own error bound. 53 . The hardware on which the control is implemented often has limited scope for implementing a generic feedback structure. The low cost. The test flights conducted on the vehicle provides a way to test the performance of the model but with certain limitations. gain and phase margin while achieving the desired performance.

The LMI formulations. 4.Chapter 4.1) (4.1 LMI for pole placement on the left hand side of plane line in complex s- ) [Ref Eq. The modification of one such bilinear matrix inequality (BMI) for pole placement to minimize the largest eigenvalue of the system is presented in this section. This approach of using randomized algorithms helps to solve the intractable problems. In statistical learning theory.2) . or pole placement based criteria. The penalty is however.2] such that (Fig 4. leads to a convex optimization problem. The feedback gain is K. these algorithms are probabilistically complete. Iterative Linear Matrix Inequality Algorithm in Probabilistic Framework 54 Several problems in robustness analysis and synthesis of control systems are NPcomplete or NP-hard. In the classical robust control techniques.1] and its Consider an open loop plant ( ) which has the system matrix ( closed loop system ( ) [Ref Eq. the objective function to be minimized is the worst case performance index which results in over-conservative designs.2 Linear Matrix Inequalities Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs) and LMI techniques have emerged as powerful design tools in areas ranging from control engineering to system identification and structural design. The solutions to these problems are computationally intensive. 4. They are often bilinear in nature and have to be modified into solvable convex quadratic or linear matrix inequalities.4. the objective function is to minimize the average performance index of the controller. In [33] the probabilistic robust design with linear quadratic regulators is discussed. But the problem of finding a control solution satisfying these criteria is not computationally easy. An approach gaining popularity for solving these problems is the use of randomized algorithms.2.1). The probability of failure of randomized algorithms can be arbitrarily made close to zero but can never be exactly equal to zero. 4. ̇ ̇ (4. for checking if a particular control solution satisfies the various .

then we look for a symmetric matrix.Chapter 4. X satisfying (4.3) such that is stable. [14] If the pole placement is on the left side of line then corresponding LMI‟s are (4. The closed loop matrix can be expressed in terms of open loop system matrices if the controller K is static or is a real value matrix as given below.4) Similar LMI formulations are also proposed for cone. 4.5) . If D is considered as an entire left half plane. Iterative Linear Matrix Inequality Algorithm in Probabilistic Framework 55 Open loop plant u G(s) y K Closed loop plant Fig 4. Substituting this equation in (Eq.1 General feedback plant Lyapunov Conditions for Pole Clustering If D is a sub region of the complex left half plane then a dynamical system as given above is called D-stable if all its poles lie in D. disk and other shaped region in the complex plane.2) ( ) ( ) (4.

5 results in ( )( ) (4.8) for any X and P of the same dimension. The available Matlab tools [16] can solve only quadratic matrix inequalities (QMIs) and LMIs. The Eq. The justification of the assumption is done later in the derivation. This term prevents the equation from transforming into a solvable LMI. ( ).7) ) The proof for the above result is in [17]. 4. Assume that inequality holds even after adding this term. In both the cases the problem becomes bilinear which is computationally difficult to solve.5 is convex quadratic in nature except the negative term. 4. Therefore above problem is converted into QMI in [17].6) Adding and subtracting gives ( ) Now a term is added on the left hand side. ( It can be written as ( )( ) (4. we introduce another variable X such that. Solving the above equation gives where equality hold when X=P Taking transpose of the above equation and considering the property that X and P are symmetric results in Substituting the above equation in Eq. 4. K and α. ( ) ( ) (4. Iterative Linear Matrix Inequality Algorithm in Probabilistic Framework 56 Here the unknowns are X.9) . This term is always positive.Chapter 4. Substituting X by P in Eq. we can write ( ) (4. Therefore we can solve a feasibility problem for X and K for a given α or we can solve an optimization problem to minimize α and find solution for X and K. To make the inequality quadratic.3 and not considering the inequality P > 0 for time being.

3 Static Output Feedback for Non Ideal PID Implementation The ILMI algorithm and its disadvantages are discussed in [22].Chapter 4. the modified ILMI is used and its advantages over the ILMI algorithm are discussed in the next section. 𝑦 𝑟 + 𝑋𝑐 PID - 𝑢 + + 𝑢 𝑢 X G(s) 𝑦 𝑋𝑑 PD Figure 4. the α solution can be positive.11) where ∑ = . 4. the term added makes the solution slightly over conservative. The implementation of static output feedback for ideal PID implementation is also discussed in [22]. In this thesis. Iterative Linear Matrix Inequality Algorithm in Probabilistic Framework 57 The α stability synthesis matrix inequality can now be written in QMI form as [ ] * + (4.10) (4.2 Closed loop system with PID-PD feedback . Therefore. ( ) The result of adding a positive definite term is that even for a system with all its poles in the left half complex plane.

Iterative Linear Matrix Inequality Algorithm in Probabilistic Framework 58 In the Kestrel Autopilot.18) in the above equations and solving for the state output feedback [ ̇ ] ̇ ̇ [ ][ ] [ ] [ ] (4. ( ) ( ) ( ) (4. ( ) ( ) (4.13) The values of these constants cannot be changed by the designer and are given in [35] The PID and the PD blocks have the following transfer functions ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) and ( ) (4.19) . PID be ( ).12) (4.15) are the gains The are the gains of the PD block corresponding to of the PID block corresponding to output . ( ) and ( the equations below. 4. we get. . ̇ respectively and the corresponding state matrices be ) and the state space representation is as shown in (4.Chapter 4.14) (4. the differentiator and integrator are of standard form as given in Eqs. PD. Let three blocks of G. 4.17) ̇ Substituting form.11.16) ̇ (4.12.

Chapter 4. Substituting . .10 are solved using efficient algorithms to obtain the K matrix. Iterative Linear Matrix Inequality Algorithm in Probabilistic Framework 59 [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] (4.21 (4.20) The above equation can be represented as ̇ can be written as Similarly and for r and u inputs respectively.15-4. 4.22) where K=[] is the unknown gain matrix. 4. 4. The are the unknown matrices of the PD. in equations 4.21) The above equation can be written as ̇ where can be expressed in terms of as in Eq.9. then the closed loop system with r as an input can be defined as [ ̇ ] ̇ ̇ [ ][ ] [ ] (4.17. The LMIs. PID controllers and needs to be determined. .

But they cannot be zero respectively. If are zero then the integrator and differentiator transfer function have their pole and zero on the origin respectively. Iterative Linear Matrix Inequality Algorithm in Probabilistic Framework 60 If K= [ ] then . .23) where [ ( ) ] (4.24) The matrix M can be singular only if any one or more of zero because: 1. If are zero then the integrator and differentiator transfer functions are (4. 2. .3. r u y . The SOF closed loop system is shown in the figure 4. P(s) 𝑦𝑆𝑂𝐹 K Figure 4. which makes the corresponding transfer function a constant gain system.Chapter 4.3 SOF closed loop system The K matrix is the feedback gain matrix but we need to calculate the PID gains from this K matrix.PID gains which are unknown. ̃ (4. .25) are zero. Let ̃ where the elements of the matrix are the PD.

4 Generalized Plant y 𝑧∞ 𝑧 ̇ (4.29) The generalized plant is of the form: ̇ [ ̇ ̇ ̇ (4.Chapter 4. The Generalised plant after augmenting the weighting functions is shown in figure 4. Iterative Linear Matrix Inequality Algorithm in Probabilistic Framework 61 4.28) (4. The weighting functions are to minimize the error and control in the low frequency region and the weighting function is to improve the performance.30) ] [ ][ ] [ ]* + .4 Generalized Plant for H2/H Control Design In order to do a robust control design.4. Let be the sates of the closed loop plant and r is the plant input and u is the control input. the SOF plant is augmented with frequency weighting functions.26) (4. r G(s) u K Figure 4.27) (4.

34) (4. Iterative Linear Matrix Inequality Algorithm in Probabilistic Framework 62 [ ] [ ][ ] [ ]* + (4. 4.5 Modified ILMI Algorithm The ILMI algorithm given in [22] is modified for the non-ideal implementation of the PID controllers as is required in Kestrel Autopilot. Constraints are put in terms of gain and phase margin on the closed loop system which are the best indicator of system stability in the classical sense.31) The generalised feedback plant after feedback has a H2 performance index γ and all its poles are at the left hand side of ζ=α/2 in the complex plane.33) (4. Constraints are also put on the damping of the closed loop poles. . If there exists a SOF gain matrix K and P such that * ( ∑= ( ) ) + * + (4. The dynamics introduced by the non-ideal implementation of PID controllers are incorporated and absorbed in the SOF formulation. Using the above formulation.Chapter 4.32) (4. for a given performance index γ we can solve an optimization problem for K and X with an objective to minimize α while constraining the solution to satisfy the above inequalities. then the optimal performance index is increased and the result is computed based on the new performance index. 2. If the constraints are not met. The modifications done on the ILMI algorithm are listed below: 1.35) The above formulation is derived by combining the LMI formulation for pole placement and the LMI formulation for performance.

For . 2. 4. The negative solution for α is not obtained due to two factors. This serves as the starting point. Using X from previous step. solve for P. Augment the SOF output to obtain the generalized plant .  The solution obtained for K. 3. 4.39) (4. 4. for best performance index. to minimize amd satisfy the LMIs . obtain the initial X from the riccati equation below. the solution is to increase the optimal performance index. 5. 1.37) (4. laces the poles in the left half plane such that α is a negative or zero solution but the positive definite term which was added makes the solution more conservative. Compute the optimal guaranteed performance index.  If in the first iteration. The ILMI algorithm keeps on minimizing the trace(X) when no negative solution for α is obtained. * ( ∑= ( 7. 4. . Initialize j=1 6. Initialize and also initialize the incremental step in γ as dγ. below. Find out the SOF representation of the system as in Eqs.36) where The Q is taken as Identity matrix. Here the significance of will be clear. Define (gain and phase margin constraints) and any damping constraints on the control design. If then put ) ) + [ ] (4.19.18. the lower order feedback structure cannot achieve stabilizing control. In both the above cases.5.38) (4.40) . Iterative Linear Matrix Inequality Algorithm in Probabilistic Framework 63 3.1 The steps of modified ILMI Algorithm The modified ILMI algorithm used to design the controller in this thesis is given below. (4.Chapter 4. using function of MATLAB.

i. ii.44) ii. j=j+1 Goto step 6 Else Put Put Goto step 6 9. Find the Gain Margin (GM) and Phase Margin (PM) and the damping (Z) of the closed loop system. Iterative Linear Matrix Inequality Algorithm in Probabilistic Framework 64 j=j+1 Goto step 5 8. Else if j and Form the closed loop system with feedback gain . Goto step 6 10.42) (4. ) ) is obtained from the previous + [ ] (4. If P has a feasible solution then Put X=P . n=n+1 . to minimize trace(P). j=j+1.Chapter 4. Find using normhinf function in Matlab. END . Final Gain ̃ 12. Else if j and j=j+1. * ( ∑= ( i. Else if j=1 or if n>0 and n<10 Solve for and P . If Else and and and then Goto step 11.41) (4. Find 13.43) (4. Goto step 5 11. The value of step.

the design of the robust controller is done in the probabilistic sense. There is no wind tunnel data on the vehicle which can be used to test the accuracy of the software used. if the controller works well for most (but not all) of the systems. The stability derivatives in the mathematical model are perturbed by adding a percentage of uncertainty on each of them. The plant is constructed by choosing a perturbed plant and the controller is designed such that it stabilizes most of the plants within the perturbed region.6 Sampling based ILMI Controller Design Designing a robust controller in the presence of structured uncertainty is computationally intractable or it is an NP-hard problem. Using uniform sampling. the uncertainty is mainly due to two reasons: i. The controller is finally designed for a certain trim condition. But during flight it is not possible to fly the vehicle in or nearby the trim condition. the exact computation of the probabilistic density function is computationally intractable. When the vehicle is flying at a different trim condition. . The number of samples generated using Monte Carlo estimates.45) where is the confidence and ε is the accuracy parameter. which we took as an overall representative of entire plant parameter space. we introduce parametric uncertainty in the model and then design a controller which satisfies the performance index in a probabilistic sense. In order to get rid of these computationally intractable problems. The model of the vehicle is obtained from XFLR5 and AVL which have their limitations in predicting the performance of the vehicle. then the model is different from that used to design the ii. In order to overcome these difficulties. This guarantees robust satisfaction of a certain characteristic or performance level of the system. we generate plant models. Iterative Linear Matrix Inequality Algorithm in Probabilistic Framework 65 4. In the aircraft application. The plant parameter space is the product space formed by varying each parameter by its uncertainty.Chapter 4. controller. as (4. Monte Carlo Approach The parametric uncertainties in the stability derivatives of the model generate a plant parameter space. Even when the uncertainty is defined in probabilistic framework.

Once m number of plants are selected. 4. These constraints result in a controller which is robust.8.Chapter 4. For each plant Apply modified ILMI algorithm for a plant from the plant space P. 4.1 Steps of the combined Monte Carlo and modified ILMI algorithm 1. a modified ILMI approach is used to yield a robust controller for each of the plant. i=i+1. Else i=i+1 3. If a controller ( ) is feasible for then store both . pole placement and gain and phase margin of the closed loop system. Find the average norm for each controller and find the controller which gives the minimum value. i. For each controller Compute the closed loop system for each and find the norm. norm.7 Monte Carlo based modified ILMI algorithm For each controller. Sample number of plants m from plant parameter space where is the confidence and ε is the accuracy parameter 2. The modified ILMI algorithm finds the optimal solution by simultaneously putting constraints on performance. it is enough to generate 1060 plant models. END 4. the norm is calculated for all the plants used and the controller which gives the minimum value is chosen as the final controller. 4. .01 and ε=0. With respect to It also takes into account the non-ideal implementation of the PID logic. Iterative Linear Matrix Inequality Algorithm in Probabilistic Framework 66 For δ=0. The damping of the closed loop poles is also taken into account. count=count+1 ii.8 Conclusion Iterative linear matrix inequality algorithm is combined with Monte Carlo approach to obtain better results.05. 5.

Chapter 4. Iterative Linear Matrix Inequality Algorithm in Probabilistic Framework 67 .

68 .

the vehicle operates at different operating points. 5.1 Introduction The dynamics of these kind vehicles is often lowly damped with a high natural frequency of operation. The choice of the feedback control structure is limited as the designed controller is implemented using the Kestrel Autopilot. In a classical design the above method is followed and it is ensured that the controller works well for the other operating conditions with stable but degraded performance. Feedback control is useful in improving the characteristics of the aircraft. 69 . From takeoff to landing. The guidance loop commands the attitude of the aircraft which is followed by the feedback control loop. This vehicle is designed for surveillance applications.1. Using a robust design in a probabilistic framework gives us the confidence that even with the presence of certain uncertainties in modeling the vehicle and in the environment.2 Longitudinal Control Design The longitudinal motion is dominated by the phugoid and short period mode. The eigen values and corresponding Eigenvectors of the longitudinal mode for a trim velocity of 12m/s is provided in the table 5. A linear controller can either be designed at each of these operating points or a single controller can be designed to give satisfactory performance throughout the flight. This implies that the handling qualities of these vehicles must be improved for a lessskilled pilot to fly the vehicle. It has to be flown by different pilots and also remain in the air for a longer time. the controller designed will stabilize the vehicle and also gives better performance.Chapter 5 Controller Design 5. These requirements will be satisfied only when the handling qualities of the vehicle are improved. The operating point in the middle of the flight velocity regime is selected and a controller is designed for that operating point.

7-1.0968 -0.9851 0. 5. Likewise. The phugoid and short period damping and frequencies compared with the required values are given in the table below.03 0.1417 -0. Controller Design 70 Table 5.0980 0.1. the feedback of attitude (θ) and forward speed (u) will enhance the phugoid mode characteristics.1 Eigen Vector analysis for longitudinal motion Modes States u w q θ Phugoid -0.0505i It is clear from the table 5.72 rad/sec Required >0. 5.2. large gain for θ and u can saturate the actuator which is not desired.62 7.1 Classical Feedback Analysis The Nominal longitudinal plant is shown in the figure 5. We perform a classical design for a pitch error and pitch rate feedback.1.4911i 0. The minimum required values are based on MIL-F8785C specifications.2 rad/sec 0.0385 0.The open loop plant transfer function (q/u) is given in Eq.0489 -0.2 Longitudinal Control design requirements Actual Phugoid damping Phugoid frequency Short period damping Short period frequency 0.982 rad/sec 0.0992i Short period -0.35-0.8541 -0. .3 0.0206 0.0539i 0.1 that the pitch rate feedback (q) and velocity (w) will improve the short period frequency.Chapter 5.0122i 0. The Kestrel autopilot hardware allows programming of pitch rate feedback and an error in pitch angle to the elevator.8 2-20 rad/sec From the table we can understand that the phugoid damping should be improved. Table 5.0167i 0. However.

4 while the other parameters remaining constant.Chapter 5. Controller Design 71 ( ( )( 𝑢 + - )( )( ) ) (5. These conditions are used to get a stabilizing controller for the plant. The root locus must satisfy the magnitude and angle condition at a point if it has to pass through it.1) 𝜃 G(s) 𝑞 𝜃𝑟𝑒𝑓 PID + + 𝑢 𝑢 PD Figure 5. Figure 5. The root locus has to be changed in order to improve the damping.1 Longitudinal Nominal Plant Pitch rate feedback The classical root locus design is done to improve the phugoid damping to a value of 0.2 Root locus for pitch rate feedback .

3. it is understood that the rise time is less than 4 seconds and the settling time is 20 seconds. If the dominant pole is moved towards the left in complex s-plane. The low rise time indicates that in tracking . During the mission it is often required to maintain constant attitude.3 Step response of the closed loop system (classical design) From the step response. therefore maintaining attitude is cumbersome for the pilot. The final closed loop system is ( ( )( )( )( )( )( )( ) ) (5. The low rise time is due to the phugoid pole which has a damping 0. This dominant pole has a damping of 1 which makes the system as over damped resulting in the sluggish response. One more advantage of the pitch feedback is the improvement in phugoid damping. The high settling time is due to the pole at -0.Chapter 5. In an actual flight the vehicle is subjected to disturbances. Pitch tracking control can reduce the pilot effort by maintaining the pitch. the aircraft responds quickly but the high settling time makes the aircraft to achieve the required angle in around 20 seconds.1961 which is closer to the origin than the phugoid pole. Controller Design 72 Pitch Control The vehicle is designed to undertake surveillance missions. then the .2) and its step response is Figure 5.

This indicates that the aircraft overshoots the required pitch angle and then settles quicker than the previous case.2. Uncertainty in percentage 20 20 40 40 20 . The response shows a sluggish response increasing both rise time and settling time. The stability derivatives with respect to u. then it becomes the dominant pole. The state matrix for the longitudinal case is ̇ ̇ ̇ ̇ [ ] [ ] [ ] (5. The probability density function is considered as uniform as mentioned before. The response shows an overshoot and decrease in settling time.2 Feedback design using Monte Carlo based modified ILMI algorithm The plant space for the longitudinal plant is formed by perturbing the stability derivatives and the control derivatives. q are given a perturbation of . 5.3 Uncertainty considered for the stability derivatives Stability Derivatives Uncertainty in Stability percentage Derivatives 40 40 40 20 20 20 The control derivatives are given a perturbation of and the stability derivatives with respect to w are given a perturbation of . If the dominant pole is moved towards the right. The phugoid mode does not appear in the response which results in high rise time.3) [ ̇ ] The table 5.Chapter 5.3 summarizes the uncertainty considered in the stability derivatives. Table 5. Controller Design 73 phugoid pole dominates the response.

Generalized Plant The plant (longitudinal mode with actuator dynamics) in the equivalent SOF form is augmented with the weighting functions to get a generalized plant.5) . The are performance measures whereas gives the robust performance measure.4 Longitudinal Generalized plant The selected weights are ( ) (5. The plant space is formed by adding the above specified uncertainties to the optimal plant.4 𝑊 𝑒 𝑊 𝑢 𝑊 ∞ 𝑧𝑒 𝑧𝑢 𝑧∞ 𝜃𝑟𝑒𝑓 + + . The control system components in the closed loop system should minimize the weighted outputs . The pitch and pitch rate feedback are done simultaneously. The generalized plant is shown in the figure 5.𝑢 PID + 𝑢 + 𝑢 𝜃 G(s) 𝑞 PD Figure 5.4) ( ) (5.Chapter 5. Controller Design 74 The operating point is 13m/s and so the optimal plant which is perturbed is the model obtained at the operating point.

and are the minimum gain and phase margin to be satisfied by the closed loop plant. The weight ( ) determines the performance. D gains for the pitch loop and pitch rate loop. The higher gain in the low frequency region ensures that the control effort is less. The weight ( ) minimizes the error dynamics in the low frequency range. Controller obtained using the Algorithm Pitch rate loop (PD): Pitch loop (PID): ( ( ) ) (5.12 which are repeated here ( ) ( ) (5.6) The control effort should be minimized at the low frequency range where the vehicle generally operates.11 and 4. 4. The weighting function ( ) is a low pass filter which has high gain in low frequency region and the gain starts decreasing for frequency greater than 0.10) The values of the constants are fixed and their values are given below . The gains to be put in the Virtual Cockpit window of Kestrel autopilot are given in the table 5.6. This weighing function is complement to the weighting function and is thus a high pass filter as given in Eq 5.Chapter 5. the required control effort increases but this occurs at higher frequency beyond our operating range.21 rad/sec. Controller Design ( ( ) ) 75 (5.4.7) ( ) (5.9) ( ) (5. As the gain decreases. The criterion for choosing weights is given in [36]. and The algorithm can now be used to design the P.8) The integrator and differentiator transfer functions are fixed and they are given in Eqs. I.

0088 -0.0574 -3.0002 0. The .6.0785 -0. The is the state of the PD controller.0386 -0.1992 -0.0028 -0.0076i -0.1492i 0.0067 -0.1673 Kd 0.1901 0.3182 -0.0348i 0.0165 0.0152 0.0185 0.0085 0.1577 -2.0252 0.2063 0.7498i -0. .6742 -0.0426 -0.0210 -0.2788 -0.16 i -6.0211 0.0017i 0.0537i Modes Short period Phugoid The closed loop and open loop phugoid and short period characteristics are compared in the table 5.0530 -0.021i 0.0029 0.3971 + 0.0183i 0.1797 Eigenvalue and Eigen-vector analysis The Eigenvalue-Eigenvector analysis gives us the information about the effect of eigenvalues on each state.0261i 0.0611 1.6411 0.9935 0.1252 0.0597 0.0002i 0.178 0.9269 0.0403 -0.0080 0.0169 0.017 -0. The individual modes are also indicated in the table.2622 -0. It is given in table 5.Chapter 5.5.9712 -0.0078i 0. Controller Design 76 Table 5.0102 -0.5481 Ki 0 1.0664 0.011 0 0 0 0 0 0.8049 -0.0474 0.4 Longitudinal PID gains Kp Pitch rate loop Pitch loop -1.913 Eigen Vectors 0. Table 5.1004i 0.5 Eigenvalue-Eigenvector of closed loop plant Eigen values States u w q θ -5.0686i 0.54i 0.1083 -0.0031 -0.9591 0.0087 0.22 10. are the states of the PID controller.05i 0.0037 0.0005 -0.

42 rad/sec From the table we can observe that the phugoid damping in increased which gives a better response.5. The short period frequency increased from 7.4.62 7.848 0.62 to 0.5 but is well within the limit of the specifications.Chapter 5.4 0. This dominant pole has a damping of 1 and this gives the sluggish response leading to high settling time.5 Step response of the closed loop system (Robust analysis) The step response indicates a low rise time but a large settling time.5 11.72 rad/sec Closed loop 0. This is due to the pole which is close to the origin. The short period damping decreased from 0. Figure 5. This results in overshoot .72 to 11. The step response for the closed loop system is given in figure 5.03 0.6 Open loop and Closed loop characteristics Mode Phugoid damping Phugoid frequency Short period damping Short period frequency Open loop 0.42 but is well within the specified range. The low rise time is due to the phugoid damping of 0. Controller Design 77 Table 5. If the dominant pole is moved to its left in the complex s-plane then the phugoid mode becomes dominant and the system response becomes under damped.982 rad/sec 0.

Controller Design 78 and reduced rise time and settling time.e.10. This closed loop system is driven by a reference pitch angle ( ). The pitch angle and pitch rate feedback increased the damping of the phugoid mode and thus improved the handling qualities of the vehicle.6 Bode plot of the system obtained by breaking at the input The Bode plot shows negative gain and phase margin. .6. The controller obtained for the plant at 12m/s is tested for 8m/s and 18 m/s and the resultant responses are shown in figures 5. If the dominant pole is moved towards its right in the complex s-plane. if there is any disturbance in the system then the system can tolerate the disturbance without amplifying it. The magnitude of the disturbance that gets attenuated is given by the gain of this system.7-5. Negative gain margin tells us that the return gain is less than 1 i. then it becomes more dominant and the response becomes more sluggish.Chapter 5. The gain margin and phase margin of the system obtained by breaking at the input is shown in the figure 5. This results in sluggish response with high rise time and settling time. Figure 5.

7 Step response of the closed loop system for plant model at 8m/s Figure 5.Chapter 5.9 Step response of the closed loop system for plant model at 18m/s .8 Bode plot of the system obtained by breaking at the input (plant model at 8m/s) Figure 5. Controller Design 79 Figure 5.

10 Bode plot of the system obtained by breaking at the input (plant model at 18m/s) The figures show that the controller performs well in the higher flight velocities and underperform at lower flight velocities. The altitude hold control system is described in the next section.Chapter 5.3 Altitude hold control system The altitude hold control system helps the aircraft in holding a particular altitude [27]. this is given by an outer loop which can be altitude hold loop or velocity hold loop. Controller Design 80 Figure 5. In this algorithm. Thus the is tracked by the output and the aircraft attains the altitude as required by the path planning algorithm . This is achieved by the altitude hold control system. The input to this system is given by a path planning algorithm implemented in the autopilot for autonomous flying. 5.1 forms the inner loop of the system. If the aircraft has to go from one way point to another at a constant height or at a steady climb rate. the response is sluggish with high rise time compared to the response at 12m/s. The longitudinal nominal plant ( ⁄ ) given in Fig 5. then the aircraft has to maintain its altitude at each point of time given by this algorithm.2. At 8m/s. The outer loop of this system is to track the altitude. The pitch rate and pitch angle feedback helps to hold the required pitch angle ( ) given by the outer loop which is an altitude hold loop. The altitude is fed back using a PID controller. In the autonomous mode. the aircraft is made to follow a pre-specified path given in terms of waypoints.

The becomes zero when the altitude is achieved. Controller Design 81 Figure 5.5.5 shows the altitude hold control system. The output h tries to follow the reference input. If there is any change in the forward velocity.11. ( ( ) which can be solved as ( )) (5.11 Altitude Hold Control System The figure shows the altitude hold control system with the inner loop having pitch rate and pitch angle feedback. This angle is tracked by the inner loop. This system is generally used in cases in which a particular trim velocity has to be maintained.Chapter 5. the forward velocity is tracked instead of altitude. then the control system tries to correct it. In this system. 𝑟𝑒𝑓 𝜃𝑟𝑒𝑓 PID PID + - 𝑢 𝑢 𝜃 G(s) 𝑞 𝜃 + - + + 𝑢 PD Figure 5. Instead of using altitude hold control as the outer loop. then the aircraft has to come back to its original altitude. The ⁄ transfer function is computed from the relation shown in Eq 5. This requires a positive pitch angle which is driven to the inner loop. The input is given from a path planning algorithm. If the altitude of the aircraft decreases due to a sudden gust. The input is given by the PID controller and the inner loop tries to track this input as shown in the figure 5. velocity control can be used.11) .

4. The aircraft flying autonomously with a path planning algorithm will track the reference altitude with a sluggish response as shown in the figure 5. 5.6.6.12 Closed loop response of altitude hold control system The step response indicates a low rise time but a large settling time.13 ⁄ ⁄ ⁄ (5. The ⁄ can be obtained from Eq.13) The closed loop response for the altitude hold control system is shown in the figure 5.12) The transfer functions of ( )⁄ . . The inner loop is the closed loop system from the previous section designed using robust synthesis. This dominant pole has a damping of 1 and this gives the sluggish response leading to high settling time. This is due to the pole which is close to the origin.Chapter 5. ( )⁄ can be computed from the plant model and can be obtained. Controller Design 82 ( ( ) ( ) ) (5. Figure 5. The low rise time is due to the phugoid damping of 0.

6 shows the actual plant characteristics and the minimum required characteristics based on MIL-F8785C specifications. PD 𝑔 𝑉 𝛷𝑟𝑒𝑓 + 𝛷 G(s) 𝑝 𝑟 𝑢 𝛷 u PID + 𝑢 + PD Figure 5.8 <0 Required 0.4 0. Table 5.0282 1.65 rad/sec -10. The nominal lateral plant model is shown in the figure 5.7. The spiral mode is unstable and it must be made stable. The table 5. Controller Design 83 5.2 – 4 rad/sec < -6.Chapter 5.0836 The Dutch roll damping has to be increased a lot in order to meet the requirements.19-0.13 Nominal Lateral Plant .3 Lateral Control Design The Lateral motion comprises of the dutch roll mode. Roll angle feedback to aileron is also possible for attitude tracking. the spiral mode and the roll subsidence mode.7 Lateral Control design requirements Actual Dutch Roll damping Dutch Roll frequency Roll subsidence Spiral 0. The Kestrel autopilot allows feedback of roll rate and yaw rate to the aileron and rudder respectively.36 1.

Figure 5. The open loop response to a step elevator input is shown in the figure 5. The pitch rate goes to zero whereas the forward and vertical velocity and pitch angle does not go to zero. The low damping of the response is due to the poor damping of the phugoid mode (0. Controller Design 84 Both classical and robust controller design should be performed on the lateral plant similar to the longitudinal plant. Simulation is done to compare the open loop and closed loop response for a commanded elevator.6.7. The elevator remains in its new position which gives new values of pitch angle and forward and vertical velocities.Chapter 5. 5. Pilot command is the only input to the elevator. This is true because a step input is applied to the elevator which changes the elevator position.03) as given in the table 5.2. .4 Open loop and Closed loop simulation Matlab simulation is done to test the controller performance. The open loop simulation is without any feedback.14 Open loop response for a commanded elevator (step input) From the response we can observe that the damping is very low which is causing the large settling time. The closed loop response is given in the figure 5.

If a unit step input is applied to a closed loop system. In our application the PD. It is observed that the forward velocity changes in greater magnitude than the vertical velocity which is expected. i. The response is shown in the figure 5.5 but is well within the limit of the specifications. The short period frequency increased from 7.4. In order to study this. a step input to the closed loop system indicates the role of the designed controllers in improving the performance of the plant. This is due to the increase in the phugoid damping to 0.e.42 but is well within the specified range.8. Controller Design 85 Figure 5. This signifies that the vehicle‟s response to the wind gusts will be quicker which helps the plane to become stable within less time.62 to 0.72 to 11. The pitch and pitch rate is in rad/sec while the forward and vertical velocity is in m/sec. . a step input is applied to the closed loop system at the input ( ). The pitch rate goes to zero at a faster rate compared to the open loop.15 Closed loop response for a commanded elevator (step input) The closed loop response shows the improvement in the settling time. PID controllers constitute the feedback.6 which explains the improvement in the response. how well the output tracks the input.Chapter 5. The open and closed loop characteristics are compared in table 5. Therefore. It indicates the performance of the feedback configuration. the response tells us the tracking nature of the system. The short period damping decreased from 0.

The closed loop system characteristics are compared with the open loop characteristics. . 5. The pitch rate is settling to zero and the forward and vertical velocities are settling to a new value which is due to change in the pitch angle. The performance of the closed loop system is good which implies that the controllers designed using the combined Monte Carlo and modified ILMI algorithm made the open loop plant stable and also improved the performance.Chapter 5. The output is taking a while to settle to its steady state value ( ) which is clear from the figure.5 Conclusion The combined Monte Carlo and modified ILMI algorithm developed in the previous chapter is used to design the pitch rate and pitch angle feedback controllers for the vehicle‟s longitudinal plant. The improvement in the phugoid damping reduced the settling time of the responses.16 Step Response of the closed loop system The input ( ) is driven with a step input. Controller Design 86 Figure 5. The open loop and closed loop responses are compared for a step elevator input which clearly indicates the improvement in the overall system. The output (θ) is shown following the input with a nonzero settling time. The controller designed using the algorithm definitely improved the performance of the system. vertical velocity and the pitch rate are also observed. The tracking nature of the closed loop system is studied by driving the input with a step input and studying the response of the system. The short period damping and frequency worsened from the open loop plant but well within the limits of the specifications mentioned. The responses of the forward velocity.

62 and phugoid damping of 0. The lateral model indicates a dutch roll mode of frequency 1. Therefore. The controller designed stabilizes the plant in the presence of these parametric uncertainties. This vehicle is selected as it has a stable operation in radio controlled mode.982rad/sec with poor damping of 0. The classical robust design is either over conservative or computationally intractable.61 rad/sec with damping of 0. The handling qualities of the vehicle must be improved by artificial stabilization. and also on gain and phase margins. 87 . The vehicle is modeled using vortex lattice simulation based softwares. The statistical learning theory which is based on the probabilistic framework suffers from the limitation that it works for most of the plants but not all. The longitudinal model indicates a short period frequency of 7. The uncertainties in the model and the wind gust disturbances during flight insist on a robust control design. The uncertainties discussed above are represented as parametric uncertainties in the stability derivatives. It has good glide properties and hence it will land gently in case of power/battery failure. The characteristics show a poor phugoid and dutch roll damping far lower than that specified in the military specifications. The wind tunnel data is not available which can be used to check the accuracy of the model. The softwares are limited in their prediction of the properties of the wing and wing-body combination.0359.Chapter 6 Conclusions and Future Work The design and flight control of miniature air vehicle is addressed in this thesis. It is readily available at low cost since it is manufactured in large numbers and sold to hobby flyers. The vehicle Fpv Raptor is chosen instead of constructing a new vehicle.72 rad/sec with damping of 0. Monte Carlo simulation is combined with modified ILMI algorithm to design the controller which satisfies the constraints on H2 and H performance. the robust design is done in probabilistic framework in order to overcome both the above problems.0125. stable roll subsidence mode and an unstable spiral mode.

In the extension of the above work. then path planning and obstacle avoidance algorithms can be implemented and verified in-flight. .5 which is within the range of military specifications.4.Chapter 6. Conclusions and Future Work 88 The pitch rate feedback PD controller and pitch angle feedback PID controller is designed for an optimal plant model at 12m/s after introducing the parametric uncertainties. The gains are entered in the kestrel autopilot before flying the vehicle. The short period frequency increased to 11 rad/sec but is within the specifications. The short period damping reduced to 0. The attitude tracking can be employed in order to verify the performance of the vehicle. Pilot feedback is also useful in determining the improvement in the handling qualities of the vehicle. controller for the lateral plant is not designed. The response of the altitude hold control system showed the improvement in performance due to controller. the SOF plant model for the lateral model should be constructed and a controller should be designed using the steps followed for the design of the longitudinal plant controller. The recorded flight data can be compared with the simulation data and the accuracy of the design can be verified. A step input is applied at the input of the closed loop system and is found that the input tracking performance is improved. The performance of these controllers on nonlinear plant models can be verified before the actual flight. The controller is checked for its performance for different plant models in the flight regime and encouraging results are obtained. The closed loop system has improved phugoid damping of 0. If a different autopilot is used. Future Work Due to the limitation of time. The kestrel autopilot is not open source which makes it difficult to change its path planning algorithm.

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