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Exercise 1.1 Matching.

Match the correct meaning in X and Y .

X Y
1. grid a. another name for the pole star
2. parallel b. a set of numbered lines printed on a
map so that the exact position of any
place can be referred to:
3. meteorology c. two lines, paths etc that are parallel to
each other are the same distance apart
along their whole length:
4. Polaris d. when something turns with a circular
movement around a central point
5. rotation e. the scientific study of weather
conditions

X Y
6. average a. the distance north or south of the
equator
7. deviates b. the amount you get when you add
together several quantities and divide
this by the total number of quantities:
8. latitude c. not active or not growing at the present
time but able to be active later
9. tilt d. to change what you are doing so that
you are not following an expected plan,
idea, or type of behaviour
10. dormant. e. to move or make something move into
a position where one side is higher than
the other
Exercise 1.2 True or False.
Write T for true statements and F for the false ones in the boxes given below.

1. The solstices are days when the earth reaches its farthest northern and
southern declinations.
2. The solstice occurs on December 21 or 22 and marks the beginning of
winter (this is the shortest day of the year).
3. Equinoxes are days in which day and night are of equal duration.
4. The seasons are not the result of the tilt of the Earth's axis.
5. In astronomical reckoning, the seasons begin at the solstices and
equinoxes.
6. When it is summer in the Northern hemisphere, it is always winter in the
Southern hemisphere.
7. The seasons result from the Earth's axis being tilted to its orbital plane; it
deviates by an angle of approximately 33.5 degrees.
8. A season is one of the major divisions of the year, generally based on
yearly periodic changes in weather.
9. Seasons happen due to the yearly revolution of the Sun around the Earth
and the tilt of the Earth's axis relative to the plane of revolution.
10. Earth reaches perihelion (the point in its orbit closest to the Sun)
in January, and it reaches aphelion (farthest point from the Sun) in July
Exercise 1.3 Cloze Test.
Fills in the correct words or phrases
The seasons

The seasons result from the Earth's _________1.being tilted to its orbital plane; it_____ 2.by
an angle of approximately 23.5 ________3. Thus, at any given time during summer or winter,
one part of the _________4. is more directly exposed to the rays of the Sun . This exposure
alternates as the Earth _________5. in its orbit. At any given time, regardless of season, the
northern and southern _________6. experience opposite seasons.

It is easy to observe the effect of the axis tilt from the change in day length, and ______7. of
the Sun at noon (the culmination of the Sun), during a year.

Seasonal weather ________8. between hemispheres are further caused by the elliptical orbit of
Earth. Earth reaches _________9. (the point in its orbit closest to the Sun) in January, and it
reaches _________10. (farthest point from the Sun) in July. Even though the effect this has on
Earth's seasons is minor, it does noticeably soften the northern hemisphere's winters and
summers. In the southern hemisphere, the opposite effect is observed.

axis deviates planet hemispheres aphelion

degrees revolves altitude differences perihelion


Exercise 1.4 Reading Comprehension. Choose the best alternatives.
1.How many seasons are there in United Kingdom?
a. one
b. two
c. three
d. four
2.What are their correct names ?
a. winter fall autumn summer
b. fall sunny rainy summer
c. autumn spring fall winter
d. summer spring fall autumn
3. In which area a three-way division into hot , rainy and cool season is used.
a. Tropical
b. Northern hemisphere
c. Southern hemisphere
d. Temperate and Polar
4. The cycle of seasons in the polar and temperate zones of one hemisphere is opposite to that in
the other so when it is summer in the Northern hemisphere, it is __________ in the
Southern hemisphere, and vice versa.
a. winter.
b. fall
c. autumn
d. spring
5. The seasons result from the Earth's axis being tilted to its orbital plane; it deviates by an angle
of approximately _______. Thus, at any given time during summer or winter, one part of the
planet is more directly exposed to the rays of the Sun .
a. 23.5 degrees
b. 33.5 degrees
c. 32.5 degrees
d. 3.5 degrees
6. Seasonal weather fluctuations (changes) also depend on factors such as proximity to oceans or
other large bodies of water, ____________
a. currents in those oceans
b. El Niño and other oceanic cycles
c. and prevailing winds
d. all correct
7. Meteorological seasons are reckoned by _______________, with summer being the hottest
quarter of the year and winter the coldest quarter of the year.
a. temperature
b. humid
c. snow
d. Earth’s orbit
8. In the conventional United States calendar: How many days are there in Winter which begins
on 21 December, the winter solstice; spring begins on 20 March, the vernal equinox; summer
begins on 20 June, the summer solstice; and autumn begins on 22 September, the autumnal
equinox.
a. 89 days
b. 92 days
c. 93 days
d. 90 days
9. What are The solstices?
a. The days when the Sun reaches its farthest northern and southern declinations.
b. The days when the Earth reaches its farthest northern and southern declinations.
c. The days when the Moon reaches its farthest northern and southern declinations.
b. The days when the Earth reaches its nearest northern and southern declinations.
10. What are The Equinoxes?
a. The days in which day and night are of equal duration.
a. The weeks in which day and night are of equal duration.
a. The months in which day and night are of equal duration.
a. The years in which day and night are of equal duration.
Exercise 2.1 Matching.
Match the correct meaning in X and Y .

X Y
1. trail a. a chemical or food that provides what
is needed for plants or animals to live
and grow:
2. treasure b. a person or animal that lives in a
particular place:
3. dweller c. waste matter from animals that is
mixed with soil to improve the soil and
help plants grow
4. nutrients d. a rough path across countryside or
through a forest:
5. manure e. a group of valuable things such as gold,
silver, jewels etc

X Y
6. appropriate a. the traditional beliefs, values, customs
etc of a family, country, or society
7. honestly b. correct or suitable for a particular time,
situation, or purpose
8. heritage c. if someone has , their heart suddenly
stops working because the flow of
blood to it has been blocked by a small
piece of solid blood
9. mental d. used to emphasize that what you are
saying is true
10. coronary e. relating to the health or state of
someone's mind
Exercise 2.2 True or False.
Write T for true statements and F for the false ones in the boxes given below.

1. Bill Bryson was born in Iowa, UK, in 1951.


2. A backpacking expedition in 1973 brought him to England where he met
his boss and decided to stay and be a journalist and writer.
3. He has spent much of his life as a journalist for The Times and The
Independent.
4. In 2005 he was awarded an OBE for his contribution to literature adding to
the numerous awards he has had for his work. His writing is often funny
and insightful as well as being quite.
5. The campaign is going from strength to strength and he knows young
people play a huge role in reducing litter, so that’s why he interviewed
with UK Youth Parliament .
6. This idea that the quality of nature affects our mental health is not a new
one, but it has not greatly affected the planning of our urban and rural
environments, nor the setting of public health priorities.
7. In addition, many urgent physical health challenges, including obesity and
coronary heart disease, are also connected to sedentary lifestyles.
8. Irrespective of where we come from, it seems that the presence of living
things makes us feel depressed. They help us when we feel stressed, and if
there is green vegetation, blue sky and water in the scene, then we like it
even more.
9. The World Health Organisation estimates that depression and depression-
related illness will become the greatest source of ill-health by 2022.
10. Yet it is known that physically active people have a lower risk of dying
from coronary heart disease, type II diabetes, hypertension and lung
cancer. In the UK, there is evidence for a dramatic fall in physical activity
over the past 50 years.

Exercise 2.3 Cloze Test.


Fills in the correct words or phrases.

How does nature make us feel? Much, of course, ______1. on what else is important in our
lives. Is it a good or a bad day? _______2. of where we come from, it seems that the presence of
living things makes us feel good. They help us when we feel stressed, and if there is green
_________3., blue sky and water in the scene, then we like it even more. This idea that the
quality of nature _________4. our mental health is not a new one, but it has not greatly affected
the planning of our urban and rural _________5., nor the setting of public health priorities.
In the UK, more than 80% of people live in _______6 areas (Defra, 2004), though the
greater growth is now in rural areas. Urban settings by ________7. have less nature than rural
ones. And less green nature means _______8. mental well-being, or at least less opportunity to
recover from mental stress. As ________9. green environments have increasingly come under
pressure from economic development, so it seems our own wellbeing has suffered as a
________10. Today, stress and mental ill-health are becoming more common, and the associated
public health costs are growing.

depends vegetation urban reduced natural


Irrespective affects consequence environments definition

Exercise 2.4 Reading Comprehension . Choose the best alternatives.


1. The World Health Organisation _______________ that depression and depression-related
illness will become the greatest source of ill-health by 2020.
a. estimates
b. estimated
c. estimate
d. estimatize
2. Yet it is known that physically active people have a lower risk of dying from _____?
a. coronary heart disease
b. type II diabetes
c. hypertension
d. all of them
3. Bill Bryson is an______________ journalist and writer.
a. American
b. Cuban
c. German
d. British
4. Agriculture recycles 100% of all animal manures that it __________.
a. produced
b. producing
c. produces
d. products
5. Drive carefully on narrow country roads, always.
a. not wide
b. wide
c. shallow
d. deep
6.What are the advantages of living in the countryside?
a. Clean, fresh air
b. Less traffic jam
c. Open spaces
d. All correct
7. What are the disadvantages of living in the countryside?
a. Clean, fresh air
b. Less nightlife
c. Open spaces
d. More playing room for children
8.According to the findings of recent research by Agri Aware : How many percent of the
respondents considered their quality of life in the countryside to be good, citing peace and
relaxation as the main advantages to living there?
a. 75%
b. 85%
c. 80%
d. 90%
9. For how many billion has been spent by farmers over the past ten years to construct better
animal housing and manure storage facilities on Irish farms?
a. Over €5.2
b. Over €2.5
c. Over €3.5
d. Over €1.5
10. Animal manure is not waste, it is an important source of nutrients for crops.
What is the meaning of the underlined word?
a. waste matter from human that is mixed with soil to improve the soil and help plants grow
b. waste matter from animals that is mixed with soil to improve the soil and help plants grow
c. the way in which something is done or happens
d. polite ways of behaving in social situations

Exercise 3.1 Matching.


Match the correct meaning in X and Y .

X Y
1. network a. a ship or large boat
2. automatic b. the scientific study of weather
conditions
3. meteorology c. are designed to operate by themselves,
without much human control or
attention
4. vessels d. the sending and receiving of messages
by telephone, radio, television etc:
5. telecommunication e. a system of lines, tubes, wires, roads
etc that cross each other and are
connected to each other:

X Y
6. thermometers a. to be very grateful to someone for the
help they have given you:
7. indebted b. a piece of equipment that measures the
temperature of the air, of your body etc
8. scheme c. an official plan that is intended to help
people in some way
9. coastguards d. to describe something correctly and
thoroughly, and to say what standards,
limits, qualities etc it has
10. define e. the organization that helps swimmers
and ships that are in danger and helps
to prevent illegal activities around the
coast

Exercise 3.2 True or False.


Write T for true statements and F for the false ones in the boxes given below.

1. Experience and local workers add the fine detail to the computer forecast,
so that the best advice for a specific location (e.g. an oil rig) can be given.
2. The computer model produces a global forecast twice a day using the
midnight and midday observations as starting conditions.
3. The observations taken at a single time can be used to compute values for
each grid point of pressure, temperature, humidity and wind.
4. The array of grid points, the system of equations and the method of solving
the equations is referred to as the model.
5. Weather describes conditions in the atmosphere at any long period of time.
6. The use of buoy has played a key role in improving the accuracy and
detail of weather forecasts, and in lengthening the period for which useful
guidance can be given.
7. Geostationary satellites remain over the equator, stationary with respect to
the earth. This is achieved by having the satellite in orbit at a height of
about 46,000 km.
8. At this height it takes exactly 22 hours to complete one orbit, so it always
views the same part of the globe.
9. Climate describes surface and atmospheric conditions over a longer time
period or over a large geographical area.
10. Within the global network, the Met Office maintains six sites in the UK.

Exercise 3.3 Cloze Test.


Fills in the correct words or phrases.

Despite greater computer power, improvements to the ________1. models, and other
technological advances, there is still an __________2. role for the forecaster. For the general
development of weather _________3., the model provides insight into how the __________4. is
behaving and developing, but it is only a guide. Good as it is, ___________5. have to make
allowances for the model's _________6. problem areas - the handling of small-scale features, for
example. The chief forecaster on duty _________7.the computer output to correct for likely
errors in the model output, such as removing spurious areas of rainfall. Forecasters also have to
take into account any late __________8. and consult the latest satellite and radar pictures.

In providing specific services to individual customers, the local forecaster based at an


airfield or _________9. office will take the process even further. Experience and local knowledge
add the fine detail to the computer forecast, so that the best advice for a __________10.location
(e.g. an oil rig) can be given. There is no doubt that the combination of man and computer
together produces the best forecasting results

computer atmosphere specific regional observations


systems modifies important forecasters known

Exercise 3.4 Reading Comprehension . Choose the best alternatives.


1. What is weather ?
a. conditions in the atmosphere at any time or short period of time.
b. conditions in the atmosphere in a week.
c. conditions in the atmosphere in a month.
d. conditions in the atmosphere during a year.
2. What is climate ?
a. Surface and atmospheric conditions over a longer time period or over a large geographical
area
b. Surface and atmospheric conditions over a short time period in a day
a. Surface and atmospheric conditions over a geographical area in a week
a. Surface and atmospheric conditions over a year time period
3. The ____________ are fed into the computer and used to analyse the weather patterns at a
particular time.
a. reality
b. duration
c. observations
d. telecommunications
4. The many data _____________ used include ships, aircraft, oil rigs, buoys and balloons, as
well as manned land stations around the world.
a. sources
b. sauces
c. saucers
d. information
5. Polar-orbiting satellites pass around the earth from pole to pole at a height of about 870 km.
How long does it take for the satellite to complete its orbit, by which time the earth has
rotated by about 25 degrees.
a. It takes approximately 2 hour 42 minutes
b. It takes approximately 1 hour 42 minutes
c. It takes approximately 3 hour 49 minutes
d. It takes approximately 2 hour 22 minutes
6. The computer model produces a global forecast _______ a day using the midnight and
midday.
a. once
b. three times
c. twice
d. four times
7. What is the information, skills, and understanding that you have gained through learning or
experience ?
a. study
b. learning
c. subject
d. knowledge
8. What do we call how to make a statement saying what is likely to happen in the future, based
on the information that you have now or predict ?
a. broadcast
b. foreplay
c. forecast
d. forehead
9. An instrument that measures changes in the air pressure and the weather, or that calculates
height above sea level.
a. barometers
b. thermometers
c. gauges
d. vessels
10. In or under the sea and not far from the coast.
a. seashore
b. onshore
c. offshore
d. coastshore

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