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It is described a process for creating new atoms starting from pre-existing atoms. We show that all the elements of the periodic table can be synthesized, at room temperature, by a gravitational process based on the intensification of the gravitational interaction by means of electromagnetic fields.

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Fran De Aquino

Maranhao State University, Physics Department, S.Luis/MA, Brazil. Copyright 2012 by Fran De Aquino. All Rights Reserved.

It is described a process for creating new atoms starting from pre-existing atoms. We show that all the elements of the periodic table can be synthesized, at room temperature, by a gravitational process based on the intensification of the gravitational interaction by means of electromagnetic fields. Key words: Modified theories of gravity, Atom manipulation, Atomic forces. PACS: 04.50.Kd, 37.90.+j, 34.20.-b.

1. Introduction Rutherford [1] was the first to observe the transmutation of the atoms, and also the first to perform transmutation of the atoms. That gave him a double justification for being labeled an alchemist. It is currently believed that the synthesis of precious metals, a symbolic goal long sought by alchemists, is only possible with methods involving either nuclear reactors or particle accelerators. However, it will be shown here that all the elements of the periodic table can be synthesized, at room temperature, by a gravitational process based on the intensification of the gravitational interaction by means of electromagnetic fields. The process is very simple, but it requires extremely-low frequency (ELF) magnetic field with very strong intensity (Brms > 2,500T). The strongest continuous magnetic field yet produced in a laboratory had 45 T (Florida State University's National High Magnetic Field Laboratory in Tallahassee, USA) [2]. The strongest (pulsed) magnetic field yet obtained non-destructively in a laboratory had about 100T. (National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA) [3]. The strongest pulsed magnetic field yet obtained in a laboratory, destroying the used equipment, but not the laboratory itself (Institute for Solid State Physics, Tokyo) reached 730 T . The strongest (pulsed) magnetic field ever obtained (with explosives) in a laboratory (VNIIEF in Sarov, Russia, 1998) reached 2,800T [4].

B

2. Theory The quantization of gravity showed that the gravitational mass mg and the inertial mass mi are correlated by means of the following factor [5]:

2 1 + p 1 = = 1 2 m c mi 0 i0

mg

(1)

where mi 0 is the rest inertial mass of the particle and p is the variation in the particles kinetic momentum; c is the speed of light. When p is produced by the absorption of a photon with wavelength , it is expressed by p = h . In this case, Eq. (1) becomes 2 mg 1 + h mi 0 c 1 = 1 2 mi 0

2 1 + 0 1 = 1 2

(2)

where 0 = h mi0 c is the DeBroglie wavelength for the particle with rest inertial mass mi 0 . In general, the momentum variation p is expressed by p = Ft where F is the applied force during a time interval t . Note that there is no restriction concerning the nature of the force, i.e., it can be mechanical, electromagnetic, etc. For example, we can

look on the momentum variation p as due to absorption or emission of electromagnetic energy by the particle. This means that, by means of electromagnetic fields, the gravitational mass can be decreased down to become negative and increased (independently of the inertial mass mi ). In this way, the gravitational forces can be intensified. Consequently, we can use, for example, oscillating magnetic fields in order to intensify the gravitational interaction between electrons and protons. From Electrodynamics we know that when an electromagnetic wave with frequency f and velocity c incides on a material with relative permittivity r , relative magnetic permeability r and electrical conductivity , its velocity is reduced to v = c nr where nr is the index of refraction of the material, given by [6]

If a lamina with thickness equal to contains n atoms/m3, then the number of atoms per area unit is n . Thus, if the electromagnetic radiation with frequency f incides on an area S of the lamina it reaches nS atoms. If it incides on the total area of the lamina, S f , then the total number of atoms reached by the radiation is N = nS f . The number of atoms per unit of volume, n , is given by N0 (6) n= A where N 0 = 6.02 10 26 atoms / kmole is the Avogadros number; is the matter density of the lamina (in kg/m3) and A is the molar mass(kg/kmole). When an electromagnetic wave incides on the lamina, it strikes N f front atoms, where Nf n Sf m , m is the diameter of the atom. Thus, the electromagnetic wave incides effectively on an area S = Nf Sm , where

2 Sm = 1 m is the cross section area of one atom. 4

( )

c 2 nr = = r r 1 + ( ) + 1 v 2

If >> , = 2f , Eq. (3) reduces to

(3)

After these collisions, it carries out ncollisions with the other atoms (See Fig.3).

nr =

r 40 f

(4)

atom Sm

Wave

mod =

v c f = = = f nr nr

4 f

(5)

v=c

v = c/nr

Thus, the total number of collisions in the volume S is Ncollisions Nf +ncollisions nlSm +(nlS nmSm) = = =

nr

= nmS

(7)

= c/f

wavelength of the electromagnetic wave can be strongly reduced, but its frequency remains the same.

We can express the total mean number of collisions in each atom, n1 , by means of the following equation n1 = n total

photons

N collisions

(9 )

Since in each collision a momentum h is transferred to the atom, then the total momentum transferred to the lamina will be p = (n1 N ) h . Therefore, in accordance with Eq. (1), we can write that

where mi 0(l ) = (l )V(l ) . Now, considering that the lamina is inside an ELF electromagnetic field with E and B , then we can write that [7] n r (l ) E 2 (15) D= 2 0 c Substitution of Eq. (15) into Eq. (14) gives mg(l ) mi0(l )

2 2 2 nr(l )nl3S2SmmE2 1 f 1 (16) = 1 2 1+ 2 2 20mi0(l )c f

mg(l ) mi0(l )

2 = 1 2 1+ (n1 N ) 0 1 =

2 for E 2 is equal to 1 2 E m because E varies sinusoidaly ( E m is the maximum value

4

2.

4 rms

Consequently we can replace E for E . Thus, for = mod , the equation above can be rewritten as follows

ntotal

photons

P N collisions = 2 hf

(nl S )

(11)

mg(l ) mi0(l )

2 1 + P (n S ) 0 1 (12) = 1 2 2 l hf

Electrodynamics tells us that E rms = vBrms = (c n r (l ) )Brms . Substitution of this expression into Eq. (17) gives

mg(l ) mi0(l )

mg(l ) mi0(l )

Since mod = nr (l ) then Eq. (18) can be rewritten in the following form

2

S = N f Sm

mg (l ) mi0(l )

mg(l ) mi0(l )

In order to calculate the expressions of Be for the particular case of a electron of the electrophere of a atom, subjected to an external magnetic field Brms with frequency

4

for 1 Ve =1 , S f for (SSAe ) eVe ( SSAe is the specific surface area for electrons in this 2 case: SSA = 1 Ae me = 1 Ae e Ve = 2rxe eVe ), e 2 2

4 3 r 3 e

2 S m by S e = rxe , by m = 2rxe and mi 0(l ) by me . The result is

Be = 1 2 1+

(20)

In order to calculate the value of rxe we start considering a hydrogen atom, where the electron spins around the proton with a velocity v e = 3 10 6 m.s 1 . The electrical force acting on the proton is Fe = e 2 4 0 r12 , which is equal to the centrifuge force Fc = m p e2 r0 where e is the angular velocity of the electron and r0 is the distance between the inertial center of the proton and the center of the moving proton (See Fig. 5, where we conclude that 2(r0 + rp ) = rxp + r p , where

rxp is the radius of the sphere whose external

area is equivalent to the increased area of the proton). Thus, we get r0 = 1 (rxp rp ) . 2

ve

Fe

Therefore, we can write that rxp = k xp rp , where rxp k xp = = 25.6 rp The electron is similarly deformed by the relative movement of the proton in respect to it. In this case, by analogy, we can write that e2 rxe = + re = 6.4 10 11 m 2 4 0 m e v e and rxe = k xe re , where rxe is the radius of the sphere whose external area is equivalent to the increased area of the electron. The radius of free electron is re = 6.871014 m (See Appendix A). However, for electrons in the atomic eletrosphere of atoms the value of re must be calculated starting from Quantum Mechanics. The wave packet that describes the electron satisfies an uncertainty principle (px 1 h ) , where p = hk and k is 2 the approximate extension of the wave packet. Thus, we can write that (kx 1 ) . 2 For the ``square'' packet the full width in k is k = 2 0 ( 0 = h me c is the average wavelength). The width in x is a little harder to define, but, lets use the first node in the probability found at (2 0 )x 2 = or x = 0 . So, the width of the wave packet is twice this or x = 20 . Obviously, 2re cannot be greater than x , i.e., re must be smaller and close to 0 = h mec = 2.431012 m . Then, assuming that re 2.4 10 12 m , we get

k xe = rxe = 26 .6 re

rxp

ve Fe

r0 rp

rxp =

e2 + rp = 3.2 10 14 m 2 4 0 m p ve

5

22 4 k xe re4 Brms 1 = 2 f 4 42 Brms (21) = 1 2 1 + 2.8 10 1 2 f Similarly, in the case of proton and neutron we can write that 45.56 2kxp rp4Brms 22 4 (22) 1 Bp = 1 2 1+ 2 2 2 2 c 0 mp f

Be = 1 2 1 + 3.8 1057

attracted to the nucleus and leaves the atom. The final result is that the atom loses a proton and an electron and is transformed in a new atom. But the transmutation is not completed until the magnetic field is turned off. When this occurs the Cooper pairs are broken, and the new atom leaves the transitory state, and passes to the normal state. In order to satisfy the condition expressed by Eq. (26), we must have

4 45.56 2 rn4 Brms (23) Bn = 1 2 1+ 2 2 2 2 1 0 mn c f In the case of the neutron, k xn = 1 due to its electric charge be null. The radius of protons inside the atoms (nuclei) is rp = 1.2 1015 m

Bp Be >

FN r12 3 10 48 Gm p me

(27)

[8,9], rn r p , then we obtain from Eqs. (22) and (23) the following expressions: 4 22 Brms (24) Bp = 1 2 1+ 2.210 1 2 f 4 9 B rms (25) Bn = 1 2 1+ 2.3510 2 1 f When a strong magnetic field Brms is applied on the atom, the enormous value of Be (See Eq. 21) makes the gravitational force between the electrons greater than the electric force due to its charges, and consequently, the electrons are joined in pairs (Cooper pairs)[10]. However, due to the vales of Be and Bp , the gravitational attraction between the electrons of the K shell and the protons of the nucleus becomes greater than the nuclear force, i.e., m p me m gp mge (26) G = Bp Be G 2 > FN 2 r1 r1 Then, the proton more weakly bound to the nucleus is ejected towards the nearest electron. When they collide, there occurs the formation of one neutron and one neutrino, according the well-known reaction p + e n + e . Since the neutron is beyond the reach of the nuclear force, it is not

By substitution of Eq. (21) and (22) into Eq. (27), we obtain 2 Brms > 6 10 7 f Thus, for f = 0.1Hz we conclude that the required value of Brms is

Brms > 2,500T

This means that, if we subject, for example, an amount of 198Hg (80 electrons, 80 protons, 118 neutrons) to a magnetic field with Brms>2,500 T and frequency 0.1Hz the 198 Hg loses 1 proton and 1 electron and consequently will be transmuted to 197Au (79 electrons, 79 protons, 118 neutrons) when the magnetic field is turned off. Besides the transformation of mercury into gold, we can make several transmutations. For example, if the 197Au is after subjected to the same magnetic field it will be transmuted to 196Pt (78 electrons, 78 protons, 118 neutrons). Similarly, if 110Cd (48 electrons, 48 protons, 62 neutrons) is subjected to the mentioned field it will be transmuted to 109Ag (47 electrons, 47 protons, 62 neutrons). Also 235U can be easily obtained by this process, i.e., if we subject an amount of 236Np (93 electrons, 93 protons, 143 neutrons) to the magnetic field with >2,500 T and frequency 0.1Hz, the 236Np loses 1 proton and 1 electron and consequently will be transmuted to 235U (92 electrons, 92 protons, 143 neutrons).

B

It is known that the frequency of oscillation of a simple spring oscillator is

f=

f =

1 2

K m

( A1)

1 Gmgee 3 2 Re

( A6)

where m is the inertial mass attached to the spring and K is the spring constant (in Nm1). In this case, the restoring force exerted by the spring is linear and given by

F = Kx

( A2)

where x is the displacement from the equilibrium position. Now, consider the gravitational force: For example, above the surface of the Earth, the force follows the familiar Newtonian function, i.e., F = GM g m g r 2 , where

M g is the mass of Earth, m g is the

The value of e varies with the density of energy [5]. When the electron and the positron are distant from each other and the local density of energy is small, the value of e becomes very close to 1. However, when the electron and the positron are penetrating one another, the energy densities in each particle become very strong due to the proximity of their electrical charges e and, consequently, the value of e strongly increases. In order to calculate the value of e under these conditions ( x = r = Re ), we start from the expression of correlation between electric charge q and gravitational mass, obtained in a previous work [5]: q = 4 0 G m g (imaginary ) i where

m g (imaginary )

gravitational mass of a particle and r is the distance between the centers. Below Earths surface the force is linear and given by GMgmg ( A3) F = r 3 R where R is the radius of Earth. By comparing (A3) with (A2) we obtain GMg r K K ( A4) = = 3 mg m R x Making x = r = R , and substituting (A4) into (A1) gives

( A7 )

imaginary

is

the

gravitational mass, and i = 1 . In the case of electron, Eq. (A7) gives qe = 40G mge(imaginary i = ) = 40G e mi0e(imaginaryi = ) = 40G e =

0 2 3

( 4 G (

2 3

mi0e(real)i 2 =

f=

1 GMg 3 2 R

( A5)

where we obtain

e = 1.8 10 21

( A9)

Re , where Re is the radius of electron (or positron). Thus, Eq. (A5) becomes

This is therefore, the value of e increased by the strong density of energy produced by the electrical charges e of the two particles, under previously mentioned conditions.

2 1 G e mi0e f= 3 2 Re

7

Thus, the result is

G 3 ph 3 = 3.72 1017 m ( A17) Rp = mi0 p 2 c 2

1 2

( A10)

hf = mi 0 c 2

( A11)

mi 0e c 2 f= h

( A12)

2 G e mi 0e 3 Re

Note that these radii, given by Equations ( A14) and ( A17) , are the radii of free electrons and free protons (when the particle and antiparticle (in isolation) penetrate themselves mutually). Inside the atoms (nuclei) the radius of protons is well-known. For example, protons, as the hydrogen nuclei, have a radius given by R p 1.2 1015 m [8,9]. The strong increase in respect to the value given by Eq. (A17) is due to the interaction with the electron of the atom.

( A13)

G 3 eh 3 14 Re = m 2 c 2 = 6.8710 m i 0e

1 2

( A14)

Compare this value with the Compton sized electron, which predicts Re = 3.86 10 13 m and also with standardized result recently obtained of Re = 4 7 10 13 m [11]. In the case of proton, we have q p = 40G mgp(imaginary i = ) = 40G p mi0 p(imaginaryi = ) = 40G p =

0 2 3

( 4 G(

2 3

mi0 p(real)i 2 =

where we obtain

p = 9.7 1017

( A16)

8 References

[1] Rutherford, E. (1933) The Artificial Transmutation of the Elements; Rutherford, E. (1937)The Newer Alchemy. [2] "World's Most Powerful Magnet Tested Ushers in New Era for Steady High Field Research". National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. http://www.magnet.fsu.edu/mediacenter/news/ pressreleases/1999december17.html [3] http://gizmodo.com/5896092/the-worlds-mostpowerful-non+destructive-magnet-screams-like-abanshee. [4] Bykov, A.I et al., Pulsed Power Conference, 1999. Digest of Technical Papers. 12th IEEE International, 2, pp. 746 749. [5] De Aquino, F. (2010) Mathematical Foundations of the Relativistic Theory of Quantum Gravity, Pacific Journal of Science and Technology, 11 (1), pp. 173232. [6] Quevedo, C. P. (1977) Eletromagnetismo, McGrawHill, p. 270. [7] Halliday, D. and Resnick, R. (1968) Physics, J. Willey & Sons, Portuguese Version, Ed. USP, p.1124. [8] N.D. Cook (2010). Models of the Atomic Nucleus (2nd ed.). Springer. p. 57 ff.. ISBN 978-3-642-14736-4. [9] K.S. Krane (1987). Introductory Nuclear Physics. Wiley-VCH. ISBN 0-471-80553-X. [10] De Aquino, F. (2012) Superconducting State generated by Cooper Pairs bound by Intensified Gravitational Interaction, http://vixra.org/abs/1207.0008. [11] Mac Gregor. M. H., (1992) The Enigmatic Electron. Boston: Klurer Academic, 1992, pp. 4-5.

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