Rakesh Singh Rajput et al.

/ International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology
Vol. 2(12), 2010, 7797-7811

NON-AXISYMMETRIC DYNAMIC
RESPONSE OF IMPERFECTLY
BONDED BURIED ORTHOTROPIC
THIN EMPTY CYLINDRICAL SHELL
DUE TO INCIDENT SHEAR WAVE (SV
WAVE)
RAKESH SINGH RAJPUT
*

Reader, Mechanical Engineering, Directorate of Technical Education,
Bhopal, M. P., India
rak6raj@yahoo.co.in
SUNIL KUMAR
Professor, Mechanical Engineering, Rajeev Gandhi Technical University
Bhopal, M. P., India
sunilrewa@yahoo.com
ALOK CHAUBEY
Professor, Mechanical Engineering, Rajeev Gandhi Technical University
Bhopal, M. P., India
alokchaubey@rediffmail.com
J. P. DWIVEDI
Professor, Mechanical Engineering, IT-BHU
Varanasi, U. P., India

Abstract
This paper is deals with the non-axisymmetric dynamic response of imperfectly bonded buried orthotropic thin
empty pipelines subjected to incident shear wave (SV-wave). In the thin shell theory the effect of shear
deformation and rotary inertia is not considered. The pipeline has been modeled as an infinite thin cylindrical
shell imperfectly bonded to surrounding. A thin layer is assumed between the shell and the surrounding medium
(soil) such that this layer possesses the properties of stiffness and damping both. The degree of imperfection of
the bond is varied by changing the stiffness and the damping parameters of this layer. The non axisymmetric
results are comparing with axisymmetric.

Key words: - Shear wave, Orthotropic, Imperfect bond, Seismic Wave, Non-Axisymmetric, Dynamic
Response, Buried Pipelines, and Thin Shell.
1. Introduction
During past few years a number of studies like Cole Ritter and Jordon (1979) and Singh et al (1987) on the
axisymmetric dynamic response of buried orthotropic pipe/shells have been reported. Later Chonan (1981);
Dwivedi and Upadhyay (1989; 1990; 1991); and Dwivedi et al (1991) have analyzed the axisymmetric problems
of imperfectly bonded shell for the pipes made of orthotropic materials.

*Corresponding Author
ISSN: 0975-5462 7797
Rakesh Singh Rajput et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology
Vol. 2(12), 2010, 7797-7811

Upadhyay and Mishra (1988) have presented a good account of work on non-axisymmetric response of buried
thick orthotropic pipelines under seismic excitation. Again Dwivedi et al (1992a; 1992b); Dwivedi et al
(1993a; 1993b; 1996); and Dwivedi et al (1998) have analyzed the non-axisymmetric problems of imperfectly
bonded buried thick orthotropic cylindrical shells. Kauretzis et al (2007) have presented analytical calculations
of blast induced strains on buried pipe lines. Hasheninajad and Kazemirad (2008) have reported dynamic
response of eccentric tunnel in poro-elastic soil under sesmic excitation. Lee et al (2009) have done the risk
analysis of buried pipelines using probabilistic method. But in all these analyses pipelines have been modeled
as thick shell. As far as the non-axisymmetric dynamic response of thin shell is concerned, no work has been
reported so far. There is no work available discussing the effect of bond imperfection on the non axisymmetric
response of buried thin pipes made of orthotropic materials. Therefore, in present paper, the effect of imperfect
bond on the non- axisymmetric dynamic response of buried orthotropic thin pipelines has been analyzed.
2. Basic Equations and Formulation
The cylindrical pipeline has been modeled as an infinitely long cylindrical shell of mean radius R and
thickness h. It is considered to be buried in a linearly elastic, homogeneous and isotropic medium of infinite
extent. Basic approach of the formulation is to obtain the mid plane displacements of the shell by solving the
equations of motion of the orthotropic shell. Traction terms in the equations of motion are obtained by solving
the three-dimensional wave equation in the surrounding medium. Appropriate boundary conditions are applied
at the shell surfaces. Equations arising out of boundary conditions along with the equations of motion of the
shell are simplified to yield a response equation in matrix form. Equation governing the non axis-symmetric
motion of an infinitely long orthotropic cylinder has been derived following the approach of Herrmann and
Mirsky (1957).

The cylindrical shell buried in a linearly elastic, homogeneous and isotropic medium of infinite medium, a thin
layer is assumed between the shell and the surrounding medium (soil). The degree of imperfection of the bond is
varied by changing the stiffness and the damping parameters of this layer. The shell is excited by a shear
vertical wave (SV- wave). A wavelength A(=2Π/ç) is considered which strikes the shell at an angle o with
the axis of the shell. Let a cylindrical polar co-ordinate system (r,u, x) which is defined in such a way that x
coincides with the axis of the shell and, in addition, z is measured normal to the shell middle surface, which is
given as
h/2 z h/2 - , s s ÷ = R r z (1)
The equation of motion of shell in the matrix form is given as Rajput et.al (2010)
[{L} {U}] + {P
*
} = 0 (2)
Where [L] is 3 3 a matrix and {U} = [w v u]
T

With w, v and u as the displacement components of the middle surface of the shell in the radial, tangential and
axial directions respectively, the elements of {P
*
} are given by Herrman and Mirsky (1957) as:
, 1 P , 1
h/2
h/2 -
*
2
2 /
_h/2
*
1 u
o o
z
h
zz
R
z
R
z
P |
.
|

\
|
+ = |
.
|

\
|
+ =
, 1 P , 1
h/2
h/2 -
*
4
2 /
2 /
*
3 zx
h
h z
R
z
R
z
z P o o
u
|
.
|

\
|
+ = |
.
|

\
|
+ =
÷

2 /
2 /
*
5
1
h
h zx
R
z
z P
÷
|
.
|

\
|
+ = o

For the evaluation of {P
*
}, o
ij
at z = ± (h/2) must be determined in the terms of incident and scattered field in the
surrounding ground. The total displacement field in the ground is written as
d=d
(i)
+ d
(s)
ISSN: 0975-5462 7798
Rakesh Singh Rajput et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology
Vol. 2(12), 2010, 7797-7811

Where i and s represents the incident and scattered parts respectively. By solving the wave equation in the
surrounding infinite medium the components of incident and scattered fields can be written as (Chonan, S.,
1981):

| | ) ( exp cos

1
5
3
'
1 1
'
) (
ct x i n
B
R
r
I
r
R
n
B
R
r
I B
R
r
I
d
n
n n
i
r
÷
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ +
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
= ç u
o
o
o |
¸
¸

| | ) ( exp sin

) (
5
'
3 1 1
) (
ct x i n
B
R
r
I
B
R
r
I
r
R
in B
R
r
I
r
Rr
n
d
n
n n
i
÷
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ +
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
= ç u
o
o
o
|
¸
u

| | ) ( exp cos
3
2
1 1
) (
ct x i n x B
R
r
I B
R
r
I i d
n n
i
x
÷
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
= ç u
o
o
¸
| (3)

Where B
1
=
'
1
B /R, B
3
=

'
3
B /R
2
and B
5
=
'
5
B /R. (‘

) denotes differentiation with respect to the argument of
the Bessel functions. The constants B
1
, B
3
and B
5
depend on the parameters of the incident wave and may be
expressed as:

|
.
|

\
|
o
_ ÷ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
oc
_ ÷ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
_ ÷ =
+ 3 n
5
2
2 n
3
1
1 1 n
1
A
) 1 ( B ,
A
i ) 1 ( B ,
A
i ) 1 ( B
(4)


| | ) ct x ( i exp n cos B
R
r
K
r
R
n B
R
r
K i B
R
r
K d
6 n 4
'
n 1 2
'
n
) s (
r
÷ ç u
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
|
.
|

\
| o
|
.
|

\
|
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
|
.
|

\
| o
o | ÷ +
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
|
.
|

\
| ¸
¸ =


| | ) ct x ( i exp n sin
B
R
r
K
B
R
r
K
r
R
in B
R
r
K
r
R
n
d
6
'
n
4 n 1 2 n
) s (
÷ ç u
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
|
.
|

\
| o
o ÷ +
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
|
.
|

\
| o
| |
.
|

\
|
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
|
.
|

\
| ¸
|
.
|

\
|
÷
=
u


| | ) ct x ( i exp n cos

B
R
r
K B
R
r
K i
d
4 n
2
2 n 1 ) s (
x
÷ ç u
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
|
.
|

\
| o
o +
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
|
.
|

\
| ¸
|
=
(5)
Where d
r
, d
u
, d
x
are components of

displacement vector,

3 2 1
; ; A A A

are amplitudes of P, SV and SH wave
respectively.
Here . / B and / , /
'
6 6
2 '
4 4
'
2 2
R B R B B R B B = = = are constants.
Stress fields due to the incident wave can be obtained by plugging above equations into the stress-displacement
relations of the medium, and are given by:

( )
| | ) ct x ( i exp n cos
B
R
r
I
r
R
R
r
I
r
R
n 2
B
R
r
I i 2
B
R
r
I 2
R
r
I 2
R
5 n
'
n
3
"
n
2
1
1
"
n
2
n
2
2
2
1
) i (
rr
÷ ç u
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
|
.
|

\
| o
|
.
|

\
|
÷ |
.
|

\
| o
o |
.
|

\
|
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
|
.
|

\
| ¸
o | ÷ +
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
|
.
|

\
| ¸
¸ +
|
.
|

\
| ¸
c ÷ c
µ
= o

ISSN: 0975-5462 7799
Rakesh Singh Rajput et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology
Vol. 2(12), 2010, 7797-7811


| | ) ( exp sin 2
2
5
2
' " 2
3
'
1
1
'
) (
ct x i n
B
R
r
I
r
nR
R
r
I
r
R
R
r
I
B
R
r
I
r
R
R
r
I
r
R
in
B
R
r
I
R
r
I
r
R
r
R
n
R
n n n
n n
n n
i
r
÷
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ |
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
÷ +
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
|
.
|

\
|
÷ |
.
|

\
|
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
|
.
|

\
|
÷ |
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ç u
o o
o
o
o
o o
o |
¸
¸
¸
µ
o
u


( )
| | ) ( exp cos

2 2
5 1
' 2
2
2
1 1
'
1
) (
ct x i n
B
R
r
I
r
R
in
R
r
I B
R
r
I i
R
n
n n
i
rx
÷
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
|
.
|

\
|
÷ +
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
|
.
|

\
|
= ç u
o
|
o
c | o
¸
¸ |
µ
o


( )
| | ) ( exp cos
2
2
2 2
6
'
4
" 2
1
2
" 2 2
2
2
1
) (
ct x i n
B
R
r
K
r
R
R
r
K
r
R
n
B
R
r
K i
B
R
r
K
R
r
K
R
n n
n
n n
s
r
÷
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ |
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
|
.
|

\
|
÷
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
÷
= ç u
o o
o
¸
o |
¸
¸
¸
c c
µ
o
u

| | ) ( exp sin 2
2
6
2
' " 2
4
'
1
2
'
) (
ct x i n
B
R
r
K
r
nR
R
r
K
r
R
R
r
K
B
R
r
K
r
R
R
r
K
r
R
in
B
R
r
K
R
r
K
r
R
r
R
n
R
n n n
n n
n n
s
r
÷
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ |
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
÷
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
|
.
|

\
|
÷ |
.
|

\
|
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
|
.
|

\
|
÷ |
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ç u
o o
o
o
o
o o
o |
¸
¸
¸
µ
o
u

( )
| | ) ( exp cos

2 2
6 1
4
' 2
2
2
1 2
'
1
) (
ct x i n
B
R
r
K
r
R
in
B
R
r
K B
R
r
K i
R
n
n n
s
rx
÷
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
|
.
|

\
|
÷ +
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
|
.
|

\
|
= ç u
o
|
o
c | o
¸
¸ |
µ
o
(6)
Where
I
n
( ) Modified Bessel function of first kind
J
n
( ) Bessel function of first kind
K
n
( ) Modified Bessel function of second kind
With the help of above equations the stresses at the outer surface of the shell (z = h/2 or r = R + h/2) can be
obtained. Thus {P
*
} in Eq. (2) can be determined.
Now the mid plane displacement and slopes are assumed to be of the form;
0
w w = cosnu exp[iç(x-ct)]
0
v v = sinnu exp[iç(x-ct)]
0
u u = cosnuexp[iç(x-ct)] (7)
Plugging Eq. (7) in Eq. (2) and (6) along with the expression for {P*}, a set of six simultaneous algebraic
equations are obtained.Three more equations are obtained by imposing the boundary conditions at the inner and
outer surfaces of the shell: i.e.,
2 /
) ( ) (
) (
h R r
s
r
i
r
d d w
+ =
+ =
2 /
) ( ) (
) ( ) 2 / (
h R r
s i
d d h v
+ =
+ = + +
u u u

2 /
) ( ) (
) ( ) 2 / (
h R r
s
x
i
x x
d d h u
+ =
+ = + ¢ (8)
Boundary conditions at the outer surface of the shell (r = R + h/2) are obtained by assuming that the shell and
the continuum are joined together by a bond which is thin, elastic and inertia less. This implies that the stress at
the shell-soil interface is continuous. To take the elasticity of the bond into account, the stresses in the bond are
ISSN: 0975-5462 7800
Rakesh Singh Rajput et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology
Vol. 2(12), 2010, 7797-7811

assumed proportional to relative displacements between the shell and continuum. µ shear modulus of medium
and ρ density of shell material.
2 / 2 /
] ) ( )( [( ) (
h R r x
s
x
i
x x x h R r rx
R r u
t
Z S
+ = + =
÷ ÷ ÷ +
c
c
+ = ¢ µ µ o

2 / 2 /
)] )( [( ) (
h R r
s
r
i
r r r h R r rr
w
t
Z S
+ = + =
÷ +
c
c
+ = µ µ o
2 / 2 /
] ) ( )( [( ) (
h R r
s i
h R r r
R r u
t
Z S
+ = + =
÷ ÷ +
c
c
+ =
u u u u u u
¢ µ µ o
(9)
,
.R S
r
R
µ
, =
R S .
u
u
µ
, =
and
R S
x
x
.
µ
, =
are the non-dimensionalized stiffness coefficient of the bond in
radial , tangential and axial direction respectively.

1
c Z
r
r
µ
= I

1
c Z
u
u
µ
= I
and
1
c Z
x
x
µ
= I
are the non-dimensionalized damping coefficient of the bond in
radial, tangential and axial direction respectively.
Thus a total of six algebraic equations are obtained. These six equations when simplified give the final response
equation, which may be put into the form
{ } { } { }
3
5
2
3
1
1 0
B B F B } }{ { F F U Q + + = (10)
{ }
¸ ¸
;
6 4 2
3
6
3
4
3
2
3
0
3
0
3
0
T
T
B B B U V W
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
u
A
v
A
w
U =
(
¸
(

¸

=

Where [Q] is a (6x6)) matrix and {F
1
}, {F
2
} and {F
3
} are (6×1) matrices. But for the response of shear vertical
wave the amplitudes due to shear waves
1
B and
5
B would be zero so the effect of {F
1
} and {F
3
} matrices
would be eliminated. Putting values of
1
B =
5
B = 0 and substituting values of
3
B Eq. (6) becomes as
{ }
2
2
2
0
F ) 1 ( } }{ {
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
c
_
A
i U Q
n
(11)
Elements of Matrix F
( ) ( ) ( ) | | ; 2 2
2
1
1
2
1
2
2
2
1
3
1
o ¸ o µ
n n
I I
h
F ' ' + e ÷ e
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =

( ) ( ) { }
;
2
1
2
2
1
2
1 1 1 3
2
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
' ÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷ =
h
I I n h
F
n n
o o o
µ


( ) | | ; 2
2
1
1 1
3
3
o ¸ | µ
n
I i
h
F '
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷ = ( )
( )
;
2
1
,
1 3
5 1
3
4
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷
= ' =
h
I n
F I F
n
n
o
o ¸

)] ( 2 ) ( ){ 2 [ ) ( {
1
" 2
1
2
2
2
1
1
1
' 3
6
o ¸ o c c
, c
,
o ¸
n n
r r
r r
n
I I
i
I F + ÷
÷ I
I
÷ ÷ =



Elements of matrix Q in Eq. (11) and matrix L in Eq. (2) are same as provided in Rajput et.al (2010).

3. Results and Discussions
Results are presented for a transversely isotropic shell with r- u as the plane of isotropy.
Consequently
z
E E =
u
,
u x xz
G G = ,
xz x
v = v
u
,
u u
v = v
z z
, ) 1 ( 2 / E G
z z u u u
v + = . Thus we
have
2 3
q = q , and ) 1 ( 2 / E / G
z 1 x z 4 u u
v + q = = q . In addition 3 . 0
x z
= v = v
u u
has been
taken in the numerical calculations. Different values of
1
q and
2
q used are as follows
1
q = 0.5, 0.1, 0.05 and
ISSN: 0975-5462 7801
Rakesh Singh Rajput et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology
Vol. 2(12), 2010, 7797-7811

2
q = 0.1,05,.02, µ has been varied between 0.1 to 10.0 to take into account different soil conditions around the
pipe, = 0.1 corresponds to the soft soil , µ =1 for medium soil and for hard rocky soil µ= 10.0 For all the
values of µ ,
m
v = 0.25 has been assumed. Thickness to radius ratio of the shell ( h) has been taken as 0.01
and the density ratio of the surrounding medium to the shell ( µ) has been taken as 0.75. Non-dimensional
amplitude of the middle surface of the shell in the radial and axial directions (W andU ) have been plotted
against the non-dimensional wave number of the incident shear vertical wave (SV-wave) (| = 2tR/A). The shell
response has been shown non-axisymmetric (n = 1) flexural mode and axisymmetric mode taking stiffness
coefficient (
x
,

u
,

r
, ), damping coefficient (
x
I
u
I
r
I ) as bond parameter and

1
q ,
2
q as the shell
orthotropic parameters.
The bond parameters have been varied between zero and infinity,
x
, =
u
,

=

r
, =
x
I =
u
I =
r
I = 0
corresponds to perfect bonding between the shell and surround shell.
Figure 1 to figure 3 shows the effect of stiffness coefficient on the axial displacement of the shell at different
angle of incidence of wave, at different condition of the soil with increasing wave number


Figure1. Axial displacement ) (U vs. wave number ( |) with
x
, = 0.1, 10,100 as
Parameter


10 =
x
ç
100 =
x
ç
1 . 0 =
x
ç
1 . 0 =
x
ç
ISSN: 0975-5462 7802
Rakesh Singh Rajput et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology
Vol. 2(12), 2010, 7797-7811


Figure2. Axial displacement ) (U vs. wave number ( |) with
x
, = 0.1, 10,100 as
Parameter









Figure3. Axial displacement ) (U vs. wave number ( |) with
x
, = 0.1, 10,100 as
Parameter





100 , 10 , 1 . 0 =
x
ç
1 . 0 =
x
ç
100 =
x
ç
1 . 0 =
x
ç
100 =
x
ç
1 . 0 =
x
ç
ISSN: 0975-5462 7803
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Vol. 2(12), 2010, 7797-7811

Figure 4to figure 6 shows the effect of damping coefficient on the axial displacement of the shell at different
angle of incidence of wave, at different condition of the soil with increasing wave number


Figure4. Axial displacement ) (U vs. ( |) with
x
I = 0.1, 10,100 as Parameter




Figure5. Axial displacement ) (U vs. wave number ( |) with
x
I = 0.1, 10,100 as
Parameter

100 , 10 , 1 . 0 = I
x

100 = I
x

1 . 0 = I
x

100 , 10 , 1 . 0 = I
x

100 , 10 , 1 . 0 = I
x

ISSN: 0975-5462 7804
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Vol. 2(12), 2010, 7797-7811


Figure6. Axial displacement ) (U vs. wave number ( |) with
x
I = 0.1, 10,100 as
Parameter


Figure 7 to figure 10 shows the effect of stiffness coefficient on the radial displacement of the shell at different
angle of incidence of wave, at different condition of the soil with increasing wave number


Figure7. Radial displacement ) W ( vs. wave number ( |) with
r
, = 0.1, 10,100 as
Parameter

100 , 10 , 1 . 0 = I
x

100 = I
x

100 , 10 , 1 . 0 = I
x

1 . 0 =
r
,

100 =
r
,

100 , 10 , 1 , 0 =
r
,

ISSN: 0975-5462 7805
Rakesh Singh Rajput et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology
Vol. 2(12), 2010, 7797-7811









Figure8 Radial displacement ) (W vs. wave number ( |) with
r
, = 0.1, 10,100 as
Parameter



Figure9 Radial displacement ) (W vs. wave number ( |) with
r
, = 0.1, 10,100 as
Parameter


100 =
r
,
1 . 0 =
r
,

100 , 10 , 1 , 0 =
r
,
100 , 10 , 1 . 0 =
r
ç
100 , 10 , 1 . 0 =
r
ç
1 . 0 =
r
ç
ISSN: 0975-5462 7806
Rakesh Singh Rajput et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology
Vol. 2(12), 2010, 7797-7811


Figure10. Radial displacement ) (W vs. wave number ( |) with
r
I = 0.1, 10,100 as
Parameter




Figure11. Radial displacement ) (W vs. wave number ( |) with
r
I = 0.1, 10,100 as
Parameter



100 , 10 , 1 . 0 = I
r

100 , 10 , 1 . 0 = I
r

100 , 10 , 1 . 0 = I
r

100 , 10 , 1 . 0 = I
r

ISSN: 0975-5462 7807
Rakesh Singh Rajput et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology
Vol. 2(12), 2010, 7797-7811


Figure12. Radial displacement ) (W vs. ( |) with
r
I = 0.1, 10,100 as Parameter.

Conclusions
Based on the results presented following general conclusions could be drawn-.
- Unlike the behavior observed in the non-axisymmetric mode a loose contact between the shell and
the surrounding soil does not always give more shell displacement as compared to those for a
perfectly bonded shell. Therefore assuming a perfect bond may not always lead to a safe and
conservative estimate of displacements.
- Effects of bond parameters depend upon the soil conditions and the incidence angle and
wavelength of the incident wave. In hard and rocky surroundings bond imperfections show more
prominent effects on the shell response.
- The flexural mode response assumes considerable importance in soft soil condition and at higher
apparent wave speed.
- Flexural mode response due to incident shear vertical wave is significant only at large angle of
incidence.
- For large angle of incidence radial deflection is higher in flexural modes at larger wavelength but at
this value it is the axial deflection in axisymmetric mode, which is higher. Thus for larger wavelength
axisymmetric mode is more important because the most common cause of pipeline failure is excessive
axial deformation, while at smaller wavelength the flexural mode has much importance for axial
displacement.
- Both the shell orthotropic parameters influence the radial displacement equally well but
2
q has a
stronger influence on the axial displacement than
1
q . As the Stiffness and the damping coefficient is
increase the axial and radial response increase.
- Axial deflection and radial deflection both are increase when the value of bonding parameter stiffness
coefficient (
x
,

u
,

r
, ), damping coefficient (
x
I
u
I
r
I ) increase from zero to infinity (perfect
to imperfect bonding) as parameters.

Nomenclature
A Amplitude of the plane wave
3 2 1
; ; A A A

Amplitudes of P-SV-SH wave respectively
B
1 …… .,
B
6
Arbitrary constants

'
6
'
1
B ....... B
Arbitrary constants

100 , 10 , 1 . 0 = I
r

100 = I
r

1 . 0 = I
r

ISSN: 0975-5462 7808
Rakesh Singh Rajput et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology
Vol. 2(12), 2010, 7797-7811

c Apparent wave speed along the axis of the shell
d
r
, d
u
, d
x
Components of

displacement vector
E
R
, E
u
, E
X
Young modulus of the shell.
x r
e e e ; ;
u

Unit vector in co-ordinate direction
{F
1
}, {F
2
}, {F
3
} Column vector
G
xu
, G
xz
, G
zu
Shear moduli of the shell
H Vector displacement in the medium
H
'
Displacement potential corresponding to SV wave
H
r
, H
u
, H
X
Components of vector potential
(H
x
corresponding to SH wave)
h Thickness of the shell
h (=h/R) Non dimensional thickness of the shell
I
n
( ) Modified Bessel function of first kind
J
n
( ) Bessel function of first kind
K
n
( ) Modified Bessel function of second kind
k
x
, k
u
Shear correction factor
{L} Matrix operator
x x xx
M M M M
u u uu
; ; ;

Stress resultant moments
x x xx
N N N N
u u uu
; ; ;

Stress resultants
n Mode shape number in the tangential direction
{P*} Column matrix
R Mean radius of the shell
r Radial coordinate
t Time
U Non-dimensional amplitude of the shell in axial direction
u Displacement of the shell middle surface in the axial direction
u
0
Displacement amplitude of the shell middle surface in the axial direction
u
z
, u
u
, u
x
Displacement component of a point in the shell
V Non-dimensional amplitude of the shell in the tangential direction
v Displacement of the shell middle surface in the tangential direction
v
0
Displacement amplitude of shell middle surface in tangential direction
W Non-dimensional amplitude of the shell in the radial direction
w Displacement of the shell middle surface in the radial direction
w
0
Displacement amplitude of the shell middle in the radial direction

x Coordinate along the shell axis
z Coordinate normal to middle surface of the shell
| Angle of incidence of the wave
|(=2tR/A) Non-dimensional wave number of incident wave
q
1
, q
2
, q
3
, q
4
Non-dimensional shell orthotropic parameters of the shell
u
z
Normal to middle surface of the shell
u Tangential direction
A Wave length of the incident wave
ì Lame’s constant
µ Modulus of rigidity
|
|
.
|

\
| µ
= µ
xz
G
Non-dimensional modulus of rigidity of medium
v
m
Poisson ratio the medium
v
xu
, v
ux
, v
uz
, v
zx
, v
xz
Poisson ratios of the shell
ç (= 2t cos o/ A) Apparent wave number
µ Density of the shell material
µ
m
Density of the medium
ISSN: 0975-5462 7809
Rakesh Singh Rajput et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology
Vol. 2(12), 2010, 7797-7811

|
.
|

\
|
µ
µ
= µ
m
Non-dimensional density of the medium
o
ij
Components of stress tensor
| Scalar displacement potential in the medium
¢
x
Angle of rotation in r-x plane
_ Symmetry constant _=1for n=0, _=2 for n=1
¢
xo
Amplitude of ¢
x

¢
u
Angle of rotation in r-u plane

Subscripts
m Medium
r Radial direction
x Axial direction
z Normal to middle surface of the shell
u Tangential direction

Superscripts
i Incident wave
s Scattered wave

REFERENCES
[1] Ariman T and Muleski GE (1988). Review of the response of buried pipelines under seismic Excitation. Int. J. Earthquake Engg. and
Structural Dynamics. 9: 133-151.
[2] Ariman, T., Liu, S. C., and Nickell, R. E. (Eds.), Life Earthquake Engineering Buried Pipelines, Seismic Risk and Instrumentation
New York: ASME, pp. 114-131.
[3] Chonan S (1981). Response of a pre-stressed, orthotropic thick cylindrical shell subjected to pressure pulses. J. Sound and Vibration.
78: 257-267.
[4] Cole BW, Ritter CJ and Jordon S (1979). Structural analysis of buried reinforced plastic mortar pipe. Lifeline earthquake engineering-
buried pipelines, seismic risk and instrumentation. T. Ariman, S. C. Liu and R. E. Nickell, eds., ASME.
[5] Dwivedi JP and Upadhyay PC (1989) Effect of imperfect bonding on the axisymmetric dynamic response of buried orthotropic
cylindrical shells. J. Sound and Vibration. 135: 477-486.
[6] Dwivedi, J. P. and Upadhyay, P. C. 1990. Effect of fluid presence on the dynamic response of imperfectly bonded buried orthotropic
cylindrical shells. J. Sound and Vibration. 139(II): 99-110.
[7] Dwivedi JP and Upadhyay PC (1991). Effect of imperfect bond on the dynamic response of buried orthotropic cylindrical shells under
shear-wave excitation. J. Sound and Vibration. 145(2): 333-337.
[8] Dwivedi JP, Singh VP and Upadhyay PC (1991). Effect of fluid presence on the dynamic response of imperfectly bonded cylindrical
shells due to incident shear-wave excitation. Computer and Structures. 40(4): 995-1001.
[9] Dwivedi JP, Mishra BK. and Upadhyay PC (1992). Non-axisymmetric dynamic response of imperfectly bonded buried orthotropic
pipeline due to an incident shear wave. J. Sound and Vibration. 157(1): 81-92.
[10] Dwivedi JP, Mishra BK and Upadhyay PC (1992b). Non-axisymmetric dynamic response of imperfectly bonded buried orthotropic
pipelines due to incident shear wave (SH-wave). J. Sound and Vibration. 157(1): 177-182.
[11] Dwivedi JP, Singh, VP and Upadhyay PC (1993a). Non-axisymmetric dynamic response of imperfectly bonded buried fluid-filled
orthotropic cylindrical shells due to incident shear wave. J. Sound and Vibration. 167(2): 277-287.
[12] Dwivedi JP, Singh VP and Upadhyay PC (1993b). Effect of fluid presence on the non-axisymmetric dynamic response of imperfectly
bonded buried orthotropic pipelines due to incident shear wave. Computer and Structures. 48(2): 219-226.
[13] Dwivedi JP, Singh VP and Upadhyay PC (1996). Non-axisymmetric dynamic response of imperfectly bonded buried fluid-filled
orthotropic cylindrical shells. ASME J. of Press. Vessel Techno. 118(1): 64-73.
[14] Dwivedi JP, Mishra BK and Upadhyay PC (1998). Non-axisymmetric dynamic response of imperfectly bonded buried orthotropic
pipelines. Struct. Engg. and Mechanics. 6(3): 291-304.
[15] Hasheminajad SM. and Kazemirad S (2008). Dynamic response of an eccentrically lined circular tunnel in poroelastic soil under
seismic excitation. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engg. 28: 277-292.
[16] Herrman G and Mirsky J (1957). Non axially Symmetric Motion of Cylindrical Shell. J. Acoustical Society America. 29(10): 1116-
1123.
[17] Jones RM (1975) Mechanics of Composite Materials. McGraw Hill Publications, Newyork.
[18] Kouretzis GP, Bouckovalas GD and Gantes CJ (2007). Analytical calculation of blast-induced strains on buried pipe lines. Int. J.
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[19] Lee DH, Kim BH, Lee H and Kong JS (2009) Seismic behavior of buried gas pipelines under earthquake excitation. Engg. Structure.
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[20] Muleski GE, Ariman TS and Ariman CP (1979). A Shell Model of a Buried Pipe in a Seismic environment. ASME J. Press. Vessel
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[21] Rajput RS, Sunil Kumar, Chaubey A, and Dwivedi JP. (2010). Comparison of Non-Axisymmetric Dynamic Response of Imperfectly
Bonded Buried Orthotropic Thick and Thin Fluid filled Cylindrical Shell due to Incident Shear Wave (SH Wave). IJEST.2: 5845-5871
[22] Rajput RS, Sunil Kumar, Chaubey A. and Dwivedi JP. (2010). Non-Axisymmetric Dynamic Response of Imperfectly Bonded Buried
Orthotropic Thin Fluid Empty Cylindrical Shell due to Incident Compressional Wave. EJSR.10:443-464
ISSN: 0975-5462 7810
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Vol. 2(12), 2010, 7797-7811

[23] Upadhyay PC and Mishra BK (1988). Non Axisymmetric Dynamic Response of buried Orthotropic shells.J. Sound and Vibration.
121: 149 -160.
[24] Singh VP, Upadhyay PC and Kishore B (1987). On the dynamic response of Buried Orthotropic Cylindrical Shells. J. Sound and
Vibration. 113: 101-115.

Biographical notes

Rakesh Singh Rajput received M. Tech. from NIT Allahabad, India and pursuing Ph.D. from Rajeev Gandhi Technological University,
Bhopal, India. He is a Reader in Mechanical Engineering, and working with Department of Technical Education (DTE), Govt. of M. P.,
India. His research interests include machine design and mechanics. He has written book on Engineering Mechanics.
Dr. Sunil Kumar is a Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Rajeev Gandhi Technological University, Bhopal, India. He has received M.
Tech from IT-BHU, Varanasi, India and Ph. D. from IIT Delhi, India. He has more than 20 years of experience in teaching and research. His
current area of research includes Combustion mechanics and System Dynamics.
Dr. Alok Chaube is a Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Rajeev Gandhi Technological University, Bhopal, India. He has received M.
Tech from IIT Delhi, India and Ph. D. from IIT Roorkee, India. He has more than 20 years of experience in teaching and research. His
current area of research includes Fluid mechanics and System Dynamics.










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