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- A German Perspective Presentation at the „Renewable Energy Technology Forum“, Bonn, 6 October 2011
Source: juwi Holding AG (www.juwi.de e)
Dr. Ulrik Neupert
Deputy H d of D D Head f Department “T h l “Technology A l i and F Analysis d Foresight” i h” Coordinator Defence Foresight Fraunhofer Institute for Technological Trend Analysis INT, Euskirchen
email@example.com ulrik neupert@int fraunhofer de
Technologie Analysen Vorausschau
int.fraunhofer. Source: INT INT Annual Reports @ www.de Technologie Analysen Vorausschau 2 .Fraunhofer INT Planning support for state and industry Overview of the general research and technology landscape Overview of the entire spectrum of national and international technological developments spec a ed analyses and o ecasts selected technological areas specialized a a yses a d forecasts in se ected tec o og ca a eas own experimental and theoretical research on the effects of ionizing and electromagnetic radiation on electronic components and systems.
independent overview and interdisciplinary assessment capability In-depth analyses in selected research areas (e.g. methodological framework and refinement Staff: mainly natural scientists and engineers from various scientific areas Source: INT Technologie Analysen Vorausschau 3 . nanotechnology. new materials.Department “Technology Analysis and Foresight” Balanced. energy storage) Technology foresight methodology. robotics/unmanned systems.
Why Photovoltaics? Solar energie is available in abundance > 1018 kWh/year 10. http://en.2011) Technologie Analysen Vorausschau 4 . 30.org/wiki/Solar_Power. Solar areas defined by the dark disks could provide more than the world's total primary energy demand (assuming a conversion efficiency of 8%).000 x yearly worldwide use of primary energy Solar energy is available (nearly) worlwide Solar radiation can be predicted reliably Photovoltaics delivers valuable peak load power Worldwide map of solar radiation received on the ground. 8%) (Source: Wikipedia: Solar power http://en wikipedia org/wiki/Solar Power 30 09 2011) power.09.wikipedia.
Decrease in cost of roof-mounted PV facilities in €/kWh from 2006-2011 (Source: BSW .Why Photovoltaics? Solar Energy has a much higher efficiency per acreage than production of biomass (20-100x) Prices for Solar Energy are decreasing rapidly. 30. www.Bundesverband Solarwirtschaft e V .2011) Technologie Analysen Vorausschau 5 .09.V. www solarwirtschaft de 30 09 2011) e.de. module costs decrease by currently 8-10 % per year.solarwirtschaft. we are close to reaching „Grid Parity“.
www.de) juwi Holding AG. j id ) Research Ch ll R h Challenge: Integration into power networks/Smart Grids Solar power station in Ruanda (Source: juwi Holding AG.Relevance for Large-Scale Energy Supply Requirements: long life high Net Energy Gain (NEG) Competitive price Solar House (S S l H (Source: j i H ldi AG www.juwi.juwi.de) AG www juwi de) Technologie Analysen Vorausschau 6 .
wind energy.ns. and kinetic energy).g. thermal energy.umich. www. www.Relevance for Small-Scale Energy Supply Energy Harvesting: Capturing energy from external sources (e. low-power electronics Technologie Analysen Vorausschau 7 .solarc.de) Solar-powered mobile phone m (Source: Samsun ng) high net energy gain (NEG) Inoor-use Inoor use Flexibility Research Challenges: Concept of a solar-powered bat-sized spy plane (Source: University of Michigan. solar power. wireless autonomous devices t d i Requirements: Competitive price Handbag with integrated solar charger (Source: Solarc GmbH.edu) www ns umich edu) Power management. to power small.
Due to the electric field formed by the junction of th n. Basic structure of a silicon based solar cell and its working mechanism (Source: Wikipedia: Solar cell.09. Negatively charged electrons are set free in this process. resulting in an electric current. 30.org/wiki/Solar_cell. http://en.wikipedia.Solar Cells – Working Mechanism Sunlight enters the solar panel and is absorbed by a semiconducting material like silicon.2011) Technologie Analysen Vorausschau 8 .and pb th j ti f the d doped semiconductor layers the electrons are only allowed to move in a single direction direction.
Trends: New Processing Technologies Silicon Purification: new interruption-free trichlorosilane process (Wacker Chemie AG) new cost.and energy-efficient trichlorosilane/monosilane process (Evonik/Solar World) Crystal G C t l Growth: th Faster crystal growth process for multicrystalline silicon (Fraunhofer ISE) Wafer production: Reduction of losses in the sawing process Wafer production directly from molten silicon without sawing (Solar World Innovations. University of Konstanz) Module Design: Thinner electrical contacts between cells causing less shadow ... Technologie Analysen Vorausschau 9 .
net) Technologie Analysen Vorausschau 10 . http://www. CuGaSe2.Trend: Thin-Film Solar Cells Based on semiconductors (microcrystalline or amorphous silicon. GaAs CdTe) GaAs. Thinner compared to crystalline silicon cells due to higher light absorption Cheaper production process Flexible CIGS-Cell with > 10% efficiency (Source: Solarion AG.net) Roll-to-Roll Processing of CIGS Solar Cells (Source: Solarion AG. CuInS2. http://www.solarion. CuInSe2.solarion.
Efficiency of commercially available PV Modules Significant trend towards higher efficiencies in PV modules made from crystalline silicon (c-Si) and thin-film semiconductors. Comparison of total area efficiency of commercial available PV modules (Source: Willeke using data from Photon Februar 2003-2009. Photon Profi 22010 in BINE Themeninfo II/2011) Technologie Analysen Vorausschau 11 .
2011) Tracking system required that orientates the cell towards the sun Technologie Analysen Vorausschau 12 . g efficiency of 41. 30.1% with a cell containing three p-n junctions.09. Multijunction photovoltaic cells with several layers of different semiconductors are used to capture a wide range of wavelengths. Fraunhofer ISE achieved a record y .org/wiki/Solarzelle#Konzentratorzellen.Trend: Concentrated Photovoltaics To achieve very high efficiencies optics such as lenses are used to bundle a large amount of sunlight on a small area of photovoltaic material.wikipedia. very expensive economic in places with high sunlight intensity like in Southern Europe. Principle drawing of a concentrator cell (Source: http://de.
M. 10 April 2009 Relatively new technology. main challenges: efficiency service life Dye Solar Cell (Source: Fraunhofer ISE) Technologie Analysen Vorausschau 13 . y gy. R. Science.: Solar Power Wires Based on Organic Photovoltaic Materials. al.Trend: Organic and Polymer Solar Cells Based on thin films of organic semiconductors lightweight flexible inexpensive potentially disposable Concept of a photovoltaic fiber Lee M R et al : fiber. Lee.
Trend: Recycling Current composition of PV-waste: 90 % crystalline silicon cells (c-Si) 10 % Thin-film cells (amorphous or microcrystalline Si. Sander e al. 2007.u Verwertungssystems für s und Photo ovoltaische Produkte. CIS) Sour rce: K. BM MU Förde erkennzeichen 0 03MAP092 Goals: Upcycling instead of Downcycling (reuse materials for the same application) Design of recycling-friendly PV-modules recycling friendly PV modules Technologie Analysen Vorausschau 14 .: Studie zur Entwicklung et eines Rücknahme. CdTe.
V. KG ANTEC Solar GmbH Roth Rau R th & R AG Solarion AG Sunways AG . (ISC Konstanz) Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (HZB) Max-Planck-Institut für Polymerforschung (MPIP) Industry: y SCHOTT Solar AG SolarWorld AG SolarWorld Innovations G bH S l W ld I i GmbH SOLARWATT AG Q-CELLS SE © Fraunhofer INT Würth Solar GmbH & Co.Photovoltaic Research in Germany (selection) Research Institutes: Fraunhofer-Institut für Solare Energiesysteme (ISE) Forschungszentrum Jülich. Institut für Energie.und Klimaforschung Institut für Solarenergieforschung Hameln (ISFH) Fraunhofer-Center für Silizium-Photovoltaik (CSP) ( ) International Solar Energy Research Center Konstanz e.
Integration into electricity grid has to be managed There will be fierce competition in this expanding market.de) solarwirtschaft de) Technologie Analysen Vorausschau 16 . giving this technology a worldwide boost. requiring a solid research and development base Prediction of the change of worldwide energy mix until 2100 (Source: solarwirtschaft.Conclusion/Outlook Solar cell production is getting more efficient with less environmental impact Crystalline silicon cells which are dominant on the market still have potential for improvement while thin-film technologies are catching up. Polymer cells will first see widespread use for powering low-cost dispensable electronics Photovoltaics will soon deliver electricity at current consumer y prices for electricity.
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