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A saw is a tool that uses a hard blade or wire with an abrasive edge to cut through softer
materials. The cutting edge of a saw is either a serrated blade or an abrasive. A saw may
be worked by hand, or powered by steam, water, electric or other power.

In a modern serrated saw, each tooth is bent to a precise angle called its "set". The set of
the teeth is determined by the kind of cut the saw is intended to make. For example, a "rip
saw" has a tooth set that is similar to the angle used on a chisel. The idea is to have the
teeth rip or tear the material apart. Some teeth are usually splayed slightly to each side the
blade, so that the cut width (kerf) is wider than the blade itself and the blade does not
bind in the cut.

Gergaji ialah alat yang digunakan untuk memotong


Ada banyak jenis gergaji. Beberapa merupakan peralatan

tangan yang bekerja dengan kekuatan otot, seperti gergaji
dalam gambar itu. Beberapa gergaji memiliki sumber
tenaga lainnya dan amat kuat,.

Gergaji biasa menimbulkanbunyi bising.Gergaji amat merbahaya kerana terdapat

permukaan yang tajam yang boleh mencederakan pengguna.
• Available in Carbon Steel and Chrome Vanadium Steel.
• Hardened & Tempered Jaws.
• Finish : Polished / Chrome plated / Ground.
• Model : Super, Raised Head & Heavy Duty.
• Non Slip Cushion Grip Handle.

Item Code No.
Inch MM
ABM-PWP-1528 6 150
ABM-PWP-1529 7 175
ABM-PWP-1530 8 200
ABM-PWP-1531 9 225
Please Mention Finish, Model and Material While
Placing Order

Screwdriver adalah sebuah alat yang digunakan untuk mengetat atau menanggalkan
skru. Ada beberapa model obeng yang digunakan di seluruh dunia. Jenis yang sangat
umum adalah model Phillips (+) and slotted (-). Jenis obeng lain yang digunakan di
negara-negara lain antara lain Torx (bintang segi enam), Hex (segi enam), Robertson

There are many types of screw heads, of which the most common are the slotted, Phillips,
PoziDriv/SupaDriv (crosspoint), Robertson, TORX, and Allen (hex).

Screwdrivers come in a large variety of sizes to match those of screws, from tiny
jeweler's screwdrivers up.

If a screwdriver that is not the right size and type for the screw is used, it is likely that the
screw will be damaged in the process of tightening it. This is less important for PoziDriv
and SupaDriv, which are designed specifically to be more tolerant of size mismatch.
When tightening a screw with force, it is important to press the head hard into the screw,
again to avoid damaging the screw.
Jeweler's screwdriver set

Some manual screwdrivers have a ratchet

action whereby the screwdriver blade is
locked to the handle for clockwise rotation,
but uncoupled for counterclockwise rotation
when set for tightening screws; and vice
versa for loosening.

Many screwdriver designs have a handle with

detachable head (the part of the screwdriver
which engages with the screw), called bits as with drill bits, allowing a
set of one handle and several heads to be used for a variety of screw
sizes and types. This kind of design has allowed the development of
electrically powered screwdrivers, which, as the name suggests, use
an electric motor to rotate the bit. In such cases the terminology for
power drills is used, e.g. "shank" or "collet". Some drills can also be
fitted with screwdriver heads.

Manual screw drivers with a spiral ratchet

mechanism to turn pressure (linear motion)
into rotational motion also exist, and predate
electric screwdrivers. The user pushes the
handle toward the workpiece, causing a pawl
in a spiral groove to rotate the shank and the
removable bit. The ratchet can be set to
rotate left or right with each push, or can be
locked so that the tool can be used like a conventional screwdriver.
Once very popular, these spiral ratchet drivers, using proprietary bits,
have been largely discontinued by manufacturers such as Stanley,
although one can still find them at vintage tool auctions. Companies
such as Lara Specialty Tools now offer a modernized version that uses
standard 1/4-inch hex shank power tool bits. Since a variety of drill
bits are available in this format, it allows the tool to do double duty as
a push drill.
A hammer is a tool meant to deliver an impact to an object. The most common uses are
for driving nails, fitting parts, and breaking up objects. Hammers are often designed for a
specific purpose, and vary widely in their shape and structure. Usual features are a handle
and a head, with most of the weight in the head. The basic design is hand-operated, but
there are also many mechanically operated models for heavier uses.

The hammer is a basic tool of many professions, and can also be used as a weapon. By
analogy, the name hammer has also been used for devices that are designed to deliver
blows, e.g. in the caplock mechanism of firearms.
Claw hammer Framing hammer Geologist's hammer Upholstery hammer

Ball-peen hammer Rubber mallet Wooden mallet

Cross-peen hammer

Stone tapping
hammer Long cross-face
Perforated hammer
Sledgehammer hammer
head of stone

Twist hammer Dog-head hammer Straight pane

(blacksmithing) Ball pane hammer sledgehammer

The wheel and axle is a simple machine.

The traditional form as recognised in 19th century textbooks is as shown in the image.
This also shows the most widely recognised application, i.e., lifting water from a well.
The form consists of a wheel that turns an axle and in turn a rope converts the rotational
motion to linear motion for the purpose of lifting.

By considering the machine as a torque multiplier, i.e., the output is a torque, items such
as gears and screwdrivers can fall within this category.

pulley (also called a block) is a mechanism composed of a wheel (called a sheave) with a
groove between two flanges around the wheel's circumference. A rope, cable or belt
usually runs inside the groove. Pulleys are used to change the direction of an applied
force, transmit rotational motion, or realize a mechanical advantage in either a linear or
rotational system of motion.

Types of systems

Fixed pulley

Movable pulley
How it works

Diagram 1 - A basic Diagram 2 - A simple Diagram 2a -

equation for a pulley: In pulley system - a Another simple
equilibrium, the force F on single movable pulley system
the pulley axle is equal and pulley lifting weight similar to diagram 2,
opposite to the sum of the W. The tension in but in which the
tensions in each line leaving each line is W/2, lifting force is A practical
the pulley, and these yielding an redirected compound pulley
tensions are equal. advantage of 2. downward. corresponding to
diagram 2a.

The simplest theory of operation for a pulley system assumes that the pulleys and lines
are weightless, and that there is no energy loss due to friction. It is also assumed that the
lines do not stretch.